Impact of human activities on the reproduction of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Burkina Faso
Daboné, Clément ; Buij, Ralph ; Oueda, Adama ; Adjakpa, Jacques Boko ; Guenda, Wendengoudi ; Weesie, Peter D.M. - \ 2019
Ostrich 90 (2019)1. - ISSN 0030-6525 - p. 53 - 61.
Burkina Faso - conservation - Hooded Vulture - human impact - reproduction
During the last decades, the critically endangered Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus has strongly declined across its African range. Although direct persecution has been suggested as a major cause of this decline, little is known about the impact of humans on reproductive output in West Africa. We studied the impact of human activities on the reproductive output of Hooded Vultures in the Garango area of Burkina Faso. Twenty and 56 nesting attempts were monitored, respectively, during the breeding season in 2013/14 and 2014/15, to determine reproductive success and identify causes of nest failure. Annual breeding success varied between 0.68 and 0.71 chicks fledged per breeding pair per year and productivity was assessed at 0.57 chicks fledged per territorial pair in 2014/15. The main threats imposed by humans were poaching of eggs, chicks and collection of nest materials, leading to 20% (13 out of 64 breeding attempts) of nest failures over the two years. An additional important reason for nest failure was the pruning and (partial) cutting of nest trees. Despite this high level of human interference, we found that Hooded Vulture nest success increased with proximity to human settlements, probably because breeding vultures benefit from protection by people against persecution and disturbance.
Controls on late-Holocene drift-sand dynamics : The dominant role of human pressure in the Netherlands
Pierik, Harm J. ; Lanen, Rowin J. van; Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T.I.J. ; Groenewoudt, Bert J. ; Wallinga, Jakob ; Hoek, Wim Z. - \ 2018
Holocene 28 (2018)9. - ISSN 0959-6836 - p. 1361 - 1381.
chronology - climate - drift-sand activity - Holocene - human impact - vegetation development
Holocene drift-sand activity in the northwest European sand belt is commonly directly linked to population pressure (agricultural activity) or to climate change (e.g. storminess). In the Pleistocene sand areas of the Netherlands, small-scale Holocene drift-sand activity began in the Mesolithic, whereas large-scale sand drifting started during the Middle Ages. This last phase not only coincides with the intensification of farming and demographic pressure but also is commonly associated with a colder climate and enhanced storminess. This raises the question to what extent drift-sand activity can be attributed to either human activities or natural forcing factors. In this study, we compare the spatial and temporal patterns of drift-sand occurrence for the four characteristic Pleistocene sand regions in the Netherlands for the period between 1000 BC and AD 1700. To this end, we compiled a new supra-regional overview of drift-sand activity based on age estimates (14C, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), archaeological and historical ages). The occurrence of sand drifting was then compared in time and space with historical-route networks, relative vegetation openness and climate. Results indicate a constant but low drift-sand activity between 1000 BC and AD 1000, interrupted by a remarkable decrease in activity around the BC/AD transition. It is evident that human pressure on the landscape was most influential on initiating sand drifting: this is supported by more frequent occurrences close to routes and the uninterrupted increase of drift-sand activity from AD 900 onwards, a period of high population density and large-scale deforestation. Once triggered by human activities, this drift-sand development was probably further intensified several centuries later during the cold and stormier ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA; AD 1570–1850).
Standard Data Form Natura 2000 : bepaling van de belangrijkste drukfactoren in Natura 2000-gebieden
Schippers, P. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Bremer, L. van den - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 56) - 30
natura 2000 - natuurgebieden - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - natuurbeheer - natura 2000 - natural areas - habitats directive - birds directive - environmental impact - human impact - nature management
Dit rapport betreft de documentatie van de gevolgde werkwijze van hoofdstuk 4.3 van het Standard Data
Form. Het rapport beschrijft de methodiek die gevolgd is om per Natura 2000-gebied de belangrijkste
drukfactoren uit de voorgeschreven lijst van de EC (de EC-indeling) te bepalen. Hierbij is de informatie over
de drukfactoren die een negatief effect hebben op de staat van instandhouding van soorten en habitattypen
uit de landelijke rapportages toegepast. Om de binnen de EC-systematiek geconstateerde problemen op te
lossen, is er gezocht naar een nieuwe Nederlandse indeling in drukfactoren, waarbij duidelijk onderscheid
wordt gemaakt tussen de oorzaken van drukfactoren (menselijke activiteiten en natuurlijke processen) en de
effecten (bv. versnippering, vermesting en verdroging). Door de landelijke EC-indeling te vertalen naar de
NL-indeling (en vice versa) is de informatie ook geschikter voor praktisch gebruik
Effecten van militaire en civiele helikopters op vogels op het Kooijhoekschor
Smit, C.J. ; Schermer, D.S. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport C156/15) - 111
vogels - helikopters - militaire activiteiten - diergedrag - invloeden - menselijke invloed - noord-holland - birds - helicopters - military activities - animal behaviour - influences - human impact - noord-holland
Het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy en de civiele medegebruiker van het vliegveld, Den Helder Airport, zijn gelegen op korte afstand van de Waddenzee. Bij de nadering of bij het vertrek van het vliegveld moet, afhankelijk van de windrichting, in de helft van de gevallen op relatief geringe hoogte over de Waddenzee worden gevlogen. Het vliegveld wordt vooral gebruikt ten behoeve van helikopterverkeer. Den Helder Airport gebruikt het vliegveld vooral voor het vervoer van offshore-arbeiders van en naar olie- en gasplatforms op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. De groep Maritieme Helikopters is de belangrijkste gebruiker vanuit het Ministerie van Defensie. De 12 hier gestationeerde NH90 helikopters hebben De Kooy als thuisbasis. Ook het onderhoud aan deze helikopters vindt hier plaats. Het vliegkamp wordt vooral gebruikt voor trainingsvluchten. De effecten van de uitbreiding van civiel helikopterverkeer op vogels zijn de afgelopen jaren gemonitord. Tijdens deze onderzoeken zijn ook steeds de effecten van militair vliegverkeer meegenomen. Er is na 2006 echter vrijwel geen onderzoek uitgevoerd op de minder intensief gebruikte aan- en afvliegroute via het Kooijhoekschor. Doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven deelonderzoek was de effecten van militair vliegverkeer op deze route nauwkeuriger in kaart te brengen en te actualiseren. Primaire doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven onderzoek was het bepalen van het effect van vliegbewegingen met militaire helikopters op wad- en watervogels op de locatie Kooijhoekschor, gelegen aan de rand van het Balgzand, ten zuidoosten van het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy. Daarbij is vooral gekeken of overvliegende helikopters vogels doen opvliegen, hoe vaak dit gebeurt en beoordeeld of dit wellicht negatieve effecten voor vogels kan hebben.
Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change
Hansen, G.E. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): M. Auffhammer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574298 - 186
klimaatverandering - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - climatic change - environmental impact - human impact
Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change
Global climate change is unequivocal, and greenhouse gas emissions continue rising despite international mitigation efforts. Hence whether and to what extent the impacts of human induced climate change are already being felt around the world is a timely question.
The thesis assesses the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change across systems, sectors and world regions. A clear framework for impact attribution studies is laid out and applied to several examples from the literature. The development of the evidence of climate change impacts over the last two decades is documented, and an overview of the status of knowledge is provided with a focus on recent trends in human and managed systems.
The role of human influence, compared to natural variability, for climate related impacts is assessed for a large range of individual observations that have been reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. The analysis is based on a novel method that explicitly considers information on the quality and appropriateness of observational and model data for each observation. The thesis discusses caveats and challenges in attributing observed effects to climate change, and points out the consequence of those limitations for scientific policy advice. Key issues concern the question whether extreme weather events and their impacts can be attributed to human induced climate change and the limited availability of long-term monitoring records in many vulnerable regions. The impact of anthropogenic climate change is confirmed for a broad range of natural system effects, and to a lesser degree for human systems. Confident conclusions are mostly limited to direct temperature effects while precipitation effects remaining more uncertain.
People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region
Peña Venegas, C.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph; Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573222 - 210
bodem - landbouw - inheemse kennis - bodemtypen (antropogeen) - inheemse volkeren - ecosystemen - cassave - manihot - diversiteit - menselijke invloed - amazonia - soil - agriculture - indigenous knowledge - soil types (anthropogenic) - indigenous people - ecosystems - cassava - manihot - diversity - human impact - amazonia
Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp.
