Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Wadden Sea Quality Status report 2004
    Essink, K. ; Dettmann, C. ; Frake, H. ; Laursen, K. ; Lüerssen, G. ; Wiersinga, W.A. - \ 2005
    Wilhelmshaven, Germany : Common Wadden Sea Secretariat (Wadden Sea ecosystem No. 19) - 359
    ecologie - mariene ecologie - ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - aquatische ecosystemen - waddenzee - aquatische ecologie - ecology - marine ecology - ecosystems - human impact - aquatic ecosystems - wadden sea - aquatic ecology
    The report consists of 13 chapters containing basic information on human activities in the Wadden Sea and on physico-chemical and ecological conditions. Chapter 14 gives a synthesis of ecosystem developments. In Chapter 15, an evaluation is given of the Targets of the Wadden Sea Plan.
    Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest
    Gemerden, B.S. van - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M. Cleef; Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): H. Olff. - - 199
    tropical rain forests - biodiversity - rehabilitation - plant succession - conservation - forest ecology - logging - shifting cultivation - central africa - human impact - disturbance - tropische regenbossen - biodiversiteit - herstel - plantensuccessie - conservering - bosecologie - houtkap - zwerflandbouw - centraal-afrika - menselijke invloed - verstoring
    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selective logging and shifting cultivation. Assessment of the long-term effects of these land uses on plant species composition will provide elements for the identification of effective conservation measures and sustainable forms of forest use.

    Disturbances are relatively discrete events in time that cause high mortality of biomass and change the structure of populations, communities or ecosystems. Individual plants and species differ in their ability to claim the previously utilised space and resources, and therefore disturbance events may cause (temporary) shifts in species composition and diversity. In large parts of the African rain forest biome, the most important natural disturbance regime is gap-phase dynamics in which relatively small canopy openings are made by falling branches or trees. Larger-scale disturbances such as landslides, volcanic activity and large-scale river dynamics, have been extremely rare during the last millennia. Therefore, the present set of species is likely to be adapted to disturbance regimes characterised by frequent small-scale disturbances. Analogous to gap-phase dynamics, human land use can be considered as a disturbance. However, human induced disturbances are generally larger, more frequent and more severe. As a result, human land use may have long-term impacts on plant species composition and diversity.

    The fieldwork for this thesis was conducted in the main research site of the Tropenbos-Cameroon Programme; an area of 2000 km 2 of forestland in South Cameroon Vegetation was sampled in old growth forest, logging gaps of 5, 14 and 27 years old, and in abandoned shifting cultivation fields of 10-20, 30-40 and 50-60 years old. Within plots, all terrestrial vascular plants (including all growth forms) were recorded. In total 10.1 ha was surveyed allowing the detailed analysis of human impact on full plant species composition. Much effort was devoted to plant identification and in total some 11 000 herbarium vouchers were collected, processed and sent to specialists for identification. Voucher material was stored in theNationaalHerbarium Nederland - WageningenUniversity branch and in the IRAD/TropenbosField Herbarium inKribi. Some 75% of the plants in the survey identified to species level and an additional 20% was systematically categorised asmorphospecies. In total 1264 species were identified to species level. These included 261 species with ranges restricted to Lower Guinea (South Nigeria - Gabon) of which 51 are confined to the rain forest region of Cameroon.

    Tropical rain forests are often regarded as being undisturbed by humans. In Chapter 2, we analyse the disturbance history of 16 ha of structurally complex and species-rich 'old growth' rain forest (data collected by forestry research project of theTropenbos-Cameroon Programme). The recruitment preference of tree species along a disturbance gradient, ranging from shifting cultivation fields, to canopy gaps and old growth forest, was compared to present-day tree species composition. In nine plots out of 16, older (larger) trees preferred shifting cultivation fields for recruitment while younger trees recruited in small canopy gaps and under closed canopy. These results indicate that these plots once experienced a disturbance regime that included larger-scale disturbances. Combined, the pattern of disturbed and undisturbed plots, the high frequency of charcoal in the forest soil and anthropological data strongly suggest that humans caused these disturbances. The estimated date of these disturbances is 300-400 years ago. Surprisingly, species richness at larger scales was found to be lower in historically disturbed sites compared to undisturbed sites. Therefore, present-day species composition and diversity of old growth forests still reflects historical human impacts.

