Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Reductie van ammoniak- en methaanemissie via het voerspoor : onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen de excretie van Totaal Ammoniakaal Stikstof (TAN) en de emissie van enterisch methaan (CH4) op de Koeien&Kansen praktijkbedrijven in de periode 2010-2013
    Spek, J.W. ; Klop, A. ; Šebek, L.B. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien en kansen nr. 79) - 19
    ammoniakemissie - methaan - emissiereductie - rundveevoeding - ammonia emission - methane - emission reduction - cattle feeding
    Assessing methane emission from dairy cows : modeling and experimental approaches on rumen microbial metabolism
    Lingen, Henk J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): W.H. Hendriks, co-promotor(en): J. Dijkstra; A. Bannink; C.M. Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431590 - 207
    dairy cows - methane - emission - microbial degradation - rumen metabolism - rumen fermentation - models - fatty acids - biochemical pathways - animal nutrition - nutrition physiology - melkkoeien - methaan - emissie - microbiële afbraak - pensmetabolisme - pensfermentatie - modellen - vetzuren - biochemische omzettingen - diervoeding - voedingsfysiologie

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) with a global warming potential of 28 CO2 equivalents. The livestock sector was estimated to emit 7.1 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalents, which is approximately 14.5% of total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Enteric CH4 production is the main source of GHG emissions from dairy cattle, representing 46% of the global GHG emissions in dairy supply chains. Dairy production has great value in view of the ability of ruminants to effectively turn human inedible biomass into human edible food and to produce food from non-arable land. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop strategies to decrease dairy cattle enteric CH4 emission. Evaluation of these strategies requires meticulous quantification and increased understanding of anaerobic fermentation and methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. The overall aim of this PhD research was, therefore, to quantitatively evaluate enteric CH4 emission from dairy cows as affected by feeding and rumen microbial metabolism.

    A meta-analysis was performed to quantify relationships between enteric CH4 yield (per unit of feed and unit of milk) and milk FA profile in dairy cattle and to develop equations to predict CH4 yield based on milk FA profile of cows fed a wide variety of diets. Various milk FA concentrations were significantly or tended to be positively or negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed or milk. Mixed model multiple regression resulted in various milk FA included in optimal equations to predict CH4 yield per unit of feed and per unit of milk. These regression equations indicated a moderate potential for using milk FA profile to predict CH4 yield.

    For the development of a mechanistic model of CH4 production in the rumen, the thermodynamic control of pH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, NADH oxidation and methanogenesis was theoretically explored. This control was determined using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT), which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. The thermodynamic feasibility of these microbial conversions showed that the control of pH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of H2 and CH4 cannot be explained without considering NADH oxidation, with a considerable effect of pH.

    For obtaining experimental support of the conclusions drawn from the theoretical exploration, diurnal patterns of gaseous and dissolved metabolite concentrations in the bovine rumen, H2 and CH4 emitted, and the rumen microbiota were monitored. In addition, the effect of dietary inclusion of linseed oil on these patterns was assessed. An in vivo experiment with rumen cannulated dairy cows was performed to study the anaerobic metabolism and the microbiota composition in the rumen. A 100-fold increase in pH2 in the rumen headspace was observed at 0.5 h after feeding, followed by a decline. Qualitatively similar patterns after feeding were observed for H2 and CH4 emission, ethanol and lactate concentrations, and propionate molar proportion, whereas an opposite pattern was seen for acetate molar proportion. Associated with these patterns, a temporal biphasic change in the microbial composition was observed as based on 16S ribosomal RNA with certain taxa specifically associated with each phase. Bacterial concentrations were affected by time and increased by linseed oil supplementation. Archaeal concentrations tended to be affected by time and were not affected by diet, despite linseed oil supplementation tending to decrease the partial pressure and emission of CH4 and tending to increase propionate molar proportion. The various diurnal profiles that were monitored support the key role of the NAD+ to NADH ratio in rumen fermentation and the importance of diurnal dynamics when understanding VFA, H2 and CH4 production.

    A dynamic mechanistic model was developed, in which the thermodynamic control of pH2 on VFA fermentation pathways, and methanogenesis in the bovine rumen are incorporated. The model represents substrate degradation, microbial fermentation and methanogenesis in the rumen, with the type of VFA formed to be controlled by the NAD+ to NADH ratio, which in turn is controlled by pH2. Feed composition and feed intake rate representing a twice daily feeding regime were used as model input. The model predicted a marked peak in pH2 after feeding that rapidly declined in time. This peak in pH2 caused a decrease in NAD+ to NADH ratio followed by an increased propionate molar proportion at the expense of acetate molar proportion. In response to feeding, the model predicted a sudden increase and a steady decrease in CH4 production in time. The pattern of CH4 emission rate followed the patterns of pH2 and H2 emission rate, but its magnitude of increase in response to feeding was less pronounced. A global sensitivity analysis indicated the parameter that determines the NADH oxidation rate to explain the most substantial part of the variation of predicted daily CH4 emission. The modeling effort provides the integration of more detailed knowledge than accomplished in previous rumen fermentation models and enables assessment of diurnal dynamics of rumen metabolic pathways yielding VFA, H2 and CH4.

    For assessing the general value of the research reported in this thesis, the potential for predicting enteric CH4 emission from dairy cattle based on milk FA profile was discussed in the light of published studies and compared with empirical modeling of enteric CH4 based on feed input. Moreover, the concept of NAD-controlled fermentation was considered in a more general perspective by comparing the rumen ecosystem with bioreactor systems. Furthermore, the feasibility of the developed models as an alternative for IPCC tiered approaches was explored. In conclusion, the research reported in this thesis contributes to an increased understanding of rumen fermentation and microbial metabolism, and has provides a basis to further improve prediction models of enteric CH4 emissions from dairy cattle.

    Browse species from Ethiopia: role in methane reduction and nematode control in goats
    Mengistu, Genet F. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579767 - 130
    goats - browsing - nematode control - methane - anthelmintic properties - browse plants - ethiopia - geiten - afgrazen - nematodenbestrijding - methaan - wormdrijvende eigenschappen - graasplanten - ethiopië

    The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to evaluate browse species collected from Ethiopia for preference by goats, and for their in vitro anthelmintic and methane (CH4) reduction properties. During the conduct of the studies observations were made warranting a further aim, to compare in vitro fermentation patterns of browse species using inocula from goats and cows kept on identical dietary regime.

    The preference of browse species using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy and in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG), relationships between browse species intake and chemical composition were determined in Chapter 2. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days were conducted using goats receiving a daily ration of grass hay and wheat bran, without (trial 1) or with (trial 2) the inclusion of PEG. Preference measured as the first 10 min browse DMI differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (P<0.0001). Browse with higher tannin content, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Preference appeared to be based on digestible fibre fraction, hemicellulose rather than tannin levels in the browse species.

    Extracts of the 10 browse species were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Chapter 3). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was applied using H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) in a dose dependent manner with extract concentrations of 0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 µg/ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The role of polyphenols in the inhibition against L3 was evaluated using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). All browse extracts significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited larval exsheathment in a dose dependent manner with the dose required to inhibit 50% of the L3 (EC50) being highest in C. farinosa and lowest in E. racemosa and M. senegalensis. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone treated A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, M. angolensis, R. natalensis and D. cinerea were different (P<0.001) from the control (only PBS), indicating that larval inhibition was largely due to non-phenolic compounds. Absence of significant differences between PVPP treated E. racemosa, M. senegalensis, D. angustifolia and S. singueana, and control suggest that inhibition was mostly attributable to tannins and other polyphenols. Browse species anthelmintic property against H. contortus L3 was due to the presence of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds.

    In vitro gas production (GP), CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of the 10 browse species were determined using PEG 6000 in Chapter 4. Proanthocyanidins (PA) were quantified using a modified HCl-butanol method and PA composition was determined by UPLC-DAD, with detection of other polyphenols by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Substrates were inoculated in buffered goat rumen fluid with or without PEG 6000 for 72 h to measure GP with head space gas sample measurements taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h for CH4. At the end of incubation, VFA, ammonia (NH3) and IVOMD were determined. Increased (P<0.0001) GP, CH4 and total VFA were observed after PEG addition indicating PA were mainly involved in reducing methanogenesis and to a lower extent also overall fermentability. Prodelphinidins were the major explaining factors for this reduction but other polyphenols like quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol were also involved in CH4 reduction. The effect of PEG addition on IVOMD was variable among browse and could be due to artefacts from the tannin-PEG complexes in the incubation residue. Proanthocyanidins were mainly responsible for the reduced in vitro fermentative activities with possible minor effects of other phenolic and non-phenolic components.

    Due to unusual fermentation patterns observed in Chapter 4, a comparison was made between goat and cow inocula on in vitro gas and CH4 production and kinetics parameters as well as VFA production in Chapter 5. Leaves of A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, D. cinerea, R. natalensis, freeze-dried maize and grass silage, and a concentrate were inoculated for 72 h to measure GP, in buffered inocula from goats and cows kept on an identical feeding regime. During incubation, headspace gas samples were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h, and analysed for CH4 with VFA determined at the end of incubation. A triphasic and monophasic modified Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the cumulative GP and CH4 curves, respectively. Total GP and CH4 (P<0.0001), half-time for asymptotic (P<0.012) and rate (P<0.0001) of GP were higher for goat inoculum. The total VFA were higher (P<0.0001) in goats and the proportion of individual VFA differed significantly (P<0.002) between animal species. Differences between goat and cow inocula were attributable to variation in the activity and composition of the microbial population, and differences were more pronounced for fermentation of browse species than grass and maize silages.

    A synthesis of the results from the four research chapters is provided in the general discussion (Chapter 6). The present work highlights the browse species characteristics which can be strategically exploited in goat production systems to improve health and feed utilization efficiency.

    Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane : final report
    Peters, Daan ; Zabeti, Masoud ; Kühner, Ann-Kathri ; Spöttle, Matthias ; Werf, Wopke van der; Stomph, Jan - \ 2016
    Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 39
    methane - biofuels - sequential cropping - farmers' associations - biogas - ancillary enterprises - farm management - agricultural energy production - transport - biobased economy - fuel crops - biomass production - methaan - biobrandstoffen - estafetteteelt - boerenorganisaties - biogas - nevenactiviteiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - energieproductie in de landbouw - transport - biobased economy - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie
    In recent years and especially since the COP - 21 climate agreement reached in Paris last year, efforts to mitigate climate change accelerate. All sectors need to contribute in order to achieve the well below 2 degree climate target. The agricultural sector is relevant for climate change in various ways. Like the agricultural sector, the transport sector is also responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced biofuels and biogas produced from wastes and residues can play an increasingly important role in the transport mix. In Italy, 600 Italian farmers are organised in the Italian Biogas Council (Consorzio Italiano Biogas e Gassificazione, CIB). Some years ago, CIB members developed a concept that they coined Biogasdoneright. In collaboration with various research institutes they seeked for a way to combine biogas feedstock production with crop production for food and feed as a way to generate additional income in a sustainable manner. The core of the Biogasdoneright concept is that farmers apply sequential cropping by growing a winter cover crop on land that was previously fallow during winter time, while maintaining the main crop production during summer time as previously. Multiple claims can be made about Biogasdoneright, for example related to the large potential role for biogas in our future energy system. This project focussed on the most relevant claims related to the use of biomethane in transport, with a focus on sustainability aspects.
    Rekenregels voor de enterische methaan-emissie op het melkveebedrijf en reductie van de methaan-emissie via mesthandling, het handelings-perspectief van het voerspoor inzichtelijk maken met de Kringloopwijzer
    S̆ebek, L.B. ; Mosquera, J. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 976) - 65
    methaan - emissie - dierlijke meststoffen - emissiereductie - melkveehouderij - methane - emission - animal manures - emission reduction - dairy farming
    Methaanemissie uit mest : schatters voor biochemisch methaan potentieel (BMP) en methaanconversiefactor (MCF)
    Groenestein, C.M. ; Mosquera, J. ; Melse, R.W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 961) - 28
    mest - methaan - emissie - broeikasgassen - dierhouderij - manures - methane - emission - greenhouse gases - animal husbandry
    This report presents the results of a desk study performed to determine and justify the use of new BMP and MCF values for cattle, pig and poultry manure under Dutch conditions.
    Towards improving the manure management chain
    Hou, Yong - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Oene Oenema, co-promotor(en): Gerard Velthof. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579620 - 215
    manures - manure treatment - livestock - excretion - nitrogen - mitigation - methane - european union - mest - mestverwerking - vee - excretie - stikstof - mitigatie - methaan - europese unie

    Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to water bodies, which create a range of unwanted environment impacts. Nutrient losses from manure depend on the management activities and techniques used at different stages of the whole manure management chain, from animal feeding up to manure application to land. The trade-offs and co-benefits of emission mitigation measures and manure treatment technologies are as yet poorly understood, especially when taking the whole manure management chain into account. Moreover, the effects of combinations of measures and technologies have not been well analyzed, and analyses at national scales are lacking. The overall objective of this PhD thesis research is (i) to enhance the quantitative insight into the effects of emission mitigation measures and treatment technologies on emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4, and the recovery of N and P from animal manure in the whole management chain, and (ii) to explore the effects of combinations of measures and technologies to mitigate these emissions and to increase the N and P recovery.

