Behind the veil of agricultural modernization : gendered dynamics of rural change in the Saïss, Morocco
Bossenbroek, L. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578982 - 171
agricultural development - modernization - gender relations - women - social change - rural areas - family farms - morocco - north africa - landbouwontwikkeling - modernisering - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - sociale verandering - platteland - familiebedrijven, landbouw - marokko - noord-afrika
The Moroccan countryside is marked by rapidly changing rural realities. The Moroccan government frames and promotes these changes as linear development towards modernity and progress for all thereby only focusing on the experiences of some audacious men – ‘entrepreneurs’ and ‘modernizing farmers’. The aim of the study is to unveil Morocco’s agricultural modernization plan by illustrating how agrarian processes in the agricultural plain of the Saïss are not a logical, self-evident or smooth transition to a higher stage of development or modernity. They are a form of globalizing capitalist development which is messy and contradictory, and which is marked by, and re-produces existing gender social hierarchies. By putting the experiences that often “fall away” from agrarian analysis at the heart of my study I am to explore how gender and social differences come to matter in process of agrarian change and are intimately linked.
Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes
Donner, M.I.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Fort; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577992 - 178
rural sociology - food consumption - food - branding - marketing - morocco - france - regional development - rural development - tourism - international tourism - rurale sociologie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - brandmerken - marketing - marokko - frankrijk - regionale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerisme - internationaal toerisme
Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there exists neither a commonly accepted definition nor a sound theoretical framework for place branding research. Studies have until now mainly focused on nations and cities, while the regional scale has rather been neglected, even more in the context of Mediterranean countries. In addition, little is yet known about the conditions, processes, and outcomes of place branding.
The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the clarification of the place branding concept and to a broader understanding of this rich and complex phenomenon. The focus is on the underlying conditions, processes and dynamics of place branding in regions that contributes to territorial development. Place branding is related to local food products and tourism for sustainable territorial development in Mediterranean rural regions (in France and Morocco).
The introduction chapter outlines the societal and theoretical context of place branding regarding this thesis. Place brands have emerged as attempts to respond to intertwined and multifaceted economic, political and socio-cultural challenges: to the externalities of globalisation, to local development challenges due to regionalisation and decentralisation processes, and to socio-economic tensions in the Mediterranean basin and its food domain. Accordingly, three established literature streams are mobilized: the marketing and branding of places, regional studies and sociology. It is supposed that insights from the three disciplines are needed to understand the conditions, processes and development outcomes of regional branding. This leads to three units of analysis: the first deals with place branding in a narrow sense, understanding it as marketing strategy for the development of places and their local assets based on a distinctive territorial identity; the second considers territorial development policies and public-private interactions; and the third analyses place-based, collective and embedded processes among various actors in rural areas.
Chapter 2 comprises a case study of the Sud de France brand in the region Languedoc-Roussillon, which is mainly used for the valorisation and promotion of local wines, food and tourism, but also serving institutional aims. It is a study of local dynamics and the process of regional branding, leading to beneficial outcomes stemming from a public development intervention. It demonstrates various economic and non-economic benefits created by a place brand and unfolds some of its working mechanisms, such as horizontal and vertical relations among different territorial actors, a multiple stakeholder involvement, or the linkage of a place brand with its political, social and economic context.
Chapter 3 is a continuation of Chapter 2, as it further investigates the kind of value that can be created by a place brand for different stakeholders, using the Sud de France case. Based on stakeholder and brand equity theory, it develops a measurement model and monitoring tool for the value of place brands. Results show that various place brand value dimensions coexist, according to the expectations of four identified key stakeholder groups. These value dimensions include economic, socio-cultural and environmental indicators.
Chapter 4 offers a comparison of four regional branding initiatives in Europe, with the aim to gain insights into the general conditions, as well as context-dependent factors for successfully developing and maintaining place brands. It combines a marketing perspective with the sociology of food and endogenous rural development, and analyses strategic and operational brand management aspects, as well as contextual factors. Findings indicate the importance of various embeddedness dimensions for regional branding, such as public policies, cooperation and governance forms, territorial identity and the anchorage of local actors in their places.
Chapter 5 is an explorative case study of place branding in the province of Chefchaouen, Morocco, in order to find out whether and how it would be possible to implement there a place brand as a coherent and collective territorial development project. Preconditions and various initiatives towards place branding are analysed at three action levels (macro, meso, micro). Specific attention is given to local cooperation and network activities, to leadership and political unity, being strongly related to the question of territorial governance. The main insight gained from the Chefchaouen case is that a collective place brand could be a useful tool for cross-sector cooperation, territorial governance and development, but that currently Moroccan regions still lack sufficient autonomy to fully develop their own territorial projects.
