Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Impact of human activities on the reproduction of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Burkina Faso
    Daboné, Clément ; Buij, Ralph ; Oueda, Adama ; Adjakpa, Jacques Boko ; Guenda, Wendengoudi ; Weesie, Peter D.M. - \ 2019
    Ostrich 90 (2019)1. - ISSN 0030-6525 - p. 53 - 61.
    Burkina Faso - conservation - Hooded Vulture - human impact - reproduction

    During the last decades, the critically endangered Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus has strongly declined across its African range. Although direct persecution has been suggested as a major cause of this decline, little is known about the impact of humans on reproductive output in West Africa. We studied the impact of human activities on the reproductive output of Hooded Vultures in the Garango area of Burkina Faso. Twenty and 56 nesting attempts were monitored, respectively, during the breeding season in 2013/14 and 2014/15, to determine reproductive success and identify causes of nest failure. Annual breeding success varied between 0.68 and 0.71 chicks fledged per breeding pair per year and productivity was assessed at 0.57 chicks fledged per territorial pair in 2014/15. The main threats imposed by humans were poaching of eggs, chicks and collection of nest materials, leading to 20% (13 out of 64 breeding attempts) of nest failures over the two years. An additional important reason for nest failure was the pruning and (partial) cutting of nest trees. Despite this high level of human interference, we found that Hooded Vulture nest success increased with proximity to human settlements, probably because breeding vultures benefit from protection by people against persecution and disturbance.

    Controls on late-Holocene drift-sand dynamics : The dominant role of human pressure in the Netherlands
    Pierik, Harm J. ; Lanen, Rowin J. van; Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T.I.J. ; Groenewoudt, Bert J. ; Wallinga, Jakob ; Hoek, Wim Z. - \ 2018
    Holocene 28 (2018)9. - ISSN 0959-6836 - p. 1361 - 1381.
    chronology - climate - drift-sand activity - Holocene - human impact - vegetation development

    Holocene drift-sand activity in the northwest European sand belt is commonly directly linked to population pressure (agricultural activity) or to climate change (e.g. storminess). In the Pleistocene sand areas of the Netherlands, small-scale Holocene drift-sand activity began in the Mesolithic, whereas large-scale sand drifting started during the Middle Ages. This last phase not only coincides with the intensification of farming and demographic pressure but also is commonly associated with a colder climate and enhanced storminess. This raises the question to what extent drift-sand activity can be attributed to either human activities or natural forcing factors. In this study, we compare the spatial and temporal patterns of drift-sand occurrence for the four characteristic Pleistocene sand regions in the Netherlands for the period between 1000 BC and AD 1700. To this end, we compiled a new supra-regional overview of drift-sand activity based on age estimates (14C, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), archaeological and historical ages). The occurrence of sand drifting was then compared in time and space with historical-route networks, relative vegetation openness and climate. Results indicate a constant but low drift-sand activity between 1000 BC and AD 1000, interrupted by a remarkable decrease in activity around the BC/AD transition. It is evident that human pressure on the landscape was most influential on initiating sand drifting: this is supported by more frequent occurrences close to routes and the uninterrupted increase of drift-sand activity from AD 900 onwards, a period of high population density and large-scale deforestation. Once triggered by human activities, this drift-sand development was probably further intensified several centuries later during the cold and stormier ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA; AD 1570–1850).

    Standard Data Form Natura 2000 : bepaling van de belangrijkste drukfactoren in Natura 2000-gebieden
    Schippers, P. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Bremer, L. van den - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 56) - 30
    natura 2000 - natuurgebieden - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - natuurbeheer - natura 2000 - natural areas - habitats directive - birds directive - environmental impact - human impact - nature management
    Dit rapport betreft de documentatie van de gevolgde werkwijze van hoofdstuk 4.3 van het Standard Data
    Form. Het rapport beschrijft de methodiek die gevolgd is om per Natura 2000-gebied de belangrijkste
    drukfactoren uit de voorgeschreven lijst van de EC (de EC-indeling) te bepalen. Hierbij is de informatie over
    de drukfactoren die een negatief effect hebben op de staat van instandhouding van soorten en habitattypen
    uit de landelijke rapportages toegepast. Om de binnen de EC-systematiek geconstateerde problemen op te
    lossen, is er gezocht naar een nieuwe Nederlandse indeling in drukfactoren, waarbij duidelijk onderscheid
    wordt gemaakt tussen de oorzaken van drukfactoren (menselijke activiteiten en natuurlijke processen) en de
    effecten (bv. versnippering, vermesting en verdroging). Door de landelijke EC-indeling te vertalen naar de
    NL-indeling (en vice versa) is de informatie ook geschikter voor praktisch gebruik
    Effecten van militaire en civiele helikopters op vogels op het Kooijhoekschor
    Smit, C.J. ; Schermer, D.S. - \ 2015
    Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport C156/15) - 111
    vogels - helikopters - militaire activiteiten - diergedrag - invloeden - menselijke invloed - noord-holland - birds - helicopters - military activities - animal behaviour - influences - human impact - noord-holland
    Het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy en de civiele medegebruiker van het vliegveld, Den Helder Airport, zijn gelegen op korte afstand van de Waddenzee. Bij de nadering of bij het vertrek van het vliegveld moet, afhankelijk van de windrichting, in de helft van de gevallen op relatief geringe hoogte over de Waddenzee worden gevlogen. Het vliegveld wordt vooral gebruikt ten behoeve van helikopterverkeer. Den Helder Airport gebruikt het vliegveld vooral voor het vervoer van offshore-arbeiders van en naar olie- en gasplatforms op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. De groep Maritieme Helikopters is de belangrijkste gebruiker vanuit het Ministerie van Defensie. De 12 hier gestationeerde NH90 helikopters hebben De Kooy als thuisbasis. Ook het onderhoud aan deze helikopters vindt hier plaats. Het vliegkamp wordt vooral gebruikt voor trainingsvluchten. De effecten van de uitbreiding van civiel helikopterverkeer op vogels zijn de afgelopen jaren gemonitord. Tijdens deze onderzoeken zijn ook steeds de effecten van militair vliegverkeer meegenomen. Er is na 2006 echter vrijwel geen onderzoek uitgevoerd op de minder intensief gebruikte aan- en afvliegroute via het Kooijhoekschor. Doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven deelonderzoek was de effecten van militair vliegverkeer op deze route nauwkeuriger in kaart te brengen en te actualiseren. Primaire doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven onderzoek was het bepalen van het effect van vliegbewegingen met militaire helikopters op wad- en watervogels op de locatie Kooijhoekschor, gelegen aan de rand van het Balgzand, ten zuidoosten van het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy. Daarbij is vooral gekeken of overvliegende helikopters vogels doen opvliegen, hoe vaak dit gebeurt en beoordeeld of dit wellicht negatieve effecten voor vogels kan hebben.
    Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change
    Hansen, G.E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): M. Auffhammer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574298 - 186
    klimaatverandering - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - climatic change - environmental impact - human impact

    Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    Gerrit Hansen

    Global climate change is unequivocal, and greenhouse gas emissions continue rising despite international mitigation efforts. Hence whether and to what extent the impacts of human induced climate change are already being felt around the world is a timely question.

    The thesis assesses the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change across systems, sectors and world regions. A clear framework for impact attribution studies is laid out and applied to several examples from the literature. The development of the evidence of climate change impacts over the last two decades is documented, and an overview of the status of knowledge is provided with a focus on recent trends in human and managed systems.

    The role of human influence, compared to natural variability, for climate related impacts is assessed for a large range of individual observations that have been reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. The analysis is based on a novel method that explicitly considers information on the quality and appropriateness of observational and model data for each observation. The thesis discusses caveats and challenges in attributing observed effects to climate change, and points out the consequence of those limitations for scientific policy advice. Key issues concern the question whether extreme weather events and their impacts can be attributed to human induced climate change and the limited availability of long-term monitoring records in many vulnerable regions. The impact of anthropogenic climate change is confirmed for a broad range of natural system effects, and to a lesser degree for human systems. Confident conclusions are mostly limited to direct temperature effects while precipitation effects remaining more uncertain.

    People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region
    Peña Venegas, C.P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph; Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573222 - 210
    bodem - landbouw - inheemse kennis - bodemtypen (antropogeen) - inheemse volkeren - ecosystemen - cassave - manihot - diversiteit - menselijke invloed - amazonia - soil - agriculture - indigenous knowledge - soil types (anthropogenic) - indigenous people - ecosystems - cassava - manihot - diversity - human impact - amazonia

    Abstract

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp.

    The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE), fuels the debate about how pristine the Amazon ecosystem actually is, and about the degree to which humans affected Amazonian diversity in the past. Most upland soils of the Amazon region are very acid, highly weathered, and have a limited nutrient holding capacity; together, these characteristics limit permanent or intensive agriculture. Várzeas or floodplains that are periodically enriched with Andean sediments carried and deposited by rivers that cross the Amazon Basin, are moderately fertile but experience periodic floods that limit agriculture to crops able to produce in a short time. ADE patches in uplands usually are more fertile than non-anthropogenic uplands, providing a better environment for agriculture. Most studies about how people manage a broad portfolio of natural and anthropogenic soils come from non-indigenous farmers of Brazil. There is limited information about how indigenous people use a broad soil portfolio, and how this affects the diversity of their staple crop, manioc. With the aim to contribute to the understanding of the role of ADE in indigenous food production, as compared with other soils, and in order to provide information about how indigenous people use and create diversity in Amazonia, research was carried out among five different ethnic groups living in two locations of the Colombian Amazon.

    Several social and natural science methods were used during the study. These included ethnography, participant observation, structured and un-structured interviews, sampling of soil and manioc landraces, standardized protocols for the quantification of soil physical and chemical variables, and molecular techniques to assess genetic diversity of manioc and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Results indicate that ADE patches from the Middle Caquetá region of Colombia are not contrastingly more fertile than surrounding, non-anthropogenic upland soils, except for higher levels of available phosphorus in ADE. Indigenous farmers from the Middle Caquetá region do not use ADE more frequently or more intensively than non-ADE uplands. The swidden agriculture practiced on ADE and on non-ADE uplands is similar. Although ADE patches were not specifically important for swiddens and therefore relatively unimportant for the production of manioc. They were important as sites for indigenous settlements and for maintaining agroforestry systems with native and exotic species that do not grow in soils with low available phosphorus. Várzeas were also used for agriculture, whether farmers had access to ADE or not. Differences occurred between locations in the type of floodplains selected and the way they were cultivated. Those differences were not related to differences in soil conditions but were associated with the cultural traditions of the different ethnic groups who cultivate low floodplains, as well as labor availability when organizing collective work (mingas) to harvest floodplains.

    Manioc diversity among indigenous communities was not predominantly related with differences in soil types. Complete manioc stocks were cultivated equally on ADE, non-ADE uplands or várzeas. One issue that could be related with this non-specificity in manioc-soil combinations was the similar arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity of soils and the high number of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts associated to manioc roots; these were shown to be independent from the physicochemical composition of the soil or the manioc landrace. Differences in the diversity of manioc stocks among ethnic groups were predominantly related to cultural values attached to different manioc landraces.

    This study of indigenous agriculture in environments with natural and anthropogenic soils indicates that people have had an important role in transforming the Amazonian ecosystem through agriculture, with consequences on forest composition and forest dynamics. Pre-Columbian people contributed to this by creating an additional soil- the Amazonian Dark Earths. Although ADE are not presently considered to play a major role in indigenous food production, indigenous people believe that ADE have had an important role in the management of the first maniocs cultivated by their ancestors. The domestication of manioc and the creation and maintenance of hundreds of different landraces by indigenous people contributed, and still contributes, to the region’s plant diversity.