    Outside protected areas, forests are subject to logging and shifting cultivation and secondary forests are therefore becoming important in many Central African landscapes. Chapter 3 examines the potential of secondary vegetation to contribute to biodiversity conservation. The results indicate that vegetation recovery in logging plots and abandoned shifting cultivation fields is relatively quick, and in most aspects surprisingly complete. A notable exception is the poor recovery of endemics in shifting cultivation fields. We found that even after 60 years the proportion of endemic species was still significantly lower than in old growth forest. In light of the fast recovery of all other vegetation characteristics (including species richness and floristic composition), we conclude that secondary vegetation can contribute biodiversity conservation e.g. as buffer zones around protected areas.

    In Chapter 4, we analyse the relative importance of local and regional processes for structuring species composition during succession. Local processes refer to the ability of species to compete successfully with other species and avoid predation and pathogen attack. Regional processes refer to dispersal and colonisation. Both processes have been suggested to explain the typically high species richness in tropical rain forests. Our results indicate that local processes are especially important during the early stages of succession, whereas regional processes are especially important during the later stages. However, large differences were observed between different species groups. Regional processes mainly governed composition of large tree species (maximum height ≥ 15 m). A similar but smaller effect was observed in small tree species (3-15 m) and shrub species. Local processes structured composition of terrestrial herb species. In general, woody and non-woody climbers were widely distributed generalists with a very similar set of species occurring in all landscape mosaics and in all succession stages. The differences between species groups implies that effective conservation management requires insight in the importance of local and regional processes for the recruitment of target species (e.g. endemic species). A blanket conservation treatment for all species is unlikely to address adequately the specific sensitivity of species with high conservation value to habitat quality and habitat fragmentation.

    The general lack of information on biodiversity patterns is a serious problem for conservation planning in most tropical rain forest regions. With ongoing habitat destruction, conservation priorities must be identified quickly. Therefore optimal use should be made of all currently available sources of information. However, direct comparison of results is problematic if assessment methods differ. In Chapter 5, we make a first attempt to reconcile different assessments by taking into account their methodological differences. The key factors affecting the general shape and position of the species-area curve found through partial sampling are (1) the total extent in which observations are made, (2) the spatial distribution of the observations, (3) the proportion of the total extent sampled, (4) the proportion of the individuals in the sampled area that was included in the survey, and (5) the proportion of the included individuals that was successfully identified. Through simulations, the effects of partial sampling of these factors on observed species richness was identified. To test the method, we compared four botanical surveys conducted in the same area of lowland old growth rain forest. The surveys included were (1) reconnaissance scale vegetation survey, (2) detailed botanical assessment (100% individuals), (3) incomplete botanical assessment (10% individuals), and (4) herbarium collections. Correcting for partial sampling and scaling the results to extent greatly increased the comparability between assessments. This first attempt to reconcile methodologically different surveys suggests that species -area relations can be reconstructed from incomplete sample data if the key characteristics of the methods can be statistically described. The study provides an outline for optimising the use of existing datasets in the evaluation of conservation needs in tropical rain forest areas.

