Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management
    Wierenga, H.K. - \ 1991
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P.R. Wiepkema. - S.l. : Wierenga - 173
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - intensieve landbouw - stallen - huisvesting van kalveren - diergedrag - dairy cattle - dairy farming - animal welfare - animal housing - intensive farming - stalls - calf housing - animal behaviour
    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various conditions, including over- and undercrowding. In particular the significance of the cubicles for resting and for hiding is discussed. The behaviour of dairy cows when fed concentrates with an automatic concentrates feeding system is investigated. The cows' adaptation to such systems and the cows' strategy of timing of their visits to the feeding station is analysed. Finally, the costs and success of adaptation of the cows to their environment are presented and also discussed with respect to their welfare.

    Nitrogen cycling in high-input versus reduced-input arable farming
    Faassen, H.G. van; Lebbink, G. - \ 1990
    Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 38 (1990)3A. - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 265 - 282.
    toedieningshoeveelheden - extensieve landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - kunstmeststoffen - intensieve landbouw - microbiologie - stikstof - stikstofkringloop - application rates - extensive farming - farming systems - fertilizers - intensive farming - microbiology - nitrogen - nitrogen cycle
    Onderzoek naar de potentieele niveau's van stikstofkringloopprocessen met het doel om de invloeden van veranderingen in teeltintensiteit te beoordelen. Research into the levels of nitrogen cycling processes with the purpose of examining the influences of changes in cultivation intensity
    Biomass, composition and temporal dynamics of soil organisms of a silt loam soil under conventional and integrated management.
    Brussaard, L. ; Bouwman, A. ; Geurs, M. ; Hassink, J. ; Zwart, K.B. - \ 1990
    Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 38 (1990). - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 283 - 302.
    alternatieve landbouw - biomassa - keileemgronden - intensieve landbouw - leemgronden - micro-organismen - organische verbindingen - biologische landbouw - populaties - zaaibedbereiding - bodem - bodemchemie - bodemfauna - grondbewerking - alternative farming - biomass - boulder clay soils - intensive farming - loam soils - microorganisms - organic compounds - organic farming - populations - seedbed preparation - soil - soil chemistry - soil fauna - tillage
    Bespreking van de effecten van bodemfauna op C- en N-huishouding in cultuurgrond bij conventionele en geintegreerde produktie-omstandigheden
    Veebezetting en de naaldsamenstelling van groveden, douglas en Corsicaanse den in het Peelgebied in de periode 1956 t/m 1988 : een onderzoek naar de betekenis van de veebezetting voor het optreden van bosschade
    Burg, J. van den; Kiewiet, H.P. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" nr. 559) - 77
    bosbouw - bomen - achteruitgang, bossen - levensvatbaarheid - mineralen - as - planten - mineraalgehalte - intensieve landbouw - nederland - noord-brabant - de peel - forestry - trees - forest decline - viability - minerals - ash - plants - mineral content - intensive farming - netherlands - noord-brabant - de peel
    Effect intensieve veehouderij op bosbouw in de Peel
    Toepassing van grondbuizen ten behoeve van de ventilatie in varkensstallen
    Lange, J.M. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : IMAG (Rapport / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen 97) - 37