    Seal monitoring and evaluation for the Luchterduinen offshore wind farm: 2. Tconstruction - 2014 report
    Kirkwood, R.J. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. - \ 2015
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C152/14) - 65
    zeehonden - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - menselijke invloed - windmolenpark - constructie - monitoring - ecologische verstoring - noordzee - zuid-holland - seals - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - human impact - wind farms - construction - monitoring - ecological disturbance - north sea - zuid-holland
    Two seal species live in Dutch waters: the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) and the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). They occupy land-based sites (haul-outs) in both the Wadden Sea and the Delta region, and move between these regions along the North Sea coastal zone. Human activities, such as construction of a wind farm in this zone, may influence movement and use of the zone by the seals. Monitoring of potential impacts on seals to Luchterduinen construction was required in the permit to construct. The Luchterduinen offshore wind farm is the third wind farm development in the Dutch North Sea coastal zone (between Den Helder and Rotterdam). Pile-driving of the turbine towers occurred between 31 July and 16 October, 2014. Seals exposed to pile-driving, even at close distances of
    An exposure-effect approach for evaluating ecosystem-wide risks from human activities
    Knights, A.M. ; Piet, G.J. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Robinson, L.A. - \ 2015
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 72 (2015)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1105 - 1115.
    baltic sea - fisheries management - environmental-change - coastal ecosystems - marine ecosystems - human impact - new-zealand - food webs - support - climate
    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is promoted as the solution for sustainable use. An ecosystem-wide assessment methodology is therefore required. In this paper, we present an approach to assess the risk to ecosystem components from human activities common to marine and coastal ecosystems. We build on: (i) a linkage framework that describes how human activities can impact the ecosystem through pressures, and (ii) a qualitative expert judgement assessment of impact chains describing the exposure and sensitivity of ecological components to those activities. Using case study examples applied at European regional sea scale, we evaluate the risk of an adverse ecological impact from current human activities to a suite of ecological components and, once impacted, the time required for recovery to pre-impact conditions should those activities subside. Grouping impact chains by sectors, pressure type, or ecological components enabled impact risks and recovery times to be identified, supporting resource managers in their efforts to prioritize threats for management, identify most at-risk components, and generate time frames for ecosystem recovery.
    Andean grasslands are as productive as tropical cloud forests
    Oliveras Menor, I. ; Girardin, C. ; Doughty, C.E. ; Cahuana, N. ; Arenas, C.E. ; Oliver, V. ; Huaraca Huasco, W. ; Malhi, Y. - \ 2014
    Environmental Research Letters 9 (2014)11. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 10 p.
    net primary productivity - climate-change - peruvian andes - carbon storage - elevational transect - human impact - biomass - vegetation - dynamics - fire
    We aim to assess net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon cycling in Andean tropical alpine grasslands (puna) and compare it with NPP of tropical montane cloud forests. We ask the following questions: (1) how do NPP and soil respiration of grasslands vary over the seasonal cycle? (2) how do burning and grazing affect puna productivity? (3) if the montane forest expands into the puna, what will be the resulting change in productivity? The study sites are located at the South-eastern Peruvian Andes; one grassland site and the forest sites are in Wayqecha biological station, and another grassland site in Manu National Park. At each grassland site, we selected a burnt and an unburnt area, installed unfenced and fenced transects in each area, and monitored above-ground productivity (NPPAG), below-ground productivity (NPPBG) and soil respiration (Rs) for 2 yr. In the forest, we monitored NPPAG, NPPBG and Rs for 2–4 yr. Grassland NPP varied between 4.6 ± 0.25 (disturbed areas) to 15.3 ± 0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (undisturbed areas) and cloud forest NPP was between 7.05 ± 0.39 and 8.0 ± 0.47 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while soil carbon stocks were in the range of 126 ± 22 to 285 ± 31Mg C ha-1. There were no significant differences on NPP between the puna and forest sites. The most undisturbed site had significantly higher NPP than other grassland sites, but no differences were found when relating grazing and fire at other sites. There were lower residence times of above-ground biomass compared to below-ground biomass. There was a strong seasonal signal on grassland NPPAG and NPPBG, with a shift on allocation at the beginning of the austral summer. High elevation tropical grasslands can be as productive as adjacent cloud forests, but have very different carbon cycling and retention properties than cloud forests. S Online supplementary data available from stacks.iop.org/ERL/9/115011/mmedia Keywords: tropical alpine wetlands, above-ground productivity, below-ground productivity, fire, grazing, disturbances, puna
    Toepassing ODEMM - methodiek voor het Nederlandse KRM Programma van Maatregelen
    Piet, G.J. ; Sluis, M.T. van der; Paijmans, A.J. - \ 2014
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C162/14) - 61
    evaluatie - risicoschatting - ecologische risicoschatting - maatregelen - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - ecosysteembeheer - mariene ecologie - natuurbeheer - evaluation - risk assessment - ecological risk assessment - measures - environmental impact - human impact - ecosystem management - marine ecology - nature management
    Het Nederlandse Kaderrichtlijn Mariene strategie Programma van Maatregelen (PvM) is geëvalueerd met behulp van de ODEMM methodiek. Deze methodiek is ontwikkeld binnen het door de EU gesubsidieerde FP7 project ODEMM (Options for Delivering Ecosystem-based Marine Management). Met deze methodiek kan worden vastgesteld in hoeverre het PvM de menselijke activiteiten die hun invloed op het mariene ecosysteem hebben, in potentie kan mitigeren, zodat een goede milieutoestand behaald kan worden.
    Carbon accumulation in peat deposits from northern Sweden to northern Germany during the last millennium
    Linden, M. van der; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Geel, B. van - \ 2014
    Holocene 24 (2014)9. - ISSN 0959-6836 - p. 1117 - 1125.
    climate-change - human impact - bog - sphagnum - temperature - rates - vegetation - peatlands - growth - ams
    Historic carbon accumulation rates in four bogs on a north to south transect from Sweden to Germany were calculated by using the bulk densities and carbon concentrations of 1-cm peat layers and a fine-resolution radiocarbon chronology. Carbon accumulation rates were compared to environmental data to explore the effects of climatic factors. Carbon accumulation rates in a period without clear human impact on the bog ecosystems (c.ad 1700–ad 1800) ranged from 25 g C/m2/yr in the most northern site to 50 g C/m2/yr in the southernmost site, which coincided with increasing annual temperatures from north to south. This suggests that temperature or growing season length is a major factor influencing carbon accumulation rates at different geographical sites. The temporal variations in carbon accumulation rates within the sites tentatively suggest that carbon accumulation rates may still increase with further warming in northern peat bogs, but decrease in southern peat bogs.
    Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach
    Odongo, V.O. ; Mulatu, D.W. ; Muthoni, F.K. ; Oel, P.R. van; Meins, F.M. ; Tol, C. van der; Skidmore, A.K. ; Groen, T.A. ; Becht, R. ; Onyando, J.O. ; Veen, A. van der - \ 2014
    Journal of Hydrology 518 (2014)Part A. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 49 - 59.
    land-use change - murray-darling basin - lake naivasha - population-dynamics - water availability - stream ecosystems - human impact - east-africa - kenya - rainfall
    Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986–2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961–1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.
    Supporting IWRM through spatial integrated assessment in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya
    Oel, P.R. van; Odongo, V.O. ; Mulatu, D.W. ; Muthoni, F.K. ; Ndungu, J.N. ; Ogada, J.O. ; Veen, A. van der - \ 2014
    International Journal of Water Resources Development 30 (2014)3. - ISSN 0790-0627 - p. 605 - 618.
    water-resources management - surface-water - african lake - human impact - catchment - ecology - availability - complexity - nutrients - framework
    This study describes the mismatch between required knowledge and efforts by scientists and stakeholders in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. In the basin, integrated water resources management (IWRM) suffers from the absence of critically relevant knowledge. This study further presents a spatial integrated assessment framework for supporting IWRM in the basin. This framework resulted from an ongoing debate between stakeholders and scientists studying the basin's issues. It builds on jointly identified indicators for sustainable governance, and their interdependency, and knowledge gaps. For IWRM in the basin this is a first important step towards a more structured debate on the implementation of IWRM.
    Nile perch (Lates niloticus, L.) and cichlids (Haplochromis spp.) in Lake Victoria: could prey mortality promote invasion of tis predator?
    Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2014
    Theoretical Ecology 7 (2014)3. - ISSN 1874-1738 - p. 253 - 261.
    east-africa - mwanza gulf - human impact - ecosystems - productivity - coexistence - competition - recovery - kyoga
    The invasion of Nile perch into Lake Victoria is one of the iconic examples of the destructive effect of an introduced species on an ecosystem but no convincing explanation exists of why Nile perch only increased dramatically after a 25 year lag. Here, we consider this problem using a mathematical model that takes into account interactions between Nile perch and its cichlid prey. We examined competing hypotheses to explain Nile perch invasion and show that suppression of juvenile Nile perch by cichlids may cause the system to have two alternative stable states: one with only cichlids and one with coexistence of cichlids and Nile perch. Without cichlid predation on Nile perch, alternative stable states did not occur. Our analysis indicates that cichlid mortality, for example fishing mortality, may have induced the observed shift between the states.
    The Effects of Groundwater and Surface Water Use on Total Water Availability and Implication for Water Management: The Case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya
    Oel, P.R. van; Mulatu, D.W. ; Odongo, V.O. ; Meins, F.M. ; Hogeboom, R.J. ; Brecht, R. ; Stein, A. ; Onyando, J.O. ; Veen, A. van der - \ 2013
    Water Resources Management 27 (2013)9. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 3477 - 3492.
    resources management - human impact - basin
    This study discusses the effects of water abstractions from two alternative sources on the available water volume around Lake Naivasha, Kenya: the lake itself and a connected aquifer. An estimation of the water abstraction pattern for the period 1999–2010 is made and its effect on the available water volume in Lake Naivasha and its connected aquifer is evaluated using a simple water balance modeling approach. This study shows that accurate estimates of annual volume changes of Lake Naivasha can be made using a simple monthly water balance approach that takes into account the exchange of water between the lake and its connected aquifer. The amount of water that is used for irrigation in the area around Lake Naivasha has a substantial adverse effect on the availability of water. Simulation results of our simple water balance model suggests that abstractions from groundwater affect the lake volume less than direct abstractions from the lake. Groundwater volumes, in contrast, are much more affected by groundwater abstractions and therefore lead to much lower groundwater levels. Moreover, when groundwater is used instead of surface water, evaporation losses from the lake are potentially higher due to a larger lake surface area. If that would be the case then the overall water availability in the area is more strongly affected by the abstraction of groundwater than by the abstraction of surface water. Therefore water managers should be cautious when using lake levels as the only indicator of water availability for restricting water abstractions.
    The first wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years was the victim of a wildlife crime
    Gravendeel, B. ; Groot, G.A. de; Kik, M. ; Beentjes, K. ; Bergman, H. ; Caniglia, R. ; Cremers, H. ; Fabbri, E. ; Groenenberg, D. ; Grone, A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Font, I. ; Hakhof, J. ; Harms, V. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Janssen, R. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Laros, I. ; Linnartz, L. ; Marel, D. van der; Mulder, J.L. ; Mije, S. van der; Nieman, A.M. ; Nowak, C. ; Randi, E. ; Rijks, M. ; Speksnijder, A. ; Vonhof, H.B. - \ 2013
    Lutra 56 (2013)2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 93 - 109.
    wolven - fauna - migratie - diergedrag - dna - biochemie - menselijke invloed - centraal-europa - noordoostpolder - wolves - fauna - migration - animal behaviour - dna - biochemistry - human impact - central europe - noordoostpolder
    On July 4th 2013 a dead subadult female wolf-like canid was found by the roadside between Luttelgeest and Marknesse in the Noordoostpolder in the central part of the Netherlands. As the last observations of wild wolves in the Netherlands date back to 1869 the discovery of this animal generated a lot of media attention. European wolf populations have been expanding since the 1950s and the first packs recently established themselves in Germany in geographic proximity of the Dutch border, so natural re-appearance of the species in the Netherlands seemed likely. We investigated the taxonomy of the animal, its geographical origin, and its most recent history. Macroscopic and biochemical analyses of the dead animal convincingly showed that it was a purebred wolf, related to populations from eastern Europe. Bullet impacts and shattered fragments found in the chest and flank, and a discrepancy between the timing of the post mortem and rigor mortis intervals indicated that this wolf was shot prior to illegal transport to the Netherlands. The wolf fed on beaver in either the Carpathian mountains or the Eifel which is too far for the animal to have walked from by itself within the 24 hours needed to digest its last meal. These geographical areas are the only regions where haplotypes and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes retrieved from both the dead wolf and the beaver remains in its stomach co-occur. We therefore conclude that the first Dutch wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years did not enter the Netherlands by itself but sadly proved to be the victim of wildlife crime. Keywords: Canis lupus, Europe, haplotypes, isotopes, microsatellites, wildlife forensics, wolf.
    Trends in indicatoren van KRM-Zeebodemintegriteit : impact van natuurlijke factoren en menselijk handelen: analyse van schaal en methodiek
    Mesel, I.G. de; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Vries, P. de; Wal, J.T. van der; Schellekens, T. ; Brummelhuis, E.B.M. - \ 2012
    IJmuiden [etc.] : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C119/12) - 52
    mariene ecologie - aquatische ecologie - menselijke invloed - waterbodems - milieueffect - benthos - natuurbescherming - methodologie - eu regelingen - marine ecology - aquatic ecology - human impact - water bottoms - environmental impact - benthos - nature conservation - methodology - eu regulations
    De Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie (KRM) is door de EU in 2008 vastgesteld. Het doel van de KRM is om uiterlijk in 2020 te komen tot een Goede milieutoestand (GMT) van alle Europese mariene wateren. Onder een goede milieutoestand wordt begrepen dat de zee schoon, gezond en productief is en dat het gebruik van de zee op een duurzame wijze plaatsvindt. De beschrijving van de GMT geschiedt aan de hand van elf ecosysteemgerichte descriptoren. Descriptor 6 ‘zeebodemintegriteit’ is één van de elf descriptoren van de KRM en heeft direct betrekking op allerhande handelingen waarbij de zeebodem wordt beroerd. Rijkswaterstaat heeft meer inzicht nodig in de manier waarop de natuurlijke variaties en antropogene handelingen de temporele en ruimtelijke verspreidingspatronen van de bodemgemeenschappen op zee beïnvloeden om zo de impact van de mens op het ecosysteem te kunnen inschatten.
    Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
    Debrot, A.O. - \ 2012
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C092/12) - 71
    natuurbescherming - ecosysteembeheer - menselijke invloed - verontreiniging - recreatieactiviteiten - zeereservaten - bonaire - nature conservation - ecosystem management - human impact - pollution - recreational activities - marine protected areas - bonaire
    Lac Bay of Bonaire is a shallow non-estuarine lagoon of about 700 hectares, separated from the open sea by a shallow coral barrier-reef. It possesses the only major concentration of seagrass beds and mangroves of the island. It is a designated Ramsar wetland of international significance, an Birdlife International IBA (Important Bird Area) and also fulfills a critical fish nursery function for the reefs of the island. The bay has consequently been designated as a protected area and is managed by Stinapa-Bonaire. The bay has been losing effective seagrass nursery habitat surface and quality as a consequence of mangrove-driven land acclamation. This in-turn is potentially being exacerbated by human-mediated eutrophication and erosion caused by agricultural and animal husbandry in the wider watershed, as well as other factors. The number of visitors to Bonaire and to Lac has been increasing dramatically over the last decades particularly from cruise ships. Yet little has been done to document and map the various types of human use that occur on and in the vicinity of the bay which might affect the ecological carrying capacity of the bay and the critical roles it plays. In this survey we do preliminary mapping and analysis of the level and distribution of human activity in and around Lac and discuss what possible threats these may entail for the environment of the bay.
    Mind the gap: modelling event-based and millennial-scale landscape dynamics
    Baartman, J.E.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; Coen Ritsema, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732668 - 216
    geomorfologie - erosie - sedimentatie - dynamica - tijdschalen - landschapsanalyse - modelleren - rivieren - regen - menselijke invloed - landschap - ontwikkeling - spanje - pleistoceen - holoceen - geomorphology - erosion - sedimentation - dynamics - time scales - landscape analysis - modeling - rivers - rain - human impact - landscape - development - spain - pleistocene - holocene

    This research looks at landscape dynamics – erosion and deposition – from two different perspectives: long-term landscape evolution over millennial timescales on the one hand and short-term event-based erosion and deposition at the other hand. For the first, landscape evolution models (LEMs) are often used, which describe landscape forming processes by geomorphic transport laws, usually on annual temporal resolutions. LEM LAPSUS is used in this research to evaluate the landscape dynamics in a study area in south-east Spain: the Guadalentín Basin. The model is calibrated on dated river terrace levels, which show an erosion – deposition – erosion sequence that the model could reproduce. Annual precipitation in this dryland area shows large inter-annual variability and erosion is supposed to be mainly the results of low-frequency, high magnitude rainfall events. Therefore, in this research, landscape dynamics are also assessed using the event-based erosion model OpenLISEM. Eventually, the role of extreme events in long-term landscape evolution are explored by comparing the two models and by incorporating annual rainfall variability into LEM LAPSUS. Another issue that is being addressed in this study is the relative influence of humans as compared to erosion as a natural process. A conceptual model, derived on the basis of dated sediment archives, is tentatively correlated to periods of human impact on the land. Using LAPSUS, the potential influence of historical tillage erosion is simulated, showing that the relatively slow process of tillage erosion added to floodplain aggradation over thousands of years.