    In Chapter 6, I present an overview of the main effects of human land use on plant diversity in Central African forest. Rain forests are highly dynamic on all spatial and temporal scales. Present-day species composition and diversity reflects their cumulativebiogeographicalhistory. Therefore both present-day and historical disturbance regimes should be considered to understand current patterns of diversity and to predict its responses to future disturbances. The biotic andabioticprocesses that influence diversity vary with the scale of organisation of biological and ecological systems (i.e. community, ecosystem, landscape,region). While human land use obviously disrupts local communities, the impact of humans is also evident on much larger scales. As a result of large-scale forest degradation, fragmentation and global climate change, species composition of most Central African rain forests is likely to undergo changes in the near future. Conservation management should aim at increasing the survival chances of endemic species and species with poor dispersal capacity. In light of the present ecological insights and the uncertainty of the upcoming climate changes, it seems wise to invest in large networks of protected areas. Moreover, it is unlikely that areas managed for timber production will be beneficial for the conservation of characteristic plant diversity unless damage control is rigid. The expected increase in seasonality in large parts of Central Africa, combined with forest fragmentation and canopy opening, is likely to increase the abundance of pioneer species while species of concern to conservation are likely to decline. To increase the effectiveness of conservation management, insight is required in the mechanisms that make species and forest systems vulnerable to human induced disturbances, including global climate change.
    Human influences
    Lanen, H.A.J. van; Kasparek, L. ; Novicky, O. ; Querner, E.P. ; Fendeková, M. ; Kupczyk, E. - \ 2004
    In: Hydrological drought. Processes and estimation methods for streamflow and groundwater / Tallaksen, L.M., van Lanen, H.A.J., Amsterdam : Elsevier (Developments in Water Science 48) - ISBN 9780444516886 - p. 347 - 410.
    droogte - hydrologische factoren - menselijke invloed - drought - hydrological factors - human impact
    Human activities can cause drought, which was not previously reported (man-induced hydrological drought). Groundwater abstractions for domestic and industrial use are a well-known example of such an environmental change
    Hunter and hunted
    Broekhuizen, S. - \ 2003
    Lutra 46 (2003)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 75 - 76.
    vleesetende dieren - prooi - predator prooi verhoudingen - boekbesprekingen - menselijke invloed - carnivores - prey - predator prey relationships - book reviews - human impact
    Bespreking van het nieuwste boek van Hans Kruuk (University Press Cambridge, 2002) over landroofdieren en de invloed die ze hebben op hun prooidiersoorten, inclusief de mens, en over de invloed die de mens heeft en heeft gehad op de landroofdieren
    Recreatie en biodiversiteit in balans; een ruimtelijke benadering
    Vos, C.C. ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Pouwels, R. - \ 2003
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 20 (2003)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 3 - 13.
    openluchtrecreatie - natuurbescherming - fauna - populaties - vogels - monitoring - bedrijfsvoering - duinen - menselijke invloed - outdoor recreation - nature conservation - birds - fauna - populations - monitoring - management - dunes - human impact
    In Nederland streeft men ernaar natuurgebieden zo veel mogelijk open te stellen voor recreatie. Recreatie kan echter een extra stressfactor betekenen voor kleine en versnipperde populaties. Dat kan de duurzame instandhouding van soorten in gevaar brengen. Het combineren van recreatie en natuur vraagt daarom om een goede balans. In dit artikel wordt een beleidsinstrument gepresenteerd waarmee de effecten van recreatie en de effectiviteit van recreatiezonering zijn verkend.
    Will reactivation of the Iron Rhine railroad decrease survival of badgers (Meles meles) in Meinweg National Park, the Netherlands
    Grift, E.A. van der; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2002
    Lutra 45 (2002)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 29 - 48.
    dassen (zoogdieren) - meles meles - spoorwegen - railtransport - natuurbescherming - dierecologie - ecologie - populatie-ecologie - netwerkanalyse - nederland - netwerken - midden-limburg - menselijke invloed - dassen - fauna - infrastructuur - landschapsecologie - natuurgebied - populatiebiologie - spoorweg - versnippering - zoogdieren - Limburg - IJzeren Rijn - Meinweg - badgers - meles meles - railways - rail transport - nature conservation - animal ecology - ecology - population ecology - network analysis - netherlands - human impact - networks - midden-limburg - fauna
    Met verschillende variaties is het effect van hergebruik van een goederenspoorlijn op de ontwikkeling van een dassenpopulatie in Midden-Limburg onderzocht
    Van buiten word je beter : een essay over de relatie tussen natuur en gezondheid
    Berg, A.E. van den; Berg, M.M.H.E. van den - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra - 55
    natuurbescherming - perceptie - mens - geestelijke gezondheid - natuur - menselijke invloed - gezondheid - maatschappijwetenschap - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - perception - man - mental health - nature - human impact
    Ecological and economic impacts of gorilla-based tourism in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic
    Blom, A. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; A.M.H. Brunsting. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084101 - 165
    gorilla's - toerisme - natuurtoerisme - milieueffect - economische impact - wild - centraal-afrikaanse republiek - beschermde gebieden - menselijke invloed - gorillas - tourism - nature tourism - environmental impact - economic impact - wildlife - central african republic - reserved areas - human impact