    lucht - luchttemperatuur - accessoires - gebouwen - koelen - goten - verwarming - intensieve landbouw - microklimaat - varkensstallen - pijpleidingen - pijpen - regulatie - transport - air - air temperature - ancillary equipment - buildings - cooling - ducts - heating - intensive farming - microclimate - pig housing - pipelines - pipes - regulation - transport
    In het buitenland (Duitsland, Belgie, Oostenrijk, Zweden, V.S.) worden buizen of slangen in de bodem toegepast, waar de ventilatielucht voor stallen doorheen wordt geleid om deze door de bodemwarmte te laten opwarmen ('s winters), dan wel om deze te laten afkoelen door afgifte van warmte aan de bodem ('s zomers). In het stookseizoen kan zo op energie worden bespaard en in de zomerperiode de ventilatielucht worden gekoeld. In een proefopstelling is nagegaan of er onder Nederlandse omstandigheden mogelijkheden zijn voor deze toepassing
    Vergelijking huisvestingssystemen voor leghennen : een beoordeling van huisvestingssystemen op aspecten van : welzijn, gezondheid, arbeid en organisatie, mestopslag, mestverwerking en milieu, bedrijfstechniek en bedrijfseconomie
    Anonymous, - \ 1988
    Beekbergen : COVP (COVP uitgave no. 485) - ISBN 9789071463242 - 68
    huisvesting, dieren - dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - hennen - intensieve landbouw - pluimveehokken - productiviteit - rentabiliteit - animal housing - animal husbandry - animal welfare - hens - intensive farming - poultry housing - productivity - profitability
    Uitspoeling van enkele nutrienten onder een grove den opstand op verschillende afstanden van een kippenhouderij
    Steenvoorden, J.H.A.M. ; Drijvers, G.J. ; Jager, A. de - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (ICW nota 1885) - 26
    intensieve landbouw - luchtverontreiniging - bossen - zure regen - bodemchemie - uitspoelen - ammoniak - nitraten - bosschade - veluwe - intensive farming - air pollution - forests - acid rain - soil chemistry - leaching - ammonia - nitrates - forest damage - veluwe
    Onderzoek is uitgevoerd naar de uitspoeling van enkele nutriënten onder een grove den opstand in Putten op vier afstanden (150, 100, 200 en 550 m) van een kippenhouderij. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in april 1987. Vanwege de grote diepte waarop het grondwater zich bevindt is de uitspoeling nagegaan door middel van analyses in het CaCl2 extract van grondmonsters, verkregen uit twee boringen tot 7 à 8 meter diepte per afstand.
    Effecten van overbezetting bij melkvee in bedrijfsverband
    Geneijgen, J. van - \ 1988
    Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Rundveehouderij, Schapenhouderij enPaardenhouderij (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Rundveehouderij, Schapenhouderij en Paardenhouderij 53) - 45
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - intensieve landbouw - nederland - dairy cattle - dairy farming - intensive farming - netherlands
    Het onderzoek naar overbezetting werd uitgevoerd op de Waiboerhoeve in de periode januari 1983 tot mei 1986 in een vierrijige niet geosoleerde ligboxenstal met roostervloer en voergang. De stal was voorzien van pootloze boxafscheidingen en een vlakke stand met een kunststofmat waarop zaagsel werd gestrooid. Gemiddeld waren er op het bedrijf ruim 120 koeien met bijbehorend jongvee.
    Een vergelijkend onderzoek naar de gezondheid en de produktie van vleeskalveren gehouden in boxen en in groepshuisvesting = A comparative study into health and production of veal calves housed in crates and in a grouphousing system
    Mei, J. van der - \ 1987
    Zeist : IVO (I.V.O.-rapport B-304) - 34
    dierhouderij - kalveren - intensieve landbouw - productiviteit - rentabiliteit - diergeneeskunde - animal husbandry - calves - intensive farming - productivity - profitability - veterinary science