The final chapter builds upon the research findings to highlight conceptual differences between diverse brands related to places. The main conclusion of this thesis is that place brands in regions – in order to be able to support agribusiness and local development – must be considered as more than mere marketing instruments, but as dynamic, collective and embedded territorial development processes. These insights lead to conceptual and theoretical, methodological, as well as policy and managerial implications, for place branding research and practice. A main suggestion for further research is to use complex systems theory to cover the complexity of place brands.
Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco
Kooij, S. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Charlotte de Fraiture; Margreet Zwarteveen, co-promotor(en): M. Kuper. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577626 - 166
trickle irrigation - irrigation systems - efficiency - morocco - druppelbevloeiing - irrigatiesystemen - efficiëntie - marokko
Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along the binary modernity-tradition leaves little room for the possibility that drip irrigation and FMIS could come together in a meaningful way as they place FMIS and drip irrigation in two mutually exclusive representational categories. Yet, the water users from the Khrichfa Canal, part of the Ain Bittit Irrigation System, a ‘traditional’ FMIS in Northern Morocco, opt for ‘modern’ drip irrigation as technology of their choice. To explain this apparent contradiction this PhD thesis develops an approach to rethinking the performance of drip irrigation in the context of farmer managed irrigation systems. The question “how does drip irrigation perform?” guides this research. In irrigation engineering literature the performance of drip irrigation is centred around the notion of water use efficiency – the prime task that drip irrigation is supposed to fulfil. However, to understand drip irrigation in FMIS, a more processual and less prescriptive approach to performance is explored. Drawing on actor-network approaches, the thesis understands performance as “the art of ordering the relations and interactions between people and objects, a process of ordering which emerges from practice and which results in contingent, surprising outcomes.”
This study starts by ‘unpacking’ the efficiency of drip irrigation by exploring what efficiency means, how the strong link between drip irrigation and efficiency was constructed, and what this association of drip irrigation as an efficient technology does. Because of its renowned efficiency, drip irrigation introduction is stimulated in many countries. Yet, efficiency is not an uncontested term. From the academic debate on efficiency complexity, it is clear that efficiency terminology is scale and context specific. Rather than studying drip irrigation with a pre-defined scale of analysis, this thesis focuses on how efficiencies, and their assumptions about scales and context, are used in irrigation projects and descriptions of drip irrigation performance. This PhD study critically engages with questions about efficiency and searches for alternative ways of understanding performance. To understand how drip irrigation and FMIS can come together in meaningful ways, this PhD study does not only re-define the performance of drip irrigation but likewise re-thinks conceptualisations of FMIS. FMIS are approached as dynamic entities that continuously change – which allows to see the introduction of drip irrigation as yet another change, rather than a disruption of ‘tradition’.
The farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa in Northern Morocco is selected as a case study to understand how drip irrigation performs in a FMIS with a historical analysis. The Moroccan government stimulates the introduction of drip irrigation because this efficient technology addresses problems of groundwater depletion ànd supports a growth in agricultural production. In the Khrichfa area, several individual farmers have converted to drip irrigation and the water users organisation is planning for a collective drip irrigation system. The existing drip irrigation systems and the collective plans provided fertile ground for exploring how ‘modern’ drip irrigation and ‘traditional’ FMIS can go together. This thesis begins with a literature review on the efficiency of drip irrigation in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 is an analysis of what efficiencies do in the field, how efficiencies are used to re-allocate water in (drip) irrigation projects. In Chapter 4 and 5 alternative conceptualisations of performance are explored: in Chapter 4 by analysing the intimate relation between technologies and institutions, and their capacity to mutually shape each other, and in Chapter 5 the focus lies on understanding the performance of drip irrigation as emerging from the interactions between the technology and its (potential) user.
The literature review in Chapter 2 aims to understand the scientific basis for the expectations that drip irrigation is efficient with water. Efficiency studies underscore the need for drip irrigation as a device to counter water scarcity, groundwater depletion and competition over water and align with a modernization discourse – aiming at improvement and upgrading of irrigation. The efficiency of drip irrigation is constructed at very localized experimental stations with a wide variety of efficiency terms and definitions used by different research communities. Although the term efficiency gives the impression of unity, the studies that measure and define efficiency have remarkable differences in conceptualizing water balances and measuring water flows. However, the resulting efficiency numbers are treated as if they were comparable amongst each other. This results in a widely supported consensus that drip irrigation saves water. This creation of unity might be strategic for continuation of research practices and funding, but it says little about how drip irrigation will perform in the fields of farmers. The practices of farmers are left out of the experiments reviewed in literature. Besides local farming practices more ‘context’ is left out of the equations: with water-tight plastic borders all flows in the experiments are controllable. The research on the efficiency of drip irrigation is thus very technology-centred, i.e. the performance of the technology and its capacity to bring water efficiently to plants is attributed to the material objects.