    This thesis investigates the potential role of tourism in the funding of protected area management in the Congo Basin. An assessment of the protected areas and gazetted forests of the Central African Republic (CAR) showed that only about one third of the protected areas is more or less effectively managed. Almost all the gazetted forest and the remainder of the protected areas are insufficiently protected from human disturbance, which is mostly in the form of poaching. This example underlines the fact that long term under-financing of the management has seriously affected the integrity of protected areas in the Congo Basin. Even in relatively well managed areas, such as the Dzanga-Sangha protected area complex, in southwestern CAR, human impact on wildlife can still be measured and is related to the distance from roads.

    The costs of management to effectively protect the forests of the Congo Basin are high. The potential role that tourism could play in raising revenue for management and for the local communities was investigated based on the case study of ape viewing in Dzanga-Sangha. Ape-viewing is a high return type of tourism and conditions to develop such tourism in Dzanga-Sangha were good. The area harbors high densities of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and several previous studies on these apes had been carried out. In order for visitors to be able to view the apes they needed to be habituated to human presence. This thesis shows that habituation of gorillas for tourism is feasible. Although feasible, the habituation process requires a substantial investment in time and money and is not without risks. It is unlikely that tourism, including ape-viewing, will be economically viable from a commercial point of view. It is unlikely that revenue form tourism will cover the management cost of the Dzanga-Sangha protected area now or in the foreseeable future. Even though tourism can bring important gains to the region, such as revenue and employment, managers have to carefully weigh these advantages against the apes' well being and the risky economics of tourism in Central Africa.

    Given the fact that Dzanga-Sangha provides one of the best opportunities for this type of tourism in the Congo Basin and that even here the economic success is highly questionable, it is unlikely to be a realistic option in but a few exceptional places in this part of the world. This case study clearly demonstrates that although some user fees have the potential to generate substantial revenue for protected areas in the Congo Basin, these fees will be far from sufficient to manage the protected area system.