The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE), fuels the debate about how pristine the Amazon ecosystem actually is, and about the degree to which humans affected Amazonian diversity in the past. Most upland soils of the Amazon region are very acid, highly weathered, and have a limited nutrient holding capacity; together, these characteristics limit permanent or intensive agriculture. Várzeas or floodplains that are periodically enriched with Andean sediments carried and deposited by rivers that cross the Amazon Basin, are moderately fertile but experience periodic floods that limit agriculture to crops able to produce in a short time. ADE patches in uplands usually are more fertile than non-anthropogenic uplands, providing a better environment for agriculture. Most studies about how people manage a broad portfolio of natural and anthropogenic soils come from non-indigenous farmers of Brazil. There is limited information about how indigenous people use a broad soil portfolio, and how this affects the diversity of their staple crop, manioc. With the aim to contribute to the understanding of the role of ADE in indigenous food production, as compared with other soils, and in order to provide information about how indigenous people use and create diversity in Amazonia, research was carried out among five different ethnic groups living in two locations of the Colombian Amazon.
Several social and natural science methods were used during the study. These included ethnography, participant observation, structured and un-structured interviews, sampling of soil and manioc landraces, standardized protocols for the quantification of soil physical and chemical variables, and molecular techniques to assess genetic diversity of manioc and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
Results indicate that ADE patches from the Middle Caquetá region of Colombia are not contrastingly more fertile than surrounding, non-anthropogenic upland soils, except for higher levels of available phosphorus in ADE. Indigenous farmers from the Middle Caquetá region do not use ADE more frequently or more intensively than non-ADE uplands. The swidden agriculture practiced on ADE and on non-ADE uplands is similar. Although ADE patches were not specifically important for swiddens and therefore relatively unimportant for the production of manioc. They were important as sites for indigenous settlements and for maintaining agroforestry systems with native and exotic species that do not grow in soils with low available phosphorus. Várzeas were also used for agriculture, whether farmers had access to ADE or not. Differences occurred between locations in the type of floodplains selected and the way they were cultivated. Those differences were not related to differences in soil conditions but were associated with the cultural traditions of the different ethnic groups who cultivate low floodplains, as well as labor availability when organizing collective work (mingas) to harvest floodplains.
Manioc diversity among indigenous communities was not predominantly related with differences in soil types. Complete manioc stocks were cultivated equally on ADE, non-ADE uplands or várzeas. One issue that could be related with this non-specificity in manioc-soil combinations was the similar arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity of soils and the high number of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts associated to manioc roots; these were shown to be independent from the physicochemical composition of the soil or the manioc landrace. Differences in the diversity of manioc stocks among ethnic groups were predominantly related to cultural values attached to different manioc landraces.
This study of indigenous agriculture in environments with natural and anthropogenic soils indicates that people have had an important role in transforming the Amazonian ecosystem through agriculture, with consequences on forest composition and forest dynamics. Pre-Columbian people contributed to this by creating an additional soil- the Amazonian Dark Earths. Although ADE are not presently considered to play a major role in indigenous food production, indigenous people believe that ADE have had an important role in the management of the first maniocs cultivated by their ancestors. The domestication of manioc and the creation and maintenance of hundreds of different landraces by indigenous people contributed, and still contributes, to the region’s plant diversity.
Seal monitoring and evaluation for the Luchterduinen offshore wind farm: 2. Tconstruction - 2014 report
Kirkwood, R.J. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C152/14) - 65
zeehonden - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - menselijke invloed - windmolenpark - constructie - monitoring - ecologische verstoring - noordzee - zuid-holland - seals - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - human impact - wind farms - construction - monitoring - ecological disturbance - north sea - zuid-holland
Two seal species live in Dutch waters: the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) and the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). They occupy land-based sites (haul-outs) in both the Wadden Sea and the Delta region, and move between these regions along the North Sea coastal zone. Human activities, such as construction of a wind farm in this zone, may influence movement and use of the zone by the seals. Monitoring of potential impacts on seals to Luchterduinen construction was required in the permit to construct. The Luchterduinen offshore wind farm is the third wind farm development in the Dutch North Sea coastal zone (between Den Helder and Rotterdam). Pile-driving of the turbine towers occurred between 31 July and 16 October, 2014. Seals exposed to pile-driving, even at close distances of
An exposure-effect approach for evaluating ecosystem-wide risks from human activities
Knights, A.M. ; Piet, G.J. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Robinson, L.A. - \ 2015
ICES Journal of Marine Science 72 (2015)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1105 - 1115.
baltic sea - fisheries management - environmental-change - coastal ecosystems - marine ecosystems - human impact - new-zealand - food webs - support - climate
Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is promoted as the solution for sustainable use. An ecosystem-wide assessment methodology is therefore required. In this paper, we present an approach to assess the risk to ecosystem components from human activities common to marine and coastal ecosystems. We build on: (i) a linkage framework that describes how human activities can impact the ecosystem through pressures, and (ii) a qualitative expert judgement assessment of impact chains describing the exposure and sensitivity of ecological components to those activities. Using case study examples applied at European regional sea scale, we evaluate the risk of an adverse ecological impact from current human activities to a suite of ecological components and, once impacted, the time required for recovery to pre-impact conditions should those activities subside. Grouping impact chains by sectors, pressure type, or ecological components enabled impact risks and recovery times to be identified, supporting resource managers in their efforts to prioritize threats for management, identify most at-risk components, and generate time frames for ecosystem recovery.
Andean grasslands are as productive as tropical cloud forests
Oliveras Menor, I. ; Girardin, C. ; Doughty, C.E. ; Cahuana, N. ; Arenas, C.E. ; Oliver, V. ; Huaraca Huasco, W. ; Malhi, Y. - \ 2014
Environmental Research Letters 9 (2014)11. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 10 p.
net primary productivity - climate-change - peruvian andes - carbon storage - elevational transect - human impact - biomass - vegetation - dynamics - fire
We aim to assess net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon cycling in Andean tropical alpine grasslands (puna) and compare it with NPP of tropical montane cloud forests. We ask the following questions: (1) how do NPP and soil respiration of grasslands vary over the seasonal cycle? (2) how do burning and grazing affect puna productivity? (3) if the montane forest expands into the puna, what will be the resulting change in productivity? The study sites are located at the South-eastern Peruvian Andes; one grassland site and the forest sites are in Wayqecha biological station, and another grassland site in Manu National Park. At each grassland site, we selected a burnt and an unburnt area, installed unfenced and fenced transects in each area, and monitored above-ground productivity (NPPAG), below-ground productivity (NPPBG) and soil respiration (Rs) for 2 yr. In the forest, we monitored NPPAG, NPPBG and Rs for 2–4 yr. Grassland NPP varied between 4.6 ± 0.25 (disturbed areas) to 15.3 ± 0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (undisturbed areas) and cloud forest NPP was between 7.05 ± 0.39 and 8.0 ± 0.47 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while soil carbon stocks were in the range of 126 ± 22 to 285 ± 31Mg C ha-1. There were no significant differences on NPP between the puna and forest sites. The most undisturbed site had significantly higher NPP than other grassland sites, but no differences were found when relating grazing and fire at other sites. There were lower residence times of above-ground biomass compared to below-ground biomass. There was a strong seasonal signal on grassland NPPAG and NPPBG, with a shift on allocation at the beginning of the austral summer. High elevation tropical grasslands can be as productive as adjacent cloud forests, but have very different carbon cycling and retention properties than cloud forests. S Online supplementary data available from stacks.iop.org/ERL/9/115011/mmedia Keywords: tropical alpine wetlands, above-ground productivity, below-ground productivity, fire, grazing, disturbances, puna
Toepassing ODEMM - methodiek voor het Nederlandse KRM Programma van Maatregelen
Piet, G.J. ; Sluis, M.T. van der; Paijmans, A.J. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C162/14) - 61
evaluatie - risicoschatting - ecologische risicoschatting - maatregelen - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - ecosysteembeheer - mariene ecologie - natuurbeheer - evaluation - risk assessment - ecological risk assessment - measures - environmental impact - human impact - ecosystem management - marine ecology - nature management
Het Nederlandse Kaderrichtlijn Mariene strategie Programma van Maatregelen (PvM) is geëvalueerd met behulp van de ODEMM methodiek. Deze methodiek is ontwikkeld binnen het door de EU gesubsidieerde FP7 project ODEMM (Options for Delivering Ecosystem-based Marine Management). Met deze methodiek kan worden vastgesteld in hoeverre het PvM de menselijke activiteiten die hun invloed op het mariene ecosysteem hebben, in potentie kan mitigeren, zodat een goede milieutoestand behaald kan worden.