Chapter 3 shows that efficiency numbers do have influence as they embed a promise of the creation of more water. Apparently previously ‘lost’ water would be captured, thus resulting in a water ‘gain’. This is not specific for drip irrigation – the promise of water ‘gains’ is also present in other irrigation technologies and modernization projects. For example, previous modernization projects in the Ain Bittit irrigation system, of which the Seguia Khrichfa is a secondary canal, focused on lining of the infrastructure in order to re-allocate the ‘saved’ water for drinking water to the city of Meknes. All modernization projects in Ain Bittit have been preceded or accompanied by a process of re-allocating yet-to-be saved water. For example, the many actors involved in the conversion to drip irrigation all claim that the water ‘gain’ would be theirs. As this is never openly discussed, it is only when projects are implemented that competition over the ‘saved’ water arises. Yet, this competition is not brought to the open and each actor claims the ‘saved’ water, resulting on multiple claims on the yet-to-be saved water. Within the irrigation system, the ‘saved’ water mixes with the rest of the flows in the basin. This makes it 1) impossible to know how much water is actually saved, and thus how much water could be re-distributed, and 2) invisible to others who actually uses the ‘saved’ water. Only silent actors in a powerless position – like the aquifer – lose out. Chapter 3 concludes with the suggestion that not measuring actual water gains is strategic because it de-politicises re-allocations, allowing several actors to appropriate the yet-to-be-saved water without confrontations.
Chapter 4 describes the performance of technology as co-defining the water distribution in an irrigation system, and its role in defining possible solutions. The technology has a function in co-shaping institutions, which forms also depend on the distributional questions that institutions aim to tackle. For drip irrigation, this means that the introduction of drip irrigation technology is shaped through and also provokes distributional questions. Which water users are in- or excluded from the system? What are legitimate reasons for accessing water? The introduction of drip irrigation brings with it discourses on efficiency, productivity and avoidance of waste – which shape the framing of distributional questions. Surprisingly, these questions do not lead to open conflicts in Khrichfa. The conclusions of Chapter 4 suggest that this is because technologies can play a role in de-politicizing change. Suggesting new technologies or drawing old technologies into new configurations allows actors to enforce changes in the irrigation system without anyone losing face. When difficult questions on in-or exclusion are defined as issues of efficiency and modernization – and thus as progress and the way forward – these are hard to openly oppose.
Chapter 5 explores socio-technical performances of drip irrigation in the Seguia Khrichfa area by approaching performance as emerging from practice. The positivity of drip irrigation (constructed through efficiency experiments in laboratories which travelled to agricultural policies and donor-led debates) radiates on drip irrigation users and the administration and works in the field to create identities and form alliances. In Khrichfa, drip irrigation contributes to a shift towards modern, entrepreneurial and clean agriculture, and strengthens the ties between the irrigation community and the State. These are performances of drip irrigation that come into being in wider networks in which the technology interacts. In other situations (at other moments, in interaction with other actors, another environment) drip irrigation could perform in different ways. In the most extreme cases, drip irrigation does not even have to be in place physically as an object to perform. Talking about drip irrigation, aligning with drip irrigation and its discourses of efficiency and modernity also performs. Yet, the socio-technical focus on processes of network ordering hints at the fragility of the performances of drip irrigation: actors need to actively keep the network they constructed in place to maintain identities and alliances. This understanding of performance also means that drip irrigation can perform in many ways, but this does not mean that these performances can be expected in other contexts. Likewise, one cannot expect that drip irrigation is always efficient. Drip irrigation only becomes efficient through practice, when actors, technology and the environment all work towards the goal of using water efficiently.
The general discussion concludes by answering the main research question on how drip irrigation performs. Drip irrigation performs as an efficient technology, which is often translated in irrigation policies as needing less water while increasing productivities. The suggestion that water is ‘saved’ that would otherwise be ‘lost’ creates a promise of water gains which can be re-distributed. Drip irrigation also performs as network builder and creator of identities. Both modern drip irrigation and notions of performance (such as efficiency) are strategic for de-politicizing re-allocation issues. Changing water allocations via efficiency arguments or transforming institutions via technologies is attractive as it silences opposition. This thesis also highlights how performance assessments – for example based on irrigation efficiency – perform (and are performed); they re-order the relations and interactions between people and objects. Likewise, FMIS, as a category to define irrigation systems perform. Any definition or categorisation implies certain possibilities or restrictions, and the water users of the Seguia Khrichfa know well how to use these in their favour. As implications of this research for the Moroccan agricultural policy, this study suggests that it is doubtful whether drip irrigation makes available the anticipated water, as the Moroccan government is not the only actor that claims access to the ‘saved’ water. Yet, this thesis suggests that drip irrigation does help farming communities to experience that they ‘count’ in modern agriculture – though other cheaper ways of attaining this could be possible. In addition, the suggestion is made to more explicitly measure multiple performances – to celebrate their differences rather than creating a suggestion of unity. Being open to the multiple performances of drip irrigation will help to explain for whom drip irrigation works and how, and at the costs of what. The thesis concludes with a personal reflection that drip irrigation and FMIS can very well go together, at the condition that both are re-conceptualized.