    In Chapter 2, methodologies for estimating N excretion factors for the main animal categories in member states of the European Union (EU) were reviewed. In Chapter 3, a transparent and uniform methodology for estimating annual feed use and N excretion per animal category for all countries of the EU-27 was developed, based on the energy and protein requirements of the animals and statistics of feed use and composition, animal number and productivity. In Chapter 4, firstly the impacts of a suite of NH3 mitigation measures on emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4 at individual stages of the manure management chain were analyzed by means of a meta-analysis of published data. Secondly, the overall impacts of alternative combinations of mitigation measures on emissions from the whole chain were evaluated through scenario analysis. Chapter 5 reports on an integrated assessment of the effects of manure treatment on NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions from manure management chains in EU-27 at the national level for 2010, using the model MITERRA-Europe. Whole-chain effects of implementing twelve treatment technologies in EU-27 on emissions and N and P recovery were further explored through scenario analyses. Chapter 6 reports on a survey conducted under various stakeholder groups with expertise in the domain of manure treatment in four European countries that have regions of high animal density. The survey addressed questions related to i) which factors facilitate and hinder the implementation of treatment technologies in practice, ii) which technologies have the most potential for successful adoption, and iii) how farm characteristics and the scale of the treatment operation affect priorities for adoption. The main conclusions of this PhD thesis are as follows:

    In EU-27, the amounts of N and P in manure are as large as or larger than the total amounts of fertilizer N and P used annually. However, there is a huge spatial variation in manure production. Nutrient excretion factors per animal category also vary between countries, as a result of variations in feed use and animal productivity. Clearly, for accurate inventories of national emission there is a need for estimating nutrient excretion using country-specific feed use data.

    Increasing the effectiveness of measures to mitigate NH3 and GHG emissions from animal manure requires proper combination of measures in the manure management chain. Lowering the dietary protein content in animal feed is an effective measure to reduce NH3 emissions and other N emissions at all stages of the manure management chain. Other measures may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Joint adoption of these measures with low-N feeding strategies and slurry acidification can greatly decrease the risk of pollution swapping.

    Implementation of manure treatment is on average still limited in EU-27. Effects of manure treatment on NH3 and GHG emissions are therefore relatively small at EU level. Increasing the implementation of treatment technologies, including acidification, incineration and thermal drying, or optimized combinations of treatment technologies, can significantly contribute to achieving NH3 and GHG emission targets of EU environmental policies. Implementation of manure treatment technologies provides opportunities to improve the use of plant nutrients in manures, because of the release of manure products with different N/P ratios. Applying acidification technology and optimized combination of NH3 emission mitigation measures increase the N recovery from animal manure, and can decrease the demand of mineral fertilizers. However, some technologies decrease the N and P recovery and/or decrease the availability of the N and P in manure products to plants.

    Implementation of manure treatment in practice is forced by the pressure from EU environmental regulations, and is hindered by financial barriers. To encourage the adoption of manure treatment, policies must be economically appealing to attract new adopters (farmers and industries). Long-term financial support schemes (e.g. subsidies) seem to be necessary, especially with the current low prices for fossil fuels. Outreach strategies are required to convey the knowledge to stakeholders from both the supply and the demand side, with respect to the economic, technical and environmental aspects of manure treatment technologies.

    Referentieraming van emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw tot 2030 : achtergronddocument bij de Nationale Energieverkenning 2015, met emissies van ammoniak, methaan, lachgas, stikstofoxide en fijnstof uit de landbouw tot 2030
    Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Vonk, J. ; Schijndel, M.W. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2746) - 75
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - stikstofoxide - fijn stof - landbouw - nederland - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - nitric oxide - particulate matter - agriculture - netherlands
    Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
    Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164
    air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
    The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
    (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
    calculations with NEMA
    Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions
    Roman, P. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Albert Janssen, co-promotor(en): Martijn Bijmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577336 - 193
    desulfurization - biogas - bioreactors - methane - sulfides - oxidation - ontzwaveling - biogas - bioreactoren - methaan - sulfiden - oxidatie
    Biological removal of H2S from sour gas streams became popular in recent years because of high process efficiency and low operational costs. To expand the scope of these processes to gas streams containing volatile organosulfur compounds, like thiols, it is necessary to provide new insights into their impact on overall biodesulfurization process. In the current thesis multidisciplinary investigations are performed, such as investigations of inhibitory effects of organic sulfur compounds on sulfide-oxidizing biomass by biochemical and enzyme studies; modelling of the process performance and biological pathways; preparation of analytical tools for measuring unstable sulfur compounds under the process conditions; following the microbial dynamics. The research described in this thesis increases the understanding of the underlying processes occurring in biological gas desulfurization systems when organosulfur compounds are present in the feed gas and provides solutions how to cope with these compounds in full-scale gas biodesulfurization installations.
    Evaluatie van methaanemissieberekeningen en -metingen in de veehouderij
    Groenestein, C.M. ; Mosquera Losada, J. - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 54) - 46
    veehouderij - mest - methaan - emissie - meting - berekening - varkens - livestock farming - manures - methane - emission - measurement - calculation - pigs
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research heeft een deskstudie uitgevoerd om te analyseren waarom berekende en
    gemeten methaanemissies verschillen en doet aanbevelingen voor nader onderzoek. Het blijkt dat zowel aan
    de kant van de meetwaarden als aan de kant van de berekeningen vragen kunnen worden gesteld. De
    aanbevelingen betreffen een nadere beschouwing van mestsamenstelling (met name organische stof (OS),
    de fractie van de organische stof die afbreekbaar is (Bo) en het deel van de afbreekbare fractie die
    daadwerkelijk wordt afgebroken tot CH4 (MCF)) met in achtneming van Nederlandse omstandigheden.
    Tevens wordt geadviseerd te bestuderen wat de oorzaak kan zijn van de grote variatie in gemeten
    methaanemissie met oog voor de leeftijd van de mest, effect van ammoniakemissie-reducerende
    maatregelen, mestmanagement en enterische methaanemissie door varkens
    Exploring the ecophysiology of anaerobic communities of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria
    Timmers, P.H.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Fons Stams, co-promotor(en): Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575820 - 181
    sulfate reducing bacteria - methane - oxidation - anaerobic conditions - sulfates - marine sediments - microbial physiology - sulfaat reducerende bacteriën - methaan - oxidatie - anaërobe omstandigheden - sulfaten - mariene sedimenten - microbiële fysiologie

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is a widespread occurring process in anoxic marine sediments. The process is performed by ANaerobic MEthane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and associated sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The ANME presumably oxidize methane through reverse methanogenesis. The associated SRB were thought to reduce sulfate using an interspecies electron carrier (IEC) derived from AOM. The product of methane oxidation that is transferred to the SRB is either a less reduced compound that acts as IEC or electrons are transferred directly (through nanowires or pili) or indirectly (through extracellular quinones). However, recent evidence emerged that ANME could perform both methane oxidation and sulfate reduction to produce sulfur, where the SRB disproportionate the produced sulfur. Little is known on the physiology and ecology of these ANME and associated SRB. The main reasons for this are the difficulties in lab cultivation and to perform in situ studies.

    Anaerobic methane oxidation is a process that is at the border of what is energetically possible for sustaining life, which makes it hard to cultivate the responsible organisms. Estimates of the Gibbs free energy yields are between -18 and -35 kJ mol-1 and growth rates between 1.1 and 7.5 months, depending on the environment. AOM therefore operates close to thermodynamic equilibrium and is highly dependent on substrate and product concentrations. In chapter 2, we obtained faster growth rates at elevated methane partial pressure as compared to ambient pressure. The increase in partial pressure increased the solubility of methane and thus the energy yield for the organisms. In chapter 6, we showed higher AOM activity and growth of ANME under thermodynamically favorable sulfate and sulfide concentrations. The problems in studying the process in situ in complex environments comes from difficulties in differentiation of reversible processes. In most studies, methane oxidation is monitored by labelled CO2 formation from labelled methane. Methanogens can perform trace methane oxidation (TMO)during net methanogenesis, which also results in the production of labelled CO2 from labelled methane. When AOM becomes less favorable, the anaerobic back flux of AOM becomes significant, leading to the production of measurable amounts of methane. In chapter 2 and chapter 3, we were able to differentiate between AOM and TMO in long-term incubations.

    Another challenge is related to the detection of ANME in complex environments. The phylogenetic distance between and within ANME clades is large. In chapter 5, we discussed the difficulties in primer and probe design for selective detection of ANME without targeting closely related methanogens. Furthermore, it is not known if even more ANME species and clades have yet to be discovered that are not detected with the primers and probes used thus far. In chapter 3, we found indications that besides ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d archaea were also able to perform AOM coupled to sulfate reduction in freshwater conditions. The finding of ANME-2a/b in freshwater shows that ANME archaea are ubiquitously distributed and not only occur in marine sediments. In chapter 6, we confirmed that different ANME clades show niche separation based on the presence of methane and different sulfate and sulfide concentrations. In chapter 2, we obtained indications that ANME-2c grows at high methane partial pressure. More research on the ecophysiology could help in understanding occurrence and activity of ANME in different environments.

    Many different SRB have been found so far to form close associations with ANME. Most fall within the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus (DSS) clade and only for two enrichment cultures the dominant partner of ANME-2a/b was determined to belong to a specific group with the DSS named SEEP-SRB1. In chapter 2, we found more evidence that a group outside the DSS clade, SEEP-SRB2, could also associate with ANME-2a/b and that Eel-1 members are not directly involved in AOM. In chapter 4, we enriched for SRB within the DSS clade on alternative substrates besides methane, but we were unable to show that these are involved in AOM. Therefore, more research on the sulfate-reducing partner is needed to understand the metabolic interactions between ANME and SRB.

    Oogstmoment snijmais beïnvloedt methaanuitstoot : Later oogsten mais verlaagt methaanuitstoot zonder negatieve bijeffecten
    Bannink, A. ; Hatew, B. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2015
    Veeteelt 2015 (2015)Oktober. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 34 - 35.
    landbouw en milieu - oogsttijdstip - droge stof - maïs - ruwvoer (forage) - methaan - emissiereductie - duurzame landbouw - broeikasgassen - agriculture and environment - harvesting date - dry matter - maize - forage - methane - emission reduction - sustainable agriculture - greenhouse gases
    Wageningse diervoedingonderzoekers keken naar de gevolgen van het oogstmoment van mais op de methaanemissie. De conclusie is dat per procent drogestoftoename van snijmais in maisrijke rantsoenen de methaanvorming per kilogram meetmelk met 1,5 procent wordt verlaagd.
    Anaerobic oxidation of methane : evaluation of alternative conditions
    Suarez Zuluaga, D.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Jan Weijma. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574823 - 131
    microorganisms - methane - oxidation - sulfates - reduction - bioreactors - micro-organismen - methaan - oxidatie - sulfaten - reductie - bioreactoren

    Microorganisms capable of performing anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulphate reduction have high doubling times which make their enrichment difficult. However, due to higher energy gain, they might be rapidly enriched using alternative electron acceptors. In chapter 2, it was shown that up to 50 times higher conversion rates were obtained with thiosulphate when compared to sulphate. However, it was also presented that thiosulphate was not be exclusively used by microorganisms that reduce it, but that it was also disproportionated into sulphate and sulphide (Chapter 2).

    In Chapter 3, a 5 litre membrane bioreactor was fed not only with methane and sulphate but also with acetate and thiosulphate. As previous experiments using these additional substrates had allowed to obtain either faster conversion rates or enrichment of methanotrophic microorganisms; it was expected that AOM rates in the reactor would increase relatively fast. However, the microorganisms that were enriched were not AOM related. They microbial community that showed the highest activity rates in the reactor was comprised by thiosulphate disproportionated bacteria and green sulphur bacteria. The former disproportionated thiosulphate into sulphate and sulphide while the latter converted the sulphide into elemental sulphur.

    Chapter 4, unlike the previous chapters, focused on studying the occurrence of AOM in a fresh water ecosystem. Such system was located next to a natural gas source which captured methane for domestic purposes. It was presented how, with the different electron acceptors added, AOM and trace methane oxidation occurred. However, net AOM was only measured in the presence of sulphate as electron acceptor. Furthermore, the microorganisms that were enriched in the presence of methane and sulphate were also detected.

    There are several hypotheses which attempted to explain the AOM coupled to sulphate reduction. One of them indicates that it is a process that involves two microorganisms working in a syntrophic relationship. The first microorganism would convert the methane into carbon dioxide and pass the electrons to the second one. Consequently, the second microorganism would convert the sulphate into hydrogen sulphide. In such a structure, the way that electrons are released by the conversion performed by the first microorganism is unknown. It is possible, that electrons are not transfer via electron shuttles or chemical compounds, but that they are transferred directly from one microorganism to the other. A methodology which could be used to determine if the AOM consortia uses direct electron transfer mechanisms was evaluated in Chapter 5. Different kinds of granular biomass were used for this evaluation and, the granule types that would potentially be capable of using direct electron transfer mechanisms were detected.