    Unravelling Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape dynamics: The Upper Guadalentín Basin, SE Spain 9
    Baartman, J.E.M. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Wallinga, J. ; Cammeraat, L.H. - \ 2011
    Geomorphology 125 (2011)1. - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 172 - 185.
    south-east spain - human impact - ephemeral channels - land abandonment - hillslope runoff - fluvial deposits - climatic changes - river systems - dead-sea - evolution
    Landscapes in SE Spain have developed in response to tectonics, climate fluctuations and, more recently, human activity. Fluvial and colluvial sediments such as river terraces and slope deposits found in the valleys reflect a complex interplay between landscape forming processes. Investigating these sediment archives, we reconstructed landscape evolution for the Upper Guadalentín Basin, SE Spain, placing recent erosion processes in a landscape evolution context. Palaeo-lake sediments dated between ~ 17 and ~ 13.8 ka evidence that a Late Glacial lake existed in the area, probably formed by a sudden blockage of the Guadalentín river. Differences in relative height above the floodplain and age between the river terraces of parts of the Guadalentín river indicate that they have not been in equilibrium in the Late Quaternary. Deposition of river terraces along the upstream part of the river is recorded at ~ 13 and ~ 9.5 ka, whereas no evidence of deposition is found for that period along the lower part of the river. There, episodes of sedimentation occur at ~ 7.5–5 ka, ~ 3.4, ~ 1.6, ~ 0.7 and ~ 0.4 ka. This discrepancy is explained by the palaeo-lake and its influence on erosion and sedimentation processes through base level changes. Combining these processes, we propose a schematic model of Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape evolution. From the model we can conclude that i) the influence of the palaeo-lake on deposition and erosion processes both upstream and downstream is evident; and for the younger river terraces that ii) episodes of deposition seem to coincide in time, but iii) episodes of erosion in between terrace level aggradation do not coincide and neither do terrace level heights and iv) no evidence of deposition is found for the upstream part of the river. Correlation of erosion and sedimentation episodes with climate change and human impact is discussed. Although some correlations can be made, there is strong evidence that climate was not the main driver of landscape processes. We suggest that internal dynamics and local processes are more important drivers for landscape dynamics in the Upper Guadalentín Basin than external and regional factors
    Why elephant roam
    Ngene, S.M. - \ 2010
    University of Twente. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins; H.A.M.J. van Gils. - Enschede : University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation ITC - ISBN 9789061642909 - 195
    loxodonta africana - geografische informatiesystemen - remote sensing - zoögeografie - geografische verdeling - beweging - menselijke activiteit - seizoenen - diergedrag - kenya - menselijke invloed - loxodonta africana - geographical information systems - remote sensing - zoogeography - geographical distribution - movement - human activity - seasons - animal behaviour - kenya - human impact
    The expansion of human activities due to the increase in human population outside protected areas is reducing the range of elephant. This range reduction occurs when elephant habitats are cleared for more farms and settlements. This causes fragmentation of the elephant range, which changes the elephant’ distribution, movement patterns, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement. The objectives of this study were to use GIS and remote sensing to identify the factors that influence the distribution, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement of Marsabit elephant; to map and describe their wet and dry season range, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement, as well as seasonal altitudinal movement in the fragmented mosaic of forest and savanna; to research the cost of humans sharing the environment with the elephant in areas adjacent to Marsabit Protected Area.
    Species and structural diversity of church forests in a fragmented Ethiopian Highland landscape
    Wassie Eshete, Alemayehu ; Sterck, F.J. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2010
    Journal of Vegetation Science 21 (2010)5. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 938 - 948.
    himalayan altitudinal gradient - tropical rain-forest - habitat fragmentation - montane forest - human impact - conservation - biodiversity - richness - disturbance - management
    Question: Thousands of small isolated forest fragments remain around churches (“church forests”) in the almost completely deforested Ethiopian Highlands. We questioned how the forest structure and composition varied with altitude, forest area and human influence. Location: South Gondar, Amhara National Regional State, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: The structure and species composition was assessed for 810 plots in 28 church forests. All woody plants were inventoried, identified and measured (stem diameter) in seven to 56 10 m x 10-m plots per forest. Results: In total, 168 woody species were recorded, of which 160 were indigeneous. The basal area decreased with tree harvest intensity; understorey and middle-storey density (5 cm DBH trees) increased with altitude. The dominance of a small set of species increased with altitude and grazing intensity. Species richness decreased with altitude, mainly due to variation in the richness of the overstorey community. Moreover, species richness in the understorey decreased with grazing intensity. Conclusions: We show how tree harvesting intensity, grazing intensity and altitude contribute to observed variations in forest structure, composition and species richness. Species richness was, however, not related to forest area. Our study emphasizes the significant role played by the remaining church forests for conservation of woody plant species in North Ethiopian Highlands, and the need to protect these forests for plant species conservation purposes
    Assessment of Ramsar site Lac Bonaire - June 2010
    Debrot, A.O. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. - \ 2010
    Yerseke : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR nr. C066/10) - 31
    natuurbescherming - beschermingsgebieden - mangroves - ecologisch herstel - menselijke invloed - nadelige gevolgen - bonaire - nature conservation - conservation areas - mangroves - ecological restoration - human impact - adverse effects - bonaire
    Following a helpdesk question from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) concerning potential threats to the Ramsar Site, Lac Bonaire, the authors visited Lac Bay from 27-29 May 2010. The mangroves, seagrass beds and the reef, both inside and outside of the bay were visited, and we were generously helped by many people on the island, including STINAPA Bonaire, DROB, STCB, and CIEE. In this study we review the main issues, recommend studies, and propose various pilot projects and solutions.
    Disturbance-effect relationships applied in an integral Ecological Risk Analysis for the human use of the North Sea
    Karman, C.C. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2009
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES no. C011/09) - 31
    ecosystemen - noordzee - mariene gebieden - menselijke invloed - aquatische ecosystemen - ecosystems - north sea - marine areas - human impact - aquatic ecosystems
    The relationship between the intensity of seven types of human based disturbances and their resulting effects on survival and reproduction of 30+ species were described as a function of increased mortality or reduced reproduction in the report of Jak et al 2000. The numerical values of the parameters in these functions were, as far as possible, estimated on the basis of data from literature, dealing with the sensitivity of the considered species, or otherwise of related species or biota in general, for the regarded disturbance
    BioScore: A tool to assess the impacts of European Community policies on Europe's biodiversity
    Delbaere, B. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Snethlage, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Heer, M. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kemitzoglou, D. ; Knegt, B. de; Knijf, G. de; Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tol, S. van; Tröltzsch, K. - \ 2009
    Tilburg : ECNC - ISBN 9789076762289 - 92
    biodiversiteit - flora - fauna - impact - beleid - beoordeling - europa - menselijke invloed - ecologische beoordeling - biodiversity - flora - fauna - impact - policy - assessment - european union countries - human impact - ecological assessment
    BioScore offers a European biodiversity impact assessment tool. The tool contains indicator values on the ecological preferences of more than 1000 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, butterflies, dragonflies, aquatic macro-invertebrates and vascular plants. These values are linked to policy-related pressures and environmental variables.
    A safe operating space for humanity
    Rockström, J. ; Steffen, W. ; Noone, K. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2009
    Nature 461 (2009). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 472 - 475.
    social-ecological systems - human impact - biodiversity - climate - perspective - resilience - consequences - ecosystems - phosphorus - shifts
    New approach proposed for defining preconditions for human development Crossing certain biophysical thresholds could have disastrous consequences for humanity Three of nine interlinked planetary boundaries have already been overstepped
    Gebiedsbescherming Noordzee : habitattypen, instandhoudingdoelen en beheermaatregelen
    Lindeboom, H.J. ; Witbaard, R. ; Bos, O.G. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 114) - 45
    noordzee - habitats - bescherming - natuurbescherming - mariene ecologie - milieubeleid - nederland - menselijke invloed - north sea - habitats - protection - nature conservation - marine ecology - environmental policy - netherlands - human impact
    In het Integraal Beheerplan Noordzee 2015 is een aantal gebieden aangewezen als potentieel te beschermen gebieden. Voor deze gebieden dienen instandhoudingsdoelen te worden opgesteld. Echter, door de grote variatie van het mariene ecosysteem en het feit dat grote delen van de Noordzee al gedurende decennia enorm door menselijke activiteiten zijn beïnvloed, kleven hier een aantal problemen aan. In dit werkdocument worden deze nader uiteengezet en worden bouwstenen voor mogelijke oplossingen aangedragen. Het werkdocument bevat een korte beschrijving van de (eventueel) te beschermen gebieden; een overzicht van natuurlijke en door de mens gecreëerde habitattypen; een beschrijving van de natuurlijke fluctuaties van het mariene ecosysteem en de mogelijke consequenties voor aanwijzing en beheer van te beschermen gebieden. Gezien de grote variatie van het systeem is het vaststellen van instandhoudingdoelen die gebaseerd zijn op het voorkomen van soorten en het daarna handhaven van zulke doelen in een dergelijk sterk wisselend systeem waarschijnlijk niet efficiënt. Voorgesteld wordt om beheersdoelen of managementdoelen te definiëren uitgaande van de beschreven habitatindeling. Het beheer zou gericht moeten zijn op de menselijke invloeden op de verschillende habitattypen waardoor men een rigide nastreven van mogelijk onbereikbare doelen voorkomt.
    De veranderlijke zee in het Antropoceen : over regime shifts, menselijk gebruik en bescherming
    Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789085852667 - 26
    mariene ecologie - visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bescherming - menselijke invloed - openbare redes - marine ecology - fisheries - sustainability - protection - human impact - public speeches
    De beleving van grote wateren : de invloed van een aaantal man-made elementen onderzocht
    Vries, S. de; Boer, T.A. de; Goossen, C.M. ; Wulp, N.Y. van der - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 64) - 98
    mariene gebieden - meren - perceptie - gebouwen - jachthavens - turbines - cyanobacteriën - kustgebieden - omgevingspsychologie - menselijke invloed - marine areas - lakes - perception - buildings - marinas - turbines - cyanobacteria - coastal areas - environmental psychology - human impact
    De invloed van boorplatforms, windturbines, hoogbouw aan de kust, jachthavens en vooroevers op de beleving van grote wateren is onderzocht. Als enige niet man-made element is blauwalg meegenomen. De beleving beperkt zich hier tot de waardering voor de visuele component. Door middel van (gemonteerde) foto’s kreeg de ene groep de situatie met het element voorgelegd, een andere zonder. Ongeveer 2300 leden van een consumentenpanel, verdeeld over vier groepen, namen via het internet deel aan het onderzoek. Elke groep beoordeelde 30 foto’s. Boorplatforms hebben de grootste negatieve impact, gevolgd door windturbines en daarna hoogbouw. Vooroevers hebben als enige gemiddeld een (licht) positieve impact. De negatieve impact bleek groter naarmate de situatie zonder element aantrekkelijker werd gevonden. Systematische variaties van de verschijningsvorm van een element lieten zien dat de ‘stap’ van niet naar wel aanwezig zijn het grootste effect opleverde: de negatieve impact nam slechts gering toe met de variabelen nabijheid, grootte en aantal van het element. Trefwoorden: belevingswaarde, grote wateren, boorplatforms, windturbines, hoogbouw, jachthavens, vooroevers, blauwalg
    Impact of human activities on water level and clarity and underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. in Poyan Lake, China
    Wu, G. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): J. de Leeuw. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049074 - 119
    meren - china - water - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - watervogels - waterplanten - lichtsterkte - vallisneria spiralis - troebelheid - voedselplanten - groei - remote sensing - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - waterstand - aquatische ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - lakes - china - water - surface water - water quality - waterfowl - aquatic plants - light intensity - vallisneria spiralis - turbidity - food plants - growth - remote sensing - surface water quality - water level - aquatic ecosystems - human impact
    Almost 95% of the world population of Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) winter in Poyang Lake, China. Here they forage on the tubers of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. The growth and production of V. spiralis are regulated by the local hydrology, which might also be influenced by the changed hydrology of the Yangtze River induced by engineering projects. This thesis investigated the impact of dredging activities in the northern Poyang Lake and the Three Gorges Dam in the Yangtze River on the water turbidity and water level of Poyang Lake, analyzed how these hydrological changes influenced the underwater light climate of V. spiralis, and discussed their potential impacts on the growth and productivity of V. spiralis and further on the food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake. The principal results obtained can be summarized as follows:
    (1) Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were compared for mapping the tempo-spatial dynamics of water clarity. Two multiple regression models including the blue and red bands of Landsat TM and MODIS respectively explained 83% and 88% of the variation of the natural logarithm of Secchi disk depth. On the basis of the comparison of water clarity predicted from Landsat TM and MODIS data as well as the advantages and contras of both sensors, it is concluded that MODIS offers the possibility to monitor the dynamics of water clarity more regularly and cheaply in relatively big and frequently cloud covered lakes like Poyang Lake.
    (2) The performance of the various Landsat TM bands for detecting dredging ships was explored in the turbid water of the northern Poyang Lake. The result revealed that the TM bands 1 to 4 had limitation especially in turbid water, while bands 5 and 7 better discriminated vessels from surrounding waters. Therefore, it is recommended using the mid-infrared bands of Landsat TM for operational ship monitoring in turbid water.
    (3) The possibility to strengthen inference of dredging impact while simultaneously monitoring vessels and water turbidity with remote sensing techniques was investigated in the northern Poyang Lake. Time-series MODIS images revealed a significant increase in water turbidity from 2001 onwards, while Landsat TM image analysis indicated a simultaneous increase in the number of vessels. Regression analysis further showed a highly significant positive relation (R2 = 0.92) between water turbidity and vessel number. On the basis of discussion of ship-related resuspension, final destinations of vessels and coincidence of vessel clusters with irregular dented patterns and turbid plume development, it is confirmed that dredging caused the increase in water turbidity. Therefore, it is concluded that simultaneously monitoring water turbidity and vessels enhanced the strength of evidence in remotely sensed dredging impact assessments.
    (4) Three extrapolation and interpolation methods were compared for predicting daily photosynthetically active radiation reaching the earth surface over the Poyang Lake national nature reserve. The result revealed that the triangulated irregular network (TIN) and inverse distance weighted (IDW)-based interpolation method produced more reliable result than the extrapolation methods.
    (5) The photosynthetically active radiation reaching the top of V. spiralis (PARlc) in Lake Dahuchi from 1998 to 2006 was modelled. The results revealed significant between year differences in PARtc, which were determined primarily by fluctuation in water level. Six years of Secchi disk depth records revealed seasonal switching of the lake from turbid at low water level in autumn, winter and spring to clear at high water level in summer. The highest PARtc occurred at intermediate water levels, which were reached when the Yangtze River forces Lake Dahuchi out of its turbid state in spring. The operation of the Three Gorges Dam, which will increase water level of Yangtze River from May to June may force Lake Dahuchi out of its turbid state earlier and increase the light intensity reaching the canopy and the production of V spiralis. It is concluded that the operation of the Three Gorges Dam might at the short term increase the light regime and productivity of V. spiralis and possibly affect the food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake.
    (6) A conceptual framework to integrate a simulation model of plant biomass for V. spiralis with remote sensing and a geographical information system was introduced. It is expected that the system, once implemented, could contribute to evaluate the impact of possible hydrological changes on the growth and productivity of V. spiralis, and assess whether tuber feeding bird populations are constrained by the regional availability of food resources in Lake Poyang.
    It is anticipated that these results provide a basis for the future research and necessary information for decision-making that need to be made by the responsible authorities to decide how to rationally manage this unique lake ecosystem.

    Low flow and drought studies : the Northern European (NE) FRIEND experience
    Tallaksen, L. ; Demuth, S. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 2007
    In: Climatic and anthropogenic impacts on the variability of water resources. - Paris : Unesco - p. 99 - 106.
    watervoorraden - klimaat - klimaatverandering - conferenties - menselijke invloed - water resources - climate - climatic change - conferences - human impact
    Invloed van varkenshouder op weerstand varkens onderzocht
    Mul, M.F. - \ 2006
    V-focus 3 (2006). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 40 - 41.
    varkenshouderij - varkens - weerstand - ziekteresistentie - kennisniveau - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - menselijke invloed - pig farming - pigs - resistance - disease resistance - knowledge level - farm management - human impact
    In juni 2005 startte ASG een praktijkproef met 35 varkenshouders in Overijssel, Gelderland, Noord-Brabant en Limburg, waarbij wordt onderzocht of een hoger kennisniveau bij de varkenshouder leidt tot een verbetering van de weerstand van z'n dieren. Er is sprake van kennisuitwisseling tussen varkenshouders, onderzoekers en dierenartsen samen
    Wadden Sea Quality Status report 2004
    Essink, K. ; Dettmann, C. ; Frake, H. ; Laursen, K. ; Lüerssen, G. ; Wiersinga, W.A. - \ 2005
    Wilhelmshaven, Germany : Common Wadden Sea Secretariat (Wadden Sea ecosystem No. 19) - 359
    ecologie - mariene ecologie - ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - aquatische ecosystemen - waddenzee - aquatische ecologie - ecology - marine ecology - ecosystems - human impact - aquatic ecosystems - wadden sea - aquatic ecology
    The report consists of 13 chapters containing basic information on human activities in the Wadden Sea and on physico-chemical and ecological conditions. Chapter 14 gives a synthesis of ecosystem developments. In Chapter 15, an evaluation is given of the Targets of the Wadden Sea Plan.
    Sources and delivery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to the coastal zone: An overview of global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) models and their application
    Seitzinger, S.P. ; Harrison, J.A. ; Dumont, E.L. ; Beusen, A.H.W. ; Bouwman, A.F. - \ 2005
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19 (2005). - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. GB4S01 - GB4S01.
    marine ecosystems - drainage network - river estuary - world rivers - human impact - limitation - eutrophication - plankton - systems - inputs
    An overview of the first spatially explicit, multielement (N, P, and C), multiform (dissolved inorganic: DIN, DIP; dissolved organic: DOC, DON, DOP; and particulate: POC, PN, PP) predictive model system of river nutrient export from watersheds (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS)) is presented. NEWS models estimate export from 5761 watersheds globally as a function of land use, nutrient inputs, hydrology, and other factors; regional and global scale patterns as of 1995 are presented here. Watershed sources and their relative magnitudes differ by element and form. For example, anthropogenic sources dominate the export of DIN and DIP at the global scale, although their anthropogenic sources differ significantly (diffuse and point, respectively). Natural sources dominate DON and DOP export globally, although diffuse anthropogenic sources dominate in several regions in Asia, Europe and N. America. "Hot spots" where yield (kg km-2 yr-1) is high for several elements and forms were identified, including parts of Indonesia, Japan, southern Asia, and Central America, due to anthropogenic N and P inputs in some regions and high water runoff in others. NEWS models provide a tool to examine past, current and future river export of nutrients, and how humans might impact element ratios and forms, and thereby affect estuaries and coastal seas.
    Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest
    Gemerden, B.S. van - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M. Cleef; Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): H. Olff. - - 199
    tropical rain forests - biodiversity - rehabilitation - plant succession - conservation - forest ecology - logging - shifting cultivation - central africa - human impact - disturbance - tropische regenbossen - biodiversiteit - herstel - plantensuccessie - conservering - bosecologie - houtkap - zwerflandbouw - centraal-afrika - menselijke invloed - verstoring
    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selective logging and shifting cultivation. Assessment of the long-term effects of these land uses on plant species composition will provide elements for the identification of effective conservation measures and sustainable forms of forest use.