    Met het doel de gezondheid van vleeskalveren in 2 huisvestingsvormen te vergelijken werden op 5 bedrijven gedurende 3 mestronden in totaal 4417 manlijke vleeskalveren gevolgd. In dit onderzoek was de gemiddelde produktie in boxhuisvesting (niet significant) hoger. De kalveren in groepshokken bleken significant minder vet
    Het gedragskooien projekt : een vergelijkend onderzoek naar praktische bruikbaarheid en welzijnscondities van een alternatief huisvestingssysteem voor leghennen (1979 - 1983)
    Blokhuis, H.J. ; Haye, U. - \ 1986
    Beekbergen : Centrum voor Onderzoek en Voorlichting voor de Pluimveehouderij - ISBN 9789071463068 - 75
    huisvesting, dieren - dierenwelzijn - hennen - intensieve landbouw - pluimveehokken - ? - animal behaviour - animal housing - animal welfare - hens - intensive farming - poultry housing
    Stankbestrijdingstechnieken = Odour abatement techniques
    Geelen, M. van - \ 1986
    Wageningen : IMAG (Publikatie / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen no. 216) - 30
    luchtverontreiniging - huisvesting, dieren - gebouwen - milieubeheersing - intensieve landbouw - geurstoffen - ventilatie - air pollution - animal housing - buildings - environmental control - intensive farming - odours - ventilation
    Stankbestrijdingstechnieken die voor de intensieve veehouderij zijn ontwikkeld vinden ook elders toepassing. In deze publikatie is vooral aandacht besteed aan de werking en constructie van biobedden, bestaande uit een vezelturf/heidemengsel, de ervaringen daarmee op semi-agrarische bedrijven en de mogelijkheden hiervan voor intensieve veehouderijbedrijven
    Ontwikkeling van het grondgebruik in de veehouderij in het zuidelijk Peelgebied
    Hemert, A.K. van; Reinds, H.G. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1667)
    stalmest - intensieve landbouw - landgebruik - ruimtelijke ordening - statistiek - zonering - nederland - de peel - farmyard manure - intensive farming - land use - physical planning - statistics - zoning - netherlands - de peel
    Choice and uncertainty in a semi-subsistence economy : a study of decision making in a Philippine village
    Huijsman, A. - \ 1986
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): A. Franke, co-promotor(en): H.A. Luning. - Wageningen : Huijsman - ISBN 9789068320114 - 335
    besluitvorming - boekhouding van landbouwbedrijf - rekeningen van landbouwbedrijf - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - intensieve landbouw - filippijnen - wereld - decision making - farm accounting - farm accounts - farm management - farm planning - intensive farming - philippines - world
    This study deals with the response of Philippine rice farmers to uncertainties and associated risks in the production environment. Farmers' risk behaviour is analyzed within the context of land use intensification through the adoption and utilization of the socalled 'modern seed-fertilizer' technology. This technology has been criticized for its capital intensity and high riskiness compared to existing technology. Among others, farmers' aversion to take risks has been suggested as a possible factor explaining slow adoption rates of poor farmers. In order to investigate the impact of risk on decision making, a distinction should be made between (1) farmers' attitudes towards risk taking, i.e., the possibility that they are unwilling to take risks and to invest in risky but profitable technology causing an overall underinvestment in agricultural inputs and misallocation of resources and/or; (2) the farmers' inability to invest in risky technology because of a limited risk taking capacity leading to an unequal distribution of benefits derived from new technology among the rich and poor strata of the rural economy.