Targeting persons with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins with lifestyle interventions : opportunities and effectiveness
Bukman, A.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577022 - 169
socioeconomic status - lifestyle - ethnic groups - intervention - cardiovascular diseases - type 2 diabetes - diabetes - obesity - dutch - turkish - glucose tolerance - morocco - physical activity - prevention - sociaal-economische positie - levensstijl - etnische groepen - interventie - hart- en vaatziekten - diabetes type 2 - suikerziekte - obesitas - nederlands - turks - glucosetolerantie - marokko - lichamelijke activiteit - preventie
Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that the development of cardiometabolic diseases can be partly prevented or postponed by the combination of a healthy diet and physical activity. Cardiometabolic diseases and their risk factors are particularly prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status and some ethnic minorities, and therefore these groups especially may benefit from participating in lifestyle interventions. Although individuals with low socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities could potentially benefit from lifestyle interventions, it seems that these groups are often not successfully reached for such interventions. Moreover, when they do participate in these interventions, they seem more likely to quit. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to study opportunities for, and the effectiveness of, lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, targeting individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins. To this end, this thesis reports two studies that identified opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to the target group’s needs, one study describing the process of adapting an effective lifestyle intervention (SLIM) into a new lifestyle intervention targeting individuals with low SES of different ethnic origins (MetSLIM) and two studies that determined the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions among the target group.
The aim of the study described in chapter 2 was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way as to be more appealing for individuals with low socioeconomic status. The study provided insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; triggers for lifestyle change; and preferred ways to support lifestyle change. Data were gathered in semi-structured focus group interviews with adults with low socioeconomic status (four groups) and with adults with high socioeconomic status (five groups). In general, three key topics were identified, namely: current lifestyle is logical for participants given their personal situation; lifestyle change is prompted by feedback from their body; and support for lifestyle change should include individually tailored advice and could profit from involving others. The perceptions of the participants with low socioeconomic status were generally comparable to the perceptions shared by the participants with high socioeconomic status. Some perceptions were, however, especially mentioned in the low socioeconomic status groups. Participants with low socioeconomic status indicated that their current eating behaviour was sometimes affected by cost concerns. They seemed to be especially motivated to change their lifestyle when they experienced health complaints but were rather hesitant to change their lifestyle for preventive purposes. Regarding support for lifestyle change, participants with low socioeconomic status preferred to receive advice in a group rather than on their own. For physical activities, groups should preferably consist of persons of the same age, gender or physical condition.
The aim of the study described in chapter 3 was to identify how Turkish and Moroccan adults living in the Netherlands, aged 45 years and older, could be reached to participate in health checks for cardiometabolic diseases and follow-up (lifestyle) advice. In this study, questionnaire data were combined with interview data. This was done in order to use the narratives from the interviews to get a better understanding of the numbers that resulted from the questionnaire data. It turned out that both ethnic groups preferred an invitation from their general practitioner (GP) for a health check and preferred to fill out the health check questionnaire at the GP’s office or at home, on paper. They preferred to receive advice at individual level in relation to personal matters via either a physician or a specialised healthcare professional. Sixty-one percent of the Turkish respondents preferred to receive information in their native language, compared to 37% of the Moroccan respondents. Several participants mentioned a low proficiency in the local language as an explanation for their preference to fill out the health check questionnaire at home, to receive advice from an ethnicity-matched professional and to receive information in their native language. The results of this study suggested that the GP would be a promising contact to reach adults of Turkish and Moroccan origin for health checks or (lifestyle) advice. Furthermore, the findings suggested that it would be necessary to provide information in individuals’ native language to overcome language barriers and that (lifestyle) advice should be tailored towards the needs of the targeted individuals.
The insights gained into the needs and preferences of the target group – as described in chapter 2 and chapter 3 – were taken into account in the design of the MetSLIM intervention study. The MetSLIM study targeted individuals with low socioeconomic status of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan origin. The MetSLIM study protocol was based on the SLIM study protocol. The SLIM study showed the beneficial effects of nutrition advice and physical activity promotion on the prevention type 2 diabetes, but drop-out was relatively high among low SES participants. Chapter 4 provides a detailed description of the development from the SLIM study protocol to the MetSLIM study protocol. Furthermore, this chapter gives insight into the obstacles encountered in developing the MetSLIM study to target individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins. The new elements regarding the lifestyle intervention programme were: 1) additional group meetings about price concerns and social occasions with regard to a healthy diet; 2) ethnicity-matched dieticians; 3) gender-matched sports instructors; 4) all activities in the participants’ own neighbourhood; and 5) activities for women and men separately. The new elements regarding the study design, in order to study the effectiveness of the MetSLIM intervention programme, included: 1) from an university stetting to a community setting; 2) from a randomised controlled trial to a quasi-experimental study; 3) waist circumference – as a visible cardiometabolic risk factor – as main study outcome; 4) recruitment via GPs and in community centres; 5) translated study materials and ethnicity-matched research assistants involved in measuring; and 6) fewer measurements and measurements that could take place at different locations. Adaptations to the original SLIM study protocol were considered necessary in order to overcome practical barriers that hinder the target group’s participation; to suit the target group’s (cultural) needs; and to make it feasible to perform the study in a local (community) setting.