    Minder gasvormige emissies op melkveebedrijf : praktijkervaringen met voer- en diermanagement als sturing voor methaan en ammoniak
    Sebek, L.B. ; Goselink, R.M.A. ; Evers, A.G. ; Vrolijk, M. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien & Kansen nr. 75) - 32
    broeikasgassen - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - emissie - reductie - methaan - greenhouse gases - dairy farming - ammonia emission - emission - reduction - methane
    Dit rapport beschrijft wat het voor de melkveehouder betekent om reductiemaatregelen voor methaan in de bedrijfsvoering te implementeren. Het gaat om de beleving en de praktijkervaring van de 16 Koeien & Kansen deelnemers en hun bedrijfsadviseurs. De effectiviteit van de toegepaste maatregelen is in een ander Koeien & Kansen rapport beschreven (Goselink, 2015). De beschreven maatregelen zijn gericht op de reductie van de on farm emissie van het broeikasgas methaan in wisselwerking met de maatregelen om de emissie van ammoniak te verminderen. De bruikbaarheid voor de brede praktijk van de in Koeien & Kansen toegepaste reductiemaatregelen is onderzocht. Aangevuld met een omgevingsanalyse geeft dat een beeld van wat de Nederlandse melkveehouder nodig heeft om actief aan de slag te gaan met de reductie van de gasvormige emissies methaan en ammoniak.
    Minder gasvormige emissies: onbekend maakt onbemind
    Sebek, L.B. ; Goselink, R.M.A. - \ 2015
    Nieuwsbrief Koeien & Kansen (2015)41. - p. 3 - 3ov.
    melkveehouderij - broeikasgassen - emissiereductie - ammoniakemissie - methaan - dairy farming - greenhouse gases - emission reduction - ammonia emission - methane
    Kosteneffectief sturen via voer- en diermanagement op minder methaan en ammoniak is goed mogelijk. Dat blijkt uit 4 jaar onderzoek in Koeien & Kansen. De Nederlandse praktijk hoort deze positieve boodschap echter (nog) niet. Er is weinig afiniteit met ‘gasvormige emissies’. Ammoniak heeft de aandacht dankzij Natura2000, NB-vergunningen en de PAS, maar broeikasgassen zijn voor het Nederlandse melkveebedrijf nog ‘ver van mijn bed’.
    Effecten reducerende technieken op emissies bij biologisch gehouden pluimvee : deskstudie
    Ellen, H.H. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 811)
    pluimveehouderij - biologische landbouw - emissiereductie - ammoniakemissie - fijn stof - stankemissie - methaan - mestverwerking - dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - poultry farming - organic farming - emission reduction - ammonia emission - particulate matter - odour emission - methane - manure treatment - animal welfare - poultry - animal production - animal housing - animal health
    De eisen die worden gesteld aan de biologische houderij van pluimvee hebben mogelijk een effect op de emissies van ammoniak (NH3), geur, fijnstof (PM10), methaan (CH4) en lachgas (N2O). Op basis van beschikbare kennis is een inschatting gemaakt van dit effect. Daarna is aangegeven of emissie reducerende systemen zoals toegepast in de reguliere houderij, een vergelijkbaar effect hebben in de biologische houderij. Bij de systemen is ook aangegeven of ze, eventueel met een kleine aanpassing in de beschrijving, toegepast kunnen worden bij biologisch gehouden pluimvee.
    Effect van snijmaissilage als strooiselmateriaal in vleeskuikenstallen op de emissies van ammoniak, geur en fijnstof
    Harn, J. van; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 845) - 49
    emissie - ammoniak - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - vleeskuikens - huisvesting van kippen - pluimveehouderij - maïskuilvoer - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - duurzame veehouderij - emission - ammonia - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - broilers - chicken housing - poultry farming - maize silage - emission reduction - air quality - sustainable animal husbandry
    This report describes the results of emission measurements of ammonia, odour, PM10, methane and nitrous oxide from broiler houses bedded with white wood shavings (=control), fresh silage maize or pre-dried silage maize.
    Methaanproductie bij witvleeskalveren
    Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport 813) - 15
    vleeskalveren - methaan - emissie - kunstmelk - diervoedering - nederland - veal calves - methane - emission - filled milk - animal feeding - netherlands
    De methaanemissie uit (deels) met kunstmelk gevoerde Nederlandse witvleeskalveren is veel lager dan de door IPCC gehanteerde defaultwaarden aangeven. Aanbevolen wordt om de methaanconversiefactor, Ym (de fractie van de bruto energieopname met voer die emitteert als methaanenergie) meer dan te halveren. Tevens wordt aanbevolen om de jaarlijkse methaanemissie door witvleeskalveren vast te stellen met een aparte waarde van 0,003 voor de gevoerde kunstmelk en een waarde van 0,055 voor gevoerde ruw- en krachtvoeders, uitgaande van de jaarlijkse rantsoenberekeningen volgens gestandaardiseerde methode door het CBS.
    Greenhouse gas emissions in The Netherlands 1990-2012; National inventory report 2014
    Coenen, P.W.H.G. ; Maas, C.W.M. ; Zijlema, P.J. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Baas, K. ; Berghe, A.C.W.M. van den; Biesebeek, J.D. te; Nijkamp, M.M. ; Huis, E.P. - \ 2014
    Bilthoven : RIVM - 278
    broeikasgassen - emissie - kooldioxide - methaan - inventarisaties - nederland - greenhouse gases - emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inventories - netherlands
    Total greenhouse gas emissions from the Netherlands in 2012 decreased by approximately 1.7 per cent, compared with 2011 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (increased electricity import) and in road transport. In 2012, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF – land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 191.7 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 10 per cent below the emissions in the base year (213.2 Tg CO2 eq.). The 51% reduction in the non-CO2 emissions in this period is counterbalanced by 4 per cent increase in CO2 emissions since 1990.This report documents the Netherlands’ 2014 annual submission of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union’s Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism.The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.Keywords: greenhouse gases, emissions, trends, methodology, climate.
    Emissies van stof en ziektekiemen uit melkgeitenstallen: aanvullende metingen = Emissions of dust and pathogens from goat houses: additional measurements
    Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Arkel, M.C. van; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 712) - 34
    geiten - geitenhouderij - huisvesting, geiten - stof - bacteriën - q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - goats - goat keeping - goat housing - dust - bacteria - q fever - coxiella burnetii - ammonia emission - odour emission - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
    Emissions of dust, pathogens and gases have been measured in two goat houses during the summer and autumn. Coxiella burnetii, the bacteria responsible for Q-fever, could be detected in a number of dust samples.
    Consensus methods for breeding low methane emitting : Breeding ruminants that emit less methane - development of consensus methods for measurements of methane (white paper)
    Pickering, N.K. ; Haas, Y. de; Basarab, J. ; Cammack, K. ; Hayes, B. ; Hegarty, R. ; Lassen, J. ; McEwan, J. ; Miller, S. ; Pinares-Patino, C. ; Shackell, G. ; Vercoe, P. ; Oddy, Hutton - \ 2013
    ASGGN - 57
    animal breeding - selection - animal genetics - genomics - methane - sheep - cattle - agriculture and environment - dierveredeling - selectie - diergenetica - genomica - methaan - schapen - rundvee - landbouw en milieu
    This report was prepared by a working group of the Animal Selection, Genetics and Genomics Network (ASGGN) of the Global Research Alliance for reducing greenhouse gases from agriculture. It is a summary of published and yet to be published work. The purpose is to evaluate methods that are potentially useful for measuring CH4 emissions in individual animals so as to estimate genetic parameters and subsequently screen animals for use in selective breeding programs including its use in the development of genomic selection.
    Emissies uit een vleesvarkensstal voorzien van een V-vormige mestband voor het gescheiden afvoeren van mest en urine = Emissions from a housing system for fattening pigs with a V-shaped manure belt for separated removal of faeces and urine
    Ellen, H.H. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera, J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 620) - 37
    varkenshouderij - vleesproductie - vleesvee - varkensmest - drijfmest - scheidingstechnologie - urine - emissie - reductie - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - ammoniakemissie - mestverwerking - meting - pig farming - meat production - beef cattle - pig manure - slurries - separation technology - urine - emission - reduction - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - ammonia emission - manure treatment - measurement
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from an animal house for fattening pigs provided with V-shaped manure belts for separated removal of faeces and urine (the Kempfarm system).
    Nieuwe technieken, nog meer reductie
    Haan, M.H.A. de; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Vegte, D.Z. van der; Booij, A. - \ 2013
    Veeteelt 30 (2013)11. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 36 - 37.
    melkveehouderij - broeikasgassen - innovaties - proefboerderijen - mestverwerking - methaan - emissie - rundveevoeding - voersamenstelling - nitraat - onderzaaien - grassen - dairy farming - greenhouse gases - innovations - experimental farms - manure treatment - methane - emission - cattle feeding - feed formulation - nitrate - undersowing - grasses
    Gras crushen, mest raffineren, toevoegmiddelen voor voer en kuil; op praktijkcentrum De Marke in het Gelderse Hengelo worden verschillende innovatietechnieken uitgeprobeerd om de broeikasgassen verder te verminderen. Praktijkrijp zijn ze nog niet.
    Minder methaan bij efficiënt voeren
    Sebek, L.B. ; Goselink, R.M.A. - \ 2013
    Veeteelt 30 (2013)10. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 72 - 73.
    melkveehouderij - methaan - emissie - emissiereductie - melkproductie - melkveevoeding - efficiëntie - voersamenstelling - dairy farming - methane - emission - emission reduction - milk production - dairy cattle nutrition - efficiency - feed formulation
    De methaanemissie reduceren betekent vooral werken aan een hogere melkproductie en een sterke voerefficiëntie. ‘Een economisch interessant kengetal’, geven onderzoekers van Wageningen UR aan. ‘Melkveehouders zijn hier al mee aan de slag.’
    Nitraat voeren effectief tegen methaanemissie
    Vegte, D.Z. van der; Sebek, L.B. ; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Verloop, K. - \ 2013
    V-focus 10 (2013)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 30 - 31.
    melkveehouderij - herkauwersvoeding - melkveevoeding - nitraat - voersamenstelling - voedertoevoegingen - methaan - emissiereductie - mineralenboekhouding - dairy farming - ruminant feeding - dairy cattle nutrition - nitrate - feed formulation - feed additives - methane - emission reduction - nutrient accounting system
    Nitraat is niet alleen een waardevolle kunstmest, maar kan ook als voeradditief gebruikt worden om de methaanemissie uit de pens van herkauwers te verminderen. Voor een klimaatneutrale melkveehouderij kan het een belangrijk middel zijn om de doelstelling te verwezenlijken. Daarom heeft Knowledge Transfer Centre De Marke in een pilotexperiment onderzocht of het voeren van nitraat past in het management van het melkveebedrijf en of er risico’s voor de diergezondheid zijn. Ook is onderzocht wat het effect van deze extra stikstofbron is op de N-kringloop van het bedrijf. Als de vermindering van de methaanemissie gepaard gaat met meer verliezen uit de N-kringloop (nitraatuitspoeling, ammoniakemissie en lachgasemissie) dan is het middel misschien erger dan de kwaal.
    Emissies uit een vleeskuikenstal met strooiselbeluchting en warmtewisselaar : Meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 657) - 30
    pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - fijn stof - emissie - warmtewisselaars - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - poultry farming - broilers - ammonia emission - odour emission - particulate matter - emission - heat exchangers - methane - nitrous oxide
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a broiler house with litter drying and a heat exchanger.
    Emissies uit vleesvarkensstallen voorzien van een v-vormige mestband voor het gescheiden afvoeren van mest en urine = Emissions from a housing system for fattening pigs with a v-shaped manure belt for separated removal of faeces and urine
    Ellen, H.H. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 620) - 25
    varkenshouderij - vleesproductie - varkensmest - varkensstallen - drijfmest - scheiding - urine - meting - stankemissie - ammoniakemissie - methaan - fijn stof - distikstofmonoxide - pig farming - meat production - pig manure - pig housing - slurries - separation - urine - measurement - odour emission - ammonia emission - methane - particulate matter - nitrous oxide
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from an animal house for fattening pigs provided with the Kempfarm system.
    Factsheet broeikasgassen: methaan
    LEI, - \ 2012
    intensieve veehouderij - methaan - broeikasgassen - broeikaseffect - intensive livestock farming - methane - greenhouse gases - greenhouse effect
    In de dampkring rond de aarde zitten broeikasgassen die ervoor zorgen dat een deel van de warmtestraling van de grond wordt vastgehouden. De opwarmende werking hiervan noemen we het broeikaseffect. De veehouderij produceert kooldioxide, methaan en lachgas. Deze factsheet beschrijft methaan.
    Methaanuitstoot spiegel van rantsoen : lager eiwitgehalte in gras door huidig mestbeleid geeft meer methaanuitstoot
    Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2012
    Veeteelt 29 (2012)11. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - pensvertering - methaan - emissie - darmgas - melkveevoeding - graslandbeheer - luchtkwaliteit - dairy farming - dairy cows - rumen digestion - methane - emission - flatus - dairy cattle nutrition - grassland management - air quality
    De uitstoot van methaangas door een koe is een afspiegeling van haar voedselvertering. Wageningen UR onderzoekt het effect van rantsoenaanpassingen. Het levert een aantal concrete handvatten voor het terugdringen van de methaanuitstoot.
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met roostervloer voorzien van cassettes in de roosterspleten : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 't Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 653)
    ligboxen - stallen - huisvesting van rundvee - melkvee - melkveehouderij - emissie - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - roostervloeren - cubicles - stalls - cattle housing - dairy cattle - dairy farming - emission - ammonia emission - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - grid floors
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a loose housing dairy cattle barn with cubicles provided with a slatted floor with cassettes with rubber flaps between the slats.
    Emissies uit de biologische veehouderij : processen en factoren
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 584) - 31
    veehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - biologische landbouw - emissie - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - fijn stof - stankemissie - milieueffect - rundveehouderij - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - schapenhouderij - geitenhouderij - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - dierenwelzijn - livestock farming - sustainable animal husbandry - organic farming - emission - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - particulate matter - odour emission - environmental impact - cattle husbandry - pig farming - poultry farming - sheep farming - goat keeping - animal production - animal housing - animal welfare
    Organic farming places greater demands on animal welfare, for example by requiring the use of straw and more space available to the animals in the animal house as well as outdoors. There is still little known on the environmental impacts of the organic livestock production. The aim of this research was to make an inventory of the processes and factors that might play a role in the emissions of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, smell and fine dust from the organic-production livestock.
    Monitoring methane and nitrous oxide reduction by manure treatment
    Hoeksma, P. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Melse, R.W. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 627) - 37
    intensieve veehouderij - mestverwerking - broeikasgassen - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - intensive livestock farming - manure treatment - greenhouse gases - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (CH4 and N2O) by manure treatment should be accounted for in the National Inventory Report (NIR). At the moment reliable activity data and emission factors from manure treatment are hardly available. This is the outcome of a national and international literature review. It is recommended to use a model approach to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from manure treatment.
    Emissies uit een opfokleghennenstal met chemische wasser en bypass. : Meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Lovink, E. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 609) - 39
    hennen - pluimveehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - reinigers - ammoniak - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - hens - poultry farming - chicken housing - scrubbers - ammonia - ammonia emission - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a pullet rearing housing system with a chemical air scrubber and bypass.
    Emissies uit een varkensstal met een gecombineerd luchtwassysteem met waterwasser, biologische wasser en geurverwijderingssectie : Meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Lovink, E. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 613) - 25
    varkenshouderij - varkensstallen - emissie - reinigers - duurzame veehouderij - stankemissie - ammoniakemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtreinigers - pig farming - pig housing - emission - scrubbers - sustainable animal husbandry - odour emission - ammonia emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air cleaners
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a pig housing system with a combined (multi-stage) air scrubber with a water scrubber, a biological scrubber and an odour removal section.
    Emissies uit een vleeskuikenstal met geconditioneerd luchtinlaat, biologische wasser en denitrificatie-unit : Meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Hattum, T.G. van; Lovink, E. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 611) - 23
    vleeskuikens - pluimveehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - broilers - poultry farming - chicken housing - emission - ammonia emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a broiler house with a heat exchanger, biological air scrubber and denitrification unit.
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met het "vrije keuze" systeem : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 617) - 31
    melkveehouderij - ligboxen - roostervloeren - natuurlijke ventilatie - stalklimaat - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtverontreiniging - dairy farming - cubicles - grid floors - natural ventilation - stall climate - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air pollution
    In dit rapport worden de emissiemetingen van ammoniak, geur, fijn stof, methaan en lachgas gerapporteerd, die in het kader van het hiervoor genoemde onderzoeksprogramma uitgevoerd zijn op het melkveehouderijbedrijf van Mts. Mensonides te Cornwerd (ligboxenstal met het vrijekeuze systeem). Het beoogde emissiereducerende principe van dit systeem is gebaseerd op 1) het afsluiten van de mestkelder door gebruik te maken van sleufvloer zonder gaatjes in de lange looppaden in de lengterichting van de stal, 2) het versneld afvoeren van de emitterende bron (urine) naar de kelder, het verschuiven van het chemisch evenwicht door het verlagen van de pH van de urine op de roostervloer, en luchtuitwisseling tussen de stal en de kelder beperken door op de verbindingspaden loodrecht op de sleufvloer en de wachtruimte vóór de melkrobots rubber matten op de roostervloer en afdichtflappen in de roosterspleten te plaatsen, en 3) door het ventilatieniveau te beperken door gebruik te maken van Automatically Controlled Natural Ventilation.
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met het "vrije keuze" systeem : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 616) - 31
    melkveehouderij - ligboxen - roostervloeren - natuurlijke ventilatie - stalklimaat - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtverontreiniging - dairy farming - cubicles - grid floors - natural ventilation - stall climate - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air pollution
    In dit rapport worden de emissiemetingen van ammoniak, geur, fijn stof, methaan en lachgas gerapporteerd, die in het kader van het hiervoor genoemde onderzoeksprogramma uitgevoerd zijn op het melkveehouderijbedrijf van Mts. Zonderland-Verhoef te Koudum (ligboxenstal met het vrijekeuze systeem). Het beoogde emissiereducerende principe van dit systeem is gebaseerd op 1) het afsluiten van de mestkelder door gebruik te maken van sleufvloer zonder gaatjes in de lange looppaden in de lengterichting van de stal, 2) het versneld afvoeren van de emitterende bron (urine) naar de kelder, het verschuiven van het chemisch evenwicht door het verlagen van de pH van de urine op de roostervloer, en luchtuitwisseling tussen de stal en de kelder beperken door op de verbindingspaden loodrecht op de sleufvloer en de wachtruimte vóór de melkrobots rubber matten op de roostervloer en afdichtflappen in de roosterspleten te plaatsen, en 3) door het ventilatieniveau te beperken door gebruik te maken van Automatically Controlled Natural Ventilation (ACNV).
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met het "vrije keuze" systeem : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 615) - 31
    melkveehouderij - ligboxen - roostervloeren - stalklimaat - natuurlijke ventilatie - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtverontreiniging - dairy farming - cubicles - grid floors - stall climate - natural ventilation - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air pollution
    In dit rapport worden de emissiemetingen van ammoniak, geur, fijn stof, methaan en lachgas gerapporteerd, die zijn uitgevoerd op het melkveehouderijbedrijf van Mts. Van de Streek te Broek (ligboxenstal met het vrijekeuze systeem). Het beoogde emissiereducerende principe van dit systeem is gebaseerd op 1) het afsluiten van de mestkelder door gebruik te maken van sleufvloer zonder gaatjes in de lange looppaden in de lengterichting van de stal, 2) het versneld afvoeren van de emitterende bron (urine) naar de kelder, het verschuiven van het chemisch evenwicht door het verlagen van de pH van de urine op de roostervloer, en luchtuitwisseling tussen de stal en de kelder beperken door op de verbindingspaden loodrecht op de sleufvloer en de wachtruimte vóór de melkrobots rubber matten op de roostervloer en afdichtflappen in de roosterspleten te plaatsen, en 3) door het ventilatieniveau te beperken door gebruik te maken van Automatically Controlled Natural Ventilation (ACNV).
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met het "vrije keuze" systeem : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 614) - 31
    melkveehouderij - ligboxen - roostervloeren - stalklimaat - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtverontreiniging - dairy farming - cubicles - grid floors - stall climate - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air pollution
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a loose housing dairy cattle barn with cubicles using the "freedom of choice" concept.
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met roostervloer voorzien van een bolle rubber toplaag en afdichtflappen in de roosterspleten : Meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 612) - 27
    melkveehouderij - ligboxen - roostervloeren - vloerbedekking - rubber - stalklimaat - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtverontreiniging - dairy farming - cubicles - grid floors - floor coverings - rubber - stall climate - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air pollution
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a loose housing dairy cattle barn with cubicles provided with a slatted floor with a rubber top layer and rubber flaps between the slats.
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met roostervloer voorzien van een bolle rubber toplaag en afdichtflappen in de roosterspleten : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 610) - 31
    melkveehouderij - ligboxen - roostervloeren - vloerbedekking - rubber - stalklimaat - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtverontreiniging - dairy farming - cubicles - grid floors - floor coverings - rubber - stall climate - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air pollution
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a loose housing dairy cattle barn with cubicles provided with a slatted floor with a rubber top layer and rubber flaps between the slats.
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met roostervloer voorzien van een bolle rubber toplaag : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 598) - 27
    melkveehouderij - ligboxen - roostervloeren - vloerbedekking - rubber - stalklimaat - ammoniakemissie - geurstoffen - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - luchtverontreiniging - dairy farming - cubicles - grid floors - floor coverings - rubber - stall climate - ammonia emission - odours - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - air pollution
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a loose housing dairy cattle barn with cubicles provided with a slatted floor with a rubber top layer.
    Ammoniak onder druk?
    Sebek, L.B. ; Hilhorst, G.J. - \ 2012
    Nieuwsbrief Koeien & Kansen 2012 (2012)36. - p. 4 - 4.
    melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - melkveebedrijven - methaan - broeikasgassen - dairy farming - ammonia emission - dairy farms - methane - greenhouse gases
    Het verminderen van de ammoniakemissie gaat de Koeien & Kansen-veehouders tot nu toe goed af. De gemiddelde emissie is 20-25% lager dan dat van het gemiddelde Nederlandse melkveebedrijf in 2006. Dat ging geleidelijk door ieder jaar de emissie opnieuw wat te verlagen. Tot in 2011. Vorig jaar steeg de gemiddelde ammoniakemissie van de Koeien & Kansen-bedrijven weer licht. Toeval?
    Gasvormige emissies in 2011 nog niet gedaald
    Goselink, R.M.A. ; Sebek, L.B. - \ 2012
    Nieuwsbrief Koeien & Kansen 2012 (2012)36. - p. 3 - 3.
    melkveehouderij - methaan - emissie - ammoniakemissie - broeikasgassen - dairy farming - methane - emission - ammonia emission - greenhouse gases
    Het thema 'Gasvormige emissies' binnen Koeien & Kansen loopt inmiddels twee jaar. In 2010, is de uitgangssituatie vastgesteld en zijn de projectdoelstellingen benoemd. 2011 was het eerste jaar dat we in de Bedrijfsontwikkelingsplannen aandacht besteedden aan maatregelen om gasvormige emissies (broeikasgassen en ammoniak) te verminderen. Voor broeikasgassen lukt dat nog niet zo een twee drie, maar het is ook niet slechter geworden.
    Methaanemissie uit melkveedrijfmest bij gebruik van drijvende ballen = Reduction methane emission from dairy slurry using floating balls
    Dooren, H.J.C. van; Blanken, K. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 495) - 13
    melkveehouderij - methaan - emissie - reductie - meettechnieken - dierlijke meststoffen - opslag - stalklimaat - voorwerpen - drijven - dairy farming - methane - emission - reduction - measurement techniques - animal manures - storage - stall climate - objects - floating
    The emission of methane from a slatted concrete floor with deep pits was measured using floating balls to reduce the emitting surface and compared with a reference without the balls.
    Methane : its role in climate change and options for control
    Amstel, A.R. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Carolien Kroeze. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732385 - 162
    methaan - klimaatverandering - emissie - schatting - broeikasgassen - controle - methane - climatic change - emission - estimation - greenhouse gases - control