    Disturbances are relatively discrete events in time that cause high mortality of biomass and change the structure of populations, communities or ecosystems. Individual plants and species differ in their ability to claim the previously utilised space and resources, and therefore disturbance events may cause (temporary) shifts in species composition and diversity. In large parts of the African rain forest biome, the most important natural disturbance regime is gap-phase dynamics in which relatively small canopy openings are made by falling branches or trees. Larger-scale disturbances such as landslides, volcanic activity and large-scale river dynamics, have been extremely rare during the last millennia. Therefore, the present set of species is likely to be adapted to disturbance regimes characterised by frequent small-scale disturbances. Analogous to gap-phase dynamics, human land use can be considered as a disturbance. However, human induced disturbances are generally larger, more frequent and more severe. As a result, human land use may have long-term impacts on plant species composition and diversity.

    The fieldwork for this thesis was conducted in the main research site of the Tropenbos-Cameroon Programme; an area of 2000 km 2 of forestland in South Cameroon Vegetation was sampled in old growth forest, logging gaps of 5, 14 and 27 years old, and in abandoned shifting cultivation fields of 10-20, 30-40 and 50-60 years old. Within plots, all terrestrial vascular plants (including all growth forms) were recorded. In total 10.1 ha was surveyed allowing the detailed analysis of human impact on full plant species composition. Much effort was devoted to plant identification and in total some 11 000 herbarium vouchers were collected, processed and sent to specialists for identification. Voucher material was stored in theNationaalHerbarium Nederland - WageningenUniversity branch and in the IRAD/TropenbosField Herbarium inKribi. Some 75% of the plants in the survey identified to species level and an additional 20% was systematically categorised asmorphospecies. In total 1264 species were identified to species level. These included 261 species with ranges restricted to Lower Guinea (South Nigeria - Gabon) of which 51 are confined to the rain forest region of Cameroon.

    Tropical rain forests are often regarded as being undisturbed by humans. In Chapter 2, we analyse the disturbance history of 16 ha of structurally complex and species-rich 'old growth' rain forest (data collected by forestry research project of theTropenbos-Cameroon Programme). The recruitment preference of tree species along a disturbance gradient, ranging from shifting cultivation fields, to canopy gaps and old growth forest, was compared to present-day tree species composition. In nine plots out of 16, older (larger) trees preferred shifting cultivation fields for recruitment while younger trees recruited in small canopy gaps and under closed canopy. These results indicate that these plots once experienced a disturbance regime that included larger-scale disturbances. Combined, the pattern of disturbed and undisturbed plots, the high frequency of charcoal in the forest soil and anthropological data strongly suggest that humans caused these disturbances. The estimated date of these disturbances is 300-400 years ago. Surprisingly, species richness at larger scales was found to be lower in historically disturbed sites compared to undisturbed sites. Therefore, present-day species composition and diversity of old growth forests still reflects historical human impacts.

    Outside protected areas, forests are subject to logging and shifting cultivation and secondary forests are therefore becoming important in many Central African landscapes. Chapter 3 examines the potential of secondary vegetation to contribute to biodiversity conservation. The results indicate that vegetation recovery in logging plots and abandoned shifting cultivation fields is relatively quick, and in most aspects surprisingly complete. A notable exception is the poor recovery of endemics in shifting cultivation fields. We found that even after 60 years the proportion of endemic species was still significantly lower than in old growth forest. In light of the fast recovery of all other vegetation characteristics (including species richness and floristic composition), we conclude that secondary vegetation can contribute biodiversity conservation e.g. as buffer zones around protected areas.

    In Chapter 4, we analyse the relative importance of local and regional processes for structuring species composition during succession. Local processes refer to the ability of species to compete successfully with other species and avoid predation and pathogen attack. Regional processes refer to dispersal and colonisation. Both processes have been suggested to explain the typically high species richness in tropical rain forests. Our results indicate that local processes are especially important during the early stages of succession, whereas regional processes are especially important during the later stages. However, large differences were observed between different species groups. Regional processes mainly governed composition of large tree species (maximum height ≥ 15 m). A similar but smaller effect was observed in small tree species (3-15 m) and shrub species. Local processes structured composition of terrestrial herb species. In general, woody and non-woody climbers were widely distributed generalists with a very similar set of species occurring in all landscape mosaics and in all succession stages. The differences between species groups implies that effective conservation management requires insight in the importance of local and regional processes for the recruitment of target species (e.g. endemic species). A blanket conservation treatment for all species is unlikely to address adequately the specific sensitivity of species with high conservation value to habitat quality and habitat fragmentation.

    The general lack of information on biodiversity patterns is a serious problem for conservation planning in most tropical rain forest regions. With ongoing habitat destruction, conservation priorities must be identified quickly. Therefore optimal use should be made of all currently available sources of information. However, direct comparison of results is problematic if assessment methods differ. In Chapter 5, we make a first attempt to reconcile different assessments by taking into account their methodological differences. The key factors affecting the general shape and position of the species-area curve found through partial sampling are (1) the total extent in which observations are made, (2) the spatial distribution of the observations, (3) the proportion of the total extent sampled, (4) the proportion of the individuals in the sampled area that was included in the survey, and (5) the proportion of the included individuals that was successfully identified. Through simulations, the effects of partial sampling of these factors on observed species richness was identified. To test the method, we compared four botanical surveys conducted in the same area of lowland old growth rain forest. The surveys included were (1) reconnaissance scale vegetation survey, (2) detailed botanical assessment (100% individuals), (3) incomplete botanical assessment (10% individuals), and (4) herbarium collections. Correcting for partial sampling and scaling the results to extent greatly increased the comparability between assessments. This first attempt to reconcile methodologically different surveys suggests that species -area relations can be reconstructed from incomplete sample data if the key characteristics of the methods can be statistically described. The study provides an outline for optimising the use of existing datasets in the evaluation of conservation needs in tropical rain forest areas.

    In Chapter 6, I present an overview of the main effects of human land use on plant diversity in Central African forest. Rain forests are highly dynamic on all spatial and temporal scales. Present-day species composition and diversity reflects their cumulativebiogeographicalhistory. Therefore both present-day and historical disturbance regimes should be considered to understand current patterns of diversity and to predict its responses to future disturbances. The biotic andabioticprocesses that influence diversity vary with the scale of organisation of biological and ecological systems (i.e. community, ecosystem, landscape,region). While human land use obviously disrupts local communities, the impact of humans is also evident on much larger scales. As a result of large-scale forest degradation, fragmentation and global climate change, species composition of most Central African rain forests is likely to undergo changes in the near future. Conservation management should aim at increasing the survival chances of endemic species and species with poor dispersal capacity. In light of the present ecological insights and the uncertainty of the upcoming climate changes, it seems wise to invest in large networks of protected areas. Moreover, it is unlikely that areas managed for timber production will be beneficial for the conservation of characteristic plant diversity unless damage control is rigid. The expected increase in seasonality in large parts of Central Africa, combined with forest fragmentation and canopy opening, is likely to increase the abundance of pioneer species while species of concern to conservation are likely to decline. To increase the effectiveness of conservation management, insight is required in the mechanisms that make species and forest systems vulnerable to human induced disturbances, including global climate change.
    Human influences
    Lanen, H.A.J. van; Kasparek, L. ; Novicky, O. ; Querner, E.P. ; Fendeková, M. ; Kupczyk, E. - \ 2004
    In: Hydrological drought. Processes and estimation methods for streamflow and groundwater / Tallaksen, L.M., van Lanen, H.A.J., Amsterdam : Elsevier (Developments in Water Science 48) - ISBN 9780444516886 - p. 347 - 410.
    droogte - hydrologische factoren - menselijke invloed - drought - hydrological factors - human impact
    Human activities can cause drought, which was not previously reported (man-induced hydrological drought). Groundwater abstractions for domestic and industrial use are a well-known example of such an environmental change
    Hunter and hunted
    Broekhuizen, S. - \ 2003
    Lutra 46 (2003)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 75 - 76.
    vleesetende dieren - prooi - predator prooi verhoudingen - boekbesprekingen - menselijke invloed - carnivores - prey - predator prey relationships - book reviews - human impact
    Bespreking van het nieuwste boek van Hans Kruuk (University Press Cambridge, 2002) over landroofdieren en de invloed die ze hebben op hun prooidiersoorten, inclusief de mens, en over de invloed die de mens heeft en heeft gehad op de landroofdieren
    Recreatie en biodiversiteit in balans; een ruimtelijke benadering
    Vos, C.C. ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Pouwels, R. - \ 2003
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 20 (2003)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 3 - 13.
    openluchtrecreatie - natuurbescherming - fauna - populaties - vogels - monitoring - bedrijfsvoering - duinen - menselijke invloed - outdoor recreation - nature conservation - birds - fauna - populations - monitoring - management - dunes - human impact
    In Nederland streeft men ernaar natuurgebieden zo veel mogelijk open te stellen voor recreatie. Recreatie kan echter een extra stressfactor betekenen voor kleine en versnipperde populaties. Dat kan de duurzame instandhouding van soorten in gevaar brengen. Het combineren van recreatie en natuur vraagt daarom om een goede balans. In dit artikel wordt een beleidsinstrument gepresenteerd waarmee de effecten van recreatie en de effectiviteit van recreatiezonering zijn verkend.
    Will reactivation of the Iron Rhine railroad decrease survival of badgers (Meles meles) in Meinweg National Park, the Netherlands
    Grift, E.A. van der; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2002
    Lutra 45 (2002)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 29 - 48.
    dassen (zoogdieren) - meles meles - spoorwegen - railtransport - natuurbescherming - dierecologie - ecologie - populatie-ecologie - netwerkanalyse - nederland - netwerken - midden-limburg - menselijke invloed - dassen - fauna - infrastructuur - landschapsecologie - natuurgebied - populatiebiologie - spoorweg - versnippering - zoogdieren - Limburg - IJzeren Rijn - Meinweg - badgers - meles meles - railways - rail transport - nature conservation - animal ecology - ecology - population ecology - network analysis - netherlands - human impact - networks - midden-limburg - fauna
    Met verschillende variaties is het effect van hergebruik van een goederenspoorlijn op de ontwikkeling van een dassenpopulatie in Midden-Limburg onderzocht
    Van buiten word je beter : een essay over de relatie tussen natuur en gezondheid
    Berg, A.E. van den; Berg, M.M.H.E. van den - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra - 55
    natuurbescherming - perceptie - mens - geestelijke gezondheid - natuur - menselijke invloed - gezondheid - maatschappijwetenschap - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - perception - man - mental health - nature - human impact
    Ecological and economic impacts of gorilla-based tourism in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic
    Blom, A. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; A.M.H. Brunsting. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084101 - 165
    gorilla's - toerisme - natuurtoerisme - milieueffect - economische impact - wild - centraal-afrikaanse republiek - beschermde gebieden - menselijke invloed - gorillas - tourism - nature tourism - environmental impact - economic impact - wildlife - central african republic - reserved areas - human impact

    This thesis investigates the potential role of tourism in the funding of protected area management in the Congo Basin. An assessment of the protected areas and gazetted forests of the Central African Republic (CAR) showed that only about one third of the protected areas is more or less effectively managed. Almost all the gazetted forest and the remainder of the protected areas are insufficiently protected from human disturbance, which is mostly in the form of poaching. This example underlines the fact that long term under-financing of the management has seriously affected the integrity of protected areas in the Congo Basin. Even in relatively well managed areas, such as the Dzanga-Sangha protected area complex, in southwestern CAR, human impact on wildlife can still be measured and is related to the distance from roads.

    The costs of management to effectively protect the forests of the Congo Basin are high. The potential role that tourism could play in raising revenue for management and for the local communities was investigated based on the case study of ape viewing in Dzanga-Sangha. Ape-viewing is a high return type of tourism and conditions to develop such tourism in Dzanga-Sangha were good. The area harbors high densities of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and several previous studies on these apes had been carried out. In order for visitors to be able to view the apes they needed to be habituated to human presence. This thesis shows that habituation of gorillas for tourism is feasible. Although feasible, the habituation process requires a substantial investment in time and money and is not without risks. It is unlikely that tourism, including ape-viewing, will be economically viable from a commercial point of view. It is unlikely that revenue form tourism will cover the management cost of the Dzanga-Sangha protected area now or in the foreseeable future. Even though tourism can bring important gains to the region, such as revenue and employment, managers have to carefully weigh these advantages against the apes' well being and the risky economics of tourism in Central Africa.

    Given the fact that Dzanga-Sangha provides one of the best opportunities for this type of tourism in the Congo Basin and that even here the economic success is highly questionable, it is unlikely to be a realistic option in but a few exceptional places in this part of the world. This case study clearly demonstrates that although some user fees have the potential to generate substantial revenue for protected areas in the Congo Basin, these fees will be far from sufficient to manage the protected area system.

    Soil Degradation and vulnerability assessment for Central and Eastern Europe - Preliminary Results of the SOVEUR Project
    Batjes, N.H. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : FAO, RISSA, ISRIC (FAO Report 2000/04) - 99
    bodem - bodemdegradatie - bodemverontreiniging - beoordeling - cartografie - gegevens verzamelen - informatiesystemen - milieueffect - centraal-europa - menselijke invloed - soil - soil degradation - soil pollution - assessment - mapping - data collection - information systems - environmental impact - central europe - human impact
    Between the tides: The impact of human exploitation on an intertidal ecosystem, Mozambique
    Boer, W.F. de - \ 2000
    University of Groningen. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; R.H. Drent. - Veenendaal : Universal Press - ISBN 9789036712835 - 268
    aquatisch milieu - mozambique - visserijbiologie - menselijke invloed - wadden - aquatische ecosystemen - aquatic environment - mozambique - fishery biology - human impact - tidal flats - aquatic ecosystems
    Comparing recent and abandoned shell middens to detect the impact of human exploitation on the intertidal ecosystem
    Boer, W.F. de; Pereira, T. ; Guissamulo, A. - \ 2000
    Aquatic Ecology 34 (2000). - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 287 - 297.
    schaaldieren - aquatische gemeenschappen - ecosystemen - populatie-ecologie - mozambique - aquatische ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - shellfish - aquatic communities - ecosystems - population ecology - mozambique - aquatic ecosystems - human impact
    Abandoned and recent shell middens were compared from Inhaca island, Mozambique, to investigate the impact of human exploitation. The growing human population was expected to increase the exploitation pressure, decrease the mean shell size, and increase the species diversity. Moreover, exploitation-vulnerable species were expected to disappear from recent middens. 29252 shells were collected from 6 recent and 8 abandoned middens, comprising 78 species, the majority bivalves. Pinctada nigra was the most abundant. The mean shell size was significantly smaller in recent middens, and the conspicuous, surface-dwelling gastropod Terebralia palustris showed the largest size reduction. Size reduction was related with the life history of the species. Older, abandoned middens had a larger species richness, refuting the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. The species composition of recent and abandoned middens was relatively similar, which was probably caused by low human exploitation pressure and the substrate characteristics. The disappearance of the mussel Perna perna was thought to be related to overexploitation
    Gateway to the Global Garden : Beta/Gamma Science for Dealing with Ecological Rationality
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2000
    Guelph : University of Guelph (Annual Hopper lecture 8) - ISBN 9780889555105 - 51
    milieubeheer - ecosystemen - kennis - duurzame ontwikkeling - sociologie - menselijke invloed - natuur - environmental management - ecosystems - knowledge - sustainable development - sociology - human impact - nature
    Life on the edge : hedgehog traffic victims and mitigation strategies in an anthropogenic landscape
    Huijser, M.P. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; K.V. Sýkora; N.J. Reeve. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083012 - 165
    erinaceus europaeus - landbouwgrond - habitats - wegen - verkeer - populatiedynamica - ecologie - mortaliteit - bescherming - wildbeheer - nederland - menselijke invloed - cultuurlandschap - habitatfragmentatie - erinaceus europaeus - agricultural land - habitats - roads - traffic - population dynamics - ecology - mortality - protection - wildlife management - netherlands - human impact - cultural landscape - habitat fragmentation

    This study focused on the most frequently recorded mammal species in road-kill surveys in western Europe: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Investigations were conducted in an anthropogenic landscape and had two major aims:

    1. to quantify the effects of traffic mortality at individual, population, and species levels, and
    2. to explore how the number of traffic victims could be reduced through changes in the landscape in areas adjacent to roads.