    Soil Degradation and vulnerability assessment for Central and Eastern Europe - Preliminary Results of the SOVEUR Project
    Batjes, N.H. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : FAO, RISSA, ISRIC (FAO Report 2000/04) - 99
    bodem - bodemdegradatie - bodemverontreiniging - beoordeling - cartografie - gegevens verzamelen - informatiesystemen - milieueffect - centraal-europa - menselijke invloed - soil - soil degradation - soil pollution - assessment - mapping - data collection - information systems - environmental impact - central europe - human impact
    Between the tides: The impact of human exploitation on an intertidal ecosystem, Mozambique
    Boer, W.F. de - \ 2000
    University of Groningen. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; R.H. Drent. - Veenendaal : Universal Press - ISBN 9789036712835 - 268
    aquatisch milieu - mozambique - visserijbiologie - menselijke invloed - wadden - aquatische ecosystemen - aquatic environment - mozambique - fishery biology - human impact - tidal flats - aquatic ecosystems
    Comparing recent and abandoned shell middens to detect the impact of human exploitation on the intertidal ecosystem
    Boer, W.F. de; Pereira, T. ; Guissamulo, A. - \ 2000
    Aquatic Ecology 34 (2000). - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 287 - 297.
    schaaldieren - aquatische gemeenschappen - ecosystemen - populatie-ecologie - mozambique - aquatische ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - shellfish - aquatic communities - ecosystems - population ecology - mozambique - aquatic ecosystems - human impact
    Abandoned and recent shell middens were compared from Inhaca island, Mozambique, to investigate the impact of human exploitation. The growing human population was expected to increase the exploitation pressure, decrease the mean shell size, and increase the species diversity. Moreover, exploitation-vulnerable species were expected to disappear from recent middens. 29252 shells were collected from 6 recent and 8 abandoned middens, comprising 78 species, the majority bivalves. Pinctada nigra was the most abundant. The mean shell size was significantly smaller in recent middens, and the conspicuous, surface-dwelling gastropod Terebralia palustris showed the largest size reduction. Size reduction was related with the life history of the species. Older, abandoned middens had a larger species richness, refuting the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. The species composition of recent and abandoned middens was relatively similar, which was probably caused by low human exploitation pressure and the substrate characteristics. The disappearance of the mussel Perna perna was thought to be related to overexploitation
    Gateway to the Global Garden : Beta/Gamma Science for Dealing with Ecological Rationality
    Röling, N.G. - \ 2000
    Guelph : University of Guelph (Annual Hopper lecture 8) - ISBN 9780889555105 - 51
    milieubeheer - ecosystemen - kennis - duurzame ontwikkeling - sociologie - menselijke invloed - natuur - environmental management - ecosystems - knowledge - sustainable development - sociology - human impact - nature
    Life on the edge : hedgehog traffic victims and mitigation strategies in an anthropogenic landscape
    Huijser, M.P. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; K.V. Sýkora; N.J. Reeve. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083012 - 165
    erinaceus europaeus - landbouwgrond - habitats - wegen - verkeer - populatiedynamica - ecologie - mortaliteit - bescherming - wildbeheer - nederland - menselijke invloed - cultuurlandschap - habitatfragmentatie - erinaceus europaeus - agricultural land - habitats - roads - traffic - population dynamics - ecology - mortality - protection - wildlife management - netherlands - human impact - cultural landscape - habitat fragmentation

    This study focused on the most frequently recorded mammal species in road-kill surveys in western Europe: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Investigations were conducted in an anthropogenic landscape and had two major aims:

    1. to quantify the effects of traffic mortality at individual, population, and species levels, and
    2. to explore how the number of traffic victims could be reduced through changes in the landscape in areas adjacent to roads.

    The negative effects of roads and traffic were particularly clear at the individual level, and one could consider this reason enough to take mitigating actions. In addition, hedgehogs are likely to be affected at the population level. However, at the species level, the hedgehog has mostly benefited from many of the human-induced changes in the landscape. The way people manage the landscape seems to be the key factor in determining the long term future of the species. Manipulation of certain landscape features can be used to make wildlife passages more effective and also to keep hedgehogs away from road sections between passages.

    Key words - agricultural lands, anthropogenic landscape, barriers, behaviour, body weight, compensation, corridor, disease, edge habitat, Erinaceus europaeus, footprints, habitat fragmentation, habitat selection, hedgehog, hedgerow, human impact, injury, landscape changes, mating strategy, mitigation, mortality, nest sites, The Netherlands, population density, relative population density, road density, road-kills, roads, traffic intensity, traffic victims, urban wildlife, vegetation, vehicle clearance, wildlife passages.