Carbon accumulation in peat deposits from northern Sweden to northern Germany during the last millennium
Linden, M. van der; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Geel, B. van - \ 2014
Holocene 24 (2014)9. - ISSN 0959-6836 - p. 1117 - 1125.
climate-change - human impact - bog - sphagnum - temperature - rates - vegetation - peatlands - growth - ams
Historic carbon accumulation rates in four bogs on a north to south transect from Sweden to Germany were calculated by using the bulk densities and carbon concentrations of 1-cm peat layers and a fine-resolution radiocarbon chronology. Carbon accumulation rates were compared to environmental data to explore the effects of climatic factors. Carbon accumulation rates in a period without clear human impact on the bog ecosystems (c.ad 1700–ad 1800) ranged from 25 g C/m2/yr in the most northern site to 50 g C/m2/yr in the southernmost site, which coincided with increasing annual temperatures from north to south. This suggests that temperature or growing season length is a major factor influencing carbon accumulation rates at different geographical sites. The temporal variations in carbon accumulation rates within the sites tentatively suggest that carbon accumulation rates may still increase with further warming in northern peat bogs, but decrease in southern peat bogs.
Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach
Odongo, V.O. ; Mulatu, D.W. ; Muthoni, F.K. ; Oel, P.R. van; Meins, F.M. ; Tol, C. van der; Skidmore, A.K. ; Groen, T.A. ; Becht, R. ; Onyando, J.O. ; Veen, A. van der - \ 2014
Journal of Hydrology 518 (2014)Part A. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 49 - 59.
land-use change - murray-darling basin - lake naivasha - population-dynamics - water availability - stream ecosystems - human impact - east-africa - kenya - rainfall
Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986–2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961–1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.
Supporting IWRM through spatial integrated assessment in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya
Oel, P.R. van; Odongo, V.O. ; Mulatu, D.W. ; Muthoni, F.K. ; Ndungu, J.N. ; Ogada, J.O. ; Veen, A. van der - \ 2014
International Journal of Water Resources Development 30 (2014)3. - ISSN 0790-0627 - p. 605 - 618.
water-resources management - surface-water - african lake - human impact - catchment - ecology - availability - complexity - nutrients - framework
This study describes the mismatch between required knowledge and efforts by scientists and stakeholders in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. In the basin, integrated water resources management (IWRM) suffers from the absence of critically relevant knowledge. This study further presents a spatial integrated assessment framework for supporting IWRM in the basin. This framework resulted from an ongoing debate between stakeholders and scientists studying the basin's issues. It builds on jointly identified indicators for sustainable governance, and their interdependency, and knowledge gaps. For IWRM in the basin this is a first important step towards a more structured debate on the implementation of IWRM.
Nile perch (Lates niloticus, L.) and cichlids (Haplochromis spp.) in Lake Victoria: could prey mortality promote invasion of tis predator?
Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2014
Theoretical Ecology 7 (2014)3. - ISSN 1874-1738 - p. 253 - 261.
east-africa - mwanza gulf - human impact - ecosystems - productivity - coexistence - competition - recovery - kyoga
The invasion of Nile perch into Lake Victoria is one of the iconic examples of the destructive effect of an introduced species on an ecosystem but no convincing explanation exists of why Nile perch only increased dramatically after a 25 year lag. Here, we consider this problem using a mathematical model that takes into account interactions between Nile perch and its cichlid prey. We examined competing hypotheses to explain Nile perch invasion and show that suppression of juvenile Nile perch by cichlids may cause the system to have two alternative stable states: one with only cichlids and one with coexistence of cichlids and Nile perch. Without cichlid predation on Nile perch, alternative stable states did not occur. Our analysis indicates that cichlid mortality, for example fishing mortality, may have induced the observed shift between the states.
The Effects of Groundwater and Surface Water Use on Total Water Availability and Implication for Water Management: The Case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya
Oel, P.R. van; Mulatu, D.W. ; Odongo, V.O. ; Meins, F.M. ; Hogeboom, R.J. ; Brecht, R. ; Stein, A. ; Onyando, J.O. ; Veen, A. van der - \ 2013
Water Resources Management 27 (2013)9. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 3477 - 3492.
resources management - human impact - basin
This study discusses the effects of water abstractions from two alternative sources on the available water volume around Lake Naivasha, Kenya: the lake itself and a connected aquifer. An estimation of the water abstraction pattern for the period 1999–2010 is made and its effect on the available water volume in Lake Naivasha and its connected aquifer is evaluated using a simple water balance modeling approach. This study shows that accurate estimates of annual volume changes of Lake Naivasha can be made using a simple monthly water balance approach that takes into account the exchange of water between the lake and its connected aquifer. The amount of water that is used for irrigation in the area around Lake Naivasha has a substantial adverse effect on the availability of water. Simulation results of our simple water balance model suggests that abstractions from groundwater affect the lake volume less than direct abstractions from the lake. Groundwater volumes, in contrast, are much more affected by groundwater abstractions and therefore lead to much lower groundwater levels. Moreover, when groundwater is used instead of surface water, evaporation losses from the lake are potentially higher due to a larger lake surface area. If that would be the case then the overall water availability in the area is more strongly affected by the abstraction of groundwater than by the abstraction of surface water. Therefore water managers should be cautious when using lake levels as the only indicator of water availability for restricting water abstractions.
The first wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years was the victim of a wildlife crime
Gravendeel, B. ; Groot, G.A. de; Kik, M. ; Beentjes, K. ; Bergman, H. ; Caniglia, R. ; Cremers, H. ; Fabbri, E. ; Groenenberg, D. ; Grone, A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Font, I. ; Hakhof, J. ; Harms, V. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Janssen, R. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Laros, I. ; Linnartz, L. ; Marel, D. van der; Mulder, J.L. ; Mije, S. van der; Nieman, A.M. ; Nowak, C. ; Randi, E. ; Rijks, M. ; Speksnijder, A. ; Vonhof, H.B. - \ 2013
Lutra 56 (2013)2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 93 - 109.
wolven - fauna - migratie - diergedrag - dna - biochemie - menselijke invloed - centraal-europa - noordoostpolder - wolves - fauna - migration - animal behaviour - dna - biochemistry - human impact - central europe - noordoostpolder
On July 4th 2013 a dead subadult female wolf-like canid was found by the roadside between Luttelgeest and Marknesse in the Noordoostpolder in the central part of the Netherlands. As the last observations of wild wolves in the Netherlands date back to 1869 the discovery of this animal generated a lot of media attention. European wolf populations have been expanding since the 1950s and the first packs recently established themselves in Germany in geographic proximity of the Dutch border, so natural re-appearance of the species in the Netherlands seemed likely. We investigated the taxonomy of the animal, its geographical origin, and its most recent history. Macroscopic and biochemical analyses of the dead animal convincingly showed that it was a purebred wolf, related to populations from eastern Europe. Bullet impacts and shattered fragments found in the chest and flank, and a discrepancy between the timing of the post mortem and rigor mortis intervals indicated that this wolf was shot prior to illegal transport to the Netherlands. The wolf fed on beaver in either the Carpathian mountains or the Eifel which is too far for the animal to have walked from by itself within the 24 hours needed to digest its last meal. These geographical areas are the only regions where haplotypes and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes retrieved from both the dead wolf and the beaver remains in its stomach co-occur. We therefore conclude that the first Dutch wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years did not enter the Netherlands by itself but sadly proved to be the victim of wildlife crime. Keywords: Canis lupus, Europe, haplotypes, isotopes, microsatellites, wildlife forensics, wolf.
Trends in indicatoren van KRM-Zeebodemintegriteit : impact van natuurlijke factoren en menselijk handelen: analyse van schaal en methodiek
Mesel, I.G. de; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Vries, P. de; Wal, J.T. van der; Schellekens, T. ; Brummelhuis, E.B.M. - \ 2012
IJmuiden [etc.] : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C119/12) - 52
mariene ecologie - aquatische ecologie - menselijke invloed - waterbodems - milieueffect - benthos - natuurbescherming - methodologie - eu regelingen - marine ecology - aquatic ecology - human impact - water bottoms - environmental impact - benthos - nature conservation - methodology - eu regulations
De Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie (KRM) is door de EU in 2008 vastgesteld. Het doel van de KRM is om uiterlijk in 2020 te komen tot een Goede milieutoestand (GMT) van alle Europese mariene wateren. Onder een goede milieutoestand wordt begrepen dat de zee schoon, gezond en productief is en dat het gebruik van de zee op een duurzame wijze plaatsvindt. De beschrijving van de GMT geschiedt aan de hand van elf ecosysteemgerichte descriptoren. Descriptor 6 ‘zeebodemintegriteit’ is één van de elf descriptoren van de KRM en heeft direct betrekking op allerhande handelingen waarbij de zeebodem wordt beroerd. Rijkswaterstaat heeft meer inzicht nodig in de manier waarop de natuurlijke variaties en antropogene handelingen de temporele en ruimtelijke verspreidingspatronen van de bodemgemeenschappen op zee beïnvloeden om zo de impact van de mens op het ecosysteem te kunnen inschatten.
Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
Debrot, A.O. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C092/12) - 71
natuurbescherming - ecosysteembeheer - menselijke invloed - verontreiniging - recreatieactiviteiten - zeereservaten - bonaire - nature conservation - ecosystem management - human impact - pollution - recreational activities - marine protected areas - bonaire
Lac Bay of Bonaire is a shallow non-estuarine lagoon of about 700 hectares, separated from the open sea by a shallow coral barrier-reef. It possesses the only major concentration of seagrass beds and mangroves of the island. It is a designated Ramsar wetland of international significance, an Birdlife International IBA (Important Bird Area) and also fulfills a critical fish nursery function for the reefs of the island. The bay has consequently been designated as a protected area and is managed by Stinapa-Bonaire. The bay has been losing effective seagrass nursery habitat surface and quality as a consequence of mangrove-driven land acclamation. This in-turn is potentially being exacerbated by human-mediated eutrophication and erosion caused by agricultural and animal husbandry in the wider watershed, as well as other factors. The number of visitors to Bonaire and to Lac has been increasing dramatically over the last decades particularly from cruise ships. Yet little has been done to document and map the various types of human use that occur on and in the vicinity of the bay which might affect the ecological carrying capacity of the bay and the critical roles it plays. In this survey we do preliminary mapping and analysis of the level and distribution of human activity in and around Lac and discuss what possible threats these may entail for the environment of the bay.
Mind the gap: modelling event-based and millennial-scale landscape dynamics
Baartman, J.E.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; Coen Ritsema, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732668 - 216
geomorfologie - erosie - sedimentatie - dynamica - tijdschalen - landschapsanalyse - modelleren - rivieren - regen - menselijke invloed - landschap - ontwikkeling - spanje - pleistoceen - holoceen - geomorphology - erosion - sedimentation - dynamics - time scales - landscape analysis - modeling - rivers - rain - human impact - landscape - development - spain - pleistocene - holocene
This research looks at landscape dynamics – erosion and deposition – from two different perspectives: long-term landscape evolution over millennial timescales on the one hand and short-term event-based erosion and deposition at the other hand. For the first, landscape evolution models (LEMs) are often used, which describe landscape forming processes by geomorphic transport laws, usually on annual temporal resolutions. LEM LAPSUS is used in this research to evaluate the landscape dynamics in a study area in south-east Spain: the Guadalentín Basin. The model is calibrated on dated river terrace levels, which show an erosion – deposition – erosion sequence that the model could reproduce. Annual precipitation in this dryland area shows large inter-annual variability and erosion is supposed to be mainly the results of low-frequency, high magnitude rainfall events. Therefore, in this research, landscape dynamics are also assessed using the event-based erosion model OpenLISEM. Eventually, the role of extreme events in long-term landscape evolution are explored by comparing the two models and by incorporating annual rainfall variability into LEM LAPSUS. Another issue that is being addressed in this study is the relative influence of humans as compared to erosion as a natural process. A conceptual model, derived on the basis of dated sediment archives, is tentatively correlated to periods of human impact on the land. Using LAPSUS, the potential influence of historical tillage erosion is simulated, showing that the relatively slow process of tillage erosion added to floodplain aggradation over thousands of years.
Unravelling Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape dynamics: The Upper Guadalentín Basin, SE Spain 9
Baartman, J.E.M. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Wallinga, J. ; Cammeraat, L.H. - \ 2011
Geomorphology 125 (2011)1. - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 172 - 185.
south-east spain - human impact - ephemeral channels - land abandonment - hillslope runoff - fluvial deposits - climatic changes - river systems - dead-sea - evolution
Landscapes in SE Spain have developed in response to tectonics, climate fluctuations and, more recently, human activity. Fluvial and colluvial sediments such as river terraces and slope deposits found in the valleys reflect a complex interplay between landscape forming processes. Investigating these sediment archives, we reconstructed landscape evolution for the Upper Guadalentín Basin, SE Spain, placing recent erosion processes in a landscape evolution context. Palaeo-lake sediments dated between ~ 17 and ~ 13.8 ka evidence that a Late Glacial lake existed in the area, probably formed by a sudden blockage of the Guadalentín river. Differences in relative height above the floodplain and age between the river terraces of parts of the Guadalentín river indicate that they have not been in equilibrium in the Late Quaternary. Deposition of river terraces along the upstream part of the river is recorded at ~ 13 and ~ 9.5 ka, whereas no evidence of deposition is found for that period along the lower part of the river. There, episodes of sedimentation occur at ~ 7.5–5 ka, ~ 3.4, ~ 1.6, ~ 0.7 and ~ 0.4 ka. This discrepancy is explained by the palaeo-lake and its influence on erosion and sedimentation processes through base level changes. Combining these processes, we propose a schematic model of Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape evolution. From the model we can conclude that i) the influence of the palaeo-lake on deposition and erosion processes both upstream and downstream is evident; and for the younger river terraces that ii) episodes of deposition seem to coincide in time, but iii) episodes of erosion in between terrace level aggradation do not coincide and neither do terrace level heights and iv) no evidence of deposition is found for the upstream part of the river. Correlation of erosion and sedimentation episodes with climate change and human impact is discussed. Although some correlations can be made, there is strong evidence that climate was not the main driver of landscape processes. We suggest that internal dynamics and local processes are more important drivers for landscape dynamics in the Upper Guadalentín Basin than external and regional factors
Why elephant roam
Ngene, S.M. - \ 2010
University of Twente. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins; H.A.M.J. van Gils. - Enschede : University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation ITC - ISBN 9789061642909 - 195
loxodonta africana - geografische informatiesystemen - remote sensing - zoögeografie - geografische verdeling - beweging - menselijke activiteit - seizoenen - diergedrag - kenya - menselijke invloed - loxodonta africana - geographical information systems - remote sensing - zoogeography - geographical distribution - movement - human activity - seasons - animal behaviour - kenya - human impact
The expansion of human activities due to the increase in human population outside protected areas is reducing the range of elephant. This range reduction occurs when elephant habitats are cleared for more farms and settlements. This causes fragmentation of the elephant range, which changes the elephant’ distribution, movement patterns, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement. The objectives of this study were to use GIS and remote sensing to identify the factors that influence the distribution, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement of Marsabit elephant; to map and describe their wet and dry season range, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement, as well as seasonal altitudinal movement in the fragmented mosaic of forest and savanna; to research the cost of humans sharing the environment with the elephant in areas adjacent to Marsabit Protected Area.
Species and structural diversity of church forests in a fragmented Ethiopian Highland landscape
Wassie Eshete, Alemayehu ; Sterck, F.J. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2010
Journal of Vegetation Science 21 (2010)5. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 938 - 948.
himalayan altitudinal gradient - tropical rain-forest - habitat fragmentation - montane forest - human impact - conservation - biodiversity - richness - disturbance - management
Question: Thousands of small isolated forest fragments remain around churches (“church forests”) in the almost completely deforested Ethiopian Highlands. We questioned how the forest structure and composition varied with altitude, forest area and human influence. Location: South Gondar, Amhara National Regional State, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: The structure and species composition was assessed for 810 plots in 28 church forests. All woody plants were inventoried, identified and measured (stem diameter) in seven to 56 10 m x 10-m plots per forest. Results: In total, 168 woody species were recorded, of which 160 were indigeneous. The basal area decreased with tree harvest intensity; understorey and middle-storey density (5 cm DBH trees) increased with altitude. The dominance of a small set of species increased with altitude and grazing intensity. Species richness decreased with altitude, mainly due to variation in the richness of the overstorey community. Moreover, species richness in the understorey decreased with grazing intensity. Conclusions: We show how tree harvesting intensity, grazing intensity and altitude contribute to observed variations in forest structure, composition and species richness. Species richness was, however, not related to forest area. Our study emphasizes the significant role played by the remaining church forests for conservation of woody plant species in North Ethiopian Highlands, and the need to protect these forests for plant species conservation purposes
Assessment of Ramsar site Lac Bonaire - June 2010
Debrot, A.O. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. - \ 2010
Yerseke : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR nr. C066/10) - 31
natuurbescherming - beschermingsgebieden - mangroves - ecologisch herstel - menselijke invloed - nadelige gevolgen - bonaire - nature conservation - conservation areas - mangroves - ecological restoration - human impact - adverse effects - bonaire
Following a helpdesk question from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) concerning potential threats to the Ramsar Site, Lac Bonaire, the authors visited Lac Bay from 27-29 May 2010. The mangroves, seagrass beds and the reef, both inside and outside of the bay were visited, and we were generously helped by many people on the island, including STINAPA Bonaire, DROB, STCB, and CIEE. In this study we review the main issues, recommend studies, and propose various pilot projects and solutions.