    The negative effects of roads and traffic were particularly clear at the individual level, and one could consider this reason enough to take mitigating actions. In addition, hedgehogs are likely to be affected at the population level. However, at the species level, the hedgehog has mostly benefited from many of the human-induced changes in the landscape. The way people manage the landscape seems to be the key factor in determining the long term future of the species. Manipulation of certain landscape features can be used to make wildlife passages more effective and also to keep hedgehogs away from road sections between passages.

    Key words - agricultural lands, anthropogenic landscape, barriers, behaviour, body weight, compensation, corridor, disease, edge habitat, Erinaceus europaeus, footprints, habitat fragmentation, habitat selection, hedgehog, hedgerow, human impact, injury, landscape changes, mating strategy, mitigation, mortality, nest sites, The Netherlands, population density, relative population density, road density, road-kills, roads, traffic intensity, traffic victims, urban wildlife, vegetation, vehicle clearance, wildlife passages.

    Viability of hedgehog populations in central Netherlands
    Bergers, P.J.M. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 1999
    Lutra 42 (1999). - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 65 - 76.
    erinaceidae - erinaceus europaeus - doodsoorzaken - mortaliteit - verkeer - habitats - bevolkingsafname - wegbermen - expertsystemen - nederland - menselijke invloed - gelderland - flevoland - erinaceidae - erinaceus europaeus - causes of death - mortality - traffic - habitats - population decrease - roadsides - expert systems - netherlands - human impact - gelderland - flevoland
    I.v.m. het hoge aantal verkeersslachtoffers onder egels vraagt men zich af dit kan leiden tot het uitsterven van locale of regionale populaties. Hiertoe is een duurzaamheidsanalyse uitgevoerd met het expertsysteem LARCH op en rond de Veluwe en Flevoland
    The location of hedgehog traffic victims in relation to landscape features
    Huijser, M.P. ; Bergers, P.J.M. ; Braak, C.J.F. ter - \ 1999
    Lutra 42 (1999)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 57 - 58.
    Erinaceidae - Erinaceus europaeus - doodsoorzaken - schade - fauna - menselijk gedrag - landschap - habitats - Nederland - menselijke invloed - causes of death - damage - human behaviour - landscape - Netherlands - human impact
    Kort bericht omtrent een studie naar de invloed van omgevingsfactoren en wegkarakteristieken op het aantal verkeersslachtoffers onder egels
    Habitat fragmentation and infrastructure: a review of the proceedings of a European and a North American conference
    Huijser, M.P. ; Grift, E.A. van der; Bekker, G.J. - \ 1999
    Lutra 42 (1999)1-2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 43 - 45.
    zoogdieren - habitats - habitat vernietiging - infrastructuur - overzichten - menselijke invloed - natuur - mammals - habitats - habitat destruction - infrastructure - reviews - human impact - nature
    Voor veel dier- en plantensoorten leidt de aanwezigheid en het gebruik van infrastructuur tot een afname in het aantal geschikte leefgebieden. De resterende gebieden raken bovendien steeds kleiner en meer van elkaar geisoleerd. Beide congressen handelen over dit verschijnsel: habitat versnippering
    Een verkennende beschouwing over grondhoudingen, natuurbeelden en natuurvisies in relatie tot draagvlak voor natuur
    Molenaar, J.G. de - \ 1998
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 111
    samenleving - interacties - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - ideologie - kennis - perceptie - landschap - filosofie - natuur - menselijke invloed - society - interactions - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - ideology - knowledge - perception - landscape - philosophy - nature - human impact
    Political ecology, mountain agriculture, and knowledge in Honduras
    Jansen, K. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; D. Gibbon. - Amsterdam : Thela - ISBN 9789055380305 - 277
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - bescherming - herstel - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - landbouw - ecologie - biogeografie - hydrobiologie - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - sociale klassen - boeren - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - bedrijfssystemen - gebergten - honduras - menselijke invloed - sustainability - natural resources - resource utilization - protection - rehabilitation - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - water pollution - agriculture - ecology - biogeography - hydrobiology - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - social classes - farmers - farm management - farm planning - farming systems - mountains - honduras - human impact

    The social and biophysical processes entailed in environmental deterioration are the subject of intense debate in Honduras, one of the poorest countries of Latin America. This book analyses the political ecology of precarious farming in mountainous areas. The author evaluates a rich array of social and agronomic data in order to assess existing theories that purport to explain environmental deterioration and agrarian change in Honduras. It explores the relationships between land tenure patterns, shifting agricultural practices, changing social relations of production, and producers' knowledge. Special attention is given to differential perceptions and responses of producers to environmental deterioration, and to the broader knowledge struggles of different actors about issues such as burning, the fallow crisis, biocide use, and deforestation. This detailed case study draws on political economy, human ecology, critical realism, and social constructionism and constitutes an original contribution to current debates on political ecology.

    The central argument of this book is that land degradation through present agricultural practices is not simply an effect of poverty, inconsiderate acting or a direct consequence of a modernisation process which is orchestrated and imposed upon the Honduran peasantry by external capitalist development. Instead, the social causation of environmental change in mountainous areas of Honduras should be understood in terms of a complex mixture of local patterns of access to resources, forms of state intervention, the heterogeneous paths of technological change and knowledge generation, divisions of labour, and the specific interactions of emerging commodity markets and the organization of production.

    Chapter two focuses on issues of land tenure and property rights. It compares local histories of land distribution in El Zapote with widely used models of the latifundio-minifundio complex and the colonial legacy of the large landholding. Subsequently, it explores how local rules and cultural notions, local government and state laws, and state interventions through land reform and land titling projects, mediate the relation between people and the land. Conclusions deal with the multiple land histories which explain the complexity of conflicts, and with the many factors shaping the meaning villagers attribute to the value of land.

    Chapter three explores technological changes in crop production and cattle husbandry and compares the findings in El Zapote with recent studies dealing with heterogeneity and diversity in agriculture, thus criticizing approaches which maintain a duality of traditional and modern agricultural technology. It stresses the recognition of the multiplicity of factors causing technological change.

    This exploration of technological change serves as a starting point for the discussion of how different environmental problems are perceived by different actors. Chapter four identifies different perspectives on the fallow crisis, the use of fire to clear fields, vegetation and climatic change, and the use of new agro-chemicals. It deals with the paradox that agronomy cannot encompass the many factors involved in environmental deterioration, but that an alternative strategy of validating producers' environmental perceptions cannot provide a coherent theory of the causes of environmental deterioration as well.

    In Chapters two, three, and four, it will be shown that environmental behaviour and perceptions about environmental change relate to access to, and distribution of, resources. Chapter five gives further consideration to the different aspects of the social relations of production in El Zapote, in order to understand the processes of social differentiation.

    Chapter six broadens the issue of social differentiation with a discussion of local agricultural knowledge. The argument is put forward that we need an understanding of both the practical character of knowledge, (that local knowledge generation responds to environment and social context), and its discursive character. Knowledge is not only embedded in narratives on the epistemological level, but also in concrete natural environments and social relations. An important conclusion is that current `local knowledge approaches' overestimate the potential of local knowledge for environmental conservation or restoration.

    The concluding chapter starts by commenting on various explanations of environmental deterioration in Honduran mountain agriculture. Using the case study of El Zapote it presents an alternative explanation with the main argument that a linear relation between the distribution of the means of production and labour relations on the one hand, and use of the environment on the other, cannot be justified, but that, nevertheless, an inquiry into changing patterns of social differentiation may provide insight into important mechanisms of human interaction with nature. The final section challenges theoretical (epistemological and ontological) confusions about social and biophysical causation of environmental deterioration in environmental social science.

    The book is published by:
    Thela Publishers Amsterdam
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    288 pages
    ISBN 90-5538-030-X
    £13.95/US$26.50/ƒ39.50

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    Relationships between forest condition and natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the European scale : pilot study
    Klap, J.M. ; Vries, W. de; Erisman, J.W. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre (SC report 150) - 245
    bosbouw - bosschade - bosplagen - achteruitgang, bossen - afsterving - luchtverontreiniging - gassen - zure regen - bodemchemie - anorganische verbindingen - mineralen - meteorologie - onderzoek - europa - bosbescherming - bospathologie - menselijke invloed - forestry - forest damage - forest pests - forest decline - dieback - air pollution - gases - acid rain - soil chemistry - inorganic compounds - minerals - meteorology - research - europe - protection of forests - forest pathology - human impact
    DASSIM, een simulatiemodel voor de evaluatie van verkeersscenario's: calibratie en validatie
    Apeldoorn, R.C. van; Verboom, J. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 1997
    Delft : Rijkswaterstaat DWW - 59
    verspreiding - Mustelidae - ecologie - diergedrag - gewoonten - overheidsdiensten - transport - ongevallen - dieren - fauna - schade - wegen - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - Nederland - kalibratie - diergemeenschappen - menselijke invloed - dispersal - Mustelidae - ecology - animal behaviour - habits - public services - transport - accidents - animals - fauna - damage - roads - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - Netherlands - calibration - animal communities - human impact
    Bedreiging van plantengemeenschappen van wateren, moerassen en natte heiden
    Duuren, L. van; Schaminée, J.H.J. - \ 1997
    Kwartaalbericht milieustatistieken... 14 (1997)1. - ISSN 0168-8065 - p. 15 - 24.
    aquatische gemeenschappen - classificatie - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - hydrobiologie - moerassen - nederland - plantengemeenschappen - menselijke invloed - aquatic communities - classification - environmental impact - human activity - hydrobiology - marshes - netherlands - plant communities - human impact
    Amfibieen en verkeerswegen; een modelstudie naar het effect van verminderen of compenseren van barrierewerking.
    Bugter, R.J.F. ; Vos, C.C. - \ 1997
    Delft : Rijkswaterstaat, DWW - 62
    hylidae - bufonidae - overheidsdiensten - transport - ongevallen - wegen - levensduur - verouderen - veroudering - dood - dieren - fauna - schade - modellen - onderzoek - nederland - salamanders - menselijke invloed - hylidae - bufonidae - public services - transport - accidents - roads - lifespan - aging - senescence - death - animals - fauna - damage - models - research - netherlands - salamanders - human impact
    The ecological modernization of production and consumption : essays in environmental sociology
    Spaargaren, G. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.T.J. Nooij; N.J.M. Nelissen. - S.l. : Spaargaren - ISBN 9789054856474 - 210
    milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - kwaliteit - controle - verontreinigingsbeheersing - milieubeheer - ecologie - consumptie - nederland - menselijke invloed - milieuwetenschappen - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - quality - control - pollution control - environmental management - ecology - consumption - netherlands - human impact - environmental sciences

    Milieusociologen maken studie van milieubederf en milieubeheer als maatschappelijke verschijnselen. Zij bestuderen de manier waarop milieuproblemen samenhangen met de organisatievorm van de moderne maatschappij alsmede de wijze waarop het tegengaan van milieubederf onderdeel wordt van de reflexieve sturing van de samenleving door gouvernementele en niet-gouvernementele actoren. De centrale stelling die in het proefschrift wordt ontwikkeld is, dat milieuproblemen de inzet kunnen en moeten vormen van een moderniseringsproces dat erop is gericht milieu-overwegingen blijvend te verankeren in de organisatie van de productie- en consumptie-cycli die het industriële karakter van de moderne maatschappij bepalen. Door dit proces van milieu-geïnduceerde veranderingen te bestuderen op het niveau van de institutionele organisatie van de samenleving en op het niveau van de organisatie van het alledaagse leven, kunnen sociologen een bijdrage leveren aan zowel de milieuwetenschap als het milieubeleid. De theorie van de ecologische modernisering van productie en consumptie zoals in eerste aanleg ontwikkeld door Joseph Huber en Martin Jänicke, representeert een van de centrale stromingen binnen de milieusociologie en kan werden gebruikt om tot een beter inzicht te komen in processen van milieuverandering in samenleving en beleid. In de verschillende hoofdstukken worden steeds onderdelen van de ecologische moderniseringstheorie verder ontwikkeld en besproken tegen de achtergrond van de sociaal wetenschappelijke en in het bijzonder de sociologische literatuur.

    In hoofdstuk 1 worden de hierboven beschreven doelstelling en algemene benaderingswijze van de ecologische moderniseringstheorie nader geïntroduceerd en geplaatst in de context van het veranderende milieudebat zoals dat vanaf het begin van de jaren zeventig werd gevoerd met name in enkele westers-industriële landen. Het feit dat het een moderniserings-theorie betreft, impliceert dat afstand wordt genomen van de 'grenzen aan de groei' benadering die in de jaren zeventig een dominante positie innam in het milieudebat en waarin de ontwikkeling van een alternatieve, kleinschalige organisatievorm van productie en consumptie werd gezien als het wenselijke en noodzakelijke alternatief voor de gangbare, grootschalige, industrieel-kapitalistische organisatievorm van moderne samenlevingen. Als moderniseringstheorie kwam zij echter op haar beurt onder kritiek toen vanaf de jaren negentig de discussie over 'global (environmental) change' de aandacht richtte op de veranderende rol van enerzijds de politiek en anderzijds wetenschap en techniek in de huidige fase van de 'reflexieve moderniteit'.

    Hoofdstuk 2 schetst de situatie in de Nederlandse milieusociologie wat betreft theorievorming en onderzoek in de periode tot het midden van de jaren tachtig. Deze situatie vormt de institutionele en disciplinaire achtergrond waartegen onze bijdrage aan de ecologische moderniseringstheorie moet worden begrepen. Met de milieukunde als dominante organisatievorm voor het bedrijven van milieuwetenschap en met een milieusociologische onderzoekstraditie die zich kenmerkte door een eenzijdige oriëntatie op empirisch, sociaal-psychologisch gefundeerd onderzoek, kon de uitgangssituatie voor de ontwikkeling van de milieusociologie tot het midden van de jaren tachtig niet als gunstig worden getypeerd. Tegen deze achtergrond wordt de noodzaak besproken om te komen tot de ontwikkeling van een theoretisch adequaat, sociologisch perspectief op het milieuvraagstuk. Daarbij wordt beargumenteerd dat de klassieke en hedendaagse varianten van de sociale ecologie noch de (neo) marxistische traditie veel bruikbare uitgangspunten bevatten voor het ontwikkelen van een dergelijk theoretisch perspectief.

    In hoofdstuk 3 wordt de ecologische moderniseringstheorie besproken in relatie tot de verschillende de-, anti- en postmoderniseringstheorieën van zowel neo-marxistische als nietmarxistische aard. Daarbij concentreert zich de aandacht vooral op (de confrontatie met) de stroming van de 'contra- productiviteits'-theorieën die binnen de milieubeweging in de jaren zeventig veel aanhang en invloed hadden. De idee van een kleinschalige maatschappij als alternatief voor de modern industriële samenleving wordt besproken en bekritiseerd tegen de achtergrond van de veranderende relaties tussen het lokale en het globale niveau van moderne samenlevingen, die gekenmerkt worden door het zich steeds verder over tijd en ruimte uitstrekken van sociale relaties. De door Joseph Huber ontwikkelde theorie van ecologische modernisering neemt afstand van de kleinschaligheidsgedachte in zijn klassieke vorm en bepleit in plaats van een ontmanteling van de centrale instituties van de moderniteit juist een modernisering van deze instituties. Zijn theorie wordt besproken in relatie tot de veranderingen die zich in de loop van de jaren tachtig steeds duidelijker aftekenden zowel binnen het Nederlandse milieubeleid als in de Nederlandse milieu-beweging. Veranderingen die een ondersteuning lijken voor de centrale these van Huber, namelijk dat - na een fase van 'opbouw' - de fase van 'ombouw' van het industriesysteem is aangebroken. Een ombouw of 'switch-over' die in belangrijke mate gedragen wordt door niet- gouvernementele actoren en die een belangrijke rol toekent aan daartoe 'herprogrammeerde' wetenschap en techniek.