    This study on CH4, (its role in climate change and options for control), aimed at a scenario analysis to assess future climate change under reduced methane emissions. At the same time improving the quality of CH4 emission inventories and estimating the costs of emission reductions between 2010 and 2100. In this thesis 28 major options to control or mitigate methane emissions from different sources were identified. The effectiveness and costs of these options were assessed. This resulted in a database of different options and costs for all the different sources of methane. This database was subsequently used to update the methane module of the Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect and expand it with a simple costing module. The IMAGE model was further improved by this work by Van Amstel on methane reduction strategies.

    The thesis concluded that significant reductions in global methane emissions are both technologically feasible and, in many cases, very cost effective strategies for climate change mitigation. Their wider implementation in coming years and decades will largely depend on the policy and market signals delivered by the UNFCCC conferences of the Parties, but failing to make full use of the potential for methane mitigation globally will inevitably make effective mitigation of climate change through reduction of carbon dioxide emissions alone all the more difficult. The scientific community can provide improved methane flux estimates, reduce uncertainties and enhance our understanding of key climate change feedback mechanisms, such as methane emissions from high latitude wetlands and from clathrate deposits. The technology to deliver deep cuts in methane emissions from a host of important sectors is already available. To put methane mitigation at the heart of a robust and well-integrated framework for tackling global climate change, improved national and international policy is required to facilitate rapid technology transfer and provide financial incentives that will ensure that the myriad potential opportunities for the effective mitigation of methane emissions around the world are made real. It is therefore recommended to remove market barriers and to increase attention for methane abatement options through international cooperation and learning from proven technology. One possible route to overcome market failure in methane reduction is international cooperation between front runners and countries willing to learn. Public-private partnerships can be used to stimulate this international cooperation for example in the International Methane Initiative.