Disturbance-effect relationships applied in an integral Ecological Risk Analysis for the human use of the North Sea
Karman, C.C. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2009
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES no. C011/09) - 31
ecosystemen - noordzee - mariene gebieden - menselijke invloed - aquatische ecosystemen - ecosystems - north sea - marine areas - human impact - aquatic ecosystems
The relationship between the intensity of seven types of human based disturbances and their resulting effects on survival and reproduction of 30+ species were described as a function of increased mortality or reduced reproduction in the report of Jak et al 2000. The numerical values of the parameters in these functions were, as far as possible, estimated on the basis of data from literature, dealing with the sensitivity of the considered species, or otherwise of related species or biota in general, for the regarded disturbance
BioScore: A tool to assess the impacts of European Community policies on Europe's biodiversity
Delbaere, B. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Snethlage, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Heer, M. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kemitzoglou, D. ; Knegt, B. de; Knijf, G. de; Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tol, S. van; Tröltzsch, K. - \ 2009
Tilburg : ECNC - ISBN 9789076762289 - 92
biodiversiteit - flora - fauna - impact - beleid - beoordeling - europa - menselijke invloed - ecologische beoordeling - biodiversity - flora - fauna - impact - policy - assessment - european union countries - human impact - ecological assessment
BioScore offers a European biodiversity impact assessment tool. The tool contains indicator values on the ecological preferences of more than 1000 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, butterflies, dragonflies, aquatic macro-invertebrates and vascular plants. These values are linked to policy-related pressures and environmental variables.
A safe operating space for humanity
Rockström, J. ; Steffen, W. ; Noone, K. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2009
Nature 461 (2009). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 472 - 475.
social-ecological systems - human impact - biodiversity - climate - perspective - resilience - consequences - ecosystems - phosphorus - shifts
New approach proposed for defining preconditions for human development Crossing certain biophysical thresholds could have disastrous consequences for humanity Three of nine interlinked planetary boundaries have already been overstepped
Gebiedsbescherming Noordzee : habitattypen, instandhoudingdoelen en beheermaatregelen
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Witbaard, R. ; Bos, O.G. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 114) - 45
noordzee - habitats - bescherming - natuurbescherming - mariene ecologie - milieubeleid - nederland - menselijke invloed - north sea - habitats - protection - nature conservation - marine ecology - environmental policy - netherlands - human impact
In het Integraal Beheerplan Noordzee 2015 is een aantal gebieden aangewezen als potentieel te beschermen gebieden. Voor deze gebieden dienen instandhoudingsdoelen te worden opgesteld. Echter, door de grote variatie van het mariene ecosysteem en het feit dat grote delen van de Noordzee al gedurende decennia enorm door menselijke activiteiten zijn beïnvloed, kleven hier een aantal problemen aan. In dit werkdocument worden deze nader uiteengezet en worden bouwstenen voor mogelijke oplossingen aangedragen. Het werkdocument bevat een korte beschrijving van de (eventueel) te beschermen gebieden; een overzicht van natuurlijke en door de mens gecreëerde habitattypen; een beschrijving van de natuurlijke fluctuaties van het mariene ecosysteem en de mogelijke consequenties voor aanwijzing en beheer van te beschermen gebieden. Gezien de grote variatie van het systeem is het vaststellen van instandhoudingdoelen die gebaseerd zijn op het voorkomen van soorten en het daarna handhaven van zulke doelen in een dergelijk sterk wisselend systeem waarschijnlijk niet efficiënt. Voorgesteld wordt om beheersdoelen of managementdoelen te definiëren uitgaande van de beschreven habitatindeling. Het beheer zou gericht moeten zijn op de menselijke invloeden op de verschillende habitattypen waardoor men een rigide nastreven van mogelijk onbereikbare doelen voorkomt.
De veranderlijke zee in het Antropoceen : over regime shifts, menselijk gebruik en bescherming
Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789085852667 - 26
mariene ecologie - visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bescherming - menselijke invloed - openbare redes - marine ecology - fisheries - sustainability - protection - human impact - public speeches
De beleving van grote wateren : de invloed van een aaantal man-made elementen onderzocht
Vries, S. de; Boer, T.A. de; Goossen, C.M. ; Wulp, N.Y. van der - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 64) - 98
mariene gebieden - meren - perceptie - gebouwen - jachthavens - turbines - cyanobacteriën - kustgebieden - omgevingspsychologie - menselijke invloed - marine areas - lakes - perception - buildings - marinas - turbines - cyanobacteria - coastal areas - environmental psychology - human impact
De invloed van boorplatforms, windturbines, hoogbouw aan de kust, jachthavens en vooroevers op de beleving van grote wateren is onderzocht. Als enige niet man-made element is blauwalg meegenomen. De beleving beperkt zich hier tot de waardering voor de visuele component. Door middel van (gemonteerde) foto’s kreeg de ene groep de situatie met het element voorgelegd, een andere zonder. Ongeveer 2300 leden van een consumentenpanel, verdeeld over vier groepen, namen via het internet deel aan het onderzoek. Elke groep beoordeelde 30 foto’s. Boorplatforms hebben de grootste negatieve impact, gevolgd door windturbines en daarna hoogbouw. Vooroevers hebben als enige gemiddeld een (licht) positieve impact. De negatieve impact bleek groter naarmate de situatie zonder element aantrekkelijker werd gevonden. Systematische variaties van de verschijningsvorm van een element lieten zien dat de ‘stap’ van niet naar wel aanwezig zijn het grootste effect opleverde: de negatieve impact nam slechts gering toe met de variabelen nabijheid, grootte en aantal van het element. Trefwoorden: belevingswaarde, grote wateren, boorplatforms, windturbines, hoogbouw, jachthavens, vooroevers, blauwalg
Impact of human activities on water level and clarity and underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. in Poyan Lake, China
Wu, G. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): J. de Leeuw. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049074 - 119
meren - china - water - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - watervogels - waterplanten - lichtsterkte - vallisneria spiralis - troebelheid - voedselplanten - groei - remote sensing - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - waterstand - aquatische ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - lakes - china - water - surface water - water quality - waterfowl - aquatic plants - light intensity - vallisneria spiralis - turbidity - food plants - growth - remote sensing - surface water quality - water level - aquatic ecosystems - human impact
Almost 95% of the world population of Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) winter in Poyang Lake, China. Here they forage on the tubers of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. The growth and production of V. spiralis are regulated by the local hydrology, which might also be influenced by the changed hydrology of the Yangtze River induced by engineering projects. This thesis investigated the impact of dredging activities in the northern Poyang Lake and the Three Gorges Dam in the Yangtze River on the water turbidity and water level of Poyang Lake, analyzed how these hydrological changes influenced the underwater light climate of V. spiralis, and discussed their potential impacts on the growth and productivity of V. spiralis and further on the food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake. The principal results obtained can be summarized as follows:
(1) Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were compared for mapping the tempo-spatial dynamics of water clarity. Two multiple regression models including the blue and red bands of Landsat TM and MODIS respectively explained 83% and 88% of the variation of the natural logarithm of Secchi disk depth. On the basis of the comparison of water clarity predicted from Landsat TM and MODIS data as well as the advantages and contras of both sensors, it is concluded that MODIS offers the possibility to monitor the dynamics of water clarity more regularly and cheaply in relatively big and frequently cloud covered lakes like Poyang Lake.
(2) The performance of the various Landsat TM bands for detecting dredging ships was explored in the turbid water of the northern Poyang Lake. The result revealed that the TM bands 1 to 4 had limitation especially in turbid water, while bands 5 and 7 better discriminated vessels from surrounding waters. Therefore, it is recommended using the mid-infrared bands of Landsat TM for operational ship monitoring in turbid water.
