Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Logistiek in een Circulaire Economie
Akkerman, Renzo ; Beames, A.G. ; Faber, Coen ; Heideveld, Antoine ; Have, Carien van der; Dijkstra, Aranka - \ 2019
Het Groene Brein - 60
biobased economy - logistics - netherlands - supply chain management
‘Vergroening chemische industrie vereist radicale keuzes’: hernieuwbare grondstoffen, maar ook nieuwe processen
Sanders, Johan - \ 2019
biobased economy - chemical industry - netherlands - innovation adoption - renewable energy - biomass
Greenland is melting! What are the effects for the Netherlands? | WURcast
Dijksma, R. - \ 2017
Wageningen :
climatic change - greenland - netherlands - sea level
Farmers’ willingness to invest in livestock disease control: the case of voluntary vaccination against bluetongue
Sok, Jaap - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink; H. Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): A.R.W. Elbers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437059 - 214
business economics - farmers - livestock - vaccination - bluetongue virus - animal diseases - animal disease prevention - netherlands - bedrijfseconomie - boeren - vee - vaccinatie - bluetonguevirus - dierziekten - dierziektepreventie - nederland

Animal health authorities in the European Union nowadays consider voluntary approaches based on a neoliberal model of cost and responsibility sharing as a tool for controlling livestock diseases. Policy makers aim for policies that are soft and optional, and use insights from behavioural economics and social psychology. Voluntary approaches are flexible in terms of legislation and can be effective at lower costs, provided that farmers are willing to participate. In 2008, the Dutch animal health authorities used a voluntary vaccination approach to control an emerging bluetongue epidemic that started end of 2006. Nearly 60,000 holdings with ruminants were already affected by the end of 2007 and experts indicated that transmission could only be stopped through mass vaccination. Farmers were motivated to participate by informational and financial, incentive-based policy instruments.

Economic theory predicts that farmers underinvest in private disease control measures in the presence of externalities. These studies, however, assume farmers only consider the private economic motives and that they only can be extrinsically motivated via (monetary) incentives. If the willingness to invest in livestock disease control is also driven by intrinsic and social motives, this could imply that not only financial compensation, but a mix of policy instruments is needed to make voluntary approaches work.

The overarching research objective of this thesis was to assess the key determinants of farmers’ willingness to vaccinate against bluetongue and study the impact of different policy designs on the effectiveness of voluntary vaccination approaches to bluetongue disease control.

A three-stage research approach was conducted. Two models of decision making, one from economics and one from social psychology, were first applied to the case study to obtain a solid understanding of important perceptions and motivations that farmers have to invest in livestock disease control. These motivations (sometimes incentives) and perceptions were then related to different attributes of a vaccination scheme to have a better understanding of how a higher uptake can be obtained. In the third stage, the effect of the interplay between farmers’ collective behaviour and disease epidemiology on disease rate and vaccination uptake was studied.

Expected utility theory was used in combination with decision analysis and Monte Carlo simulation in chapter 2. The economic risk and monetary outcomes of the vaccination decision were considered, intrinsic or social motives ignored. The theoretical expectation from the analysis is that with high probabilities of herd exposure and disease effects at the start of the outbreak the farmer decides to vaccinate. Re-vaccination is uncertain during the course of the epidemic due to a lower probability of herd exposure and enduring protection against infection from previous vaccination. Factors that make re-vaccination more likely to happen are risk-averse behaviour and farm management aimed at the export of heifers. The decision moment – before or during an epidemic – and the characteristics of the disease – endemic, epidemic or emerging – are important factors in perceptions of disease risk.

Chapters 3 to 5 used data from a survey that was based on the reasoned action approach. Data were analysed with a variety of statistical, mostly multivariate, techniques. The relative importance of the social-psychological constructs in predicting the intention to participate in a hypothetical reactive vaccination scheme against bluetongue was assessed in chapter 3. It was found that intended vaccination behaviour was mainly explained by farmers’ attitude, but also by social pressures from injunctive and descriptive norms. Perceived behavioural control was the least important predictor of intention.

The most influential beliefs underlying the social-psychological constructs were assessed in chapter 4. Results suggested that instrumental beliefs (e.g. risk reduction) as well as experiential beliefs (e.g. animal welfare) were important drivers of the attitude towards vaccination against bluetongue. This indicates that in addition to monetary outcomes of the decision, at least a group of farmers also consider the non-monetary (or non-pecuniary) outcomes. The results further showed that the most influencing referents for the farmer are the veterinarian, his or her family members and colleague dairy farmers (peers). Two influencing control beliefs were associated with the provision of information and perceived trust and confidence in the vaccine safety, effectiveness and government approach to control the disease.

The aim of chapter 5 was to explore factors that could explain heterogeneity in farmers’ attitudinal beliefs. In particular, perceived risk, measured by a relative risk attitude and risk perception, and the Big Five personality traits were associated with variability in these beliefs. Conscientiousness discriminated farmers into a group of ‘vaccination intenders’ and non-intenders although it remained somewhat unclear how it relates to the decision problem, as it can be a sense of duty, achievement striving or both. The perceived risk measures were related to the milk production intensity and also discriminated intenders from non-intenders. These differences in perceived risk indicated that farmers might not be commonly risk averse, however, it is important to account for the domain specificity of risk taking behaviour.

A survey-based discrete choice experiment was used in chapter 6 to study more deeply farmers’ choices for different voluntary bluetongue vaccination scheme designs. A generalised random utility model of farmers’ behaviour allowed for heterogeneity in motives to invest in bluetongue disease control. Results showed that farmers have private economic motives (incentives) to participate in a vaccination scheme, such as to insure the production risk from disease infection and to maintain the export of heifers.