    In hoofdstuk 4 wordt de schijnwerper gericht op een benadering binnen de (milieu)sociologie die op het eerste gezicht de centrale premissen van de ecologische moderniseringstheorie fundamenteel lijkt te weerspreken. De theorie van de risico-maatschappij zoals met name door Ulrich Beck gelanceerd en door Anthony Giddens mede ontwikkeld, legt grote nadruk op de onbeheersbaarheid en onomkeerbaarheid van milieuproblemen en brengt dit 'apocalyptische' karakter van milieuproblemen direct in verband met de onttovering van techniek en wetenschap en (het besef van) grenzen aan de stuurbaarheid van maatschappelijke ontwikkelingen. In plaats van een omslag in de richting van duurzame ontwikkeling wordt hier het perspectief geschetst van een samenleving waarbinnen de verdeling en toedeling van (milieu)risico's de dominante logica wordt. De ramp met de Tsjernobyl kerncentrale heeft volgens Beck een 'antropologische schok' teweeg gebracht waarbij mensen zich in een klap bewust werden van het feit dat essentiële in de zin van uiteindelijk levensbedreigende milieuproblemen niet langer zintuiglijk waarneembaar zijn en daarmee slecht met behulp van expert- kennis kunnen worden geduid. Terwijl enerzijds het besef van expert-athankelijkheid toeneemt, is er tegelijkertijd een groeiend bewustzijn van het feit dat wetenschap en techniek niet langer de onfeilbare bakens zijn voor onze omgang met onzekerheden. Het proces van 'onttovering' treft niet alleen wetenschap en techniek maar strekt zich ook uit tot de politieke arrangementen die in de periode van de 'simpele moderniteit' werden ontwikkeld: nationale politieke (milieu)arrangementen worden in werking en betekenis uitgehold onder invloed van een toenemende transnationalisering van politiek en economie. Hoewel de theorie van de risico-maatschappij op de hier genoemde onderdelen zeer waardevolle inzichten en vraagstellingen voortbrengt voor de milieusociologie, schiet zij naar onze mening tekort als milieusociologische theorie. Door een scherper onderscheid te maken naar onderscheiden categorieën van milieuproblemen, wordt het mogelijk de apocalyptische horizon van milieuhervorming specifiek te verbinden met een categorie van milieu-problemen die door Giddens als 'High-Consequence-Risks' (HCR) wordt aangeduid. Door niet op voorhand de specifieke kenmerken van HCR's ook van toepassing te verklaren op de overige milleuproblemen, ontstaat ruimte voor een meer genuanceerd beeld met betrekking tot de mogelijkheden voor het beheersen van milieuproblemen en de daarbij behorende rol van politiek en wetenschap.

    In de hoofdstukken 3 en 4 ligt het accent in belangrijke mate op milieu-veranderingen op het institutionele niveau van de samenleving, waarbij bovendien de analyse van productie- en consumptiecycli voornamelijk vanuit de logica van de productiesfeer wordt ondernomen. In de hoofdstukken 5 en 6 wordt het accent verlegd naar het niveau van het alledaagse leven, naar het handelen van mensen die als kundige en bekwame actoren betrokken zijn bij de reproductie van milieu-arrangementen. Daarbij wordt bovendien aandacht gevraagd voor de noodzaak om productieen consumptiecycli (ook) vanuit de logica van de consumptiesfeer te analyseren. Door de ecologische moderniseringtheorie op beide punten te corrigeren en aan te vullen ontstaat een theoretisch meer adequate variant van het door Huber en Jänicke ontwikkelde basisschema.

    Hoofdstuk 5 is geheel gewijd aan het klassieke micro-macro probleem in de sociale wetenschappen in het algemeen en in de sociale milieuwetenschappen in het bijzonder. Besproken wordt de manier waarop het actor-structuur dualisme binnen zowel het attitude-gedrag paradigma als in de zogenoemde rational choice en sociale dilemma benaderingen elk op een eigen wijze gereproduceerd wordt. Als alternatief worden besproken enerzijds de aan Elias ontleende civilisatie-theorie en anderzijds de door de Britse socioloog Anthony Giddens ontwikkelde structuratie-theorie. Beargumenteerd wordt dat de door Giddens ontwikkelde handelingstheorie een theoretisch adequate oplossing biedt voor het klassieke micro-macro probleem alsmede voor het conceptualiseren van het 'keuze-proces' van actoren dat zo centraal staat in het denken over milieu(on)vriendelijk gedrag. Door aan Giddens ontleende centrale begrippen als sociale praktijken, leefstijl, praktisch bewustzijn en dualiteit van structuur toe te passen op en uit te werken in het kader van het streven naar duurzame(r) leefstijlen, wordt een 'actor-georiënteerde' variant van de ecologische moderniseringstheorie ontwikkeld.

    In hoofdstuk 6 wordt geconstateerd dat binnen het Nederlandse milieubeleid lange tijd een op de productiesfeer toegesneden analyse van het gedrag van burger-consumenten de dominante benadering vormde. Waar vanuit het beleid de grenzen van een dergelijke benadering steeds duidelijker worden onderkend, vraagt men de sociale wetenschappen nadrukkelijk om een bijdrage met betrekking tot de vraag hoe vanuit het beleid de zogenoemde 'moeilijk bereikbare doelgroepen' benaderd zouden kunnen worden. Om het gedrag van deze doelgroepen beter te begrijpen, dient men de dynamiek in en achter consumptiegedrag en de consumptiecultuur nader te onderzoeken. De relatie van mensen met goederen en diensten vormt het centrale object van de sociologie van de consumptie. Binnen de consumptie-sociologie wordt een sterke nadruk gelegd op de sociale of symbolische waarde van producten in plaats van op de objectieve kenmerken of de gebruikswaarde van producten die zo centraal staan in de milieuwetenschap. Tussen de eenzijdig op stofstromen gerichte milieuwetenschappen enerzijds en de eenzijdig op processen van distinctie en spel gerichte sociologie anderzijds wordt getracht een voor de milicusociologie bruikbare analyse te ontwikkelen, waarbij aan zowel de objectief-materiële als aan de sociale dimensie van consumptie aandacht wordt besteed en waarbij de wisselwerking tussen de sfeer van productie en de sfeer van consumptie een belangrijke plaats inneemt. Als startpunt voor een dergelijke analyse wordt de huishoudelijke consumptie genomen. Aan de hand van een aan Giddens ontleend model wordt inzichtelijk gemaakt op welke wijze de sociale praktijken die een rol spelen in de huishoudelijke consumptie, kunnen worden geanalyseerd. De door de Noorse socioloog Per Otnes ontwikkelde variant van Giddens' basisschema maakt inzichtelijk op welke manier huishoudelijke consumptiepraktijken verbonden zijn met wat hij noemt sociaal-materiële, collectieve systemen (SMCS) als het energie-, water- en afvalnetwerk. Door de ecologische moderniseringstheorie toe te passen op en uit te werken voor deze SMCS's, ontstaat een minder exclusief op de productiesfeer toegesneden variant van deze theorie. De huidige ontwikkelingen in de nutssectoren tonen daarbij aan dat klassieke vragen als die van de balans tussen markten staatsregulering van productie- en consumptiepraktijken of die van de groot- versus kleinschalige organisatie van technieksystemen, nog immer relevant zijn.

    Milieu-economie : over ongeprijsde schaarste en klimaatverandering
    Ierland, E.C. van - \ 1996
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen - 34
    klimaatverandering - milieu - milieueffect - colleges (hoorcolleges) - mens - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - paleoklimatologie - sociologie - menselijke invloed - nationaal vermogen - openbare redes - climatic change - environment - environmental impact - lectures - man - natural resources - palaeoclimatology - sociology - human impact - national wealth - public speeches
    The environmental situation in Bamenda, Cameroon : results of a workshop on 30 September 1994
    Hart, T.M. 't; Langeveld, J.W.M. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN research report 95/5) - 22
    milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - watervoorziening - afvalwaterbehandeling - gezondheidstechniek - stedelijke gebieden - hygiëne - afval - vuilnis - afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - verzamelen - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - kameroen - menselijke invloed - milieuhygiëne - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - water supply - waste water treatment - public health engineering - urban areas - hygiene - wastes - refuse - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - collection - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - water pollution - cameroon - human impact - environmental hygiene
    Predicting the effects of motorway traffic on breeding bird populations
    Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Veenbaas, G. ; Foppen, R.P.B. - \ 1995
    Delft : Rijkswaterstaat, DWW [etc.] (DWW publikatie P-DWW-92-709) - 92
    dieren - vogels - broedseizoen, vogels - schade - fauna - voortplanting - wegtransport - seizoenen - periode van kuitschieten - transport - menselijke invloed - animals - birds - breeding season - damage - fauna - reproduction - road transport - seasons - spawning season - transport - human impact
    Relatie fauna en verkeer
    Environmental policy on the way to Brussels : the issue of acidicification between the Netherlands and the European community
    Liefferink, J.D. - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.T.J. Nooij. - S.l. : Liefferink - ISBN 9789054853695 - 211
    overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - milieu - milieueffect - sociologie - milieubescherming - milieubeheer - neerslag - zure regen - nederland - landen van de europese unie - menselijke invloed - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - water pollution - environment - environmental impact - sociology - environmental protection - environmental management - precipitation - acid rain - netherlands - european union countries - human impact

    The process of European integration is marked by a dynamic and often controversial balance between member state autonomy and supranational. decision making. Within the European Community (EC), enviromnental policy has in the past 25 years emerged as one of the major fields of activity. This study deals with the interrelations and shifts in enviromnental policy making between the national and the EC levels. More precisely, it is guided by the following basic questions:

    To what extent and in which way did the increasing involvement of the European Community in environmental policy making lead to increasing interrelation and interaction between environmental policy making at the EC level and the member state level? To what extent did such changes lead to a shift of policy making processes from the national to the EC level? Mich forces stimulated or hampered this development?

    The first part of the book (chapters 2-4) attempts to develop a theoretical framework for the study of environmental policy making in the EC. On the basis of a comparison of the major schools of thought in international relations theory it is concluded that the model of Complex Interdependence offers the best starting point for this purpose. In order to assess the dynamics of different kinds of international interdependence and cooperation, furthermore, a dissection of the concept of sovereignty into four dimensions is proposed. It turns out, however, that neither Complex Interdependence theory nor other theoretical models are sufficiently equipped for the analysis of 'day-to-day' enviromnental policy making in the Community and the shifting relations between domestic and EC political processes. This has to do among other things with the hybrid status of the Community, oscillating between a customary international organisation and a federation. As an analytical tool at the meso-level ( i.e. below the level of macro-theories of the state and of international relations) the notion of policy networks is proposed. The 'Europeanisation' of policy can then be considered as the build-up of policy networks that increasingly interlace the domestic and the Community level along the four dimensions of powerdependence: policy focus, membership, vertical and horizontal interdependence.

    The second part of the study (chapters 5-9) contains a qualitative case study of the policies in the field of air pollution and acidification in the EC and in the Netherlands from the 1970s to the early 1990s. It describes in considerable detail the decision making processes around five related policy issues. The first air pollution measure taken by the Community was the regulation of the sulphur content of gas oil. Attempts to control also the sulphur content of other types of fuel failed. A second issue of the 1970s was the establishment of air quality standards. Three directives were the result: one for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates, one for lead, and one for nitrogen dioxide. The two issues that would dominate air pollution policy in the 1980s - the 'clean' car and the large combustion plants - were brought on the agenda by the rise of the issue of acidification around 1982, particularly in Germany but also in other member states including the Netherlands. Both issues gave rise to long negotiations and serious controversies among the member states. The 'clean' car issue led to a considerable tightening of emission standards and the introduction of catalytic converters, initially only in large cars and later also in small and medium-size models. A framework directive for industrial air pollution was adopted in 1984. The sulphur and nitrogen emissions from electricity plants, refineries and other large industrial ovens were eventually regulated in a directive containing different emission targets for each member state as well as a considerable number of other exemptions. Finally, the case study pays attention to a case of non-policy at the EC level: the emission of ammonia, particularly by agricultural sources.

    The findings of the case study are interpreted in the terms of the theoretical framework in the third part (particularly chapter 10). It appears that a focus on the economic aspects of environmental policy problems quite consistently prevailed at the EC level, whereas basic decisions with respect to the ecological aspects were taken domestically. Public and private actors, formerly working only at the domestic level, were getting increasingly involved in EC decision making. This went together with the more far-reaching impact of policy measures on economic life in the member states since the 1980s. Differences of interest between industrial actors were reflected in Euro-groups and hampered effective lobbying. Direct participation in Brussels of enviromnental organisations was restricted particularly by the strongly economic policy focus and by the minor importance at the EC level of one of their principal resources, political legitimacy. As a result, the national government continued to play a pivotal role in the mediation of interests from the domestic level to Brussels. This position was principally based on its control of powerful legal resources, notably the member states' full or near veto right in the Council of Ministers. Domestic agreement among public and private actors about the standpoints to be taken in the Council - and often about domestic policies as well - thus became almost a prerequisite for entering EC negotiations. Also coordination with other policy fields was accomplished mainly at the domestic level.

    On this basis it is concluded that, as far as the Netherlands were involved, EC policies in the field of air pollution and acidification continued to be essentially an additional stage after domestic decision making. Common measures primarily functioned to avoid or limit distortions of conditions of trade and competition resulting from the establishment of national environmental objectives and policies. The Europeanisation of the policy field thus mainly entailed the pooling of sovereign powers in the economic dimension, whereas national sovereignty in the ecological dimension was hardly affected. In member states where domestic environmental policies are less developed than in for instance the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, however, environmental policies designed at the EC level may more directly interfere with national sovereignty in the ecological dimension.

    In the epilogue (chapter 11), the theoretical and empirical approach of the study is evaluated and the prospects of enviromnental policy making in the European Union are explored. It is argued, among other things, that growing economic and ecological differences within the Union, particularly due to the accession of new member states from Northern and Central Europe, may on the longer term lead to more differentiation of enviromnental policies.

    The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment
    Vanclay, F. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; N.G. Röling. - S.l. : Vanclay - ISBN 9789054852476 - 212
    sociologie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieu - mens - milieueffect - australië - landbouwvoorlichting - menselijke invloed - sociology - rural communities - sustainability - environment - man - environmental impact - australia - agricultural extension - human impact

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy of economic rationalism. This creates a policy environment of reduced commitment to government funding for agriculture, a reduction in agricultural extension services and a government that is opposed, in principle, to regulatory and incentive based approaches to environmental management. Thus there is a period of considerable change in agricultural extension services as they attempt to deal with these changed circumstances. At the same time as these crises in agriculture and in agricultural extension, there is an increased need for effective agricultural extension because of increasing levels of land degradation in Australia. Increasing levels of salinity, acidity, soil structure decline, soil nutrient decline, erosion by wind and water, destruction of native habitat and wildlife, invasion of rangelands by woody weeds, and other environmental problems are of an unprecedented scale. The severity of enviromnental problems creates an enviromnental imperative for action for environmental management.

    However, the debate about environmental problems in agriculture has been dominated by technical discussion of the physical aspects of the problem, of the physical causes and of the physical solutions. In agricultural extension circles, the debate has been restricted to a discussion of how to get farmers to adopt environmental management practices. At no time has there been any consideration of the social foundation of agriculture, of the social, political and economic processes that have shaped Australian agriculture, or of the social, political and economic basis of environmental problems within agriculture. Agricultural extension agencies, despite the crises in which they currently exist, have tended to maintain a commitment to traditional paradigms relating to farmers' adoption of environmental management practices. None of these ways of thinking are adequate for understanding the real nature of environmental problems within agriculture.