(3) The possibility to strengthen inference of dredging impact while simultaneously monitoring vessels and water turbidity with remote sensing techniques was investigated in the northern Poyang Lake. Time-series MODIS images revealed a significant increase in water turbidity from 2001 onwards, while Landsat TM image analysis indicated a simultaneous increase in the number of vessels. Regression analysis further showed a highly significant positive relation (R2 = 0.92) between water turbidity and vessel number. On the basis of discussion of ship-related resuspension, final destinations of vessels and coincidence of vessel clusters with irregular dented patterns and turbid plume development, it is confirmed that dredging caused the increase in water turbidity. Therefore, it is concluded that simultaneously monitoring water turbidity and vessels enhanced the strength of evidence in remotely sensed dredging impact assessments.
(4) Three extrapolation and interpolation methods were compared for predicting daily photosynthetically active radiation reaching the earth surface over the Poyang Lake national nature reserve. The result revealed that the triangulated irregular network (TIN) and inverse distance weighted (IDW)-based interpolation method produced more reliable result than the extrapolation methods.
(5) The photosynthetically active radiation reaching the top of V. spiralis (PARlc) in Lake Dahuchi from 1998 to 2006 was modelled. The results revealed significant between year differences in PARtc, which were determined primarily by fluctuation in water level. Six years of Secchi disk depth records revealed seasonal switching of the lake from turbid at low water level in autumn, winter and spring to clear at high water level in summer. The highest PARtc occurred at intermediate water levels, which were reached when the Yangtze River forces Lake Dahuchi out of its turbid state in spring. The operation of the Three Gorges Dam, which will increase water level of Yangtze River from May to June may force Lake Dahuchi out of its turbid state earlier and increase the light intensity reaching the canopy and the production of V spiralis. It is concluded that the operation of the Three Gorges Dam might at the short term increase the light regime and productivity of V. spiralis and possibly affect the food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake.
(6) A conceptual framework to integrate a simulation model of plant biomass for V. spiralis with remote sensing and a geographical information system was introduced. It is expected that the system, once implemented, could contribute to evaluate the impact of possible hydrological changes on the growth and productivity of V. spiralis, and assess whether tuber feeding bird populations are constrained by the regional availability of food resources in Lake Poyang.
It is anticipated that these results provide a basis for the future research and necessary information for decision-making that need to be made by the responsible authorities to decide how to rationally manage this unique lake ecosystem.
Low flow and drought studies : the Northern European (NE) FRIEND experience
Tallaksen, L. ; Demuth, S. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 2007
In: Climatic and anthropogenic impacts on the variability of water resources. - Paris : Unesco - p. 99 - 106.
watervoorraden - klimaat - klimaatverandering - conferenties - menselijke invloed - water resources - climate - climatic change - conferences - human impact
Invloed van varkenshouder op weerstand varkens onderzocht
Mul, M.F. - \ 2006
V-focus 3 (2006). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 40 - 41.
varkenshouderij - varkens - weerstand - ziekteresistentie - kennisniveau - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - menselijke invloed - pig farming - pigs - resistance - disease resistance - knowledge level - farm management - human impact
In juni 2005 startte ASG een praktijkproef met 35 varkenshouders in Overijssel, Gelderland, Noord-Brabant en Limburg, waarbij wordt onderzocht of een hoger kennisniveau bij de varkenshouder leidt tot een verbetering van de weerstand van z'n dieren. Er is sprake van kennisuitwisseling tussen varkenshouders, onderzoekers en dierenartsen samen
Wadden Sea Quality Status report 2004
Essink, K. ; Dettmann, C. ; Frake, H. ; Laursen, K. ; Lüerssen, G. ; Wiersinga, W.A. - \ 2005
Wilhelmshaven, Germany : Common Wadden Sea Secretariat (Wadden Sea ecosystem No. 19) - 359
ecologie - mariene ecologie - ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - aquatische ecosystemen - waddenzee - aquatische ecologie - ecology - marine ecology - ecosystems - human impact - aquatic ecosystems - wadden sea - aquatic ecology
The report consists of 13 chapters containing basic information on human activities in the Wadden Sea and on physico-chemical and ecological conditions. Chapter 14 gives a synthesis of ecosystem developments. In Chapter 15, an evaluation is given of the Targets of the Wadden Sea Plan.
Sources and delivery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to the coastal zone: An overview of global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) models and their application
Seitzinger, S.P. ; Harrison, J.A. ; Dumont, E.L. ; Beusen, A.H.W. ; Bouwman, A.F. - \ 2005
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19 (2005). - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. GB4S01 - GB4S01.
marine ecosystems - drainage network - river estuary - world rivers - human impact - limitation - eutrophication - plankton - systems - inputs
An overview of the first spatially explicit, multielement (N, P, and C), multiform (dissolved inorganic: DIN, DIP; dissolved organic: DOC, DON, DOP; and particulate: POC, PN, PP) predictive model system of river nutrient export from watersheds (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS)) is presented. NEWS models estimate export from 5761 watersheds globally as a function of land use, nutrient inputs, hydrology, and other factors; regional and global scale patterns as of 1995 are presented here. Watershed sources and their relative magnitudes differ by element and form. For example, anthropogenic sources dominate the export of DIN and DIP at the global scale, although their anthropogenic sources differ significantly (diffuse and point, respectively). Natural sources dominate DON and DOP export globally, although diffuse anthropogenic sources dominate in several regions in Asia, Europe and N. America. "Hot spots" where yield (kg km-2 yr-1) is high for several elements and forms were identified, including parts of Indonesia, Japan, southern Asia, and Central America, due to anthropogenic N and P inputs in some regions and high water runoff in others. NEWS models provide a tool to examine past, current and future river export of nutrients, and how humans might impact element ratios and forms, and thereby affect estuaries and coastal seas.
Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest
Gemerden, B.S. van - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M. Cleef; Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): H. Olff. - - 199
tropical rain forests - biodiversity - rehabilitation - plant succession - conservation - forest ecology - logging - shifting cultivation - central africa - human impact - disturbance - tropische regenbossen - biodiversiteit - herstel - plantensuccessie - conservering - bosecologie - houtkap - zwerflandbouw - centraal-afrika - menselijke invloed - verstoring
The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selective logging and shifting cultivation. Assessment of the long-term effects of these land uses on plant species composition will provide elements for the identification of effective conservation measures and sustainable forms of forest use.Disturbances are relatively discrete events in time that cause high mortality of biomass and change the structure of populations, communities or ecosystems. Individual plants and species differ in their ability to claim the previously utilised space and resources, and therefore disturbance events may cause (temporary) shifts in species composition and diversity. In large parts of the African rain forest biome, the most important natural disturbance regime is gap-phase dynamics in which relatively small canopy openings are made by falling branches or trees. Larger-scale disturbances such as landslides, volcanic activity and large-scale river dynamics, have been extremely rare during the last millennia. Therefore, the present set of species is likely to be adapted to disturbance regimes characterised by frequent small-scale disturbances. Analogous to gap-phase dynamics, human land use can be considered as a disturbance. However, human induced disturbances are generally larger, more frequent and more severe. As a result, human land use may have long-term impacts on plant species composition and diversity.The fieldwork for this thesis was conducted in the main research site of the Tropenbos-Cameroon Programme; an area of 2000 km 2 of forestland in South Cameroon Vegetation was sampled in old growth forest, logging gaps of 5, 14 and 27 years old, and in abandoned shifting cultivation fields of 10-20, 30-40 and 50-60 years old. Within plots, all terrestrial vascular plants (including all growth forms) were recorded. In total 10.1 ha was surveyed allowing the detailed analysis of human impact on full plant species composition. Much effort was devoted to plant identification and in total some 11 000 herbarium vouchers were collected, processed and sent to specialists for identification. Voucher material was stored in theNationaalHerbarium Nederland - WageningenUniversity branch and in the IRAD/TropenbosField Herbarium inKribi. Some 75% of the plants in the survey identified to species level and an additional 20% was systematically categorised asmorphospecies. In total 1264 species were identified to species level. These included 261 species with ranges restricted to Lower Guinea (South Nigeria - Gabon) of which 51 are confined to the rain forest region of Cameroon.Tropical rain forests are often regarded as being undisturbed by humans. In Chapter 2, we analyse the disturbance history of 16 ha of structurally complex and species-rich 'old growth' rain forest (data collected by forestry research project of theTropenbos-Cameroon Programme). The recruitment preference of tree species along a disturbance gradient, ranging from shifting cultivation fields, to canopy gaps and old growth forest, was compared to present-day tree species composition. In nine plots out of 16, older (larger) trees preferred shifting cultivation fields for recruitment while younger trees recruited in small canopy gaps and under closed canopy. These results indicate that these plots once experienced a disturbance regime that included larger-scale disturbances. Combined, the pattern of disturbed and undisturbed plots, the high frequency of charcoal in the forest soil and anthropological data strongly suggest that humans caused these disturbances. The estimated date of these disturbances is 300-400 years ago. Surprisingly, species richness at larger scales was found to be lower in historically disturbed sites compared to undisturbed sites. Therefore, present-day species