Interaction effects found between social-psychological constructs and specific designs of policy instruments highlighted the importance of perceived trust and confidence in the vaccine safety and effectiveness and in the disease control strategy chosen by animal health authorities. Attitude interacted positively with government communication (information) provided via veterinarians. Descriptive norm interacted positively with a lower perceived probability of adverse effects. This suggests that farmers are more likely to vaccinate if they perceive that others in their social network perform vaccination without experiencing adverse effects. Injunctive norm interacted negatively with a higher level of government subsidy. This suggested a crowding-out mechanism through which subsidization adversely affect farmer’s motivation to comply with the vaccination policy.

The interplay between farmers’ collective behaviour and bluetongue disease epidemiology was studied in chapter 7 with an agent-based model. The utility model specification from chapter 6 was used to describe the decision-making process of farmers. Other components that added to the dynamic nature of the model were a social network structure of the diffusion process of sharing information about vaccination status and a susceptible-latent-infectious-recovered model of disease spread. The effectiveness of different bluetongue vaccinations scheme designs was studied as measured by disease rate and vaccination uptake.

Results of chapter 7 showed that vaccination schemes that focus more on motivating farmers via informational instruments were somewhat more effective than predicted from the comparative static analysis in chapter 6. Motivation via financial incentives resulted in a somewhat lower effectiveness than was predicted from that same model. This might be explained as an emergent effect that evolves under specific vaccination scheme designs from the interactions between farmers themselves and with the environment from which they observe the progress of the disease. These schemes focus more on serving the information needs of farmers and raising the perceived trust and confidence in the disease control approach rather than on incentivising with higher levels of subsidy.

Three themes for livestock disease control emerged from the synthesis of the results in chapter 8, which were subsequently discussed in relation to the wider economic and (social) psychological literature. These themes coincide with shortcoming of the standard economic model of rational choice to describe and predict behaviour. The first theme was about understanding how farmers cope with risk in the context of livestock diseases. The second theme focused on the usefulness of financial compensation as a policy instrument. The third theme discussed the role of trust and social norms. After discussing the implications for policy making, main scientific contributions and suggestions for future research, the chapter concluded that:

Dutch dairy farmers who operate large-scale and intensive farms or keep heifers for export are likely to have private economic motives to vaccinate against bluetongue (Chapter 2, 4, 5 and 6).Farmers’ willingness to vaccinate against bluetongue is mostly driven by attitude, followed by perceived social pressures from injunctive norms and descriptive norms. This implies farmers can be motivated intrinsically, extrinsically, or both (Chapter 3).Dutch dairy farmers have intrinsic motives to vaccinate against bluetongue. They do not want to be confronted with animal suffering but want to keep job satisfaction high from working with healthy animals (Chapter 4).Dutch dairy farmers have social motives to vaccinate against bluetongue. They consider what important referents, such as the veterinarian or family members, think they should do and take into account the perceived behaviour of peers (Chapter 3 and 4).

Perceived risk, personality traits and past behaviour are important behavioural variables for explaining the heterogeneity in beliefs to vaccinate against bluetongue (Chapter 5).

The efficacy of financial, incentive based instruments to motivate to vaccinate against bluetongue is heterogeneous and not necessarily positive for each farmer. They are not effective if farmers already expect a positive net benefit from vaccination or if they crowd-out the motivation to comply with the vaccination policy (Chapter 2, 4, 6, 7).

The efficacy of informational policy instruments to motivate farmers to vaccinate against bluetongue is positively affected by farmers’ attitude towards vaccination and in case farmers perceive the communication channels used as credible and trustworthy (Chapter 3, 4, 6).

The efficacy of social interaction mechanisms in policy making, such as the perceived social pressuretovaccinateagainstbluetongue,ispositivelyaffectedbyfarmers’trustandconfidence in the government approach to control the disease (Chapter 4, 6, 7).

The SEEA EEA carbon account for the Netherlands
Lof, Marjolein ; Schenau, Sjoerd ; Jong, Rixt de; Remme, Roy ; Graveland, Cor ; Hein, Lars - \ 2017
The Hague : Statistics Netherlands - 64
carbon dioxide - netherlands - carbon - economics - environment - biofuels - bioenergy - biogas - emission - kooldioxide - nederland - koolstof - economie - milieu - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - emissie
The carbon account provides a comprehensive overview of all relevant carbon stocks and flows. The carbon account for the Netherlands was developed within the scope of the ‘System of Environmental Economic Accounts – Experimen tal Ecosystem Accounting’ (SEEA EEA) project for the Netherlands (Natuurlijk Kapitaalrekeningen Nederland: NKR_NL), which is currently c arried out jointly by Statistics Netherlands and Wageningen University. Funding and support was provided by the Ministries of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure and the Environment. Within the NKR_NL project, a number of accounts are currently under devel opment. The carbon account is described in detail in this report.
Bringing in the floods : a comparative study on controlled flooding in the Dutch, Bangladesh and Vietnamese deltas
Staveren, Martijn F. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. Tatenhove, co-promotor(en): J.F. Warner; P. Wester. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437035 - 174
water management - flooding - deltas - hydraulic engineering - rivers - environmental management - environmental policy - environmental control - netherlands - vietnam - bangladesh - waterbeheer - inundatie - delta's - waterbouwkunde - rivieren - milieubeheer - milieubeleid - milieubeheersing - nederland - vietnam - bangladesh

This thesis investigates contested initiatives to restore controlled flooding in the deltas of the Dutch, Bangladesh and Vietnamese (Mekong) deltas. Restoring controlled flooding is a seemingly contradictory measure in densely populated delta areas, where approaches based on full flood prevention has been typically dominant for decades. This has instigated the question how the emergence of restored controlled flooding initiatives can be explained. Related, this study reflects on how controlled flooding could contribute to long-term flood risk management and sustainable development in deltas, which are simultaneously attractive and vulnerable places for humans to live in. In order to answer this question, a case study approach has been used to investigate social, environmental and technological factors that have shaped controlled flooding initiatives. Cases have been identified that materialized under different conditions: from very dynamic delta environments to relatively stable ones, and from interventions driven by “top-down” policies to “bottom-up” action to modify or remove embankments. This thesis has an article-based structure, which means that individual chapters (2-5) have been designed for publication with peer reviewed academic journals. Chapter 1 provides the general background information, problem definition, and objectives. Chapter 6 ties together the findings of the individual case study chapters and presents the conclusions.