    This thesis consists of a series of published papers which address the issue of environmental management within agriculture from a critical sociological perspective. This perspective is applied at three levels of analysis: international, national, and local. The international level applies to the consideration of the position of the Australian agricultural economy in terms of the world political economy and how this affects Australian agriculture and the environment. The national level applies to the responses of extension agencies to the issue of enviromnental management and how these agencies are responding to the changing policy context within Australia, and the consequences of their responses on enviromnental management. Finally, the thesis considers the role of individual farmers in the management of the agricultural environment and how they are affected by the international and national processes.

    Voorstudie naar de effecten van de garnalenvisserij op de bodemfauna, met advies over te sluiten gebieden en uit te voeren onderzoek
    Lavaleije, M.S.S. ; Dankers, N. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN - rapport 001) - 36
    zeekreeften - garnalen - steurgarnalen - milieu - nadelige gevolgen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - ecologisch evenwicht - schade - mens - dieren - fauna - natuurbescherming - herstel - hydrobiologie - visserijbiologie - natuur - verstoring - menselijke invloed - waddenzee - oosterschelde - lobsters - shrimps - prawns - environment - adverse effects - environmental impact - human activity - ecological balance - damage - man - animals - fauna - nature conservation - rehabilitation - hydrobiology - fishery biology - nature - disturbance - human impact - wadden sea - eastern scheldt
    De toekomst is verleden tijd, essays over economie, milieu en landbouw.
    Heijman, W.J.M. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 1993
    Delft [etc.] : Eburon [etc. - ISBN 9789051663112 - 264
    landbouw - economie - milieu - milieueffect - mens - sociologie - begrippen - milieuwetenschappen - menselijke invloed - politieke economie - agriculture - economics - environment - environmental impact - man - sociology - concepts - environmental sciences - human impact - political economy
    Leven met risico's.
    Haan, F.A.M. de - \ 1992
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen - 32
    milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - nadelige gevolgen - menselijke activiteit - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - nederland - colleges (hoorcolleges) - menselijke invloed - milieuwetenschappen - openbare redes - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - adverse effects - human activity - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - water pollution - netherlands - lectures - human impact - environmental sciences - public speeches
    Starting all over again : making and remaking a living on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua
    Vernooy, R. - \ 1992
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - S.l. : Vernooy - 299
    menselijke relaties - sociale structuur - sociale interactie - sociale systemen - sociale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - technologie - sociaal welzijn - sociaal beleid - sociale voorzieningen - welzijnsvoorzieningen - gemeenschappen - onderzoek - sociologie - regionale verkenningen - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociaal milieu - natuurrampen - rampen - politiek - nicaragua - sociale relaties - sociale kwesties - sociale problemen - sociaal werk - menselijke invloed - sociografie - sociale situatie - nationale politiek - human relations - social structure - social interaction - social systems - social development - rural development - technology - social welfare - social policy - social services - welfare services - communities - research - sociology - regional surveys - environment - man - environmental impact - social environment - natural disasters - disasters - politics - nicaragua - social relations - social issues - social problems - social work - human impact - sociography - social situation - national politics

    In dit proefschrift heb ik uiteen gezet hoe de bevolking van de Nicaraguaanse Atlantische kust, met name de bewoners van de stad Bluefields en de zone die haar omringt, zich gedurende de afgelopen tien jaar genoodzaakt hebben gezien om steeds weer opnieuw hun werk en leven van de grond af aan op te bouwen. Met andere woorden, om steeds maar weer opnieuw te beginnen. Ik heb daarbij speciale aandacht besteed aan de manieren waarop hun pogingen om dit te bewerkstelligen beinvloed zijn door en tegelijkertijd invloed uitoefenen op specifieke culturele waarden, gender-verhoudingen en vormen van politieke organisatie en strijd. Sinds 1979 hebben de Atlantische kustbewoners een aantal extreem moeilijke problemen van ecologische, politiek-militaire en ekonomische aard moeten overkomen. Vandaag de dag, ondanks de mooie beloften van de in 1990 aangetreden UNO-regering en ondanks de beloofde financiële steun van de regering Bush, is de situatie er niet veel rooskleuriger op geworden. Integendeel, volgens de laatste berichten nemen problemen zoals werkeloosheid, armoede en delinquentie alleen maar toe.

    In deze studie hebben we gezien hoe vrouwen, mannen en kinderen verschillende keren hun land, woning, onderneming, vee en andere schaarse bezittingen hebben moeten achterlaten vanwege de contra-oorlog. Een triest dieptepunt van ellende en verdriet werd vervolgens veroorzaakt door de orkaan "Joan" die in oktober 1988 over Nicaragua raasde. "Joan" liet weinig heel van de stad Bluefields en haar achterland. De oorlog en de orkaan, en de negatieve gevolgen van de ekonomische crisis, maken het opnieuw beginnen voor de meeste mensen een uiterst hachelijke onderneming. Desondanks slagen velen erin om er het beste van te maken. Onze kontakten en vriendschap met de mensen opgebouwd gedurende meer dan drie jaar veldwerk, zo goed mogelijk beschreven in de drie delen van dit proefschrift, vormen daarvoor het beste bewijs.

    Deel 1 bevat een beschrijving en analyse van de gevarieerde wijzen waarop de rurale ondernemingen in de zone rondom Bluefields vorm geven aan het produktie en reproduktie proces, zowel voor als na de orkaan "Joan". In Deel 2 verplaatsen we onze aandacht naar de roerige wereld van de (kleinschalige) handel in Bluefields, de relaties tussen de stad en haar achterland en de bemoeienissen van de regionale regering met het commerciele gebeuren. Op basis van een actorgericht sociologisch perspektief, plaatsen we in beide delen onze bevindingen binnen het kader van aktuele theoretische discussies betreffende de sociale betekenis van beleid enerzijds en commoditiserings-processen anderzijds. Waar relevant refereren we hierbij ook aan studies verricht in Nicaragua. Een kritische bijdrage aan deze debatten is het onderwerp van hoofdstuk 1. In Deel 3 tenslotte,
    plaatsen we de veranderingen van de laatste tien jaar in een langer tijdskader. In dit deel richt onze aandacht zich op de geschiedenis van de Atlantische Kust en de Bluefields zone in het speciaal.

    Beleidsvorming en politieke strijd

    In hoofdstuk 2 hebben we gezien hoe de zeer kritieke situatie veroorzaakt door orkaan "Joan" de verschillende en vaak tegenovergestelde belangen en gezichtspunten onder de boerenbevolking van de Bluefields-zone enerzijds en tussen de boerenbevolking en de vertegenwoordigers van de overheid anderzijds, op een scherpe wijze aan het licht bracht. Tegelijkertijd vestigde het onze aandacht op de sleutelrol die de boerenvakbond UNAG speelt in de uitvoering van landbouw en ontwikkelings-beleid in de regio. De orkaan veroorzaakte niet alleen ekonomische problemen. De specifieke aanwending van schaarse middelen en het nemen van bepaalde besluiten als onderdeel van het rekonstruktie plan werden door de betrokken boerenbevolking aangevochten. Hoewel de emergentie-commissie haar best deed om de politieke inslag van het rekonstruktie-plan vis-a-vis de boerenbevoling van de Bluefields-zone te minimaliseren, maakten de boeren duidelijk dat het proces van "opnieuw beginnen" ook politiek van aard was.

    De karakteristieken van dit proces heb ik beschreven en geanalyseerd middels een serie ontmoetingen tussen de boerenbevolking en vertegenwoordigers van de regionale overheid en de UNAG. De boeren -in bijna alle gevallen merendeels mannen-, zetten tijdens deze ontmoetingen hun belangen en ideeën uiteen referend aan korte termijn benodigdheden, praktische aspekten van landbouwbeoefening en het ontbreken van (voldoende) overheidssteun. De vertegenwoordigers van de twee belangrijkste betrokken ministeries, MIDINRA en IRENA, argumenteerden daarentegen vooral op basis van lange termijn belangen, theoretischwetenschappelijke overwegingen en de noodzaak om te denken aan de belangen van de regio (de regionale regering en bevolking in het algemeen). De twee woordvoerders van de UNAG vielen op door hun meer pragmatische houding en hun pogingen om tot een door alle betrokken partijen gedeelde oplossing te komen. Ze deden daarbij hun best om de belangen en gezichtspunten van de boeren bevolking, de UNAG als vakbond en als bondgenoot van het FSLN, en hun persoonlijke belangen (vooral: politieke carrière), te kombineren.

    Vrouwen werden in deze ontmoetingen niet of nauwelijks gehoord noch serieus genomen wat, gegeven hun fundamentele bijdrage aan de landbouw in de zone, opmerkelijk en betreurenswaardig is. De uitvoering van het rekonstruktie plan droeg derhalve weinig bij aan een verandering van de sexe-rollen in beleidsvorming en uitvoeringsprocessen in de Atlantische Kust. Vrouwen worden in de realisering van deze taken nog altijd als ondergeschikt beschouwd, zowel in overheids-alsniet-overheids- organisaties. De enkele vrouwen die deze verhoudingen openlijk aanvechten en trachten te veranderen, zien zich gedwongen om keer op keer te onderhandelen met mannen (echtgenoot/compagnon en vertegenwoordigers van de overheid/UNAG/andere organisaties) om toegang te verkrijgen tot schaarse middelen en besluitvormings-organen.

    Als een tweede case-studie van beleidsvorming en politieke strijd op lokaal nivo hebben we gekeken naar de door de regionale UNO-regering gevormde en uiteindelijk opgeheven prijscontrole-commissie (hoofdstuk 4). Ook in dit geval hebben we gezien hoe een beleidskwestie, in dit geval de regulering van prijzen van basis-produkten, door de verschillende betrokken "partijen" aangegrepen werd om specifieke ekonomische en politieke belangen en gezichtspunten te verdedigen. De in naam autonome regionale UNO-regering kreëerde de commissie in een poging om haar geschaadde authoriteit te herstellen. Gedurende de zes maanden dat de commissie bestond, kwam van deze poging echter weinig terecht. Konflikten met de gemeente(raad) en met markt-handelaren en winkeliers, interne verdeeldheid, gebrek aan bestuurs-ervaring en organisatorische problemen, bepaalde vormen van vriendjes-politiek en uiterst inconsistente en zelfs tegenstrijdige ideeën omtrent de regulering van de handel en de markt, droegen hiertoe bij. In dit hoofdstuk heb ik beschreven hoe in de opeenvolgende etappes van het uitvoeringsproces de leden van commissie en regionale regering als het ware achter de feiten aanholden zonder ook maar een moment kontrolle op de situatie (en de prijzen) uit te oefenen. Ze zagen zich daarbij steeds opnieuw genoodzaakt om zich aan te passen aan de nieuwe ekonomische en politieke omstandigheden op lokaal en supra-lokaal nivo.

    In beide hoofdstukken (2 en 4) is duidelijk geworden dat in het geval van de Atlantische Kust de sociale betekenis van beleid op zeer specifieke wijze gevormd en her- gevormd wordt. Het is daarom van belang om beleidsprocessen en gevolgen in ruimte en tijd nauwgezet en gedurende een zo lang mogelijke periode te volgen en oog te hebben voor de politieke strijd betreffende belangen, interpretaties en regels van het (politieke) spel die er deel van vormen.

    Oog in oog met onzekerheid; en een nieuwe kijk op de regionale geschiedenis

    In de verschillende hoofdstukken hebben we gezien hoe de bevolking van de Atlantische Kust het hoofd tracht te bieden aan situaties van ekonomische en politieke onzekerheid. Dit fundamentele kenmerk van de Atlantische Kust samenleving komt het meest duidelijk naar voren in de veelzijdige en bewogen arbeids-carrière van Santiago Rivas (hoofdstuk 6). Het komen en gaan van (buitendlandse) groot-schalige kapitalistische (bosbouw) ondernemingen enerzijds en familie-, vriendschaps- en werk-kontakten in kombinatie met persoonlijke beweegredenen van Santiago anderzijds, zijn de belangrijkste faktoren die zijn carrière vorm hebben gegeven. Opvallend en van belang hierbij is dat bijna al deze kontakten een niet-gecommoditiseerd karakter hebben. Zoals in de uiteengezette case- studies van de hoofdstukken 3 en 5, vormen deze niet-gecommoditiseerde relaties één van de centrale manieren waarop de bewoners van de Atlantische Kust de kontinue onzekerheid het hoofd proberen te bieden.

    Tegelijkertijd heb ik Santiago Rivas' arbeids-carrière gepresenteerd als een bijdrage aan een nieuwe kijk op de geschiedenis van de Atlantische regio en de Bluefields zone in het bijzonder. Een dergelijke analyse richt niet alleen de aandacht op de invloed van ekonomische en politieke macro-faktoren, maar ook op de vaak zeer diverse individuele en kollektieve pogingen van mannen en vrouwen om hun leven in te richten en geschiedenis op lokaal nivo haar eigen gezicht te geven. In het geval van de Atlantische kust betekent dit dat we bestaande interpretaties van Nicaraguaanse en niet-Nicaraguaansesociale wetenschappers met een kritisch oog moeten bezien. In hoofdstuk 7 heb ik onder andere betoogd dat een dergelijke benadering een herziening van het enclave-concept inhoudt. Daarnaast heb ik de aandacht gevestigd op de rol van een aantal Atlantische kust familie-ondernemingen die in de periode na de tweede wereld oorlog op de voorgrond traden. Tenslotte heb ik duidelijk gemaakt dat de "moderniserings-fase" zoals in beweging gezet door de Somoza-familie in de jaren na 1950 alleen begrepen kan worden wanneer we kijken naar de wijze waarop "modernisering" op regionaal nivo geinterpreteerd en vorm gegeven werd. Dit zijn slechts enkele van de elementen van de regionale geschiedenis die om uitgebreidere studie vragen en die op het zelfde moment ook vereisen dat we gebruik maken van aangepaste onderzoeks- technieken en op zoek gaan naar nieuwe en tot dusver ongebruikte informatie bronnen. Santiago's Rivas arbeids-carrière is slechts een voorbeeld van het gebruik maken een dergelijke techniek.

    De veelzijdige, kleinschalige ekonomie

    De drie case-studies van kleinschalige, rurale ondernemingen gevestigd in de zone rondom de stad Bluefields (hoofdstuk 3) tonen zowel de diversiteit als de fragiliteit aan van lokale produktie en reproduktie processen. De geografische geisoleerdheid van de regio, het complexe eco-systeem van het door "Joan" zwaar beschadigde tropisch regenbos en de voortdurende ekonomische crisis in het land hebben geleid tot een eindeloze reeks van breek-punten in het leven van de bevolking. Gekonfronteerd met deze breek-punten proberen mannen, vrouwen en kinderen op de eerste plaats hun beschikbare bronnen zo optimaal mogelijk te gebruiken om familie consumptie behoeften te bevredigen en om een (minimaal) geld-inkomen te verzekeren. Zoals we hebben gezien, slagen niet alle bedrijven erin om deze doelstellingen met een redelijke mate van sukses te realiseren. Daarnaast treden er binnen de huishoud-eenheden/ondernemingen veelvuldig konflikten op betreffende belangen en ideeën.

    De "slash and bum" produktie in de zone rondom Bluefields is nauw verbonden met de regionale markt en politiek-ekonomische formatie, hoewel de eerder genoemde faktoren een konstante bedreiging vormen voor de instandhouding van relaties met deze markt en formatie. Voor het grote merendeel van de rurale ondernemingen geldt dat de relaties met de markt bovenal van onregelmatige aard zijn. Zoals de drie case-studies aantonen, verschilt verder de mate van kontrole over deze relaties aanzienlijk tussen de huishoudens/ondernemingen. Deze differentiatie hangt samen met het type onderneming, de eventuele vestiging in Bluefields van een deel van het huishouden, de afstand tussen bedrijf en de stad, en de netwerken van sociaal-ekonomische en politieke relaties die de leden van het huishouden hebben weten op te bouwen. Binnen de huishoudens treedt differentiatievooral op grond van leeftijdsverschillen (ouders versus kinderen) en gender-verhoudingen op. Over het algemeen zijn het de mannen die bepalen wat, wanneer en van/aan wie gekocht of verkocht wordt, hoewel steeds meer vrouwen deze ongelijke verhoudingen en rollen openlijk en aktief bekritiseren.