MetSLIM was not the only study set up based on the SLIM study. The SLIMMER study translated SLIM from a university setting to a real-world setting. The intervention was implemented in the public health and primary healthcare setting involving local GPs, practice nurses, dieticians, physiotherapists and sports clubs. The SLIMMER study did not target individuals with low socioeconomic status in particular; however, 52% of the study participants did have a low socioeconomic status, as determined by highest completed educational level. Chapter 5 describes how we explored the role of socioeconomic status in willingness to participate, programme attendance, programme acceptability, adherence to lifestyle guidelines, drop-out and effectiveness in the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention. The SLIMMER study was a randomised controlled trial, targeting 40- to 70-year-old adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes, carried out in Apeldoorn and Doetinchem. The intervention group participated in a 10-month lifestyle programme: weekly training sessions were guided by a physiotherapist, and dietary advice was given by a dietician during 5–8 individual consultations and one group session. Measurements were carried out at baseline, after 12 months and six months after the active intervention period ended. The study showed that participation, attendance, acceptability, adherence, drop-out and effect of the SLIMMER study were mostly not affected by socioeconomic status. The SLIMMER study was able to reach the low socioeconomic status group as effectively as the higher socioeconomic status group, resulting in at least similar health benefits. The SLIMMER sample size was too small to study differences within the low socioeconomic status group, e.g. comparing the low vs. the least educated or comparing ethnic groups. Only 10% of the 316 SLIMMER participants had the lowest educational levels (no education or primary education) and only 11% had a foreign background.
The aim of the study described in chapter 6 was to measure the effectiveness of the MetSLIM intervention on waist circumference and other cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle and quality of life among 30- to 70-year-old adults with an elevated waist-to-height ratio. In the MetSLIM study, 220 individuals participated, of whom 40% had no education or only primary education and of whom 64% had a foreign background. MetSLIM had a quasi-experimental design with measurements at baseline and after 12 months. Participants were recruited in deprived neighbourhoods of Arnhem and Eindhoven via either their GP or in community centres. The intervention group participated in a 12-month lifestyle programme: an introductory group meeting was guided by the researcher, weekly physical activity lessons were guided by a sports instructor and dietary advice was given by an ethnicity-matched dietician (in total four hours of individual consultations and three group sessions). The study showed that the MetSLIM lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing waist circumference, other measures of obesity, total and LDL cholesterol, and quality of life. MetSLIM had a drop-out of 31%, which was higher than at 12 months in the SLIM study (10%) and SLIMMER study (13%), but comparable to drop-out in similar studies among ethnic minorities or low socioeconomic status populations.
Finally, in chapter 7, the main results of this thesis are described, followed by a discussion of methodological considerations, public health implications, suggestions for future research and the general conclusion. The adaptation process from SLIM to MetSLIM is discussed, including a reflection on the decision to use SLIM as a starting point and the decision to target three different ethnic groups at the same time. Moreover, difficulties in defining and selecting persons with low socioeconomic status and specific ethnic groups within research are addressed. As SLIMMER and MetSLIM proved that low socioeconomic status populations can be reached, and that their health can be improved when they participate in lifestyle interventions, it is suggested that further implementation should be considered. Insight should be gained into the ‘black box’ of lifestyle interventions; i.e. we should get to know what works for whom. Planned future research includes a process and economic evaluation of MetSLIM.
This thesis has shown that intensive combined lifestyle interventions can be effective in low socioeconomic status populations and identified possible adaptations to make lifestyle interventions more suitable for individuals with low socioeconomic status of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan origin. The question is not whether a lifestyle intervention can be effective, but how diverse groups can be reached and benefit from it. For this purpose, further insight into the success of different adaptations for different target groups should be obtained to reveal the effective elements to reach, inspire and retain different low socioeconomic status populations and ethnic minorities with lifestyle interventions.
Trade effects of the EU-Morocco Association Agreement
Berkum, S. van - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI report / LEI Wageningen UR 2013-070) - ISBN 9789086156634 - 40
tuinbouw - internationale handel - handelsakkoorden - marktconcurrentie - handelsrelaties - marktprijzen - europese unie - marokko - horticulture - international trade - trade agreements - market competition - trade relations - market prices - european union - morocco
This study investigates the effects of the 2012 amendment of the Protocol on EU imports of horticultural products from Morocco. Currently, Morocco’s exports of tomato, oranges and clementines outcompete EU’s main producers of these products in months during which Morocco’s supply is on the market. Expanded tariff free import quotas (TRQs) for tomatoes and clementines, and complete elimination of the TRQ for sweet oranges will not result in an immediate expansion of Morocco’s exports to the EU, but depend on Morocco’s ability to expand its production capacity for these products. Next to institutional reform, infrastructural investments and extension, improving water productivity is key in this respect.