Chapter 2 conceptualizes deltas as interacting social-ecological-technological systems. It argues that a better understanding of how hydraulic infrastructure influences social processes and environmental dynamics in deltas is critical to understand how deltas evolve over time. By means of the delta trajectories concept, the chapter presents a way to understand this interaction. It also presents a way to understand the sustainability of a delta trajectory, and discusses how new flood management concepts might contribute to “realigning” the development trajectory towards more sustainable system states.

In Chapter 3, the first controlled flooding case is investigated. The Noordwaard is an agricultural polder, located at the junction of tides and riverine discharge in the Netherlands. As part of the Room for the River programme, the northern embankments were lowered which enables the inflow of water during high water levels in the river Merwede. This reduces peak water levels in the river, supports the adjacent freshwater Biesbosch wetland by means of restored water dynamics, but also affects the possibilities for agricultural production. The chapter highlights that a strong coupling can be observed between the domains of water safety and nature development objectives, and that a top-down decision concluded a long stakeholder negotiation processes. From the perspective of “subsiding polder lands,” controlled flooding is not regarded for its strategic importance, as excessive sedimentation would hamper the intended design discharge of the area.

Chapter 4 explores the Tidal River Management concept. In the coastal zone of Bangladesh, community-enforced embankment breaches have opened up some of the polders or low-lying areas called “beels,” and exposed them to tidal influence again. Besides stimulating agricultural production and providing safer places to live in, the extensive network of polder embankments also caused increased sedimentation in the region’s rivers, and water logging in enclosed areas due to insufficient drainage possibilities. The chapter highlights that policy debates in Bangladesh have revolved around adopting “open” or “closed” approaches, where TRM represents a hybrid form. The case showed that TRM involves water management and sediment management, and that it represented a “social opening up” for local communities and NGOs to get involved with water projects and embankment removal.

Plans to restore seasonal flooding in the Mekong delta are center stage in Chapter 5. The Mekong delta system is very dynamic and dealing with the delta’s water resources, in connection with intensive rice production, have been heavily debated by Vietnamese and international policy makers. This chapter investigates a number of older and more recent long-term development plans for the Mekong delta. This analysis highlights how ideas about controlled flooding and flood control have gradually evolved over time. The most recent delta management plan suggests to restore seasonal flooding in some parts of the delta, as a way to safeguard downstream urban areas from peak flows, and as a way to improve the conditions for agricultural production.

Chapter 6 summarizes the findings of the case study chapters one by one, and concisely answers the research questions. It highlights key similarities and differences when it comes to social, environmental and technological dimensions, and discusses these findings with the literature on flood risk management policy, complex adaptive systems research, and delta studies. The findings demonstrate that environmental dynamics have been critical to emphasize the potential of restoring controlled flooding, but that social and technological factors have been important enablers or constrainers for controlled flooding initiatives to take shape. In itself, controlled flooding reconciles ecosystem-based ideas about flood management with more mainstream policies based on flood control. For this reason controlled flooding can be seen as a “niche-development” with limited influence on how flood management policies, and environmental delta systems, evolve. At the same time, controlled flooding has been acknowledged for its strategic opportunities, for example when it comes to diverting peak water discharges, land heightening by means of capturing suspended sediment, and by providing nutrient for agricultural. This offers opportunities for further thinking about and conceptual development of controlled flooding.

Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop

In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

The social dynamics of smart grids : On households, information flows & sustainable energy transitions
Naus, Joeri - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G. Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): B.J.M. van Vliet; H.M. van der Horst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436977 - 234
households - sustainable energy - energy consumption - supply - energy policy - netherlands - huishoudens - duurzame energie - energiegebruik - aanbod - energiebeleid - nederland

In international climate and energy policy the development of smart grids features as a critical new step in the transition towards a sustainable energy future. Smart grids enable two-way energy and information exchange between households and energy providers. Drawing on social practice theories, transition theories and informational governance, this thesis seeks to shed light on the changes that are taking place at the level of households: How do householders understand, handle and use new information flows? How can we conceptualise the interplay between households and smart energy systems? And what does this mean for householder participation in smart energy transitions? The thesis suggests that the key to understanding and governing the social dynamics of smart grids lies in the ‘Home Energy Management-practices’ (HEM-practices) that are emerging at the interface between households and wider energy systems.