    Individual methane recordings in dairy cattle
    Ogink, N.W.M. ; Crump, R.E. ; Haas, Y. de; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 593) - 24
    melkveehouderij - methaan - emissie - meting - meetsystemen - nauwkeurigheid - luchtverontreiniging - huisvesting van koeien - stalklimaat - dairy farming - methane - emission - measurement - measurement systems - accuracy - air pollution - cow housing - stall climate
    In this study options are explored for individual methane recordings of dairy cows on large scale under practical circumstances. In a simulation study based on respiration research data, accuracies of methane measurements based on different sampling strategies are calculated. Scenarios showed that measuring methane (or ratio CH4:CO2) in the milking parlour or concentrate feeders will provide predictions close to the accuracy reached with scenarios based on sampling in cubicles. However under real farm conditions methane emission patterns may be more variable and overall accuracies decline.
    De Marke naar minimale broeikasgasemissie
    Verloop, K. ; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Sebek, L.B. - \ 2012
    V-focus 9 (2012)2. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 25.
    melkveehouderij - broeikasgassen - emissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - melkveevoeding - efficiëntie - dairy farming - greenhouse gases - emission - methane - nitrous oxide - dairy cattle nutrition - efficiency
    De Marke gaat in twee stappen naar minimale emissie van lachgas en methaan. De eerste stap is efficiënt nutriëntengebruik. Deze stap is door De Marke in de afgelopen jaren maximaal uitgevoerd en wordt ook door praktijkbedrijven al in verschillende mate toegepast. De tweede stap is het verhogen van voerefficiëntie in de veestapel. Deze stap krijgt op De Marke in 2012 volop de aandacht en moet leiden tot de gewenste minimale emissie van lachgas en methaan. Hierna kan nog een stap gezet worden.
    Gasvormige emissies vanaf buitenuitlopen bij varkensstallen = Aerial emissions from outside yards of pig houses
    Kasper, G.J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 453) - 15
    varkenshouderij - varkensstallen - scharrelhouderij - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - fijn stof - luchtverontreiniging - literatuuroverzichten - pig farming - pig housing - free range husbandry - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - emission - particulate matter - air pollution - literature reviews
    This report describes gaseous emissions and emissions of particulate matter from outdoor yards of pig houses.
    Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in dairy cows, 1990-2008
    Bannink, A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR (WOt-werkdocument 265) - 63
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - methaan - emissie - excretie - registratie - broeikasgassen - energieopname - dairy farming - dairy cows - methane - emission - excretion - registration - greenhouse gases - energy intake
    The Dutch protocol for the national inventory estimates the methane emission of the average Dutch dairy cow based on a Tier 3 approach. A dynamic, mechanistic model is used to represent the enteric fermentation processes, using annual national statistics on feed intake and feed composition as model inputs. Dutch dairy rations are based mainly on roughage (3/4 of dry matter ingested) with a high proportion of grass products (2/3 of roughage dry matter). Between 1990 and 2008, there were continuous increases in dry matter intake, milk production and enteric methane emission. Methane emission ranged from 111 to 129 kg/cow/year, and from 17.6 to 15.4 g/kg fat- and protein-corrected milk. The present study indicates that uncertainties in the feed intake level and the proportion and composition of grass products contribute to the variation in predicted methane emission. In addition, internal model equations also greatly contribute to the uncertainty (representation of rumen acidity and yield of volatile fatty acids). The greatest part of the uncertainty in the methane emission factor (kg methane/cow/year) is determined by the uncertainty in the feed intake and stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid production, while the greatest part of the uncertainty in the methane conversion factor (methane energy as % of gross energy intake) is determined by the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid production in combination with the acidity of rumen digesta. Although the applicability of national statistics as model inputs can be investigated relatively easily in follow-up studies, physiological research with dairy cattle will be required to fully validate the current internal model equations.
    En de koe boert voort
    Dijkstra, J. - \ 2011
    WageningenWorld 3 (2011). - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
    methaan - emissie - melkproductie - broeikasgassen - rundveehouderij - herkauwersvoeding - methane - emission - milk production - greenhouse gases - cattle husbandry - ruminant feeding
    Tientallen landen werken samen om de bijdrage van de landbouw aan het broeikaseffect te verminderen. Zo is er veel winst te boeken, vooral in de Derde Wereld, door herkauwers regelmatig goed voer voor te zetten. Ook de boer heeft daar baat bij.
    Diversity and enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria from wastewater sludge
    Luesken, F. ; Alen, T. van; Biezen, J. van der; Frijters, C. ; Toonen, G. ; Kampman, C. ; Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Strous, M. ; Camp, H.J.M. op den; Jetten, M.S.M. - \ 2011
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2011). - ISSN 0175-7598
    afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - anaërobe behandeling - methaan - oxidatie - bacteriën - nieuwe stam - denitrificerende micro-organismen - waste water treatment - water treatment - anaerobic treatment - methane - oxidation - bacteria - new phylum - denitrifying microorganisms - activated-sludge - microorganisms - populations - technology - reactor
    Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands were screened for the endogenous presence of M. oxyfera using molecular diagnostic methods. We could identify NC10 bacteria with 98% similarity to M. oxyfera in nine out of ten WWTPs tested. Sludge from one selected WWTP was used to start a new enrichment culture of NC10 bacteria. This enrichment was monitored using specific pmoA primers and M. oxyfera cells were visualized with fluorescence oligonucleotide probes. After 112 days, the enrichment consumed up to 0.4 mM NO2- per day. The results of this study show that appropriate sources of biomass, enrichment strategies, and diagnostic tools existed to start and monitor pilot scale tests for the implementation of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in wastewater treatment at ambient temperature
    Protocol voor meting van methaanemissie uit huisvestingssystemen in de veehouderij 2010 = Measurement protocol for methane emission from housing systems in livestock production 2010
    Groenestein, C.M. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 493) - 32
    veehouderij - huisvesting, dieren - methaan - emissie - meting - protocollen - stalklimaat - livestock farming - animal housing - methane - emission - measurement - protocols - stall climate
    This report describes a measurement protocol for methane emissions from animal housing systems. The protocol is based on sampling periods of 24 hours spread over one year and can be applied in specified animal categories.
    Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system
    Lindeboom, R.E.F. ; Fermoso, F.G. ; Weijma, J. ; Zagt, K. ; Lier, J.B. van - \ 2011
    Water Science and Technology 64 (2011)3. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 647 - 653.
    biogas - gasproductie - biochemische omzettingen - methaan - anaërobe afbraak - drukbehandeling - kooldioxide - oplosbaarheid - anaërobe behandeling - afvalwaterbehandeling - biobased economy - biogas - gas production - biochemical pathways - methane - anaerobic digestion - pressure treatment - carbon dioxide - solubility - anaerobic treatment - waste water treatment - biobased economy
    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds with add-on technologies, applicable only for biogas flows >100 m3/h. In the concept of autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD), methanogenic biomass builds up pressure inside the reactor. Since CO2 has a higher solubility than CH4, it will proportion more to the liquid phase at higher pressures. Therefore, AHPD biogas is characterised by a high CH4 content, reaching equilibrium values between 90 and 95% at a pressure of 3–90 bar. In addition, also H2S and NH3 are theoretically more soluble in the bulk liquid than CO2. Moreover, the water content of the already compressed biogas is calculated to have a dew point
    Maïs en mals gras tegen methaan
    Dijkstra, J. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)juni. - p. 7 - 7.
    methaan - emissie - melkveehouderij - melkveevoeding - voersamenstelling - methane - emission - dairy farming - dairy cattle nutrition - feed formulation
    Wanneer koeien meer zetmeel en jonger gras te eten krijgen, kan de hoeveelheid methaan die ze produceren met een kwart omlaag. Wageningse onderzoekers brengen alle dieetmogelijkheden nauwgezet in kaart. ‘Knoflook toevoegen helpt bijvoorbeeld niet.’
    Fokken op minder uitstoot melkkoe
    Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)juni. - p. 9 - 9.
    dierveredeling - melkvee - methaan - emissie - voeropname - melkproductie - voederconversievermogen - animal breeding - dairy cattle - methane - emission - feed intake - milk production - feed conversion efficiency
    Hoe meer melk een koe per kilo voer maakt, hoe minder methaan wordt uitgestoten per kilo melk. Op deze voerefficiëntie kun je fokken, laat onderzoek van Wageningen UR Livestock Research zien.
    Slimme mestopslag vermindert emissies
    Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)juni. - p. 8 - 8.
    mest - opslag - emissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - broeikasgassen - manures - storage - emission - methane - nitrous oxide - greenhouse gases
    Mest is een belangrijke bron van emissies van methaan en lachgas. Onderzoekers bekijken hoe mest het beste kan worden opgeslagen binnen en buiten de stal.
    Gensignalen voor voerefficiëntie en methaanemissie = Genomic selection to improve feed efficiency and reduce methane emission
    Haas, Y. de; Calus, M.P.L. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Windig, J.J. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 450) - 26
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - dierveredeling - fokwaarde - genetische merkers - rundveevoeding - voederwaardering - efficiëntie - dosering - methaan - emissie - dairy farming - dairy cows - animal breeding - breeding value - genetic markers - cattle feeding - feed evaluation - efficiency - dosage - methane - emission
    There are many possibilities to breed for improved feed efficiency and reduced methane emission of dairy cattle. However, the results are not that reliable yet to be implemented directly.
    Emissiemetingen mestverwerkinginstallaties
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Hoeksma, P. ; Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 402) - 25
    varkenshouderij - mestverwerking - varkensmest - drijfmest - emissie - fijn stof - ammoniakemissie - methaan - pig farming - manure treatment - pig manure - slurries - emission - particulate matter - ammonia emission - methane
    This report presents the results of measurements performed at two manure treatment operation units to identify (and quantify) possible emission sources of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, odour and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10).
    Uitstoot methaan te lijf
    Dijkhuizen, A.A. - \ 2010
    Boerderij Melkvee 100Plus 2010 (2010)aug.
    melkveehouderij - melkvee - emissie - methaan - veevoeder - veevoeding - dairy farming - dairy cattle - emission - methane - fodder - livestock feeding
    Column van Aalt Dijkhuizen, voorzitter van de Raad van Bestuur van Wageningen Universiteit & Researchcentrum over de vermindering van de methaanemissie in de veehouderij door emissiearm veevoer.
    Landbouw en klimaat
    Stilma, E.S.C. ; Sukkel, W. - \ 2010
    Kennisakker.nl 2010 (2010)13-09-2010.
    klimaatverandering - landbouw - broeikasgassen - distikstofmonoxide - methaan - akkerbouw - climatic change - agriculture - greenhouse gases - nitrous oxide - methane - arable farming
    Het klimaat verandert door o.a. een toename van broeikasgassen in de atmosfeer. Ook de Nederlandse landbouw draagt hieraan bij en zal hier de gevolgen van ondervinden. Daarentegen heeft landbouw bijvoorbeeld de ruimte voor de productie van duurzame energie en beheert de landbouw organische stofstromen waarin het broeikasgas kooldioxide is vastgelegd. Agrosectoren hebben het convenant ‘schoon en zuinig’ getekend. Daarmee wordt de intentie getoond te werken aan het broeikaseffect. Maar hoe werkt dit zogenaamde ‘broeikaseffect’ eigenlijk? Op wat voor manieren heeft de landbouw invloed op de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en wat zijn de mogelijkheden voor de landbouw om die uitstoot te verminderen? Wat voor onderzoek wordt er gedaan in de landbouw om beter om te gaan met het klimaat?
    How the CH4 balance and the total GHG balance are changing if agricultural peat lands are transformed into wetland nature
    Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Kroon, P. ; Hendriks, D. ; Veenendaal, E.M. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2010
    Wageningen UR
    natuurontwikkeling - landbouwgrond - veengebieden - methaan - broeikasgassen - emissiereductie - nederland - nature development - agricultural land - peatlands - methane - greenhouse gases - emission reduction - netherlands
    Peat oxidation in agricultural peatlands can be reduced if those peatlands are being restored by raising the water table and by reducing agricultural intensity. These measures alter the carbon cycle and probably turn greenhouse gas sources into sinks. However, large uncertainty exist of such measures on the methane (CH4) balance and on the contribution of CH4 in the total greenhouse gas balance. Therefore, a landscape scale experiment has started in 2005 in which three peat areas are sampled for CO2 and CH4 and in which agricultural intensity ranges from high to low. The poster shows the results and conclusions.
    Denitrificatie met opgelost methaan uit anaerobe vergisting: nieuwe mogelijkheid voor afvalwaterbehandeling
    Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Kampman, C. ; Luesken, F. ; Temmink, B.G. - \ 2010
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 14 (2010)15. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 34 - 36.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - huishoudens - energieterugwinning - biogas - anaërobe behandeling - ammonium - methaan - denitrificatie - waterzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - waste water treatment - households - energy recovery - biogas - anaerobic treatment - ammonium - methane - denitrification - water treatment - purification plants
    Huishoudelijk afvalwater bevat veel energie. Rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties hebben zodoende de potentie om energieproducerend te worden in plaats van energieconsumerend. Er zijn reeds initiatieven in gang gezet die zich richten op het terugwinnen van energie in de vorm van biogas door het vergisten van primair en secundair slib. Een meer directe route naar biogas is de anaerobe zuivering van het afvalwater. Het effluent van een anaerobe reactor bevat echter nog wel ammonium en opgelost methaan (een sterk broeikasgas). Beide kunnen omgezet worden met de recentelijk ontdekte DAMO-bacteriën: denitrificatie gekoppeld aan anaerobe methaanoxidatie. Dit biedt nieuwe mogelijkheden voor een energie-efficiënte afvalwaterbehandeling.
    Biowaste energy potential in Kenya
    Nzila, C. ; DeWulf, J. ; Spanjers, H. ; Kiriamiti, H. ; Langenhove, H. - \ 2010
    Renewable Energy 35 (2010)12. - ISSN 0960-1481 - p. 2698 - 2704.
    plantenresten - kenya - biogas - methaan - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - plant residues - kenya - biogas - methane - biobased economy - biofuels - tea - waste - adsorption - digestion - zinc