Erroneous host identification frustrates systematics and delays implementation of biological control
Bin, F. ; Roversi, P.F. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2012
Redia Giornale di Zoologia 95 (2012). - ISSN 0370-4327 - p. 83 - 88.
pine processionary moth - thaumetopoea-pityocampa - natural enemies - egg-batches - lepidoptera - lep - schiffermuller - lymantriidae - mountains - morocco
Misidentifications of pests and their natural enemies and misinterpretations of pest-natural enemy associations have led to the failure of a number of biological control projects. In addition to misidentification, more complicated kinds of errors, such as mistakes in establishing host records of parasitoids, have resulted in inaccurate host-parasitoid lists of even well-known pest species. Here we discuss a particular problem of misinterpretation caused by complicated host-natural enemy habitats. Six examples are presented illustrating that mistakes in collection of host material can easily result in attribution of natural enemies to a wrong host species. To prevent such mistakes, it is advised that (1) extreme care should be taken when collecting host material in the field, (2) collected material should be partly dissected in order to check for potential contamination with non-host material, (3) supposedly new parasitoid-host associations inferred from specimens that emerged in the laboratory should be confirmed by field observations, (4) assignment of parasitoids to new hosts should only be done after consulting taxonomic specialists for the host and parasitoid.
Notes and comments on the ex-post evaluation of the fisheries agreement EU-Morocco
Brunel, T.P.A. - \ 2011
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C160/11) - 8
zeevisserij - visserijbeleid - visserijbeheer - internationale verdragen - evaluatie - europese unie - marokko - marine fisheries - fishery policy - fishery management - international agreements - evaluation - european union - morocco
This report presents a summary of the content of the ex-post evaluation of the fishing agreement between the EU and Morocco.
|Turkse en Marokkaanse Nederlanders thuis
Dibbits, H. ; Horst, H.M. van der - \ 2007
Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press - ISBN 9789053569771 - 96
interieurarchitectuur - meubilair - huishoudens - etnische groepen - minderheden - nederland - turkije - marokko - interior design - furniture - households - ethnic groups - minorities - netherlands - turkey - morocco
Veel Nederlanders hebben misschien een Turkse waterpijp of Marokkaanse theeglaasjes in huis, maar de meeste mensen hebben er geen idee van hoe het er bij Turkse en Marokkaanse Nederlanders thuis uitziet. Dit boek brengt hier verandering in. In twee rijk geïllustreerde en toegankelijk geschreven essays wordt een kleurrijk en levendig beeld gegeven van de interieurs van Turkse en Marokkaanse Nederlanders. Het boekje is geïllustreerd met kleurenfoto’s van de interieurs. De auteurs laten de spanning zien tussen de verschillende Turks-Nederlandse (t)huizen, variërend van oude en soms verouderde negentiendeeeuwse appartementen en vinexwoningen in Nederland, tot lemen plattelandshuizen, vakantiehuisjes en luxueus gemeubileerde villa’s in Turkije. Tussen deze (t)huizen wordt jaarlijks heen en weer gereisd. De auteurs gaan in op de verschillen tussen Turkse en Marokkaanse Nederlanders in hun omgang met traditie en moderniteit. Steeds meer Marokkaanse Nederlanders combineren een westers bankstel met een traditioneel ogende, maar gloednieuwe Marokkaanse salon en gebruiken beide ook daadwerkelijk. Bij de ontvangst van gasten, kiezen Turkse Nederlanders vaker voor de combinatie van een ‘westers’ bankstel en glanzende meubels. Deze worden soms gecombineerd met een museale uitstalling van een reeks ‘authentieke’, oude en niet voor gebruik bestemde Turkse accessoires, eventueel in een ‘oosters’ lounge-hoekje.
Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice
Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Perry, C.J. - \ 2004
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domain 3, Natural resources and the environment ) - ISBN 9789052429304 - 152
economie - taxatie - prijszetting - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - irrigatie - irrigatiewater - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - egypte - india - indonesië - marokko - oekraïne - prijzen - economics - valuation - price fixing - natural resources - irrigation - irrigation water - farm income - egypt - india - indonesia - morocco - ukraine - prices
This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their usefulness in the context of five case studies of irrigated areas - in Egypt, India, Indonesia, Morocco and Ukraine. The case studies confirm that competition for scarce water and shortage of funds are widespread. The study provides insight into the current price paid for water, the cost of service provision, and the value to irrigators of the water they receive. The analysis shows that volumetric pricing is unlikely to be relevant to demand management because the price of water at which demand and supply would be balanced is so high as to substantially reduce farm incomes. This socio-political problem, plus the technical and administrative complexity of measuring and accounting for water, and the crucial distinction between water applied to the field and water consumed by the crop make water pricing an unsuitable approach to balancing supply and demand.