Milieueffectrapportage van maatregelen zesde Actieprogramma Nitraatrichtlijn : Op planniveau
Groenendijk, P. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Schröder, J.J. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2842) - 109
nitraat - milieueffectrapportage - nederland - nitrate - environmental impact reporting - netherlands
Om aan de doelstellingen van de Nitraatrichtlijn te voldoen. wordt om de vier jaar een Actieprogramma geformuleerd waarin het rijksbeleid voor de komende vier jaar is aangegeven. In het 6e Actieprogramma wordt een aantal extra maatregelen doorgevoerd ten opzichte van het 5e Actieprogramma. In dit rapport worden de effecten van de extra maatregelen op het milieu (lucht, grondwater en oppervlaktewater) beschreven.
Ontwikkelen van een Remote Sensing monitoringssystematiek voor vegetatiestructuur : pilotstudie: detectie verruiging Grijze Duinen (H2130) voor het Natura 2000-gebied Meijendel-Berkheide
Mücher, Sander ; Kramer, Henk ; Wijngaart, Raymond van der; Huiskes, Rik - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2838) - 45
remote sensing - vegetatiemonitoring - duinen - nederland - vegetation monitoring - dunes - netherlands
Effect van mest op de biologische bodemkwaliteit in de Zeeuwse akkerbouw
Bloem, Jaap ; Koopmans, Chris ; Schils, René - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2843) - 53
dierlijke meststoffen - bodemkwaliteit - akkerbouw - zeeland - nederland - animal manures - soil quality - arable farming - netherlands
Dit rapport begint met een overzicht van de mestsamenstelling (hoofdstuk 2). Daarna volgt een beschrijving van bodemvruchtbaarheid in het algemeen en bodembiodiversiteit in het bijzonder (hoofdstuk 3). De analyse van effecten van mest is in hoofdstuk 4 beschreven.
Maatgevende afvoer en maaiveldafvoer in waterschap Vechtstromen : beschouwing over de bruikbaarheid van afvoernormen voor bepaling van veranderingen in de waterhuishouding en het optreden van maaiveldafvoer
Massop, H.Th.L. ; Bakel, P.J.T. ; Louw, P.G.B. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2839) - 71
drainage - waterbeheer - afvoer - oppervlakkige afvoer - klimaatverandering - nederland - water management - discharge - runoff - climatic change - netherlands
Dit rapport beschrijft (1) een evaluatie van de MA-methodiek (Maatgevende Afvoer) toegepast door harmonisatie van de legger van het waterschap Vechtstromen en brengt (2) de maaiveladafvoer voor het waterschapgebied in beeld.
Ploeg- en omzetverbod van blijvend grasland in Natura 2000-gebieden : beoordeling ecologische en milieu- effecten van eventuele opheffing in de Wieden Weerribben
Doorn, Anne ; Broekmeijer, Mirjam ; Schotman, Alex ; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Geertsema, Willemien ; Korevaar, Hein ; Melman, Dick ; Schuiling, Rini - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2832) - 59
natura 2000 - bodembeheer - permanente graslanden - milieueffect - ecologische beoordeling - nederland - soil management - permanent grasslands - environmental impact - ecological assessment - netherlands
Pionieren : De impact van innovatieve maatschappelijke initiatieven op een natuur-inclusieve samenleving
Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Pleijte, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 64 p.
natuur - samenleving - participatie - stedelijke gebieden - sport - lopen - burgers - fondsgelden - weidevogels - bodem - nederland - nature - society - participation - urban areas - walking - citizens - funding - grassland birds - soil - netherlands
Pionieren : Jaarmagazine over het DEMOCRATISCH samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. ; Kuijper, Florien ; Koffijberg, M. ; Neefjes, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 39 p.
natuur - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - burgers - participatie - innovaties - vergroening - democratie - nederland - nature - public green areas - urban areas - citizens - participation - innovations - greening - democracy - netherlands
The Care Sport Connector in the Netherlands
Leenaars, Karlijn - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen, co-promotor(en): M.A.E. Wagemakers; G.R.M. Molleman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436106 - 261
sport - sport policy - health care workers - physical activity - public health services - health promotion - primary health care - netherlands - case studies - physical education - sport - sportbeleid - gezondheidswerkers - lichamelijke activiteit - voorzieningen ten behoeve van de volksgezondheid - gezondheidsbevordering - eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg - nederland - gevalsanalyse - lichamelijke opvoeding

To stimulate physical activity (PA) and guide primary care patients towards local PA facilities, Care Sport Connectors (CSC) (in Dutch Buurtsportcoach), to whom a broker role has been ascribed, were introduced in 2012. This function is new, and to our knowledge no study has yet explored a broker role and its impact on improving intersectoral collaboration between both sectors. The aim of this thesis was to explore CSCs’ role and impact in connecting the primary care and the PA sector.
This thesis employed a multiple case study design in which 15 CSCs from nine municipalities spread over the Netherlands were followed in their work from 2014 to the end of 2016. Different data collection methods were used (literature review, interviews, focus groups, document analysis, and questionnaires), and perspectives of different stakeholders (policymakers, professionals, CSCs) on different levels (policy and community) were taken into account (Chapter 2).

The connection between the primary care and the PA sector: a chain approach
The connection between both sectors can be characterised as a chain in which CSCs guide the target group towards PA facilities after referral by primary care professionals or their own recruitment. In this connection CSCs fulfilled three roles - broker, referral, and organiser – which did not change over time (Chapter 4 and 5).

Barriers at system and sector level hinder the established connection

Barriers related to the primary care (lack of time, money and knowledge) and the PA sector (lack of suitable PA activities and adequate instructors) are currently hindering the connection between both sectors (Chapter 4 and 6). Barriers related to the collaboration between both sectors, like cultural differences and different interests as identified in our literature review (Chapter 3) were not identified.

The importance of an integral approach for CSCs and the connection between both sectors
An integral approach to structural embed CSCs (Chapter 7) seemed to influence CSCs’ work and subsequently their impact. CSCs working in municipalities who structurally embedded CSCs only at the PA sector, connected both sectors mostly by jointly organising activities. CSCs working in municipalities who adopted an integral approach connected both sectors by a variety of activities targeting different audiences, and primary care professionals fulfilled mostly a role in the referral of their patients. The structural imbedding of the CSC according an integral approach seems the most promising in reaching the desired outcomes (Chapter 8).