    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the energy crisis through innovative use of the available but underutilised biowaste such as organic residues from maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane. Biogas technology is assumed to have the capacity to economically and sustainably convert these vast amounts of biowaste into renewable energy, thereby replacing the unsustainable fossil energy sources, and reducing dependency on fossil fuels. However, the total energy potential of biogas production from crop residues available in Kenya has never been evaluated and quantified. To this end, we selected five different types of residues (maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane) from Kenya and evaluated their energy potential through biomethane potential analysis at 30 °C and a test time of 30 days. The specific methane yields for maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane residues obtained under batch conditions were respectively 363, 271, 365, 67 and 177 m3 per tonne volatile solids. In terms of energy potential, maize, cotton and barley residues were found to be better substrates for methane production than tea and sugarcane residues and could be considered as potential substrates or supplements for methane production without compromising food security in the country. The evaluated residues have a combined national annual maximum potential of about 1313 million cubic meters of methane which represent about 3916 Gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity and 5887 GWh of thermal energy. The combined electrical potential is equivalent to 73% of the country’s annual power production of 5307 GWh. Utilization of the residues that are readily available on a ‘free on site’ basis for energy production could substitute the fossil fuels that account for a third of the country’s total electricity generation. Besides, exploitation of the potential presented by the biowaste residues can spur an energy revolution in the country resulting in a major economic impact in the region.
    Mest en urine: van afval naar waardevol product
    Bos, A.P. ; Cornelissen, J.M.R. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2010
    Syscope Magazine 26 (2010)2010. - p. 18 - 20.
    veehouderij - veehouderijbedrijven - innovaties - mest - urine - ammoniak - methaan - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - mestoverschotten - livestock farming - livestock enterprises - innovations - manures - urine - ammonia - methane - sustainability - manure surpluses
    Het gescheiden houden van mest en urine in de veehouderij belooft een reeks positieve effecten te geven, waarmee de veehouderij én de akkerbouw een duurzaamheidssprong kunnen maken. Maar dat lukt alleen als er veel praktijken tegelijkertijd veranderen.
    Methane and Climate Change
    Reay, D. ; Smith, P. ; Amstel, A.R. van - \ 2010
    Londen : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844078233 - 261
    klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - broeikasgassen - methaan - milieufactoren - verontreiniging - emissie - landbouw - landbouw en milieu - climatic change - global warming - greenhouse gases - methane - environmental factors - pollution - emission - agriculture - agriculture and environment
    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is estimated to be responsible for approximately one-fifth of man-made global warming. Per kilogram, it is 25 times more powerful than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time horizon -- and global warming is likely to enhance methane release from a number of sources. Current natural and man-made sources include many where methane-producing micro-organisms can thrive in anaerobic conditions, particularly ruminant livestock, rice cultivation, landfill, wastewater, wetlands and marine sediments. This timely and authoritative book provides the only comprehensive and balanced overview of our current knowledge of sources of methane and how these might be controlled to limit future climate change. It describes how methane is derived from the anaerobic metabolism of micro-organisms, whether in wetlands or rice fields, manure, landfill or wastewater, or the digestive systems of cattle and other ruminant animals. It highlights how sources of methane might themselves be affected by climate change. It is shown how numerous point sources of methane have the potential to be more easily addressed than sources of carbon dioxide and therefore contribute significantly to climate change mitigation in the 21st century.
    Deskstudie naar de potentiële verlaging van de methaanemissie bij het comfort slat mats systeem en het balansballen systeem voor rundveestallen = Desk study regarding the lowered methane emission from animal houses using either the comfort slat mat or balance ball system for cattle houses
    Starmans, D.A.J. ; Melse, R.W. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 332) - 14
    rundveehouderij - huisvesting van rundvee - stallen - emissie - methaan - luchtkwaliteit - ammoniakemissie - cattle husbandry - cattle housing - stalls - emission - methane - air quality - ammonia emission
    Research on the comfort slat mats and the balance ball system for cattle houses showed an emission reduction of methane. Additional research is necessary to be able to conclusively explain this.
    Broeikasgasmetingen binnen project CTF Flevoland 2009
    Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2010
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (Projectrapport ) - 22
    broeikasgassen - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - kooldioxide - emissie - teeltsystemen - berijdbaarheid (bodem) - grondbewerking - biologische landbouw - rijpadensysteem - greenhouse gases - methane - nitrous oxide - carbon dioxide - emission - cropping systems - trafficability - tillage - organic farming - controlled traffic farming
    Meting van de uitstoot van de broeikasgassen lachgas, methaan en koolzuurgas bij drie (biologische) teeltsystemen: Teeltsysteem met beperkte berijding maar met standaard hoofd grondbewerking; Teelstysteem met onbereden bedden en minimale grondbewerking; Teeltsysteem met standaard grondbewerking en berijding. De resultaten van de metingen aan lachgas en methaan waren wisselend. Wat betreft de uitstoot van koolzuurgas werd een tendens voor lagere gehalten gevonden bij de twee systemen met beperkte berijding en /of verminderde grondbewerking.
    Comparison of chamber and eddy covariance-based CO2 and CH4 emission estimates in a heterogeneous grass ecosystem on peat
    Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Kroon, P.S. ; Hensen, A. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2010
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150 (2010)6. - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 825 - 831.
    methaan - kooldioxide - emissie - schattingen - eddy-covariantie - broeikasgassen - veenweiden - methane - carbon dioxide - emission - estimates - eddy covariance - greenhouse gases - peat grasslands - carbon-dioxide exchange - flux measurements - methane emission - nitrous-oxide - water-vapor - spatial variation - soil respiration - polygonal tundra - fen - systems
    Fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) estimated by empirical models based on small-scale chamber measurements were compared to large-scale eddy covariance (EC) measurements for CH4 and to a combination of EC measurements and EC-based models for CO2. The experimental area was a flat peat meadow in the Netherlands with heterogeneous source strengths for both greenhouse gases. Two scenarios were used to assess the importance of stratifying the landscape into landscape elements before up-scaling the fluxes measured by chambers to landscape scale: one took the main landscape elements into account (field, ditch edge ditch), the other took only the field into account. Non-linear regression models were used to up-scale the chamber measurements to field emission estimates. EC CO2 respiration consisted of measured night time EC fluxes and modeled day time fluxes using the Arrhenius model. EC CH4 flux estimate was based on daily averages and the remaining data gaps were filled by linear interpolation. The EC and chamber-based estimates agreed well when the three landscape elements were taken into account with 16.5% and 13.0% difference for CO2 respiration and CH4, respectively. However, both methods differed 31.0% and 55.1% for CO2 respiration and CH4 when only field emissions were taken into account when up-scaling chamber measurements to landscape scale. This emphasizes the importance of stratifying the landscape into landscape elements. The conclusion is that small-scale chamber measurements can be used to estimate fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at landscape scale if fluxes are scaled by different landscape elements
    Methane emissions in two drained peat agro-ecosystems with high and low agricultural intensity
    Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Kroon, P.S. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Huissteden, J.C. van; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2010
    Plant and Soil 329 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 509 - 520.
    broeikasgassen - methaan - emissie - veengronden - agro-ecosystemen - ontwaterde omstandigheden - landbouw - bodemtemperatuur - greenhouse gases - methane - emission - peat soils - agroecosystems - drained conditions - agriculture - soil temperature - nitrous-oxide fluxes - spatial variability - water-table - soil-temperature - ch4 - scale - n2o - grasslands - peatlands - cover
    Methane (CH4) emissions were compared for an intensively and extensively managed agricultural area on peat soils in the Netherlands to evaluate the effect of reduced management on the CH4 balance. Chamber measurements (photoacoustic methods) for CH4 were performed for a period of three years in the contributing landscape elements in the research sites. Various factors influencing CH4 emissions were evaluated and temperature of water and soil was found to be the main driver in both sites. For upscaling of CH4 fluxes to landscape scale, regression models were used which were specific for each of the contributing landforms. Ditches and bordering edges were emission hotspots and emitted together between 60% and 70% of the total terrestrial CH4 emissions. Annual terrestrial CH4 fluxes were estimated to be 203 (±48%), 162 (±60%) and 146 (±60%) kg CH4 ha-1 and 157 (±63%), 180 (±54%) and 163 (±59%) kg CH4 ha-1 in the intensively managed site and extensively managed site, for 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. About 70% of the CH4 was emitted in the summer period. Farm based emissions caused per year an additional 257 kg CH4 ha-1 and 172 kg CH4 ha-1 for the intensively managed site and extensively managed site, respectively. To further evaluate the effect of agricultural activity on the CH4 balance, the annual CH4 fluxes of the two managed sites were also compared to the emissions of a natural peat site with no management and high ground water levels. By comparing the terrestrial and additional farm based emissions of the three sites, we finally concluded that transformation of intensively managed agricultural land to nature development will lead to an increase in terrestrial CH4 emission, but will not by definition lead to a significant increase in CH4 emission when farm based emissions are included
    Eddy covariance observations of CH4 and N2O : Towards more accurate emission estimates
    Kroon, P. ; Hensen, A. ; Jonker, H. ; Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Bosveld, F. - \ 2009
    methaan - distikstofmonoxide - eddy-covariantie - meteorologische waarnemingen - emissie - schattingen - methane - nitrous oxide - eddy covariance - meteorological observations - emission - estimates
    Poster presentation at the Early Career Scientist Workshop, 20 – 22 August 2009, Melbourne Australia.
    Veehouderij en klimaat : lachgas, methaan en ammoniak uit de stal : werkbladen voor leerlingen MBO Groen
    Laar, N. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Jong, F. de - \ 2009
    Utrecht : SME Advies - 26
    veehouderij - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - ammoniak - emissie - stallen - lesmaterialen - broeikasgassen - klimaatverandering - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - livestock farming - methane - nitrous oxide - ammonia - emission - stalls - teaching materials - greenhouse gases - climatic change - intermediate vocational training
    Hoeveel ammoniak komt er vrij uit stallen? En hoeveel methaan stoten landbouwdieren uit? Wanneer ontstaat er lachgas? Waarom zijn deze gassen schadelijk voor het milieu? Deze werkbladen zijn bedoeld voor leerlingen in het MBO Groen.
    Beschrijving van een toekomstgerichte manier van melkvee houden de vrije keuze
    Kasper, G.J. - \ 2009
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 310) - 27
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - melkveehouderij - ammoniak - methaan - emissie - mestvergisting - landschap - milieubeheer - dierenwelzijn - melkvee - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - biogas - biobased economy - sustainability - dairy farming - ammonia - methane - emission - manure fermentation - landscape - environmental management - animal welfare - dairy cattle - animal production - animal housing - biogas - biobased economy
    The farm concept "freedom of choice" is described in detail. It is addressed aspects which take account of animal welfare, environmental, labour and environment. A review is conducted of the welfare and calculations are made of the environmental benefits to the farm.
    Assessing CH4 and CO2 emissions from wetlands in the Drenthe province, The Netherlands: a modelling approach
    Petrescu, A.J. ; Huissteden, J. van; Vries, F. de; Bregman, E.P.H. ; Scheper, A. - \ 2009
    Netherlands journal of geosciences 88 (2009)2. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 101 - 116.
    veengronden - grondwaterspiegel - bodemchemie - methaan - kooldioxide - emissie - modellen - ecohydrologie - natuurgebieden - drenthe - peat soils - water table - soil chemistry - methane - carbon dioxide - emission - models - ecohydrology - natural areas - drenthe - greenhouse-gas balance - methane emissions - management
    Assessment of land use related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on larger spatial scales is usually achieved by modelling. Surface flux measurements are expensive and measurement locations too widely scattered to serve as spatially reliable flux estimates. Here we assess CO2 and CH4 fluxes from wetland nature reserves in the Dutch province of Drenthe, using the PEATLAND-VU model. Since surface flux observations in the province are absent and cannot be obtained in a short (
    Microbial aspects of anaerobic methane oxidation with sulfate as electron acceptor
    Jagersma, C.G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Fons Stams, co-promotor(en): Piet Lens. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855118 - 181
    methaan - anaërobe omstandigheden - sulfaatreductie - anaërobe microbiologie - methane - anaerobic conditions - sulfate reduction - anaerobic microbiology
    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important methane sink in the ocean but the microbes responsible for AOM are as yet resilient to cultivation. It was shown that AOM was coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) and this gave rise to current research which aims to develop a biotechnological process in which methane is used an electron donor for SR.
    This thesis describes the microbial analysis of an enrichment capable of high rate AOM (286 µmol.gdry weight-1.day-1) coupled to SR using a novel submerged membrane bioreactor system. Initially AOM rates were extremely low (0.004 mmol L-1 d-1), but AOM and SR increased exponential over the course of 884 days to 0.60 mmol L-1 d-1. The responsible organisms doubled every 3.8 months.
    By constructing a clone library with subsequent sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the responsible methanotrophs belong to the ANME-2a subgroup of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea, and that sulfate reduction is most likely performed by sulfate reducing bacteria commonly found in association with other ANME related archaea in marine sediments. Another relevant portion of the bacterial sequences can be clustered within the order of Flavobacteriales but their role remains to be elucidated. FISH analyses showed that the ANME-2a cells occur as single cells without close contact to the bacterial syntrophic partner. Incubation with 13C labeled methane showed substantial incorporation of 13C label in the bacterial C16 fatty acids (bacterial; 20, 44 and 49%) and in archaeal lipids, archaeol and hydroxyl-archaeol (21 and 20%, respectively). This confirms that both archaea and bacteria are responsible for the anaerobic methane oxidation in a bioreactor enrichment inoculated with Eckernförde bay sediment. To unravel the pathway of this syntrophic conversion, the effect of possible intermediates on AOM and SR was assessed.
    To investigate which kind of waste and process streams can be treated by the methanotrophic sulfate-reducing enrichment, the effect of environmental conditions and different substrates was assessed. The optimum pH, salinity and temperature for SR with methane by the enrichment were 7.5, 30‰ and 20°C, respectively. The biomass had a good affinity for sulfate (Km < 1.0 mM), a low affinity for methane (Km > 75 KPa) and AOM was completely inhibited at 2.4 (±0.1) mM sulfide. The enrichment utilized sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as alternative electron acceptors for methane oxidation and formate, acetate and hydrogen as alternative electron donors for sulfate reduction. As a co-substrate for methane oxidation only methanol stimulated the conversion of 13C labeled CH4 to 13CO2 in batch incubations of Eckernförde bay sediment, other possible co-substrates had a negative effect on the AOM rate.
    The research described in this thesis shows the possibility of enriching slow growing methane oxidizing communities but also shows the difficulties in applying this process for a biotechnological purpose because of the extreme slow doubling times and the lack of understanding of the metabolic routes used by these organisms.