|The role of seguias in soil and water conservation within the Talkjounte watershed
Schiettecatte, W. ; Fleskens, L. ; Kabbachi, B. ; Voort, D. van de - \ 2002
In: Water harvesting in Mediterranean zones : an impact assessment and economic evaluation : proceedings from EU Wahia project final seminar in Lanzarote / de Graaff, J., Ouessar, M., - p. 61 - 70.
stroomgebieden - oppervlakte-irrigatie - waterverdeling - erosie - marokko - bodembescherming - watersheds - surface irrigation - water distribution - soil conservation - erosion - morocco
Water harvesting in Mediterranean zones : an impact assessment and economic evaluation
Graaff, J. de; Ouessar, M. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre - 146
water - regenwateropvang - waterbeheer - toepassingen - landbouw met waterafvoer - marokko - canarische eilanden - tunesië - water - water harvesting - water management - applications - runoff farming - morocco - canary islands - tunisia
Irrigation ecology of schistosomiasis : environmental control options in Morocco
Boelee, E. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; B.M.A.J. Gryseels; F.P. Huibers. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081438 - 199
irrigatie - schistosomiase - schistosoma - humane ziekten - milieubeheersing - irrigatiesystemen - ziekteoverdracht - ecologie - marokko - irrigation - schistosomiasis - schistosoma - human diseases - environmental control - irrigation systems - disease transmission - ecology - morocco
The concept of irrigation ecology is introduced to study the transmission and the control of urinary schistosomiasis in Moroccan irrigation systems. By distinguishing a biological, a human and an irrigation environment, crucial interactions are identified in the overlap of these three environments. In the semi-arid Haouz plain in Central Morocco, schistosomiasis was introduced after the construction of the Tessaout Amont irrigation system in the early 1970s. The typical design of this canal irrigation system, with elevated semi-circular conduits as secondary and tertiary canals, is based on upstream control and the water is distributed in rotation. Inverted siphons, consisting of two square boxes connected by an underground pipe, have been constructed to convey the water under roads or tracks. The boxes contain stagnant water and provide excellent breeding sites for Bulinus truncatus , the intermediate snail host of schistosomiasis.
A cross-sectional survey showed that especially inverted siphons on tertiary canals harbour high densities of B.truncatus . A length profile study along one secondary canal and four of its tertiaries showed that conditions near the tail end of canals, especially in the downstream siphon boxes, are most favourable to the intermediate snail host. The transmission of schistosomiasis in Tessaout Amont is concentrated at these siphons as, in the absence of other sources, water from the boxes is used for all kinds of agricultural and domestic purposes, inducing frequent water contact.
Three environmental control options have been studied. Regular emptying and cleaning of siphon boxes had a limited effect on densities of Bulinus truncatus snails and eggs. Creating a dark environment by covering siphon boxes with iron plates proved to be much more effective in reducing B.truncatus populations. Some of the covers were equipped with moveable lids to leave the water accessible to the villagers. The third control option concerned measures to increase the water flow velocity in siphons. Combining flow velocities with the duration of the flow results in a mean annual flow velocity. According to literature, above a critical value of 0.042 m/s, no B.truncatus snails are to be found in siphon boxes. In siphons with a lower mean annual flow velocity, this critical value can be obtained by reducing the inner dimensions of the siphon boxes, thus increasing the water flow velocity. However, in experiments with such smaller siphon boxes, the siphons were quickly repopulated with B.truncatus . Better results might be achieved by redefining the critical value. However, the small diameter siphons generate higher energy losses. Consequently, such siphons can only be applied in a layout where access to the fields is guaranteed through simple bridges over the drains, which significantly reduces the number of required siphons.
Efficientie van energie en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen tomaten en rozen in kassen : Nederland, Israel, Spanje en Marokko
Verhaegh, A.P. - \ 1996
Den Haag : Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Afdeling Tuinbouw (Publikatie / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 4.142) - ISBN 9789052423678 - 84
energiebehoud - israël - solanum lycopersicum - marokko - nederland - sierplanten - pesticiden - gewasbescherming - teelt onder bescherming - spanje - tomaten - rosa - energy conservation - israel - solanum lycopersicum - morocco - netherlands - ornamental plants - pesticides - plant protection - protected cultivation - spain - tomatoes - rosa
Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco : surveying, identification, and ecological aspects
Fortass, M. - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.W. Goldbach; L. Bos. - S.l. : Fortass - 123
plantenziekten - plantenvirussen - vicia faba - tuinbonen - marokko - plant diseases - plant viruses - vicia faba - faba beans - morocco
A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the following viruses were detected by means of electron microscopy, biological indexing, and serology, and their incidence and geographical distribution were assessed: alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), broad bean stain virus (BBSV), broad bean true mosaic virus (BBTMV), peaearly browning virus (PEBV), pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), and luteoviruses. (BBTMV), PEMV, PSbMV, and luteoviruses had not previously been reported in the country. BBMV, considered earlier of limited distribution and the luteoviruses were found to be prevalent (in 50 and 56% of the surveyed fields, respectively; and with field incidences of 20 and 33%, respectively), whereas the opposite held for BBSV and BYMV. More detailed studies concentrated on the actually important BBMV and the luteoviruses, and on the potentially important BYMV-like isolates.