    Viability of hedgehog populations in central Netherlands
    Bergers, P.J.M. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 1999
    Lutra 42 (1999). - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 65 - 76.
    erinaceidae - erinaceus europaeus - doodsoorzaken - mortaliteit - verkeer - habitats - bevolkingsafname - wegbermen - expertsystemen - nederland - menselijke invloed - gelderland - flevoland - erinaceidae - erinaceus europaeus - causes of death - mortality - traffic - habitats - population decrease - roadsides - expert systems - netherlands - human impact - gelderland - flevoland
    I.v.m. het hoge aantal verkeersslachtoffers onder egels vraagt men zich af dit kan leiden tot het uitsterven van locale of regionale populaties. Hiertoe is een duurzaamheidsanalyse uitgevoerd met het expertsysteem LARCH op en rond de Veluwe en Flevoland
    The location of hedgehog traffic victims in relation to landscape features
    Huijser, M.P. ; Bergers, P.J.M. ; Braak, C.J.F. ter - \ 1999
    Lutra 42 (1999)1. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 57 - 58.
    Erinaceidae - Erinaceus europaeus - doodsoorzaken - schade - fauna - menselijk gedrag - landschap - habitats - Nederland - menselijke invloed - causes of death - damage - human behaviour - landscape - Netherlands - human impact
    Kort bericht omtrent een studie naar de invloed van omgevingsfactoren en wegkarakteristieken op het aantal verkeersslachtoffers onder egels
    Habitat fragmentation and infrastructure: a review of the proceedings of a European and a North American conference
    Huijser, M.P. ; Grift, E.A. van der; Bekker, G.J. - \ 1999
    Lutra 42 (1999)1-2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 43 - 45.
    zoogdieren - habitats - habitat vernietiging - infrastructuur - overzichten - menselijke invloed - natuur - mammals - habitats - habitat destruction - infrastructure - reviews - human impact - nature
    Voor veel dier- en plantensoorten leidt de aanwezigheid en het gebruik van infrastructuur tot een afname in het aantal geschikte leefgebieden. De resterende gebieden raken bovendien steeds kleiner en meer van elkaar geisoleerd. Beide congressen handelen over dit verschijnsel: habitat versnippering
    Een verkennende beschouwing over grondhoudingen, natuurbeelden en natuurvisies in relatie tot draagvlak voor natuur
    Molenaar, J.G. de - \ 1998
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 111
    samenleving - interacties - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - ideologie - kennis - perceptie - landschap - filosofie - natuur - menselijke invloed - society - interactions - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - ideology - knowledge - perception - landscape - philosophy - nature - human impact
    Political ecology, mountain agriculture, and knowledge in Honduras
    Jansen, K. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; D. Gibbon. - Amsterdam : Thela - ISBN 9789055380305 - 277
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - bescherming - herstel - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - landbouw - ecologie - biogeografie - hydrobiologie - milieu - mens - milieueffect - sociologie - sociale klassen - boeren - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - bedrijfssystemen - gebergten - honduras - menselijke invloed - sustainability - natural resources - resource utilization - protection - rehabilitation - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - water pollution - agriculture - ecology - biogeography - hydrobiology - environment - man - environmental impact - sociology - social classes - farmers - farm management - farm planning - farming systems - mountains - honduras - human impact

    The social and biophysical processes entailed in environmental deterioration are the subject of intense debate in Honduras, one of the poorest countries of Latin America. This book analyses the political ecology of precarious farming in mountainous areas. The author evaluates a rich array of social and agronomic data in order to assess existing theories that purport to explain environmental deterioration and agrarian change in Honduras. It explores the relationships between land tenure patterns, shifting agricultural practices, changing social relations of production, and producers' knowledge. Special attention is given to differential perceptions and responses of producers to environmental deterioration, and to the broader knowledge struggles of different actors about issues such as burning, the fallow crisis, biocide use, and deforestation. This detailed case study draws on political economy, human ecology, critical realism, and social constructionism and constitutes an original contribution to current debates on political ecology.

    The central argument of this book is that land degradation through present agricultural practices is not simply an effect of poverty, inconsiderate acting or a direct consequence of a modernisation process which is orchestrated and imposed upon the Honduran peasantry by external capitalist development. Instead, the social causation of environmental change in mountainous areas of Honduras should be understood in terms of a complex mixture of local patterns of access to resources, forms of state intervention, the heterogeneous paths of technological change and knowledge generation, divisions of labour, and the specific interactions of emerging commodity markets and the organization of production.