CSC’ role is promising for establishing a connection between the primary care and the PA sector. However, to make a success of the connection changes are needed at system and sector level. Further research should focus on CSCs’ impact on stimulating PA among primary care patients, and the development of CSC’ role and the connection between both sectors over time.

Species mixing effects on forest productivity in the Netherlands
Lu, Huicui - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G.M.J. Mohren, co-promotor(en): F.J. Sterck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436397 - 134
mixed forests - temperate zones - deciduous forests - soil fertility - light - yields - netherlands - gemengde bossen - gematigde klimaatzones - loofverliezende bossen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - licht - opbrengsten - nederland

Many monoculture forests (dominated by a single tree species) have been converted to mixed-species forests (dominated by more than one tree species) in Europe over the last decades. The main reason for this conversion was to increase productivity, including timber production, and enhance other ecosystem services, such as conservation of biodiversity and other nature values. In addition, it has been suggested that mixed-species forests are more resistant, resilient and stable to disturbances.

In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, inter-specific differences in crown architecture, leaf phenology, shade tolerance and root distribution may allow tree species to partition resources in mixed forests. Such mechanisms may lead to a higher productivity of mixed forests versus monoculture forests, a phenomenon often referred to as overyielding. Interestingly, the stress-gradient hypothesis and the resource-ratio hypothesis suggests that such inter-specific interactions vary along a soil fertility gradient, but in different ways. The stress-gradient hypothesis emphasizes that more efficient partitioning increases overyielding at low fertility soils, whereas the resource ratio hypothesis considers that the denser packing of crowns on fertile soils allows for partitioning of light and overyielding on high fertility soils. Several studies have been carried out about species mixing effects on forest productivity, but so far their findings are ambiguous. Probably, this ambiguity comes from the sites that they studied, which differ in species, age, management history, and/or environmental conditions.

This thesis analyses the mixing effect on productivity in relation to the combination of species, stand age and soil fertility, and discusses possible consequences of forest management, for five two-species mixtures in the Netherlands: Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)oak (Quercus robur L.), oakbeech, oakbirch (Betula pendula Roth) and pinebirch. These mixtures and their corresponding monoculture stands were studied using long-term permanent forest plots over multiple decades, but also using two inventories (around 2003 and 2013) across the entire Netherlands. These forest plots data were used together with empirical models at total stand level (chapter 2), species level (chapter 3) and tree level (chapter 4) to evaluate the mixing effect on forest productivity.

In chapter 2, four two-species mixtures and their corresponding monospecific stands were compared for productivity (volume stem wood in m3 ha-1 year-1). It was explored whether mixing species differing in leaf phenology and shade tolerance would lead to overyielding of mixed forest stands, and whether overyielding changes with stand development. In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, the two evergreen–deciduous species mixtures (Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak) showed overyielding whereas deciduous–deciduous species mixtures (oakbeech and oakbirch) did not. The overyielding was strongest for the Douglas-fir–beech mixture than the pine–oak mixture, which can be attributed to the greater difference in shade tolerance in the former mixture. Overyielding did not significantly change with stand development. It is argued that the regular thinning maintained the ability of species to partition resources, i.e. the complementary resource use in those mixed stands over all stand ages.

In chapter 3, it was analysed which of the two species in these four mixtures contributed to overyielding, and whether this overyielding changed along a soil fertility gradient. It was discovered that both the fast-growing and the slow-growing species could contribute to overyielding. Yet, it was mainly the fast-growing Douglas-fir that contributed to higher productivity in the Douglas-fir–beech mixtures, and the slow-growing oak that did so in the pine–oak mixtures. For both mixtures, the greatest relative productivity gain was achieved by mixtures on the poorer soils. At first sight, these results seem in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis and not the resource-ratio hypothesis. Yet, it was argued that not only complementary use of soil resources, but also use of light, may contribute to the higher productivity of mixed stands on the poorer soils.

In chapter 4, it was assessed how the growth of individual trees in mixtures was influenced by inter- and intra-specific competition, and whether this competition was mainly size-symmetric for soil resources or size-asymmetric for light on soils differing in fertility. This chapter focussed on three mixtures, i.e. oak–birch, pine–oak and pine–birch, which were available at sufficient numbers in the Dutch national forest inventory data. It was concluded that intra-specific competition was not necessarily stronger than inter-specific competition and this competitive reduction was less seen at lower soil fertility and dependent on species mixtures, which is not in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis. Moreover, size-asymmetric competition for light was more associated with tree basal area growth than size-symmetric competition for soil resources, suggesting that light is the most limiting resource. Competition for light was generally much stronger at high fertility soils, supporting the resource-ratio hypothesis. These results suggest that light is the most limiting resource for tree basal area growth and that reduced competition for light can be explained to some degree by complementarity in light use to increase tree growth in mixed forests.

This thesis thus described the productivity patterns when mixing tree species and explored possible mechanisms of higher productivity in mixed stands compared with monoculture stands in the Netherlands. Complementary use of aboveground and belowground resources probably contributes to the higher productivity in mixed stands, but other factors including pathogens, nutrient cycling and litter decomposition were not addressed but cannot be excluded. Overyielding in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was maintained over time, probably owing to the intensive thinning in Dutch forests. The results shed new light on the stress-gradient and resource-ratio hypotheses. For mixtures in Dutch forest, the greatest productivity gain in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was achieved on the poorer soils, and it was argued that this is at least partially driven by complementary use of light, while the role of complementarity in use of soil resources is more obscure. Overall, this thesis suggest a substantial potential of species mixing for increasing productivity, which may run in parallel with enhancing other ecosystem services such as conservation of diversity and other nature values. Yet, more experimental studies on productivity in mixed stands are required to better unravel alternative mechanisms. Such understanding is required to manage the forests effectively in a century of unpreceded human driven changes in environmental conditions.