The biological indexing of samples revealed considerable variation in symptom severity on test plants among BBMV isolates. Comparison of seven selected Moroccan isolates with isolates from Algeria, Sudan, and Tunisia, revealed a pathogenic variability of the virus on a number of food-legume genotypes. Clusters of isolates differing in virulence could be distinguished as mild, intermediate, and virulent, although they an reacted similarly to the antisera to a Moroccan and a Syrian isolate. When a number of promising ICARDA breeding lines and accessions of faba bean, chickpea, lentil, and pea were tested with the BBMV isolates, different interactions were observed, but all genotypes were found vulnerable to all the isolates investigated, and no immunity could be detected. Some isolates were more pathogenic (often even necrotic) on other food legumes, such as pea and chickpea, than on faba bean. BBMV was found to be seed transmitted in faba bean (at a rate of 1.2%) when occurring on its own, and was detected to be so in chickpea and pea at transmission rates of 0.9 and 0.1%, respectively. Besides transmission by seed, BBMV was found to be transmissible by the curculionid weevils Apion radiolus, Hypera variabilis, Pachytychius strumarius, Smicronyx cyaneus, and the previously reported Sitona lineatus. The latter appeared to be an efficient vector since the first bite was sufficient for acquisition and transmission of the virus, virus retention lasted for at least seven days, and the transmission rate was estimated to be 41%. S.lineatus turned out to transmit BBMV not only from faba bean to the same species, but also to lentil and pea. When searching for natural sources of the virus by testing of 351 samples of food legumes from 24 fields and 102 samples of wild legumes, it was found to occur naturally in chickpea, lentil, and pea, as well as in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in 16, 11, 19, and 16% of the tested samples, respectively; but it was not detected in the samples of wild legumes reported in literature as potential hosts.
The problem of virus variability emerged and gradually evolved during these studies. It was encountered with BBMV showing a variation of isolates. It particularly holds for the cluster of potyviruses related to BYMV but also for the luteoviruses, where it leads to difficulties in virus identification.
When testing faba-bean samples, showing luteovirus-like symptoms, in DAS-ELISA with polyclonal antisera to bean leafroll virus (BLRV), beet western yellows virus (BWYV), and subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRLV), and in TAS-ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies discriminating between BLRV and BWYV, various serological reaction patterns were obtained. This pointed to a considerable variation among the luteovirus isolates which could not be identified as one of the known legume luteoviruses. To enable reliable detection of this group of viruses by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a pair of designed oligonucleotide primers were found to specifically amplify a 535-bp fragment of the coat- protein gene of known luteoviruses and of all Moroccan isolates tested. In molecular hybridization tests, selected field isolates showed nucleotide sequence homology among them, and with BLRV, but not with BWYV, although some of them behaved BWYV-like serologically. These results support the idea of the involvement of either deviant strains of known luteoviruses or of (a) completely new faba-bean luteovirus(es).
On the other hand, BYMV and the closely related clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) could be distinguished by host-range studies including non-legume test species, and by cytopathology and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of their coat proteins. Both viruses could not be distinguished by the N-terminal serology claimed to discriminate between potyviruses. Conflicting reports as to the taxonomic status of the potyviruses infecting legumes showed the need to develop more reliable tools to unambiguously identify these viruses. Recent molecular studies, including the elucidation of nucleotide sequences of legume-potyvirus RNAs, appeared to provide a rational basis for the identification and classification of potyviruses in general. The use of such molecular data in PCR for the distinction of BYMV and CYVV was investigated, and preliminary results showed that a pair of primers could be used in PCR to distinguish between both viruses.
Wader migration along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, March 1981 : report of the Netherlands Morocco expedition 1981
Kersten, M. ; Piersma, T. ; Smit, C. - \ 1983
Texel : R.I.N. (RIN report no. 83/20) - 219
stranden - kusten - migratie - marokko - oevers - waadvogels - beaches - coasts - migration - morocco - shores - waders
|Geiten in Noord-Afrika
Anonymous, - \ 1981
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie no. 4499)
bibliografieën - egypte - geiten - marokko - noord-afrika - bibliographies - egypt - goats - morocco - north africa
|Literatuur over Frans Marocco : in het bijzonder betreffende de landbouw
Anonymous, - \ 1978
Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 4147)
landbouw - marokko - geschiedenis - bibliografieën - agriculture - morocco - history - bibliographies