    In hoofdstuk 5 heb ik uiteengezet hoe ook de kleinschalige markt- en handelsondernemingen in Bluefields door een grote mate van diversiteit gekenmerkt worden. Middels een meer algemene analyse en een aantal cases heb ik kritiek uitgeoefend of de simplistische en dualistische modellen die deze veelkleurige en uiterst dynamische aktiviteiten opdelen in wettelijk/niet-wettelijke praktijken, informele/formele sektoren of kapitalistische/niet-kapitalistische produktiewijzen. Daarbij wordt al te vlug voorbij gegaan aan het heterogene karakter, de cruciale rol van niet-gecommododitiseerde relaties (zelfs binnen kapitaal-intensieve bedrijven gericht op accumulatie), de invloed van kulturele waarden, en van gender rollen die de wereld van de handel op lokaal nivo kleuren. Aandacht voor deze faktoren dient derhalve de basis van een analyse te vormen. We kunnen ze niet, zoals nog te vaak gebeurt, als simpele bijkomstigheden beschouwen.

    De biologische veiligheid van genetisch gemodificeerde organismen in de natuur : een zwaartepunt in het DLO-onderzoek
    Veen, J.A. van; Stiekema, W.J. ; Kimman, T.G. ; Elsas, J.D. van - \ 1991
    Wageningen : Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek - 33
    milieueffect - genetische modificatie - menselijke activiteit - recombinant dna - menselijke invloed - environmental impact - genetic engineering - human activity - recombinant dna - human impact
    De maakbaarheid van de toekomst
    Stortenbeker, C.W. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : LUW - 32
    milieu - milieueffect - milieubeheer - milieubescherming - colleges (hoorcolleges) - mens - natuurbescherming - bescherming - kwaliteit - samenleving - sociologie - toekomst - menselijke invloed - natuur - environment - environmental impact - environmental management - environmental protection - lectures - man - nature conservation - protection - quality - society - sociology - future - human impact - nature
    Studie naar de mogelijke effecten op flora en fauna als gevolg van de inrichting van de noordpunt Oost - Abtspolder als definitieve opslagplaats voor verontreinigde grond
    Elbers, M. ; Doelman, P. - \ 1990
    Arnhem : RIN (RIN-rapport 90/11) - 128
    luchtverontreiniging - dieren - biota - schade - milieu - milieueffect - milieueffectrapportage - fauna - gezondheidsbescherming - industrieel afval - stortterreinen - bodemverontreiniging - ondergrondse toepassing - afvalverwijdering - afvalstortplaatsen - Nederland - biosfeer - menselijke invloed - rotterdam - zuid-holland - air pollution - animals - biota - damage - environment - environmental impact - environmental impact reporting - fauna - health protection - industrial wastes - landfills - soil pollution - subsurface application - waste disposal - waste disposal sites - Netherlands - biosphere - human impact - rotterdam - zuid-holland
    De achteruitgang [van de natuur in Nederland] in beeld : de beekschaatsenrijder
    Higler, L.W.G. - \ 1989
    Natuur en Milieu 13 (1989)2. - ISSN 0166-2570 - p. 11 - 11.
    dieren - waterinsecten - schade - milieu - fauna - heteroptera - nederland - waterverontreiniging - menselijke invloed - animals - aquatic insects - damage - environment - fauna - heteroptera - netherlands - water pollution - human impact
    Verstoring van vogels door vliegverkeer, met name door ultra-lichte vliegtuigen
    Smit, C.J. ; Visser, G.J.M. - \ 1989
    Texel : Rijksinstituut voor Natuurbeheer (RIN-rapport 89/11) - 12
    luchtvaartuig - dieren - vogels - schade - bedreigde soorten - fauna - nederland - risico - menselijke invloed - aircraft - animals - birds - damage - endangered species - fauna - netherlands - risk - human impact
    De Gelderse landbouw tussen markt en milieu : een verkenning van kansen en knelpunten : eindrapport Adviescommissie Toekomst Gelderse Land- en Tuinbouw
    Spijkers-Zwart, S.I. ; Berg, G. van den; Ban, J.P.A. van den; Dijk, G. van; Mattheussens, R.L.M. ; Waterbolk, J.N. ; Weijden, W.J. van der; Wit, C.T. de - \ 1989
    Arnhem : Provincie Gelderland - 152
    landbouw - productiestructuur - agrarische structuur - productiviteit - landbouwproductie - capaciteit - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - sociale economie - sociale structuur - economische sectoren - sociaal milieu - prognose - nederland - menselijke invloed - landbouw als bedrijfstak - gelderland - sociografie - sociale situatie - agriculture - production structure - agricultural structure - productivity - agricultural production - capacity - agricultural situation - economic situation - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - socioeconomics - social structure - economic sectors - social environment - prognosis - netherlands - human impact - agriculture as branch of economy - gelderland - sociography - social situation
    The idea of environmental welfare economics.
    Krabbe, J.J. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : Pudoc (Wageningse Economische Studies 12) - ISBN 9789067541442 - 73
    conservering - schade - destructie - ecologisch evenwicht - econometrische modellen - econometrie - economische ontwikkeling - economische theorie - economie - milieu - milieueffect - innovaties - mens - wiskundige modellen - neo-klassieke economie - kwaliteit - recycling - sociologie - technische vooruitgang - technologie - theorie - afvalverwerking - afval - welvaartseconomie - begrippen - milieuwetenschappen - menselijke invloed - natuur - politieke economie - conservation - damage - destruction - ecological balance - econometric models - econometrics - economic development - economic theory - economics - environment - environmental impact - innovations - man - mathematical models - neoclassical economics - quality - recycling - sociology - technical progress - technology - theory - waste treatment - wastes - welfare economics - concepts - environmental sciences - human impact - nature - political economy
    Profil de l'environnement de la vallee du Fleuve Senegal
    Lavieren, L.P. van; Wetten, J.C.J. van - \ 1988
    Leersum : RIN (RIN contributions to research on management of natural resources 1988-3) - 159
    geologie - hydrologie - water - demografie - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - zonering - natuurlijke historie - bescherming - natuurbescherming - senegal - menselijke invloed - natuur - geology - hydrology - water - demography - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - physical planning - land use - zoning - natural history - protection - nature conservation - senegal - human impact - nature
    Unimodal models to relate species to environment
    Braak, C.J.F. ter - \ 1987
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.C.A. Corsten, co-promotor(en): I.C. Prentice. - S.l. : Ter Braak - 152
    computersimulatie - ontwikkeling - ecosystemen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - modellen - planning - onderzoek - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - menselijke invloed - natuur - computer simulation - development - ecosystems - environmental impact - human activity - models - planning - research - simulation - simulation models - human impact - nature
    To assess the impact of environmental change on biological communities knowledge about species-environment relationships is indispensable. Ecologists attempt to uncover the relationships between species and environment from data obtained from field surveys. In the survey, species are scored on their presence or their abundance at each of several sampling sites and environmental variables that ecologists believe to be important are measured.
    The research that led to this thesis aimed to unravel the assumptions required for the application of statistical methods that are popular among ecologists to analyse such data. From a statistical point of view, species data are difficult to analyse:
    - there are many species involved (10 - 500),
    - many species occur at a few sites only. So the data contain numerous zeroes,
    - relations between species and environmental variables are not linear, but unimodal: a plant, for example, preferably grows under for that species optimal moisture conditions and is encountered less frequently at drier or wetter sites. A mathematical model for a unimodal relationship is the Gaussian response model.

    Standard statistical methods such as linear regression, principal components analysis and canonical correlation analysis are often inappropriate for analysing species data because they are based on linear relationships. One of the methods that ecologists use instead is correspondence analysis. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the underlying response model.
    With correspondence analysis, species and sites are arranged to discover the structure in the data (ordination) and the arrangement is subsequently related to environmental variables. It is an indirect method to detect relations between species and environment, hence R.H. Whittaker's term "indirect gradient analysis".
    Correspondence analysis has been invented around 1935 but did not receive interest from ecologists before 1973 when M.O. Hill derived the technique once more as the repeated application of "weighted averaging" - a method that was familiar to ecologists ever since 1930. Weighted averaging has the advantage of being simple to apply. The method can be used for two different aims: (1) to estimate the optimum of a species for an environmental variable and (2) to estimate the value of an environmental variable at a site from known optima of the species present (calibration).
    In chapter 2, estimating optima by weighted averaging is compared with the results of non-linear regression on the basis of the Gaussian response model. Under particular conditions, both methods agree precisely. In other cases, weighted averaging gives a biased estimate of the optimum and non-linear regression is the method to be preferred. An additional advantage of non-linear regression is that it can also be used to fit response models with more than one environmental variable. In chapter 3, weighted averaging to estimate the value of an environmental variable is compared with calibration on the basis of the Gaussian response model. Also in this context the techniques are sometimes equivalent. Chapter 4 deals with correspondence analysis. It is shown that, under particular conditions, correspondence analysis approximates ordination on the basis of the Gaussian response model, which is computationally much more complicated.
    To detect relations, indirect methods have an important disadvantage. The impact of some environmental variables on the species composition can be so large that the impact of other interesting environmental variables may fail to be detected. This problem can be overcome by using non-linear regression, but with many species and environmental variables this is laborious. In chapter 5, a simpler "direct" method is proposed, canonical correspondence analysis. In chapter 6, canonical correspondence analysis turns out to be a multivariate extension of weighted averaging. The results can be displayed graphically. In chapter 7, an extension with "covariables" is discussed, which leads to partial canonical correspondence analysis. Chapter 7 also shows that Gaussian models and, hence, canonical correspondence analysis are relevant to the analysis of contingency tables.
    Chapter 8 describes a study to estimate ecological amplitudes of plant species with respect to Ellenberg's moisture scale from species data alone. The question that is addressed as well, is how consequent Ellenberg's moisture indicator values are.
    Finally, chapter 9 cross-tabulates various gradient-analysis techniques by the type of problem (regression, calibration, ordination, etc.) and the response model (linear or unimodal). Furthermore, improvements are proposed for detrended correspondence analysis. A computer program, named MOM is written which can perform most of the methods discussed.

    Economische theorie van het milieu.
    Krabbe, J.J. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 1986
    Assen : Van Gorcum - ISBN 9789023222385 - 147
    luchtverontreiniging - economisch beleid - economie - milieu - milieueffect - milieuwetgeving - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - mens - sociologie - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - begrippen - milieuhygiëne - milieuwetenschappen - menselijke invloed - politieke economie - air pollution - economic policy - economics - environment - environmental impact - environmental legislation - environmental policy - government policy - man - sociology - soil pollution - water pollution - concepts - environmental hygiene - environmental sciences - human impact - political economy
    Een voorlopige, globale kwetsbaarheidsbepaling van duinvalleien op Ameland en Vlieland voor waterwinning
    Wiertz, J. ; Noordwijk, H.A.F. van - \ 1985
    Leersum : R.I.N. - 16
    schade - destructie - duinen - ecologisch evenwicht - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - nederland - friesland - menselijke invloed - natuur - waterwinning - nederlandse waddeneilanden - damage - destruction - dunes - ecological balance - environmental impact - human activity - netherlands - friesland - human impact - nature - water catchment - dutch wadden islands
    Ecologisch onderzoek RIN
    Veranderingen in het milieu en de vegetatie in de Biesbosch door afsluiting van het Haringvliet
    Boois, H. de - \ 1982
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): I.S Zonneveld. - Wageningen : de Boois - 155
    ecologie - ecosystemen - milieueffect - hydrologie - polders - wetlands - deltawerken - ecohydrologie - menselijke invloed - noord-brabant - haringvliet - stormvloedkeringen - zuid-holland - biesbosch - ecology - ecosystems - environmental impact - hydrology - polders - wetlands - delta works - ecohydrology - human impact - noord-brabant - haringvliet - storm surge barriers - zuid-holland - biesbosch
    In November 1970 the Haringvliet-sluices were put into operation. These sluices are an integral part of the Deltaworks which aim at protecting the south-west of Holland against inundations. As a result of this closing of the Haringvliet the fresh-water tidal area of the Biesbosch was nearly completely cut off from tidal influences of the sea. The tidal movement in this delta of the rivers Rhine and Maas decreased from over six feet to only under one foot. In this thesis the consequences for the vegetation in the Biesbosch are described. An extensive survey was held from 1970 till 1975.

    The Biesbosch originated from dike-bursts in 1421 A.D. The old soils were washed away by the sea and over the centuries new sediments were deposited by the rivers Rhine and Maas. In 1970 the Biesbosch, from the south-west to the north-east, consisted of large stretches of water, low-lying sandy flats, rushmarshes and creeks of varying width, reed-marshes and willowcoppices. In most willow-coppices the hydrology was controled by low dikes and drainage systems. The coppices in which sedimentation had progressed farthest had been reclaimed and put into use for agriculture. In the east and north of the Biesbosch the agricultural polder-land covers nearly the whole area.

    The marshes, because of their structure, are highly characteristic for the geomorphology of fresh-water tidal areas. Along the creeks natural levees are found which are relatively high and sandy. Behind the natural levees are lowlying backswamps of clayey soils which had usually hardly ripened because of bad drainage. Due to the closing of the Haringvliet the vegetative environment of the areas outside the dikes strongly changed. Flooding of the soil only seldom occurred, in stead of twice a day formerly. The ground-water level sank from just below the surface to the height of the new water-levels. Therefore a quick ripening of the soil took place in the only young sediments.

    For the original vegetation the differences in influence of tidal flooding twice a day were of great impact. The ecology of this vegetation is frequently characterized by a twodimensional diagram in which on the one hand altitudes of soils and on the other drainage (of natural levees or backswamps) are indicated as variable factors. As regards altitudes of soils the Mean High Water (MHW) level formed a frame of reference for the possibilities of species and plant- communities to occur. For most species sharp limits were found concerning their tolerance for flooding. In this investigation the data of several earlier investigations have been brought together. This resulted in the distinction of 17 groups of earlier described plantcommunities: 10 groups of marsh-vegetation and 7 groups of willow-coppices vegetation. These groups are indicated by a combination of the letters of the most important species groups.

    The changes in vegetation have yearly been investigated by making records of the vegetation on permanent sample plots. Frequent mapping out of larger and smaller parts of the area took place as well. The main outstanding features of changes were the following:
    - Each year the wet-soil preferring species decreased in favour of herbage preferring relatively dry soil.
    - In the changes of vegetation, stages occured that were connected with different stages of ripening of the soil.
    - The strongest changes took place in the backswamps of marshes and in the relatively low-lying willow-coppices.
    - The smallest changes were to be found on the high natural levees and willow-coppices of high level. Here the milieu had already been relatively dry in former times and the soil was nearly entirely ripened.
    - In the new riparian zones, where the influences of flooding, flow, wash, and where the structure of the soil are strongly varying, the vegetation also varies to a rather large extent.
    - On higher grounds the differentiation of vegetation decreased, but the number of species has in general become larger.

    The new differentiation of vegetation has been described in a circular diagram. The differentiation between various environmental factors has also been indicated in this figure. The basic form of this diagram reflects a small island, the highest part of which is situated in the middle and round which different environmental influences are expressed in the variations of riparian vegetation.

    As a result of observed separate elements in the developments of vegetation and the environmental factors, a number of causal relations can be established between environment and vegetation. Various factors in these new circumstances influence vegetation selectively and differentiatingly. The variation in altitudes of soil is still of great importance; not so much because of differences in levels of flooding, but because of differences in ground-water levels. In the mutual relations of plants whithin the world of vegetation the principle of primarity (being first) ranks as an important factor. Hence not all species have gained similar chances to establish themselves in appropriate new environments. Competition for space and light is subsequently the cause of continuing changes in the vegetation when in more or less stabilized environments.

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