Effect of tillage on earthworms over short- and medium-term in conventional and organic farming
Crittenden, S. ; Eswaramurthy, T. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Brussaard, L. ; Pulleman, M.M. - \ 2014
Applied Soil Ecology 83 (2014). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 140 - 148.
cropping systems - soil-structure - population-dynamics - communities - diversity - abundance - lumbricidae - landscapes - compaction - management
Earthworms play an important role in many soil functions and are affected by soil tillage in agricultural soils. However, effects of tillage on earthworms are often studied without considering species and their interactions with soil properties. Furthermore, many field studies are based on one-time samplings that do not allow for characterisation of temporal variation. The current study monitored the short (up to 53 days) and medium term (up to 4 years) effects of soil tillage on earthworms in conventional and organic farming. Earthworm abundances decreased one and three weeks after mouldboard ploughing in both conventional and organic farming, suggesting direct and indirect mechanisms. However, the medium-term study revealed that earthworm populations in mouldboard ploughing systems recovered by spring. The endogeic species Aporrectodea caliginosa strongly dominated the earthworm community (76%), whereas anecic species remained
Two approaches using traits to assess ecological resilience: A case study on earthworm communities
Lange, H.J. de; Kramer, K. ; Faber, J.H. - \ 2013
Basic and Applied Ecology 14 (2013)1. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 64 - 73.
river floodplains - species traits - wet grassland - biodiversity - diversity - macroinvertebrates - lumbricidae - oligochaeta - populations - pollutants
The relation between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning is a central theme in ecology. Ecological traits of species are often regarded as a link between structure and function, and trait distributions in a community may change in response to environmental stressors. Likewise, resilience in a community may be derived from the diversity in traits and trait values relevant to a particular stressor. We combine two approaches to test this: a novel trait frequency analysis and a multivariate ordination approach. The two methods are applied on a case study of an earthworm community in a frequently flooded floodplain in the Netherlands. Periodic flooding in floodplains restricts population growth and recolonization of earthworms. The strategies employed by different earthworm species for coping with this stress can be described by a combination of ecological traits. From the literature we compiled 10 ecological traits for the earthworm species encountered along an inundation gradient in the Duursche Waarden floodplain area flanking the river IJssel. Trait frequency analysis showed a greater diversity at low elevation sites of traits considered to be associated to flood tolerance, suggesting greater community resilience to flooding. The ordination analysis using trait composition provided information on which trait classes in the community were related with the inundation stress. Results from both analyses showed that important traits in species to deal with flooding are active dispersal, high hydrophily, diapause and parthenogenetic reproduction. Thus, a further understanding of community resilience was gained by combining traditional ordination analysis with trait diversity analysis
Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
Water Research 44 (2010)3. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1017 - 1023.
afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - biologische behandeling - lumbricidae - zuurstofconsumptie - waterzuivering - ontwerp - zuiveringsinstallaties - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - biological treatment - lumbricidae - oxygen consumption - water treatment - design - purification plants - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - lumbriculus-variegatus muller - eating waste sludge - minimization
Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be determined by the sludge consumption rate per unit of surface area. This design parameter was determined in sequencing batch experiments using sludge from a municipal WWTP. Long-term experiments using carrier materials with 300 and 350 µm mesh sizes showed surface specific consumption rates of 45 and 58 g TSS/(m2 d), respectively. Using a 350 µm mesh will therefore result in a 29% smaller reactor compared to using a 300 µm mesh. Large differences in consumption rates were found between different sludge types, although it was not clear what caused these differences. Worm biomass growth and decay rate were determined in sequencing batch experiments. The decay rate of 0.023 d-1 for worms in a carrier material was considerably higher than the decay rate of 0.018 d-1 for free worms. As a result, the net worm biomass growth rate for free worms of 0.026 d-1 was much higher than the 0.009–0.011 d-1 for immobilised worms. Finally, the specific oxygen uptake rate of the worms was determined at 4.9 mg O2/(g ww d), which needs to be supplied to the worms by aeration of the water compartment in the worm reactor
|Slibverwerking met wormen: toepasbaar voor RWZI’s?
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2009
Afvalwaterwetenschap 8 (2009)4. - ISSN 1568-3788 - p. 284 - 292.
afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - biologische technieken - wormen - lumbricidae - economische haalbaarheid - economische analyse - zuiveringsinstallaties - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - biological techniques - helminths - economic viability - economic analysis - purification plants - sludge treatment - aquatic worms
De verwerking van afvalslib uit biologische zuivering van industrieel en huishoudelijk afvalwater is kostbaar en de uiteindelijke verwerkingsmethode is veelal verbranding. Met behulp van aquatische wormen kan de hoeveelheid afvalslib worden gereduceerd, de ontwaterbaarheid ervan worden verbeterd en een gedeelte van de nutriënten worden teruggewonnen door de groei van wormenbiomassa. Een nieuw ontwerp voor een wormenreactor, geschikt voor opschaling, is succesvol getest in het lab. Bij relatief kleine RWZI's is het te verwachten voordeel het grootst, gezien de hoge transportkosten van ingedikt slib naar de centrale slibverwerkingsinstallaties en juist hierin kan veel voordeel behaald worden met een wormenreactor. Het economisch perspectief voor de toepassing van een wormenreactor bij een rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie (RWZI) van 35.000 i.e. wordt in dit artikel beschreven en is veelbelovend. Voor een gedetailleerde haalbaarheidsstudie zijn echter de ervaringen met een pilot reactor nodig, zoals optimalisatie van het indikken van wormenkeutels. Het economisch perspectief van een wormenreactor valt nog veel gunstiger uit wanneer de geproduceerde wormenbiomassa een hoogwaardige toepassing heeft, zoals visvoer voor consumptievis. Dit zou echter slechts een optie voor schone slibsoorten kunnen zijn, zoals die uit bepaalde voedingsindustrieën
Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery
Hendrickx, T.L.G. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman; Hardy Temmink. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853688 - 167
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwijdering - slib - biologische behandeling - lumbricidae - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - waste disposal - sludges - biological treatment - lumbricidae - sludge treatment - aquatic worms
Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower. Additionally it has a distinctive granular structure with improved dewaterability characteristics. If a useful application can be found for the worms that are produced in the predation process, then a valuable product would be obtained from a waste material. Aquatic worms can be used for improved processing of waste sludge and recovery of resources. The waste sludge is produced in biological waste water treatment. In the Netherlands, this sludge is mostly thickened, dried and incinerated. These are costly operations in which only some energy is recovered. Recently, an aquatic worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) was found, which consumes the sludge, grows on it and compacts the non-digested sludge into worm faeces. In a new reactor concept the worms are placed in a mesh, thereby retaining them in the reactor and allowing for separate collection of the compact worm faeces. The latter results in much more efficient processing of the remaining solids, i.e. the worm faeces. Additionally, worm biomass is produced that contains a high protein fraction, offering opportunities for re-use. The thesis describes the scale up of such a worm reactor and the impact it will have on sludge processing
The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, H. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2009
Water Research 43 (2009)4. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 943 - 950.
afvalwaterbehandeling - licht - temperatuur - opgelost zuurstof - ammoniak - lumbricidae - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - light - temperature - dissolved oxygen - ammonia - lumbricidae - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - lumbriculus-variegatus muller - benthic invertebrates - water treatment - toxicity - oligochaete - sediments - metabolism - reduction - exposure
Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a carrier material. For correct sizing and operation of such a worm reactor, the effect of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, ammonia concentration, temperature and light exposure were studied in sequencing batch experiments. DO concentration had an effect on both sludge consumption rate and sludge reduction efficiency. Sludge consumption rate was four times higher at DO concentrations above 8.1 mg/L, when compared to DO concentrations below 2.5 mg/L. Sludge reduction was 36 and 77% at these respective DO concentrations. The effect is most likely the result of a difference in gut residence time. An increase in unionised ammonia concentration drastically decreased the consumption rate. Ammonia is released by the worms at a rate of 0.02 mg N/mg TSS digested; therefore, replacing the effluent in the worm reactor is required to maintain a low ammonia concentration. The highest sludge consumption rates were measured at a temperature around 15 °C, whilst the highest TSS reduction was achieved at 10 °C. Not exposing the worms to light did not affect consumption or digestion rates. High temperatures (above 25 °C) as well as low DO concentrations (below 1 mg/L) in the worm reactor should be avoided as these lead to significant decreases in the number of worms. The main challenges for applying the worm reactor at a larger scale are the supply of oxygen to the worms and maintaining a low ammonia concentration in the worm reactor. Applying a worm reactor at a waste water treatment plant was estimated to increase the oxygen consumption and the ammonia load by 15¿20% and 5% respectively.
Earthworms counterbalance the negative effect of microorganisms on plant diversity and enhance to tolerance of grasses to nematodes
Wurst, S. ; Allema, A.B. ; Duyts, H. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2008
Oikos 117 (2008)5. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 711 - 718.
ground insect herbivory - soil food-web - community structure - early succession - microbial biomass - performance - grassland - productivity - lumbricidae - determinant
Plant community composition is affected by a wide array of soil organisms with diverse feeding modes and functions. Former studies dealt with the high diversity and complexity of soil communities by focusing on particular functional groups in isolation, by grouping soil organisms into body size classes or by using whole communities from different origins. Our approach was to investigate both the individual and the interaction effects of highly abundant soil organisms (microorganisms, nematodes and earthworms) to evaluate their impacts on grassland plant communities. Earthworms increased total plant community biomass by stimulating root growth. Nematodes reduced the biomass of grasses, but this effect was alleviated by the presence of earthworms. Non-leguminous forb biomass increased in the presence of nematodes, probably due to an alleviation of the competitive strength of grasses by nematodes. Microorganisms reduced the diversity and evenness of the plant community, but only in the absence of earthworms. Legume biomass was not affected by soil organisms, but Lotus corniculatus flowered earlier in the presence of microorganisms and the number of flowers decreased in the presence of nematodes. The results indicate that earthworms have a profound impact on the structure of grassland plant communities by counterbalancing the negative effects of plant-feeding nematodes on grasses and by conserving the evenness of the plant community. We propose that interacting effects of functionally dissimilar soil organisms on plant community performance have to be taken into account in future studies, since individual effects of soil organism groups may cancel out each other in functionally diverse soil communities.