    Conceptual issues and practical problems in analyzing the influence of risk and uncertainty on farm-household decision making are discussed in Chapter 3. A critical review is presented of various theories concerning risky decision making. The general conclusion is that none of these theories have yet been tested to the extent that they can be used as an adequate framework for examining the occurrence of farmers' risk aversion and assessing the impact of risk on decisions.

    Chapter 4 describes the historical process of land use intensification in relation to population growth. It shows that the introduction of the 'modern' IRRI-released rice varieties (IR-varieties) and double rice cropping is just a new phase in a continuous process of land use intensification that started in the mid 1940s with the closing of the land frontier in the rice lowland area. Compared to their predecessor BE-3 - now considered a traditional rice variety - the adoption of IR-varieties has been relatively quick. However, adoption at an appreciable scale did not take place until farmers themselves - through various cultural adaptations - had augmented the attractiveness of growing IR- varieties under rainfed conditions.

    The new rice technology allowed a more effective use of family labour resources, and augmented the income of individual farmhouseholds. However, due to changes in the labour utilization pattern induced by this technology and the introduction of labour saving technology (rice threshers), job opportunities in the village did not increase, whereas income sharing between the poor and somewhat wealthier households declined and the economic position of women deteriorated. In the process of land use intensification, the overall risk that farm-households face has increased. The present land utilization pattern is characterized by intensive cropping systems on relatively small farm areas that have become strongly dependent on external inputs. The capacity of risk spreading between agricultural activities has become limited, whereas the overall financial risk of crop production has increased.

    The majority of development programmes imposed upon the village community during the 1970s, did not contribute much to farmers' efforts to intensify rice crop production. Instead, they created an atmosphere of uncertainty and were counterproductive to the needs and economic development of households.

    In order to investigate the effect of risk on the household's ability to take advantage of the new crop technology, farmhouseholds were classified according to their sensitivity to income risks (Chapter 5). Two classification variables were employed: (1) the subsistence coverage factor indicating the household's capacity to generate a surplus income above basic subsistence requirements through crop activities, and (2) the family life cycle stage which among others determines family labour availability and the capacity to timely control crop production risks.

    Patterns of farm resource utilization, household income formation and consumption expenditures are analyzed in Chapter 6. Household categories differ substantially with respect to their ability to improve upon living conditions and risk taking capacity. In sharp contrast with surplus households, for non-surplus households there is hardly any room to cut back on household expenditures or create reserves. Forced by short-term subsistence pressures during the lean month period, young non-surplus households have to employ their scarce family labour resources on activities that provide immediate income affecting labour investments in self-employed agriculture. With a higher worker to consumer ratio, middle-aged non-surplus households are able to devote much more family labour to self-employed agricultural activities while at the same time providing for short-term income requirements through wage labour activities. In fact, these households face serious problems in finding remunerative employment for all their family labour resources. The possibility of increasing labour input in individual rice crops is economically marginal, whereas off-farm employment opportunities are limited.

    Compared to surplus households, non-surplus households show low productivities per labour hour mainly due to a lower level of cash input investments. The necessity to use credit to sustain subsistence and education expenses affects the capacity of nonsurplus households to invest in productive activities and induces them to credit rationing. Interest payments on loans acquired in poor production years usurp a substantial part of the income above basic subsistence needs realized in good production years. The middle-aged non-surplus households have to use income for the education of children in order to safeguard long-term security.

    In Chapter 7 the relationship between the household's risk sensitivity and the adoption of double rice cropping is investigated. Households differ with respect to the perceived risks of double rice cropping due to differences in risk control capacity resulting from differences in family labour availability and financial position. They also differ with respect to the need to intensify rice crop production. The importance of the family life cycle - a variable commonly lacking in adoption studies - on adoption behaviour is indicated. This factor may cause cyclical dynamics in technology utilization patterns, i.e., households may gradually change management orientation and pattern when moving from one life cycle to another. The adoption process shows that experimentation is a major tool of farmers to reduce uncertainty and that - in contrast with a commonly held belief experimentation with new crop technology is not a prerogative of wealthy farmers.

    Farmers' decisions with respect to the use of fertilizer in rice crop production are discussed in Chapter 8. An attempt is made to quantitatively assess the relative importance of resource-induced risk aversion as opposed to the farmers' risk taking willingness, and farmers' fertilizer response perceptions as opposed to risk aversion. Difficulties encountered in quantifying the various parameters playing a role in such an analysis are discussed. Fertilizer response under farmers' conditions are estimated and the risk of fertilizer application is empirically assessed. The farmer's perception of fertilizer response turns out to be strikingly similar to empirical estimates. In contrast with response perception and risk taking willingness, resource-induced risk aversion appears to be an important variable explaining differences in fertilizer application levels among household categories. However, perceptions and risk taking willingness are important in explaining differences between individual households.