    How the methane balance changes if agricultural peatlands are transformed into wetland nature and how this transformation influences the total carbon balance - contribution to cost action ES0804
    Schrier-Uijl, A. ; Kroon, P.S. ; Hendriks, D. ; Veenendaal, E.M. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2009
    In: Water in a Changing Climate. Progress in Land-Atmosphere Interactions and Energy/Water Cycle Research, Proceedings of the 6th International Scientific Conference on the Global Energy and Water Cycle and 2nd Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study (iLEAPS) Science Conference, 24-28 August 2009, Melbourne, Australia. - Melbourne : - ISBN 9789525855012 - p. 149 - 152.
    methaan - veengebieden - landbouw - wetlands - koolstofcyclus - natuurontwikkeling - nederland - methane - peatlands - agriculture - wetlands - carbon cycle - nature development - netherlands
    In the Netherlands eutrophic peatlands have been drained for centuries and in the last 50 years peatlands have been drained even more deeply to make modern agriculture possible. The resulting peat oxidation makes that these peatlands are major CO2 sources. It has been suggested that peat oxidation can be reduced if agricultural peatlands are tranformed into wetland nature by raising the water table and by reducing agricultural intensity. the measures alter the carbon cycle and porbably turn greenhouse gases into sinks. A landscape scale experiment has started in 2005 in which three areas have been chosen in which agricultural intensity ranges from high to low. The effects of transformation of intensively managed peatlands into wetland nature on the carbon balance, and more specifically on the CH4 balance have been studied for more than three years.
    Emissieplafonds 2020: effecten voor de veehouderij mogelijk aanzienlijk
    Helming, J.F.M. ; Vrolijk, H.C.J. - \ 2009
    Agri-monitor 2009 (2009)juni. - ISSN 1383-6455 - p. 1 - 2.
    emissie - methaan - verontreiniging - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - europese unie - fijn stof - emission - methane - pollution - cap - european union - particulate matter
    De Europese Unie doet voorstellen voor nieuwe nationale emissieplafonds voor ammoniak, fijn stof, methaan en lachgas. Dit artikel geeft inzicht in emissies en kosten bij verschillende beleidsscenario’s. Het blijkt dat algemene volumemaatregelen economisch minder efficiënt zijn dan verhandelbare emissierechten
    Methaanproductie uit varkensmest
    Timmerman, M. - \ 2009
    V-focus 6 (2009)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 46 - 47.
    varkenshouderij - varkens - varkensmest - mest - methaanproductie - methaan - pig farming - pigs - pig manure - manures - methane production - methane
    De methaanproductie uit varkensmest is onderzocht in laboratoriumproeven. De verschillende mestsoorten gaven een variatie in hydrolyseconstante tussen de 0,07 en 0,27 d . De maximale methaanproductie varieerde van 213 tot 596 l CH4 per kg OS. Uit een vergistingsproef bleek dat bij het verkorten van de verblijftijd van mest in de reactor van 28 naar 15 dagen, de methaanproductie maar relatief weinig afneemt
    Comparing predictions of nitrogen and green house gas fluxes in response to changes in live stock, land cover and land management using models at a national, European and global scale
    Vries, W. de; Kros, J. ; Voogd, J.C.H. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Stehfest, E. ; Bouwman, A.F. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1867) - 60
    stikstof - broeikasgassen - emissie - distikstofmonoxide - methaan - ammoniak - uitspoelen - landbouw - modelleren - nitrogen - greenhouse gases - emission - nitrous oxide - methane - ammonia - leaching - agriculture - modeling
    In this study we compared three relatively simple process based models, developed for the national scale (INITIATOR2), European scale (MITERRA) and global scale (IMAGE). A comparison was made of NH3 , N2O, NOx and CH4 emissions, while making a distinction between housing systems, grazing and manure/fertilizer application and N leaching to ground water and N runoff to surface water, while making a distinction between grass land and arable land. The objective of the comparison was to get experience in linking the models across scales and to evaluate scale effects, in terms of aggregating input data, and modeling approach on the model outcomes.
    Biotechnological aspects of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction
    Meulepas, R.J.W. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Piet Lens; Fons Stams. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853978 - 173
    anaërobe omstandigheden - oxidatie - methaan - microbiologie - biotechnologie - anaërobe microbiologie - sulfaatreductie - anaerobic conditions - oxidation - methane - microbiology - biotechnology - anaerobic microbiology - sulfate reduction
    Sulfate reduction (SR) can be used for the removal and recovery of metals and oxidized sulfur compounds from waste streams. Sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce oxidized sulfur compounds to sulfide. Subsequently, sulfide can precipitate dissolved metals or can be oxidized to elemental sulfur. Both metal sulfides and elemental sulfur can be reused in various applications. SR with hydrogen or ethanol as electron donor is an established biotechnological process. However, the costs of these electron donors limit the application possibilities. Methane would be a cheaper and more attractive electron donor. SR coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs in marine sediments. Uncultured archaea, distantly related to methanogens, and bacteria are involved in this process. The in vitro demonstration of SR coupled to AOM gave rise to this research, which aims to develop a biotechnological process in which methane is used as electron donor for SR.
    Three types of anaerobic granular sludge were screened for the ability to reduce sulfate with methane as electron donor. To do so, incubations were done with 13C-labeled methane. All three sludge types anaerobically oxidized 13C-labeled methane to 13C-labeled carbon dioxide. Moreover, the presence of methane enhanced the SR rate. However, AOM by sludge was not coupled to SR, but coincides with net methanogenesis. The methane-dependent SR was caused by the inhibitory effect of methane on methanogens competing (possibly in syntrophic consortia with acetogenic bacteria) with sulfate reducers for the same endogenous substrate. Therefore, anaerobic granular sludge does not form a suitable inoculum for sulfate-reducing bioreactors fed with methane.
    Well-mixed ambient-pressure submersed-membrane bioreactors, fed with sulfate and methane, were inoculated with sediment from Eckernförde Bay (Baltic Sea). Initially AOM rates were extremely low (0.004 mmol L-1 day-1), but at 15ºC AOM and SR rates increased over the course of 884 days to 0.60 mmol L-1 day-1 or 1.0 mmol gVSS-1 day-1. The AOM rate doubled approximately every 3.8 months. Molecular analyses revealed that the archaea in the obtained enrichment belonged predominately to the anaerobic methanotroph ANME-2a. Both bacteria and archaea incorporated carbon derived from 13C-labeled methane into their lipids, indicating that both were involved in AOM coupled to SR. To investigate which kind of waste streams can be treated by the methane-oxidizing sulfate-reducing enrichment, the effect of environmental conditions and alternative substrates on AOM and SR was assessed. The optimum pH, salinity and temperature for SR with methane by the enrichment were 7.5, 30‰ and 20°C, respectively. The biomass had a good affinity for sulfate (Km  1.0 mM), a low affinity for methane (Km > 75 kPa) and AOM was completely inhibited by 2.4 (±0.1) mM sulfide. The enrichment utilized sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite as electron acceptors for methane oxidation, and methane, formate, acetate and hydrogen as electron donors for SR.
    This study shows that methane can be used as electron donor for sulfate reduction in bioreactors. However, the low growth rate of the responsible microorganisms still forms a major bottleneck for biotechnological applications.