Effects of pesticides on soil invertebrates in model ecosystem and field studies: a review and comparison with laboratory toxicity data
Jänsch, S. ; Frampton, G.K. ; Römbke, J. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J. - \ 2006
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25 (2006)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2490 - 2501.
species sensitivity distributions - earthworms - chemicals - tests - collembola - lumbricidae - oligochaeta - sublethal
A systematic review was carried out to investigate the extent to which higher-tier (terrestrial model ecosystem [TME] and field) data regarding pesticide effects can be compared with laboratory toxicity data for soil invertebrates. Data in the public domain yielded 970 toxicity endpoint data sets, representing 71 pesticides and 42 soil invertebrate species or groups. For most pesticides, the most frequent effect class was for no observed effects, although relatively high numbers of pronounced and persistent effects occurred when Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae were exposed to fungicides and when Lumbricidae, Collembola, and Arachnida were exposed to insecticides. No effects of fungicides on Arachnida, Formicidae, or Nematoda or of herbicides on Lumbricidae, Formicidae, or Nematoda were observed in any studies. For most pesticides, higher-tier no-observed-effect concentration or lowest-observed-effect concentration values cannot be determined because of a lack of information at low pesticide concentrations. Ten pesticides had sufficient laboratory data to enable the observed higher-tier effects to be compared with 5% hazardous concentrations (HC5) estimated from acute toxicity laboratory data (atrazine, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, ¿-hexachlorocyclohexane, lambda-cyhalothrin, parathion, pentachlorophenol, and propoxur). In eight cases, higher-tier effects concentrations were within or below the 90% confidence interval of the HC5. Good agreement exists between the results of TME and field tests for carbendazim, but insufficient information is available for a comparison between TME and field studies for other pesticides. Availability and characteristics (e.g., taxonomic composition and heterogeneity) of the higher-tier effects data are discussed in terms of possible developments in risk assessment procedures.
|Bladvertering door regenwormen bevorderen : onderzoek
Heijne, B. ; Anbergen, R.H.N. ; Jager, A. de - \ 2005
De Fruitteelt 95 (2005)6. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 12 - 13.
aardwormen - lumbricidae - bladeren - vermicompostering - gewasbescherming - fruitteelt - boomgaarden - earthworms - lumbricidae - leaves - vermicomposting - plant protection - fruit growing - orchards
In een EU-project werkt PPO-fruit aan de verbetering van de bladvertering door regenwormen. Als het blad verteerd is, is de ziektedruk veel lager
The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts
Rombke, J. ; Jansch, S. ; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2005
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 62 (2005)2 sp. iss.. - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 249 - 265.
ecosystem engineers - southern sweden - heavy-metals - forest soil - populations - lumbricidae - oligochaeta - organisms - profiles - invertebrates
Without doubt, earthworms are the most important soil invertebrates in most soils worldwide, in terms of both biomass and activity. Several species are even considered to be ecosystem engineers. Earthworms are also known to influence soil structure, soil chemistry, and, in particular, processes like organic matter decomposition. In addition, standardized sampling methods are available and their taxonomy is well known (even the first PC-aided keys have been developed). For these reasons, earthworms were recognized as a part of ecological classification and assessment schemes early on. However, due to the relatively small number at many sites, they have to be part of a battery approach. By use of examples from The Netherlands (biological indicator of soil quality) and Germany (soil biological site classification), the practicability of the use of earthworms is demonstrated in determining the influence of different anthropogenic land use forms. In these cases, the structure of the earthworm community, as well as their abundance and biomass, were used as endpoints.
Estimating heavy metal accumulation in oligochaete earthworms: a meta-analysis of field data
Ma, W.C. - \ 2004
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 72 (2004)4. - ISSN 0007-4861 - p. 663 - 670.
smelting complex - sewage-sludge - soil - lead - cadmium - zinc - lumbricidae - calcium - copper - pb
Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2003
In: Bioindicators & Biomonitors-Principles, concepts and applications / Markert, B.A., Breure, A.M., Zechmeister, H.G., Amsterdam : Elsevier - ISBN 9780080441771 - p. 555 - 576.
lumbricidae - aardwormen - bodemverontreiniging - biologische indicatoren - ecotoxicologie - biologische monitoring - lumbricidae - earthworms - soil pollution - biological indicators - ecotoxicology - biomonitoring
Bacterie boosdoener bij wormziekte Identificatie van Serratia odorifera als ziekteverwekker bij de regenworm Dendrobaena veneta
Griep, R. - \ 1999
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 155) - ISBN 9789067545822 - 29
dendrobaena - lumbricidae - dierziekten - serratia - eisenia - aardwormen - rupsenteelt - dendrobaena - lumbricidae - animal diseases - serratia - eisenia - earthworms - vermiculture
|De teelt van aardwormen
Anonymous, - \ 1978
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 4149)
bibliografieën - aardwormen - lumbricidae - rupsenteelt - bibliographies - earthworms - lumbricidae - vermiculture