    A summary of the salient features of the farmer's choice processes and a synthesis of major findings concerning farmers' risk behaviour is presented in Chapter 9. The study arrives at the overall conclusion that it is dangerous to base risk analyses on superficial observations and generalize about small farmers' risk behaviour. First, many farmers' production strategies and practices - often erroneously identified as resulting from risk averse behaviour - serve the dual purpose of reducing risk and attaining best economic results. Such strategies result from (1) cautious optimization over a certain period of time based on adaptation to changes in internal household conditions and external circumstances, search for improvements, and experimentation and; (2) sequential choice procedures and risk control within years based on adaptation to chance constraints and opportunities as they evolve in the course of a production cycle. They allow for an optimum use of environmental resources and are thus sound economic practice.

    Second, risk is not a well defined concept. It describes various types of uncertainty (e.g. yield vs. financial risk), whereas the degree of riskiness of activities depends on the risk taking capacity of households, comprising both the ability to timely control crop production risks through labour investments and the capacity to bear financial risks. Hence, crop production risks are not the same for different types of households, whereas financial risk is likely to differ between time periods. Within an apparently homogeneous group of small farm-households, differences in financial risk taking capacity and resource composition are such that households perceive different production risks as well as financial risks to similar activities, and thus show a different response to risks in agricultural production. Moreover, for the same household there may exist a conflict of interest between risk reduction in the short and medium term and in the medium and long term. Thus, without specifying the type of risk as well as the period and conditions under which decisions are made, it cannot be evaluated whether risk deters investments in inputs or adoption of technology more for one category of households than another. From a production point of view, farmers simply cannot be classified as risk seekers or risk averters. In fact, the same farmer may fit both categories.

    Farm-households are used to risk taking in agriculture. They are generally not much interested in stabilizing agricultural output if such implies an even moderate reduction in perceived income. It is not so much the perceived production risks in agricultural that influence choice behaviour of poor households, it is the need to opt for particular income earning activities that secure immediate subsistence needs and limit the impact of financial risks on subsistence security. In order to keep financial risk at a manageable level, households have to ration credit use and limit financial investments in agriculture. When risk-induced underinvestment occurs, it is caused by the limited capacity of poor households to take financial risks rather than by their risk averse attitudes. Given the continuous indebtedness of non-surplus households, perceived financial risk may constitute a serious cause for underinvestment in agriculture and widening income disparities between poor and wealthy households.