    Chapter two focuses on issues of land tenure and property rights. It compares local histories of land distribution in El Zapote with widely used models of the latifundio-minifundio complex and the colonial legacy of the large landholding. Subsequently, it explores how local rules and cultural notions, local government and state laws, and state interventions through land reform and land titling projects, mediate the relation between people and the land. Conclusions deal with the multiple land histories which explain the complexity of conflicts, and with the many factors shaping the meaning villagers attribute to the value of land.

    Chapter three explores technological changes in crop production and cattle husbandry and compares the findings in El Zapote with recent studies dealing with heterogeneity and diversity in agriculture, thus criticizing approaches which maintain a duality of traditional and modern agricultural technology. It stresses the recognition of the multiplicity of factors causing technological change.

    This exploration of technological change serves as a starting point for the discussion of how different environmental problems are perceived by different actors. Chapter four identifies different perspectives on the fallow crisis, the use of fire to clear fields, vegetation and climatic change, and the use of new agro-chemicals. It deals with the paradox that agronomy cannot encompass the many factors involved in environmental deterioration, but that an alternative strategy of validating producers' environmental perceptions cannot provide a coherent theory of the causes of environmental deterioration as well.

    In Chapters two, three, and four, it will be shown that environmental behaviour and perceptions about environmental change relate to access to, and distribution of, resources. Chapter five gives further consideration to the different aspects of the social relations of production in El Zapote, in order to understand the processes of social differentiation.

    Chapter six broadens the issue of social differentiation with a discussion of local agricultural knowledge. The argument is put forward that we need an understanding of both the practical character of knowledge, (that local knowledge generation responds to environment and social context), and its discursive character. Knowledge is not only embedded in narratives on the epistemological level, but also in concrete natural environments and social relations. An important conclusion is that current `local knowledge approaches' overestimate the potential of local knowledge for environmental conservation or restoration.

    The concluding chapter starts by commenting on various explanations of environmental deterioration in Honduran mountain agriculture. Using the case study of El Zapote it presents an alternative explanation with the main argument that a linear relation between the distribution of the means of production and labour relations on the one hand, and use of the environment on the other, cannot be justified, but that, nevertheless, an inquiry into changing patterns of social differentiation may provide insight into important mechanisms of human interaction with nature. The final section challenges theoretical (epistemological and ontological) confusions about social and biophysical causation of environmental deterioration in environmental social science.

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    Thela Publishers Amsterdam
    16.5 x 24 cm
    288 pages
    ISBN 90-5538-030-X
    £13.95/US$26.50/ƒ39.50

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    Relationships between forest condition and natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the European scale : pilot study
    Klap, J.M. ; Vries, W. de; Erisman, J.W. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre (SC report 150) - 245
    bosbouw - bosschade - bosplagen - achteruitgang, bossen - afsterving - luchtverontreiniging - gassen - zure regen - bodemchemie - anorganische verbindingen - mineralen - meteorologie - onderzoek - europa - bosbescherming - bospathologie - menselijke invloed - forestry - forest damage - forest pests - forest decline - dieback - air pollution - gases - acid rain - soil chemistry - inorganic compounds - minerals - meteorology - research - europe - protection of forests - forest pathology - human impact
    DASSIM, een simulatiemodel voor de evaluatie van verkeersscenario's: calibratie en validatie
    Apeldoorn, R.C. van; Verboom, J. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 1997
    Delft : Rijkswaterstaat DWW - 59
    verspreiding - Mustelidae - ecologie - diergedrag - gewoonten - overheidsdiensten - transport - ongevallen - dieren - fauna - schade - wegen - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - Nederland - kalibratie - diergemeenschappen - menselijke invloed - dispersal - Mustelidae - ecology - animal behaviour - habits - public services - transport - accidents - animals - fauna - damage - roads - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - Netherlands - calibration - animal communities - human impact
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