composition and diversity of old growth forests still reflects historical human impacts.Outside protected areas, forests are subject to logging and shifting cultivation and secondary forests are therefore becoming important in many Central African landscapes. Chapter 3 examines the potential of secondary vegetation to contribute to biodiversity conservation. The results indicate that vegetation recovery in logging plots and abandoned shifting cultivation fields is relatively quick, and in most aspects surprisingly complete. A notable exception is the poor recovery of endemics in shifting cultivation fields. We found that even after 60 years the proportion of endemic species was still significantly lower than in old growth forest. In light of the fast recovery of all other vegetation characteristics (including species richness and floristic composition), we conclude that secondary vegetation can contribute biodiversity conservation e.g. as buffer zones around protected areas.In Chapter 4, we analyse the relative importance of local and regional processes for structuring species composition during succession. Local processes refer to the ability of species to compete successfully with other species and avoid predation and pathogen attack. Regional processes refer to dispersal and colonisation. Both processes have been suggested to explain the typically high species richness in tropical rain forests. Our results indicate that local processes are especially important during the early stages of succession, whereas regional processes are especially important during the later stages. However, large differences were observed between different species groups. Regional processes mainly governed composition of large tree species (maximum height ≥ 15 m). A similar but smaller effect was observed in small tree species (3-15 m) and shrub species. Local processes structured composition of terrestrial herb species. In general, woody and non-woody climbers were widely distributed generalists with a very similar set of species occurring in all landscape mosaics and in all succession stages. The differences between species groups implies that effective conservation management requires insight in the importance of local and regional processes for the recruitment of target species (e.g. endemic species). A blanket conservation treatment for all species is unlikely to address adequately the specific sensitivity of species with high conservation value to habitat quality and habitat fragmentation.The general lack of information on biodiversity patterns is a serious problem for conservation planning in most tropical rain forest regions. With ongoing habitat destruction, conservation priorities must be identified quickly. Therefore optimal use should be made of all currently available sources of information. However, direct comparison of results is problematic if assessment methods differ. In Chapter 5, we make a first attempt to reconcile different assessments by taking into account their methodological differences. The key factors affecting the general shape and position of the species-area curve found through partial sampling are (1) the total extent in which observations are made, (2) the spatial distribution of the observations, (3) the proportion of the total extent sampled, (4) the proportion of the individuals in the sampled area that was included in the survey, and (5) the proportion of the included individuals that was successfully identified. Through simulations, the effects of partial sampling of these factors on observed species richness was identified. To test the method, we compared four botanical surveys conducted in the same area of lowland old growth rain forest. The surveys included were (1) reconnaissance scale vegetation survey, (2) detailed botanical assessment (100% individuals), (3) incomplete botanical assessment (10% individuals), and (4) herbarium collections. Correcting for partial sampling and scaling the results to extent greatly increased the comparability between assessments. This first attempt to reconcile methodologically different surveys suggests that species -area relations can be reconstructed from incomplete sample data if the key characteristics of the methods can be statistically described. The study provides an outline for optimising the use of existing datasets in the evaluation of conservation needs in tropical rain forest areas.In Chapter 6, I present an overview of the main effects of human land use on plant diversity in Central African forest. Rain forests are highly dynamic on all spatial and temporal scales. Present-day species composition and diversity reflects their cumulativebiogeographicalhistory. Therefore both present-day and historical disturbance regimes should be considered to understand current patterns of diversity and to predict its responses to future disturbances. The biotic andabioticprocesses that influence diversity vary with the scale of organisation of biological and ecological systems (i.e. community, ecosystem, landscape,region). While human land use obviously disrupts local communities, the impact of humans is also evident on much larger scales. As a result of large-scale forest degradation, fragmentation and global climate change, species composition of most Central African rain forests is likely to undergo changes in the near future. Conservation management should aim at increasing the survival chances of endemic species and species with poor dispersal capacity. In light of the present ecological insights and the uncertainty of the upcoming climate changes, it seems wise to invest in large networks of protected areas. Moreover, it is unlikely that areas managed for timber production will be beneficial for the conservation of characteristic plant diversity unless damage control is rigid. The expected increase in seasonality in large parts of Central Africa, combined with forest fragmentation and canopy opening, is likely to increase the abundance of pioneer species while species of concern to conservation are likely to decline. To increase the effectiveness of conservation management, insight is required in the mechanisms that make species and forest systems vulnerable to human induced disturbances, including global climate change.
Lanen, H.A.J. van; Kasparek, L. ; Novicky, O. ; Querner, E.P. ; Fendeková, M. ; Kupczyk, E. - \ 2004
In: Hydrological drought. Processes and estimation methods for streamflow and groundwater / Tallaksen, L.M., van Lanen, H.A.J., Amsterdam : Elsevier (Developments in Water Science 48) - ISBN 9780444516886 - p. 347 - 410.
droogte - hydrologische factoren - menselijke invloed - drought - hydrological factors - human impact
Human activities can cause drought, which was not previously reported (man-induced hydrological drought). Groundwater abstractions for domestic and industrial use are a well-known example of such an environmental change
|Hunter and hunted
Broekhuizen, S. - \ 2003
Lutra 46 (2003)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 75 - 76.
vleesetende dieren - prooi - predator prooi verhoudingen - boekbesprekingen - menselijke invloed - carnivores - prey - predator prey relationships - book reviews - human impact
Bespreking van het nieuwste boek van Hans Kruuk (University Press Cambridge, 2002) over landroofdieren en de invloed die ze hebben op hun prooidiersoorten, inclusief de mens, en over de invloed die de mens heeft en heeft gehad op de landroofdieren
Recreatie en biodiversiteit in balans; een ruimtelijke benadering
Vos, C.C. ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Pouwels, R. - \ 2003
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 20 (2003)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 3 - 13.
openluchtrecreatie - natuurbescherming - fauna - populaties - vogels - monitoring - bedrijfsvoering - duinen - menselijke invloed - outdoor recreation - nature conservation - birds - fauna - populations - monitoring - management - dunes - human impact
In Nederland streeft men ernaar natuurgebieden zo veel mogelijk open te stellen voor recreatie. Recreatie kan echter een extra stressfactor betekenen voor kleine en versnipperde populaties. Dat kan de duurzame instandhouding van soorten in gevaar brengen. Het combineren van recreatie en natuur vraagt daarom om een goede balans. In dit artikel wordt een beleidsinstrument gepresenteerd waarmee de effecten van recreatie en de effectiviteit van recreatiezonering zijn verkend.
|Will reactivation of the Iron Rhine railroad decrease survival of badgers (Meles meles) in Meinweg National Park, the Netherlands
Grift, E.A. van der; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2002
Lutra 45 (2002)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 29 - 48.
dassen (zoogdieren) - meles meles - spoorwegen - railtransport - natuurbescherming - dierecologie - ecologie - populatie-ecologie - netwerkanalyse - nederland - netwerken - midden-limburg - menselijke invloed - dassen - fauna - infrastructuur - landschapsecologie - natuurgebied - populatiebiologie - spoorweg - versnippering - zoogdieren - Limburg - IJzeren Rijn - Meinweg - badgers - meles meles - railways - rail transport - nature conservation - animal ecology - ecology - population ecology - network analysis - netherlands - human impact - networks - midden-limburg - fauna
Met verschillende variaties is het effect van hergebruik van een goederenspoorlijn op de ontwikkeling van een dassenpopulatie in Midden-Limburg onderzocht
Van buiten word je beter : een essay over de relatie tussen natuur en gezondheid
Berg, A.E. van den; Berg, M.M.H.E. van den - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra - 55
natuurbescherming - perceptie - mens - geestelijke gezondheid - natuur - menselijke invloed - gezondheid - maatschappijwetenschap - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - perception - man - mental health - nature - human impact
Ecological and economic impacts of gorilla-based tourism in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic
Blom, A. - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; A.M.H. Brunsting. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084101 - 165
gorilla's - toerisme - natuurtoerisme - milieueffect - economische impact - wild - centraal-afrikaanse republiek - beschermde gebieden - menselijke invloed - gorillas - tourism - nature tourism - environmental impact - economic impact - wildlife - central african republic - reserved areas - human impact
This thesis investigates the potential role of tourism in the funding of protected area management in the Congo Basin. An assessment of the protected areas and gazetted forests of the Central African Republic (CAR) showed that only about one third of the protected areas is more or less effectively managed. Almost all the gazetted forest and the remainder of the protected areas are insufficiently protected from human disturbance, which is mostly in the form of poaching. This example underlines the fact that long term under-financing of the management has seriously affected the integrity of protected areas in the Congo Basin. Even in relatively well managed areas, such as the Dzanga-Sangha protected area complex, in southwestern CAR, human impact on wildlife can still be measured and is related to the distance from roads.