    Intensivering landbouw niet altijd voordeliger.
    Nauta, R.S. ; Werff, P.A. van der - \ 1986
    Landbouwkundig Tijdschrift 98 (1986)12. - ISSN 0927-6955 - p. 27 - 30.
    economie - energie - energiebeleid - intensieve landbouw - probleemanalyse - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - mestoverschotten - economics - energy - energy policy - intensive farming - problem analysis - yield increases - yield losses - yields - manure surpluses
    Het antwoord op de vraag of een verdergaande intensivering van de huidige landbouw tot een efficientere benutting van produktiemiddelen leidt, kan niet of nauwelijks worden aangetoond. Biologische en geintegreerde landbouwsystemen zijn aangehaald om te laten zien dat daarmee op even efficiente wijze geproduceerd kan worden, zij het op een andere wijze. De keuze van een produktiesysteem is een politieke keuze waarbij het gaat om verdergaande intensivering of integratie van landbouw en natuurbeheer
    De relatie tussen kooiconstructievariabelen en het ontstaan van eischaalbreuk
    Oosterwoud, A. - \ 1985
    Beekbergen : COVP (COVP onderzoeksverslag no. 231) - 37
    batterijkooien - kooien - eierschaal - intensieve landbouw - nederland - battery cages - cages - egg shell - intensive farming - netherlands
    Van mestovervloed tot boerenarmoede? : economische gevolgen van de mestproduktie voor de veehouderijsector
    Haas, M. de; Hopmans, L. - \ 1985
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / IMGO-Landbouw 8) - 79
    luchtverontreiniging - kostenanalyse - milieuwetgeving - milieubeleid - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - overheidsbeleid - intensieve landbouw - mest - nederland - bodemverontreiniging - opslagloodsen - waterverontreiniging - mestoverschotten - air pollution - cost analysis - environmental legislation - environmental policy - farm management - government policy - intensive farming - manures - netherlands - soil pollution - stores - water pollution - manure surpluses
    De mogelijke financiele gevolgen per bedrijf bij de invoering van de nieuwe milieu- en de meststoffenwetgeving en de toekomstperspectieven voor de intensieve veehouderij als bedrijfstak worden aangegeven. Hiervoor wordt de ontwikkeling van de veestapel en de mestproduktie onderzocht, de komende wettelijke maatregelen beschreven, de organisatorische aspecten van de mestafzet behandeld en de mogelijke maatregelen op bedrijfsniveau aangegeven
    Na Winterswijk : boer blijven en landschapsbehoud : analyse van een gespannen verhouding
    Volker, C.M. - \ 1984
    Wageningen : Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no. 378) - 47
    landschap - nationale parken - landschapsbescherming - bescherming - alternatieve landbouw - biologische landbouw - landbouw bedrijven - natuurbescherming - landbouw - intensieve landbouw - sociaal gedrag - Nederland - gelderland - agrarisch natuurbeheer - achterhoek - landscape - national parks - landscape conservation - protection - alternative farming - organic farming - farming - nature conservation - agriculture - intensive farming - social behaviour - Netherlands - gelderland - agri-environment schemes - achterhoek
    Een analyse van de tegengestelde belangen tussen agrariers en natuurbescherming
    De potentiele behoefte aan verplaatsing van bedrijven met intensieve veehouderij in Horst
    Huethorst, B.T.M. - \ 1984
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut no. 302) - 26
    intensieve landbouw - landbouwbedrijven - bevolkingsverplaatsing - nederland - noord-brabant - intensive farming - farms - resettlement - netherlands - noord-brabant
    Graslandgebruikssystemen op het gezinsbedrijf = Grassland using systems on the so called family farm
    Overvest, J. ; Laeven-Kloosterman, A.F. - \ 1984
    Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Rundveehouderij, Schapenhouderij enPaardenhouderij (Rapport / Proefstation voor de Rundveehouderij, Schapenhouderij en Paardenhouderij P.R. 94) - 152
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - graslanden - begrazing - intensieve landbouw - nederland - rentabiliteit - zoötechniek - velden - verkaveling - farm management - farm planning - farm results - grasslands - grazing - intensive farming - netherlands - profitability - zootechny - fields - land parcelling
    Verslag van een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van de verschillende graslandgebruikssystemen op een gezinsbedrijf met een arbeidsaanbod van 3000 uur per jaar. De bedrijfsgrootte varieerde van 15 tot 25 ha waarbij telkens twee verkavelingssituaties met elkaar vergeleken werden en het systeem met de hoogste arbeidsopbrengst berekend werd
    Graslandgebruikssystemen op het gezinsbedrijf
    Overvest, J. ; Laeven-Kloosterman, A.F. - \ 1984
    Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Rundveehouderij, Schapenhouderij enPaardenhouderij (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Rundveehouderij, Schapenhouderij en Paardenhouderij 26) - 32
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - graslanden - begrazing - intensieve landbouw - nederland - rentabiliteit - zoötechniek - velden - verkaveling - farm management - farm planning - farm results - grasslands - grazing - intensive farming - netherlands - profitability - zootechny - fields - land parcelling
    In ons land wordt het grasland op veel manieren gebruikt: dag en nacht weiden, alleen overdag weiden tot helemaal niet meer weiden en toepassen van zomerstalvoedering. Daarnaast komen nog allerlei overgangs- en tussenvormen voor, waarbij ook de omweidingsduur varieert.
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