Weidevogelscenario’s : Mogelijkheden voor aanpak van verbetering van de weidevogelstand in Nederland
Melman, Dick ; Sierdsema, Henk - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2769) - 29
weidevogels - graslanden - populatiebiologie - landschapsbeheer - kosten - habitats - natuurbescherming - nederland - grassland birds - grasslands - population biology - landscape management - costs - nature conservation - netherlands
Seals in motion : how movements drive population development of harbour seals and grey seals in the North Sea
Brasseur, Sophie Marie Jacqueline Michelle - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.J.H. Reijnders, co-promotor(en): G.M. Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436120 - 176
seals - phoca vitulina - halichoerus grypus - pinnipedia - population biology - animal ecology - wadden sea - netherlands - zeehonden - phoca vitulina - halichoerus grypus - pinnipedia - populatiebiologie - dierecologie - waddenzee - nederland
The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from the Wadden Sea as a consequence of persecution. With growing hunting pressure, especially in the 20th century and concurrent habitat destruction and pollution, the harbour seals reached all time low numbers in the 1970’s. Banning the hunt in countries around the southern North Sea, limiting pollution and protection from disturbance allowed the harbour seals to slowly recover and the grey seals to return to the Wadden Sea. In this thesis the population trends and inherent dynamics of the recovery for both species is described. Also the movements of individual animals are studied to explain possible mechanisms.
Postmortaal onderzoek van bruinvissen (Phocoena phocoena) uit Nederlandse wateren, 2016
IJsseldijk, L.L. ; Kik, M.J.L. ; Solé, L. ; Gröne, A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 96) - 41
phocoena - postmortale onderzoeken - kustgebieden - phocoenidae - nederland - postmortem examinations - coastal areas - netherlands
This annual report presents the results of post-mortem examinations of porpoises stranded on the Dutchcoast. One of the main objectives of the research is to quantify human-induced causes of death. In 2016, 55dead harbour porpoises were examined: 31 males and 24 females, including 14 adults, 33 juveniles and 8neonates. Most of the harbour porpoises examined died as a result of grey seal attacks (31%), infectiousdiseases (29%) or food shortage (18%). Bycatch was the cause of death in 11% of the harbour porpoisesexamined
Beschermde gebiedenregister : technische documentatie, Status A
Schuiling, C. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Rivière, I.J. la; Smidt, R.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 93) - 55
beschermde gebieden - beschermingsgebieden - natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - nederland - geodata - reserved areas - conservation areas - nature conservation - netherlands
This report offers a description of the technical environment, tools and models that are used in managing theDutch register of protected sites (Beschermde gebiedenregister). Its purpose is to document the processesand procedures. Obtaining the ‘A’ quality status is not the immediate aim, but is the long-term goal to whichthis report contributes. The aim of the register of protected sites is to define the boundaries of natural areasand to support the process of defining legally protected sites under one of the following treaties or laws: theBirds and Habitats Directives (Natura 2000), the Ramsar Convention and the Dutch Nature Protection Act(Natuurbeschermingswet). This report describes the procedures for defining the boundaries and formanaging the historical boundaries
Doorontwikkeling van de precisielandbouw in Nederland : een 360 graden-verkenning van de stand van zaken rond informatie-intensieve landbouw en in het bijzonder de plantaardige, openluchtteelt
Wal, T. van der; Vullings, L.A.E. ; Zaneveld-Reijnders, J. ; Bink, R.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2820) - 89
precisielandbouw - landbouw - akkerbouw - drones - winsten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - wetgeving - nederland - precision agriculture - agriculture - arable farming - profits - sustainability - legislation - netherlands
Flat oysters on offshore wind farms : opportunities for the development of flat oyster populations on existing and planned wind farms in the Dutch section of the North Sea
Smaal, Aad ; Kamermans, Pauline ; Kleissen, Frank ; Duren, Luca van; Have, Tom van der - \ 2017
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C052/17) - 53
oyster culture - wind farms - offshore - shellfish culture - north sea - netherlands - oesterteelt - windmolenpark - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - noordzee - nederland
Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2014 : berekeningen met het model NEMA
Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 90) - 96
ammoniak - landbouw - emissie - mest - distikstofmonoxide - dierhouderij - modellen - nederland - ammonia - agriculture - emission - manures - nitrous oxide - animal husbandry - models - netherlands
Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn in Nederland een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxide (NO), lachgas (N2O),methaan (CH4) en fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5). De emissies in 2014 zijn berekend met het National Emission Model for Agriculture(NEMA). Tegelijk zijn enkele cijfers in de reeks 1990-2013 aangepast op basis van nieuwe inzichten. De rekenmethodiek gaatbij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in demest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest, kunstmest en overige bronnen in 2014 bedroeg 121 miljoen kg NH3, bijna4 miljoen kg meer dan in 2013. De stijging komt voornamelijk door uitbreiding van de melkveestapel en een hogerstikstofgehalte van het ruwvoer. De N2O-emissie nam toe van 19,1 miljoen kg in 2013 naar 19,4 miljoen kg in 2014. De NOemissienam toe van 16,9 naar 17,2 miljoen kg. De methaanemissie nam iets toe van 499 tot 503 miljoen kg. De emissie vanfijnstof nam licht toe van 6,3 miljoen kg PM10 tot 6,4 miljoen kg, door een toename van het aantal stuks pluimvee. De emissievan PM2,5 bedroeg in beide jaren 0,6 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest mettweederde gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstofuitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme mesttoediening.Emissies van lachgas en stikstofoxide daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder sterk (ca. 40%) omdat doorondergronds toedienen van mest de emissies hoger zijn geworden en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naarvaste mest bij pluimvee. Tussen 1990 en 2014 daalde de emissie van methaan met 16% door een afname in de dieraantallenen een hogere voeropname en productiviteit van melkvee---Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O),methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2014 were calculated using the National EmissionModel for Agriculture (NEMA). At the same time some figures in the time series 1990-2013 were revised. The method calculatesthe ammonia emission from livestock manure on the basis of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. Ammoniaemissions from livestock manure, fertilizers and other sources in 2014 were 121 million kg, which was almost 4 million kghigher than in 2013, mainly due to expansion of the dairy herd and a higher N-content of roughage. N2O emissions increasedfrom 19.1 million kg in 2013 to 19.4 million kg in 2014. NO emission increased slightly from 16.9 to 17.2 million kg. Methaneemissions increased from 499 to 503 million kg. Emissions of particulate matter increased slightly from 6.3 to 6.4 million kgPM10 as a result of higher poultry numbers. Emission of PM2.5 in both years was 0.6 million kg. Ammonia emissions fromlivestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretionrates by livestock and low-emission manure application. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxide also fell over the same period, butless steeply (by about 40%), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and to the shift from poultry housingsystems based on liquid manure to solid manure systems. Methane emissions fell by 16% between 1990 and 2014 caused by adrop in livestock numbers and increased feed uptake and productivity of dairy cattle
Greenhouse gas reporting for the LULUCF sector in the Netherlands : methodological background, update 2016
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kramer, H. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 89) - 90
greenhouse gases - methodology - emission - netherlands - broeikasgassen - methodologie - emissie - nederland
This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the DutchNational System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of themethodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Additionally it gives a table-by-tableelaboration of the choices and motivations for filling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF
Sustaining dairy
Villarreal Herrera, Georgina - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): J.W. van der Schans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431545 - 331
dairy farming - dairy farms - agricultural society - economic sectors - agricultural sector - sustainable agriculture - sustainability - netherlands - great britain - western europe - europe - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - agrarische samenleving - economische sectoren - landbouwsector - duurzame landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - groot-brittannië - west-europa - europa

Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability programs are a part of that.

Regime change as outlined in transition theory enhanced through a sociological approach on actors informed this research. More specifically, the notion of obligatory passage points was used to explore the mechanisms through which dominant actors make certain actions mandatory and reify their status as indispensable. The thesis consists of three case studies: the dairy sectors in the Netherlands, Ireland and the United Kingdom. The cases trace the evolution of all sectors since the post-war era, outlining the dominant logic that has guided its development. The sustainability programs of three dairy processors—located in each of the case countries—are also part of the analysis. Data was collected through document analysis and semi-structured interviews.

The analysis shows that the post-war logic based on the increase of scale and intensification of dairying has continued to shape the development of the sector through today. While the visible impacts of intensive dairy have led to adaptations to the dominant rules and practices, these changes have not been fundamental in nature. The analysis of dairy processors and their sustainability programs revealed that these programs can be an additional tool for compliance to legal standards and the alleviation of pressing societal concerns. However, processors address social and environmentally relevant dairy-related challenges when an effective link to profit can be established. These programs have been unable to ensure that the dairy sector operates within established environmental limits and societal expectations, while providing a stable livelihood for farmers.

This research contributes to the understanding of sustainability (agri-food) transitions by identifying the mechanisms through which the regime adapts to the shifting environment and dominant actors strive for their own continuity. It also adds to the debate about the role that incumbent actors can have in sustainability transitions—their involvement is important but they are unable to guide such processes. This study advances the empirical ground in sustainability transition studies by focusing on systems in which change is less likely to be technologically driven and where social change plays a larger role. Finally, this thesis connects past development, current challenges, and present engagement in a discussion about the future development of the dairy sector; this adds to the further conceptualization of the complexity and co-evolutionary nature of sustainability transitions.

Rainfall over the Netherlands & beyond: a remote sensing perspective
Rí́os Gaona, Manual Felipe - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R. Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): A. Overeem; H. Leijnse. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432009 - 124
rain - remote sensing - satellites - estimation - netherlands - brazil - regen - remote sensing - satellieten - schatting - nederland - brazilië

Earthlings like to measure everything (especially now that we are undergoing the era of big-data revolution) maybe because it is such a nice hobby... although a more serious school of thought believes that when measuring our environment we get to understand physics and ourselves.

This thesis explores the uncertainties in rainfall measurements from state-of-the-art technologies like commercial microwave links (CML) and meteorological satellites. Rainfall has been measured by rain gauges since quite some time ago; and by weather radars since the end of WWII. Here we evaluate the performance of gridded-rainfall products for the land surface of the Netherlands. These gridded-rainfall products are CML-rainfall maps produced by the Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute (KNMI), and the IMERG product developed by Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM).

Overall, this thesis shows that CML-rainfall products are very reliable sources with regards to rainfall estimates for the land surface of the Netherlands... even better than the satellite products for rainfall estimation. We are also confident in the promising potential these technologies hold for places around the world where conventional technologies like gauges or radars are not scarce or not affordable.