The costs of management to effectively protect the forests of the Congo Basin are high. The potential role that tourism could play in raising revenue for management and for the local communities was investigated based on the case study of ape viewing in Dzanga-Sangha. Ape-viewing is a high return type of tourism and conditions to develop such tourism in Dzanga-Sangha were good. The area harbors high densities of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and several previous studies on these apes had been carried out. In order for visitors to be able to view the apes they needed to be habituated to human presence. This thesis shows that habituation of gorillas for tourism is feasible. Although feasible, the habituation process requires a substantial investment in time and money and is not without risks. It is unlikely that tourism, including ape-viewing, will be economically viable from a commercial point of view. It is unlikely that revenue form tourism will cover the management cost of the Dzanga-Sangha protected area now or in the foreseeable future. Even though tourism can bring important gains to the region, such as revenue and employment, managers have to carefully weigh these advantages against the apes' well being and the risky economics of tourism in Central Africa.
Given the fact that Dzanga-Sangha provides one of the best opportunities for this type of tourism in the Congo Basin and that even here the economic success is highly questionable, it is unlikely to be a realistic option in but a few exceptional places in this part of the world. This case study clearly demonstrates that although some user fees have the potential to generate substantial revenue for protected areas in the Congo Basin, these fees will be far from sufficient to manage the protected area system.
Soil Degradation and vulnerability assessment for Central and Eastern Europe - Preliminary Results of the SOVEUR Project
Batjes, N.H. - \ 2000
Wageningen : FAO, RISSA, ISRIC (FAO Report 2000/04) - 99
bodem - bodemdegradatie - bodemverontreiniging - beoordeling - cartografie - gegevens verzamelen - informatiesystemen - milieueffect - centraal-europa - menselijke invloed - soil - soil degradation - soil pollution - assessment - mapping - data collection - information systems - environmental impact - central europe - human impact
Between the tides: The impact of human exploitation on an intertidal ecosystem, Mozambique
Boer, W.F. de - \ 2000
University of Groningen. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; R.H. Drent. - Veenendaal : Universal Press - ISBN 9789036712835 - 268
aquatisch milieu - mozambique - visserijbiologie - menselijke invloed - wadden - aquatische ecosystemen - aquatic environment - mozambique - fishery biology - human impact - tidal flats - aquatic ecosystems
Comparing recent and abandoned shell middens to detect the impact of human exploitation on the intertidal ecosystem
Boer, W.F. de; Pereira, T. ; Guissamulo, A. - \ 2000
Aquatic Ecology 34 (2000). - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 287 - 297.
schaaldieren - aquatische gemeenschappen - ecosystemen - populatie-ecologie - mozambique - aquatische ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - shellfish - aquatic communities - ecosystems - population ecology - mozambique - aquatic ecosystems - human impact
Abandoned and recent shell middens were compared from Inhaca island, Mozambique, to investigate the impact of human exploitation. The growing human population was expected to increase the exploitation pressure, decrease the mean shell size, and increase the species diversity. Moreover, exploitation-vulnerable species were expected to disappear from recent middens. 29252 shells were collected from 6 recent and 8 abandoned middens, comprising 78 species, the majority bivalves. Pinctada nigra was the most abundant. The mean shell size was significantly smaller in recent middens, and the conspicuous, surface-dwelling gastropod Terebralia palustris showed the largest size reduction. Size reduction was related with the life history of the species. Older, abandoned middens had a larger species richness, refuting the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. The species composition of recent and abandoned middens was relatively similar, which was probably caused by low human exploitation pressure and the substrate characteristics. The disappearance of the mussel Perna perna was thought to be related to overexploitation
Gateway to the Global Garden : Beta/Gamma Science for Dealing with Ecological Rationality
Röling, N.G. - \ 2000
Guelph : University of Guelph (Annual Hopper lecture 8) - ISBN 9780889555105 - 51
milieubeheer - ecosystemen - kennis - duurzame ontwikkeling - sociologie - menselijke invloed - natuur - environmental management - ecosystems - knowledge - sustainable development - sociology - human impact - nature
Life on the edge : hedgehog traffic victims and mitigation strategies in an anthropogenic landscape
Huijser, M.P. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; K.V. Sýkora; N.J. Reeve. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083012 - 165
erinaceus europaeus - landbouwgrond - habitats - wegen - verkeer - populatiedynamica - ecologie - mortaliteit - bescherming - wildbeheer - nederland - menselijke invloed - cultuurlandschap - habitatfragmentatie - erinaceus europaeus - agricultural land - habitats - roads - traffic - population dynamics - ecology - mortality - protection - wildlife management - netherlands - human impact - cultural landscape - habitat fragmentation
This study focused on the most frequently recorded mammal species in road-kill surveys in western Europe: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Investigations were conducted in an anthropogenic landscape and had two major aims:
The negative effects of roads and traffic were particularly clear at the individual level, and one could consider this reason enough to take mitigating actions. In addition, hedgehogs are likely to be affected at the population level. However, at the species level, the hedgehog has mostly benefited from many of the human-induced changes in the landscape. The way people manage the landscape seems to be the key factor in determining the long term future of the species. Manipulation of certain landscape features can be used to make wildlife passages more effective and also to keep hedgehogs away from road sections between passages.
Key words - agricultural lands, anthropogenic landscape, barriers, behaviour, body weight, compensation, corridor, disease, edge habitat, Erinaceus europaeus, footprints, habitat fragmentation, habitat selection, hedgehog, hedgerow, human impact, injury, landscape changes, mating strategy, mitigation, mortality, nest sites, The Netherlands, population density, relative population density, road density, road-kills, roads, traffic intensity, traffic victims, urban wildlife, vegetation, vehicle clearance, wildlife passages.
|Viability of hedgehog populations in central Netherlands
Bergers, P.J.M. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 1999
Lutra 42 (1999). - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 65 - 76.
erinaceidae - erinaceus europaeus - doodsoorzaken - mortaliteit - verkeer - habitats - bevolkingsafname - wegbermen - expertsystemen - nederland - menselijke invloed - gelderland - flevoland - erinaceidae - erinaceus europaeus - causes of death - mortality - traffic - habitats - population decrease - roadsides - expert systems - netherlands - human impact - gelderland - flevoland
I.v.m. het hoge aantal verkeersslachtoffers onder egels vraagt men zich af dit kan leiden tot het uitsterven van locale of regionale populaties. Hiertoe is een duurzaamheidsanalyse uitgevoerd met het expertsysteem LARCH op en rond de Veluwe en Flevoland
|The location of hedgehog traffic victims in relation to landscape features
Huijser, M.P. ; Bergers, P.J.M. ; Braak, C.J.F. ter - \ 1999
Lutra 42 (1999)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 57 - 58.
Erinaceidae - Erinaceus europaeus - doodsoorzaken - schade - fauna - menselijk gedrag - landschap - habitats - Nederland - menselijke invloed - causes of death - damage - human behaviour - landscape - Netherlands - human impact
Kort bericht omtrent een studie naar de invloed van omgevingsfactoren en wegkarakteristieken op het aantal verkeersslachtoffers onder egels
|Habitat fragmentation and infrastructure: a review of the proceedings of a European and a North American conference
Huijser, M.P. ; Grift, E.A. van der; Bekker, G.J. - \ 1999
Lutra 42 (1999)1-2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 43 - 45.
zoogdieren - habitats - habitat vernietiging - infrastructuur - overzichten - menselijke invloed - natuur - mammals - habitats - habitat destruction - infrastructure - reviews - human impact - nature
Voor veel dier- en plantensoorten leidt de aanwezigheid en het gebruik van infrastructuur tot een afname in het aantal geschikte leefgebieden. De resterende gebieden raken bovendien steeds kleiner en meer van elkaar geisoleerd. Beide congressen handelen over dit verschijnsel: habitat versnippering
Een verkennende beschouwing over grondhoudingen, natuurbeelden en natuurvisies in relatie tot draagvlak voor natuur
Molenaar, J.G. de - \ 1998
Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 111
samenleving - interacties - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - ideologie - kennis - perceptie - landschap - filosofie - natuur - menselijke invloed - society - interactions - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - ideology - knowledge - perception - landscape - philosophy - nature - human impact