    Gesimuleerde methaanemissie op Koeien&Kansen-bedrijven
    Bannink, A. ; Smits, M.C.J. - \ 2008
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group
    melkveehouderij - rundveevoeding - voersamenstelling - dierlijke meststoffen - methaan - simulatiemodellen - dairy farming - cattle feeding - feed formulation - animal manures - methane - simulation models
    In het project Koeien&Kansen zijn gegevens verzameld voor de opname en de samenstelling van het rantsoen van melkvee en zijn metingen verricht aan uitstoot van methaan uit stallen. Met een simulatiemodel is de invloed van de voeding op de methaanemissie op deze praktijkbedrijven geanalyseerd. Het model beschrijft op gedetailleerde wijze het mechanisme van de microbiële activiteit in de pens en de wijze, waarop methaan wordt gevormd, zodat de hoeveelheid kan worden berekend
    Spatial and temporal variation of methane emissions in drained eutrophic peat agro-ecosystems: drainage ditches as emission hotspots
    Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Veenendaal, E.M. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Huissteden, J. van; Berendse, F. - \ 2008
    Biogeosciences Discussions 5 (2008). - ISSN 1810-6277 - p. 1237 - 1261.
    broeikasgassen - methaan - emissie - agro-ecosystemen - veengronden - bodemeigenschappen - drainage - sloten - veenweiden - temperatuur - greenhouse gases - methane - emission - agroecosystems - peat soils - soil properties - drainage - ditches - peat grasslands - temperature
    Our research investigates the spatial and temporal variability of methane (CH4) emissions in two drained eutrophic peat areas (one intensively managed and the other less intensively managed) and the correlation between CH4 emissions and soil temperature, air temperature, soil moisture content and water table. We stratified the landscape into landscape elements that represent different conditions in terms of topography and therefore differ in moisture conditions. There was great spatial variability in the fluxes in both areas; the ditches and ditch edges (together 27% of the landscape) were methane hotspots whereas the dry fields had the smallest fluxes. In the intensively managed site the fluxes were significantly higher by comparison with the less intensively managed site. In all the landscape element elements the best explanatory variable for CH4 emission was temperature. Neither soil moisture content nor water table correlated significantly with CH4 emissions, except in April, where soil moisture was the best explanatory variable.
    Mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas emissions from animal production systems: synergy between measuring and modelling at different scales
    Groenigen, J.W. van; Schils, R.L.M. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Oudendag, D.A. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2008
    Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48 (2008). - ISSN 0816-1089 - p. 46 - 53.
    distikstofmonoxide - emissiereductie - methaan - nitraatuitspoeling - dierlijke productie - agrarische productiesystemen - milieubeleid - ammoniak - vervluchtiging - nitrous oxide - emission reduction - methane - nitrate leaching - animal production - agricultural production systems - environmental policy - ammonia - volatilization - nitrous-oxide emissions - dairy farming systems - hippuric-acid content - soil n2o fluxes - urine composition - denitrification - netherlands - losses - cattle
    Animal production systems are large and complex sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Emissions from these systems are expected to rise over the coming decades due to the increasing global population and shifting diets, unless appropriate mitigation strategies are implemented. In this paper, we argue that the main constraints for such implementation are: (i) the complex and often poorly understood controls of GHG sources in animal production systems; (ii) the lack of knowledge on the economic and social costs involved in implementing mitigation strategies; and (iii) the strong political emphasis on mitigating nitrate leaching and ammonia volatilisation, rather than GHG emissions. We further argue that overcoming these three constraints can only be achieved by initiating integrated mitigation strategies, based on modelling and experimental work at three scales. At the `laboratory and field scale¿, basic causal relationships with respect to processes of GHG formation and other detrimental fluxes need to be experimentally established and modelled. As management options are considered at the `farm scale¿, this is the ideal scale to evaluate the cost-effectiveness, feasibility and possible pollution swapping effects of mitigation measures. Finally, at the `national and supra-national scales¿, environmental legislation is implemented, effectiveness of environmental policies and emissions abatement measures are being monitored, and the social costs of various scenarios are being weighed. We illustrate the need for integral measures and working across different scales using our own work on the relationship between nitrogen surplus and fluxes to the environment. At the field scale, a clear positive relation between nitrogen surplus and N2O emission, NO3¿ leaching and NH3 volatilisation was experimentally established. At the farm scale, the model DAIRYWISE was used to evaluate effects of minimising nitrogen surplus on the nutrient flow and economic viability of an average Dutch dairy farm. Even after including trade-off effects of CH4 emissions from cattle and manure storage, there was still a clear positive relationship between farm gate nitrogen surplus and GHG emission. At this scale, the prime issue was balancing environmental gains with economic viability. Finally, at the `national and supra-national scale¿ we developed the MITERRA-EUROPE model, and used it to quantify the effects on GHG emissions of environmental policies aimed at reducing NO3¿ leaching and NH3 volatilisation in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27). This showed the intricate relationship between different environmental goals, with both positive feedback (balanced fertilisation reduced both NO3¿ leaching and N2O emission) and negative feedback (`low-emission¿ manure application reduced NH3 volatilisation but increased N2O emission) possible. At this scale, there is a clear need for an integral approach towards reducing environmental assessment to the environment. Our studies so far suggest that `balanced fertilisation¿ is among the most promising mitigation measures for simultaneously lowering N2O emission, NO3¿ leaching and NH3 volatilisation, without pollution swapping to CH4 emission
    Agricultural trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions : a simulation study using the GTAP-IMAGE modelling framework
    Verburg, R.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Eickhout, B. ; Stehfest, E. - \ 2008
    The Hague : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 3, Natural resources and the environment ) - ISBN 9789086152049 - 84
    agrarische economie - agrarische handel - liberalisering van de handel - broeikaseffect - opwarming van de aarde - emissie - quota's - productiecontroles - handelsbarrières - kooldioxide - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - klimaatverandering - landbouwbeleid - milieueconomie - agricultural economics - agricultural trade - trade liberalization - greenhouse effect - global warming - emission - quotas - production controls - trade barriers - carbon dioxide - methane - nitrous oxide - climatic change - agricultural policy - environmental economics
    This report explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions and on changing commodity production areas by coupling of the modeling tools GTAP and IMAGE. Four scenarios are explored with developments up tot 2050. The scenarios include a baseline, full liberalisation and two partial liberalisation scenarios for which the latter scenarios include removal of trade barriers or removal of milk quota by 2015 only. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to a further increase in greenhouse gas emissions adding to an already observed increase in emissions observed in the baseline scenario. CO2 emission increase is caused by vegetation clearance due to a rapid expansion of agricultural areas in South America and South East Asia. Increased methane emissions are also calculated in these areas caused by less intensive cattle farming. Global production of the commodities milk, dairy and beef does not change between full liberalisation and the baseline but clear shifts from North America and Europe to South America and South East Asia are expected.
    Rookgas wkk overschrijdt effectgrenswaarde (projectleider Tom Dueck geinterviewd)
    Boonekamp, G. ; Dueck, T.A. - \ 2008
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2008 (2008)8. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 16 - 17.
    kassen - kooldioxide - stikstofoxide - ethyleen - methaan - meting - dosering - ventilatie - schermen - monitoring - alarmsystemen - rookgassen - warmtekrachtkoppeling - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - greenhouses - carbon dioxide - nitric oxide - ethylene - methane - measurement - dosage - ventilation - blinds - monitoring - alarms - flue gases - cogeneration - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology
    CO2 uit de wkk doseren is niet zonder risico. Metingen van WUR Glastuinbouw wijzen uit dat de concentratie NOx in de kas bijzonder hoog kan worden bij een flinke CO2-vraag, weinig ventilatie en een dicht scherm. Een bewakingssysteem voor NOx en etheen in de kas zou geen overbodige luxe zijn
    Analysis of international and European policy instruments: pollution swapping . Task 2 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"
    Oenema, O. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1663.2) - 104
    ammoniak - emissie - distikstofmonoxide - methaan - landbouw - beleid - waterverontreiniging - luchtverontreiniging - eu regelingen - richtlijnen (directives) - ammoniakemissie - maatregelen - ammonia - emission - nitrous oxide - methane - agriculture - policy - water pollution - air pollution - eu regulations - directives - ammonia emission - measures
    This Report describes the results of Task 2 ‘Analysis of International and European policy instruments’. The aim of this task is to analyze the existing International and European policy instruments aiming at reducing emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane to the atmosphere and nitrate to groundwater and surface waters. Specifically, the study addresses the possible synergies and/or possible antagonisms in these policies, and provides suggestions and recommendations to ensure an optimal coherence
    Development and application of the integrated nitrogen model MITERRA-EUROPE . Task 1 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"
    Velthof, G.L. ; Oudendag, D.A. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1663.1) - 99
    landbouw - ammoniak - emissie - stikstof - modellen - distikstofmonoxide - uitspoelen - oppervlaktewater - methaan - grondwater - beleid - eu regelingen - richtlijnen (directives) - kaderrichtlijn water - agriculture - ammonia - emission - nitrogen - models - nitrous oxide - leaching - surface water - methane - groundwater - policy - eu regulations - directives - water framework directive
    The objective is to have developed and applied a methodology allowing to assess and quantify the effects and costs of various policies and measures aiming at reducing the impact of agriculture on water air pollution and climate change. Both ancillary benefits and trade offs of measures have to be identified. In this report, the integrated approach of task 1 is described: development of an integrated approach. The model MITERRA-EUROPE is developed in this project. It is a model that can be used to assess the effects of the implementation of ammonia (NH3) and nitrate (NO3) measures and policies on the emissions of NH3, (nitrous oxide) N2O, N oxides (NOx), and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, leaching of N (including nitrate) to ground water and surface waters, and on the phosphorus (P) balance on both EU-27 level, country level, and regional (NUTS 2) level. It is a tool that can be helpful for tuning different N policies
    Reductieopties voor ammoniak- en methaanemissie uit huisvesting voor melkvee = Reduction options of ammonia and methane emissions from dairy housing
    Dooren, H.J.C. van; Smits, M.C.J. - \ 2007
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 80)
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - ammoniak - methaan - emissie - reductie - huisvesting van koeien - stallen - ammoniakemissie - alternatieve methoden - dairy farming - dairy cows - ammonia - methane - emission - reduction - cow housing - stalls - ammonia emission - alternative methods
    The reports gives an overview of the sources of ammonia and methane emission from dairy housing and the options for reduction
    Greenhouse gas fluxes from arable land in the Netherlands : BSIK-KvR programme ME-1
    Mosquera, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 't Veld, J.W.H. - \ 2007
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Report / Animal Sciences Group 77) - 14
    broeikasgassen - emissie - akkerbouw - distikstofmonoxide - methaan - greenhouse gases - emission - arable farming - nitrous oxide - methane
    Koolstofdioxide (CO2), methaan (CH4) en lachgas (N2O) zijn de belangrijkste broeikasgassen, die verantwoordelijk zijn voor de opwarming van de aarde (klimaatverandering). Het is van belang om broeikasgasemissies uit verschillende bronnen te kunnen kwantificeren. In dit rapport worden de resultaten gepresenteerd van N2O en CH4 emissiemetingen bij twee akkerbouw-locaties in Nederland
    Micrometeorological observations of CH4 and N2O at a managed fen meadow in the Netherlands
    Kroon, P.S. ; Hendriks, D.M.D. ; Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Hensen, A. ; Veen, W.H. van der - \ 2007
    In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Carbon in Peatlands, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 15 - 18 April 2007. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 91 - 92.
    broeikasgassen - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - meteorologische waarnemingen - micrometeorologie - veengebieden - groene hart - greenhouse gases - methane - nitrous oxide - meteorological observations - micrometeorology - peatlands - groene hart
    Abstract about a research project investigating CH4 and N2O emissions at a managed fen meadow.
    Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle
    Tamminga, S. ; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Zom, R.L.G. - \ 2007
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Report / Animal Sciences Group 34) - 44
    methaanproductie - methaan - voersamenstelling - voederconversie - melkveehouderij - rundveevoeding - voedertoevoegingen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - methane production - methane - feed formulation - feed conversion - dairy farming - cattle feeding - feed additives - farm management
    This report presents an overview of the enteric methane production in cattle. The possibilities are discussed to influence methane production by feeding measures and the use of feed additives, and by management measures. The possibilities are discussed against the background of Dutch cattle husbandry and points for attention and priorities for future research have been formulated
    Verlaging van methaan- en lachgasemissie uit de Nederlandse melkveehouderij: implementatie van reductiemaatregelen op praktijkbedrijven binnen project Koeien & Kansen
    Sebek, L.B.J. ; Schils, R.L.M. - \ 2006
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 16) - 54
    melkveebedrijven - melkvee - broeikaseffect - distikstofmonoxide - methaan - emissie - reductie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nederland - maatregelen - dairy farms - dairy cattle - greenhouse effect - nitrous oxide - methane - emission - reduction - farm management - netherlands - measures
    Nederland heeft zich bij de ondertekening van het Kyoto-protocol verplicht om de nationale broeikasgasemissie met 6% te verminderen ten opzichte van het referentiejaar 1990. Deze verplichting heeft geleid tot het initiëren van verschillende projecten. Die projecten hebben onder andere geresulteerd in een lijst van honderd mogelijke maatregelen om de emissie van lachgas en methaan op melkveehouderijbedrijven te verminderen. Het is echter nog niet duidelijk welke van die maatregelen geschikt zijn om te implementeren in het bedrijfsmanagement van praktijkbedrijven. In dit rapport wordt onderzoek beschreven waarin wordt nagegaan welke mogelijkheden er zijn om Nederlandse melkveehouderijbedrijven te stimuleren het bedrijfsmanagement aan te passen met als doel de lachgas- en methaanemissie te verminderen. Het onderzoek vond plaats onder de (rand)voorwaarden dat de vermindering van de broeikasgasemissie niet gepaard mag gaan met een toename van de emissie van nitraat en ammoniak (geen afwenteling), de effecten van de implementatie van maatregelen op de broeikasgasemissie worden gekwantificeerd en dat de argumenten van melkveehouders om maatregelen wèl of juist niet in de dagelijkse praktijk te implementeren worden belicht
    Covergisting van gewasresten; Een verkennende studie naar praktische en economische haalbaarheid
    Voort, M.P.J. van der; Klooster, A. van der; Wekken, J.W. van der; Kemp, H. ; Dekker, P.H.M. - \ 2006
    Lelystad : PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten (PPO nr. 530030) - 32
    oogstresten - anaërobe afbraak - plantenresten - stikstof - mineralen - methaan - mest - economische haalbaarheid - crop residues - anaerobic digestion - plant residues - nitrogen - minerals - methane - manures - economic viability
    Broeikasgasmodule BBPR
    Schils, R.L.M. ; Oudendag, D.A. ; Hoek, K.W. van der; Boer, J.A. de; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2006
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Alterra-rapport 1268) - 56
    melkveehouderij - broeikasgassen - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - reductie - bedrijfsvoering - kostenanalyse - simulatiemodellen - dairy farming - greenhouse gases - methane - nitrous oxide - emission - reduction - management - cost analysis - simulation models
    De Nederlandse melkveehouderij draagt via de emissies van lachgas en methaan bij aan de emissies van broeikasgassen. De uitbreiding van het BedrijfsBegrotingsProgramma Rundvee (BBPR) met een boeikasgasmodule maakt het mogelijk om de kosteneffectiviteit van emissiereducerende maatregelen in één rekengang te berekenen. De kosteneffectiviteit is het verschil in financieel saldo gedeeld door het verschil in emissie. De emissie van het gemiddelde melkveebedrijf in Nederland bedraagt volgens de berekening met de broeikasgasmodule van BBPR 0.8 kg CO2-equivalenten per kg melk voor bedrijven op minerale grondsoorten en 1.3 kg CO2-equivalenten per kg melk voor bedrijven op veengrond. Het verhogen van het aandeel maïs in het rantsoen verlaagt de emissie slechts vrij gering, maar levert financieel voordeel op. Minder weidegang resulteert in een aanzienlijke emissiereductie, maar is een dure maatregel. Het gebruik van nitraatloze voorjaarsmeststoffen levert slechts een geringe bijdrage aan de emissiereductie. Mestvergisting, volgens het principe van co-vergisting van aangevoerde snijmaïskuil, kan de emissie tot 24% reduceren, maar is voor een gemiddeld bedrijf te duur.
    Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows
    Smink, M.C.J. ; Hoek, K.W. van der; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2005
    Utrecht : SenterNovem - 21
    melkkoeien - methaanproductie - rundveevoeding - methaan - melkproductie - fermentatie - dairy cows - methane production - cattle feeding - methane - milk production - fermentation
    The aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen fermentation and digestion will be used which represents the effect of detailed dietary characteristics on methane production
    Precise soil management as a tool to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural soil. III. A preliminary study on grassland soils
    Mosquera, J. ; Huis in 't Veld, J.W.H. ; Beek, C. ter; Hol, J.M.G. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 569) - ISBN 9789067549868 - 17
    bodemverdichting - broeikasgassen - emissie - grondbewerking - graslandgronden - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - hulpbronnenbeheer - soil compaction - greenhouse gases - emission - tillage - grassland soils - methane - nitrous oxide - resource management
    Precise soil management as a tool to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural soil. II. Field measurements at arable soils in the Netherlands
    Mosquera, J. ; Huis in 't Veld, J.W.H. ; Beek, C. ter; Hol, J.M.G. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 568) - ISBN 9789067549851 - 19
    bodemverdichting - broeikasgassen - emissie - grondbewerking - akkergronden - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - hulpbronnenbeheer - soil compaction - greenhouse gases - emission - tillage - arable soils - methane - nitrous oxide - resource management
    Precise soil management as a tool to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural soil. I. Literature review
    Mosquera, J. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 567) - ISBN 9789067549844 - 51
    bodemverdichting - broeikasgassen - emissie - grondbewerking - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - hulpbronnenbeheer - bodem - bemesting - soil compaction - greenhouse gases - emission - tillage - methane - nitrous oxide - resource management - soil - fertilizer application
    Gasvormige emissies uit het melkveebedrijf van de familie Spruit. III. Mestopslag buiten de stal
    Mosquera, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Hofschreuder, P. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 566) - ISBN 9789067549837 - 23
    luchtverontreiniging - emissie - broeikasgassen - ammoniak - stankemissie - huisvesting, dieren - mest - opslag - stikstofoxiden - methaan - kooldioxide - melkveebedrijven - melkvee - air pollution - emission - greenhouse gases - ammonia - odour emission - animal housing - manures - storage - nitrogen oxides - methane - carbon dioxide - dairy farms - dairy cattle
    Dit rapport is deel III van het project die door Agrotechnology and Food Innovations werd uitgevoerd om de gasvormige emissies van het melkveehouderijbedrijf van de familie Spruit te meten. Hier worden de ammoniakemissies uit de mestopslag buiten de stal gepresenteerd. Naast de mestopslag onder de roostervloer van de ligboxenstal wordt een deel van de mest, afkomstig van de grupstal en de jongveehuisvesting op stro, opgeslagen in een vaste mestopslag. De bereiding van het uiteindelijke bemestingsproduct (gecomposteerde vaste mest) bestaat uit het regelmatig omscheppen van de mest waarbij deze gemengd wordt met mengmest vanuit de ligboxenstal, aangevoerde paardenmest en koolstof. Naast de vorming van ammoniak kan bij compostering ook een aanzienlijke hoeveelheid methaan en lachgas vrijkomen. Hieraan zijn ook metingen uitgevoerd.
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