Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone
    Chakanda, R.T.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg; Bert Visser. - - 161
    oryza - rice - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - war - landraces - varieties - phenotypic variation - farming systems - sierra leone - farmers' knowledge - oryza - rijst - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - oorlog - landrassen - rassen (planten) - fenotypische variatie - bedrijfssystemen - sierra leone - kennis van boeren
    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the economy, agricultural production and the conservation of plant genetic resources at the farm level was severely affected. It emerged that farmers’ effectiveness to cultivate and manage their seed systems and the options to grow rice under insecure conditions were disrupted at different levels in the three districts studied. However, the general consequence of the war in all of the districts was that farmers lost considerable amounts of their seed stocks. Total losses for some rice varieties was averted because of the occurrence of a number of varieties in more than one village in the same region, which was a result of farmers seed exchange systems, and also due to farmer movement during the war. The majority of the varieties that were reported lost were actually “dispersed” in the regions, indicating good options for post-war recovery.

    There was little evidence that the genetic composition of rice varieties were significantly altered as a consequence of the war, except for the total loss of upland varieties in one of the districts. The varieties that had the highest survival were those that had wider pre-war distribution, showed plasticity in growing habits wherein they demonstrated the potential to grow in both agro-ecosystems and in the different districts, and the fact that they existed in many different forms.

    Statistical analysis showed a clear distinction between upland and lowland varieties, which demonstrated the effectiveness of farmer selection with regard to the two production ecosystems. This was different for the periods defined as pre-war and post-war. Pre-war varieties were less well defined in this respect. Further to this, there was evidence of a change in rice genetic resources between the pre-war and post-war situations, which was demonstrated in the number of varieties for each of the two ecosystems. Despite these changes, and the losses in seed stocks as a consequence of the war, genetic diversity increased in post-war rice varieties.

    AFLP results indicated that rice varieties in Sierra Leone possess different levels of intra-variety variation, which makes it difficult to identify homogenous genotypes at the seed unit level. This was attributed to genetic exchanges caused by farmers’ practices of growing different varieties in mixtures. The variation however does not alter the profile of inter-variety genetic differences, which remains large enough to distinguish one variety from the other. It demonstrates that the genetic composition of rice varieties remains distinct from one another, and that variety names in Sierra Leone are good indicators for genetic diversity of rice at the farm level.
    Gedeeld probleem kan biologische en gangbare landbouw verbinden
    Wijnands, F.G. - \ 2009
    Kennis Online 6 (2009)juli. - p. 4 - 5.
    biologische landbouw - landbouw bedrijven - cultuurmethoden - samenwerking - participatie - onkruidbestrijding - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - kennisoverdracht - kennis van boeren - bemesting - organic farming - farming - cultural methods - cooperation - participation - weed control - plant protection - pesticides - knowledge transfer - farmers' knowledge - fertilizer application
    De biologische landbouw en de gangbare sector gaan samen kennis ontwikkelen en kennis uitwisselen. Dat vraagt LNV althans de komende jaren van de biologische landbouwketens. Wageningse onderzoekers hebben al ervaring met samenwerkende sectoren. De meeste kans op succes heb je als de ondernemers met dezelfde vraag zitten, weet Frank Wijnands, thematrekker Biologische landbouw
    Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline
    Sherwood, S.G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): D.C. Cole. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853169 - 286
    landbouwontwikkeling - boeren - boerenorganisaties - leren - innovatie adoptie - innovaties - landbouwhervorming - aardappelen - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecuador - latijns-amerika - landbouwvoorlichting - kennis van boeren - sociaal leren - agricultural development - farmers - farmers' associations - learning - innovation adoption - innovations - agrarian reform - potatoes - integrated pest management - sustainability - ecuador - latin america - agricultural extension - farmers' knowledge - social learning
    Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development experts and the government targeted the region as a model for agricultural modernisation. Following land reform and rapid organisation around industrial era technologies, potato farming in Carchi boomed during the 1970s, evolving to dominate the landscape and become the major source of livelihoods in the province. By the early 1980s, Carchi came to produce nearly half the national potato harvest on less than a quarter of the country’s area dedicated to the crop. In the early1990s, however, production and productivity began to fall off, leading a growing number of rural families in Carchi to fall into debt and abandon potato farming. The research reported here is the outcome of the author’s ten years of research and development practice in Carchi with the International Potato Center, the FAO’s Global IPM Facility, and World Neighbors. It reflects unfolding experience with different phases of hope, discovery, and ambition. Many aspects of the experience have been published elsewhere (see Appendix A). The resulting dissertation is not a case study in the sense of a case that tests a hypothesis. It is a monograph that attempts to produce a single coherent story over seemingly unrelated events, focusing on a second-generation problem: despite a decade of highly rigorous, scientific research on the pathologies of Carchi and multiple public demonstrations of feasible alternatives, little significant change was achieved.
    Unlocking the potential of contract farming: lessons from Ghana
    Kudadjie-Freeman, C. ; Richards, P. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2008
    London : IIED (Gatekeeper series 139) - 20
    contractlandbouw - boeren - kleine landbouwbedrijven - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - sorghum - landbouwontwikkeling - boerenorganisaties - kennis - ghana - west-afrika - kennis van boeren - contract farming - farmers - small farms - innovations - innovation adoption - sorghum - agricultural development - farmers' associations - knowledge - ghana - west africa - farmers' knowledge
    This paper analyses sorghum contract farming in north-east Ghana in order to explore ways of making such arrangements viable for small farmers. The analysis draws on the convergence of sciences approach, which sees both science and social relations (interactions among the relevant stakeholders) as important for developing small farmer-relevant agricultural innovations (technology, procedures, new forms of organisation). The study reveals that the failure and problems encountered in this particular contracting scheme were both technical and institutional. The technical issues were a combination of pest problems, the environment and the sorghum variety chosen. The institutional issues involved the contractual arrangements and relations between the contracting parties. The authors argue that if contracts are to be fair, they must allow for compensation, contingencies and production risks. But scientific knowledge is required in order to adequately incorporate these elements.
    Talking soil science with farmers
    Tittonell, P.A. ; Misiko, M. ; Ekise, I.E. - \ 2008
    LEISA : ILEIA newsletter for low-external-input and sustainable agriculture 24 (2008)2. - ISSN 1569-8424 - p. 9 - 11.
    bodemvruchtbaarheid - kenya - oost-afrika - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - kennis van boeren - soil fertility - kenya - east africa - soil fertility management - farmers' knowledge
    When agricultural researchers visit farms in order to gather information for their research programmes, farmers rarely get proper feedback. Research information on scientific concepts such as soil fertility and nutrient balances is often considered too abstract for them. Researchers in Kenya returned to farmers to discuss their results in the context of Farmer Field Schools. Through the workshops that ensued, they managed to find a common language to bridge the communication gap.
    Visit to the Nemunas River area (Lihuania) - autumn 2007
    Mulder, J.R. ; Weijschede, T.J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1706) - 81
    waterbeheer - bezoeken - hydrologie - vragenlijsten - overstromingen - hoogwaterbeheersing - litouwen - houding van boeren - waterstand - kennis van boeren - water management - visits - hydrology - questionnaires - floods - flood control - lithuania - farmers' attitudes - water level - farmers' knowledge
    In het voorjaar van 2007 is besloten om het gebied van de Nemunas rivier op de grens van Litouwen en Kalinigrad te bezoeken om boeren te interviewen over het omgaan met hoog water in een vrijwel onbedijkt gebied. Daarnaast is een beeld gevormd van de overstromingsvlakten. Dit rivierengebied overstroomt twee keer per jaar, waarbij de boerderijen en nederzettingen in totaal zo’n twee maanden van de bewoonde wereld zijn afgesloten. Het blijkt dat de noodzaak om samen te werken vanwege het hoge water niet wordt gevoeld
    Eindrapportage Aaltjesmanagement in de vollegrondsgroente 2002-2005
    Korver, R. ; Aasman, B. ; Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. - \ 2005
    [S.l.] : DLV Adviesgroep [etc.] - 14
    akkerbouw - nematodenbestrijding - vollegrondsgroenten - veldgewassen - opbrengst - kwaliteit - kennis van boeren - gewasbescherming - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - arable farming - nematode control - field vegetables - field crops - outturn - quality - farmers' knowledge - plant protection - cultural control
    Het doel van dit project is het ontwikkelen en introduceren van aaltjesmanagement voor bedrijven in de vollegrondgroenteteelt om zodoende de kwaliteit en kwantiteit van de productie te kunnen verbeteren en te waarborgen op lange termijn. Met als subdoel de bewustwording van de vollegrondgroentetelers.
    Convergence of sciences: Creating innovation systems with African farmers
    Huis, A. van - \ 2005
    Accra, Ghana : Combert Impression Ltd - 200
    boeren - innovatie adoptie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - verspreiding van onderzoek - afrika - kennis van boeren - farmers - innovation adoption - agricultural research - diffusion of research - africa - farmers' knowledge
    Inventarisatie behoefte KWIN Boomkwekerij
    Schreuder, R. - \ 2004
    Boskoop : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Bomen - 23
    boomkwekerijen - landbouwstatistieken - toegepaste statistiek - statistische gegevens - innovaties - kennis van boeren - forest nurseries - agricultural statistics - applied statistics - statistical data - innovations - farmers' knowledge
    De oude uitgave van de KWIN (‘Kwantitatieve Informatie’) van de boomkwekerijsector dateert uit 1998. Bij de diverse gebruikers van de KWIN is in een voorstudie nagegaan aan welke gegevens behoefte bestaat. De resultaten worden gebruikt bij het actualiseren van de KWIN.
    Geleide bestrijding van roest in Hypericum, Salix en Malva met het waarschuwingssysteem Rusthy
    Bohne, S. - \ 2003
    Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V.
    siergewassen - hypericum - salix - malva - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - gewasbescherming - geïntegreerde bestrijding - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - schimmelbestrijding - alarmsystemen - kennis van boeren - ornamental crops - hypericum - salix - malva - ornamental woody plants - plant protection - integrated control - plant pathogenic fungi - fungus control - alarms - farmers' knowledge
    In deze praktijkproeven is geprobeerd om kwekers pas te laten spuiten als het waarschuwingssysteem daarvoor een advies uitbrengt. Het doel is ervaring op te doen bij een groep kwekers naar een overgang van regulier of gevoelsmatig bestrijden naar een geïntegreerde bestrijdingswijze. Waarnemingen zijn gedaan in Hypericum androsaemum en H. ‘Cornflakes’ (bedrijf A), in H. calycinum (bedrijven A en C), in H. inodorum en H. inodorum ‘Pinky Flair’ (bedrijf B), in Salix caprea ‘Kilmarnock’ (bedrijven D, E en F), S. arbuscula (bedrijf G) en Malva moschaa ‘Alba’ (bedrijf C).
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