Groundwater Atlas for pesticides in The Netherlands : user manual
Kruijne, R. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Roller, J.A. te; Kraalingen, D. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2786) - 65
groundwater quality - groundwater - pesticides - monitoring - ecotoxicology - netherlands - grondwaterkwaliteit - grondwater - pesticiden - ecotoxicologie - nederland
The Groundwater Atlas contains monitoring data on the presence of active substances and related metabolites of plant protection products.
Bat flight analysis around wind turbines : a feasibility study
Lagerveld, Sander ; Kooistra, Gert ; Otten, Gerwoud ; Meesters, Lydia ; Manshanden, Jasper ; Haan, Dick de; Gerla, Daan ; Verhoef, Hans ; Scholl, Michaela - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C026/17) - 42
chiroptera - flight - animal behaviour - wind farms - offshore - north sea - netherlands - vliegen - diergedrag - windmolenpark - noordzee - nederland
This study, as part of the Wozep-project Behaviour and Collision Risk of Bats (Bats_2), investigates how bat behaviour can be studied near offshore wind turbines. To find out whether it is wise to continue and further develop behavioural research at wind turbines in the context of the Wozep programme, we first conducted a feasibility study on land.
Telemetry for migratory bats : a feasibility study
Lagerveld, Sander ; Janssen, René ; Manshanden, Jasper ; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke ; Vries, Simon de; Brabant, Robin ; Scholl, Michaela - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C011/17) - 58
chiroptera - migration - telemetry - offshore - wind farms - biomonitoring - feasibility studies - north sea - netherlands - migratie - telemetrie - windmolenpark - biologische monitoring - haalbaarheidsstudies - noordzee - nederland
Wettelijke Onderzoek Taken WOT-05 Visserijonderzoek beknopte jaarrapportage 2016
Verver, S.W. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen UR, Stichting DLO, Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO) (CVO rapport 17.003) - 38
visserij - visserijbeheer - wetgeving - jaarverslagen - nederland - fisheries - fishery management - legislation - annual reports - netherlands
Wettelijke Onderzoek Taken WOT-05 Visserijonderzoek Jaarverslag 2016
Verver, S.W. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Stichting Wageningen Research, Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO) (CVO rapport 17.002) - 98
visserij - visserijbeheer - wetgeving - jaarverslagen - nederland - fisheries - fishery management - legislation - annual reports - netherlands
The programme WOT-05 Fishery Research is carrying out statutory research tasks related to the management of the fishery and aquaculture in the Netherlands. The programme is developed in consultation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ). The content and scope of programme has been agreed for the period 2011-2015. In September 2015 it was decided to extend the programme till 31 December 2016. This report is a technical report and summarises the progress made in carrying out the work plan of 2016. Fisheries policy makers and managers are dependent on up-todate information. The aim of this programme is to contribute to the collection of essential data needed for the management of fisheries, fish stocks and aquaculture through sampling programmes in as well marine and inshore areas. The data collection includes sampling programmes on fish species landed in fishing ports, discard and by-catch monitoring programmes on board of commercial vessels and scientific surveys using research vessels. In addition, monitoring programmes on shellfish (bivalves) are carried out in coastal waters to estimate the biomass of these resources. In national fresh waters also the eel stock and the stocks in IJsselmeer and Markermeer are monitored. The data have been used to provide advice which is also part of this programme. The advice for marine stocks and fisheries is based on analyses of international data carried out by working groups. The main frameworks in which this was done were ICES and STECF. These frameworks also play a role in the international co-ordination of the research carried out in this programme. The programme is carried out by the Centre for Fisheries Research (CVO) and the Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES, since September 2016 Wageningen Marine Research) in IJmuiden. The programme is financed by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and coordinated by Sieto Verver (CVO) CVO rapport 17.002 Jaarverslag WOT visserij 2016 23 of 98 The programme has been executed according to a pre-agreed work plan. It consists of eleven projects, each managed by a project manager. Each project consists of several sub-projects. This document contains two main sections: 1) a report presenting standard information requested by the Ministry discussing the progress made with the research targets set in the pre-agreed working programme and 2) an annex including technical progress reports of the individual projects. Scientific results are not discussed but references are given to the (scientific) products. Also a short version of this progress report is available All the pre-agreed targets in the work plan have been met within the available financial budget. The report format includes a financial summary over 2016. The total cost of the programme in 2016 was 6.6 million Euro. About 0.69 m€ of the 2016 budget was forwarded to 2017 part as a reservation of activities which are planned in 2017.
Dutch Divergence? : Women’s work, structural change, and household living standards in the Netherlands, 1830-1914
Boter, Corinne - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema, co-promotor(en): E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431835 - 254
women - work - household budgets - living standards - gender - cultural history - case studies - netherlands - labour market - macroeconomics - microeconomics - western europe - work sharing - participation - vrouwen - werk - huishoudbudgetten - levensstandaarden - geslacht (gender) - cultuurgeschiedenis - gevalsanalyse - nederland - arbeidsmarkt - macro-economie - micro-economie - west-europa - verdeling van werk - participatie

Women’s work has never been a linear process of extending participation. Instead, female labour force participation (FLFP) has extended and curtailed throughout time. This dissertation studies a period of contraction: the nineteenth-century Netherlands. This country makes an important case study to explore the factors influencing the trajectory of women’s work. First, FLFP rates as recorded in occupational censuses were low compared with surrounding countries. Second, Dutch industrialization took off relatively late and until well into the twentieth century a significant part of the labour force worked in agriculture, in contrast to neighbouring countries such as Britain and Belgium.

This dissertation contributes to answering the following question: Why were Dutch female labour force participation rates lower than in surrounding countries during the period 1830-1914? I consider the following explanatory factors: social norms, the opportunity costs of women’s labour, and structural change. My conclusions about the relative weight of each factor are as follows. First, social norms regarding women’s role within the household following from the growing desire for domesticity have affected the trajectory of women’s labour. I show that married women withdrew from the registered labour force and instead, performed work that could be combined with domestic chores and that remained invisible in most statistical sources. However, these social norms were likewise strong in other western European countries, such as Britain, where FLFP was higher. Furthermore, Dutch FLFP was already low around 1850 when the transition to the male breadwinner society in western Europe started. Thus, it is no conclusive explanation for the aberrant Dutch trend in FLFP.

Second, men’s real industrial wages started to rise after 1880 and became increasingly able to take care of a family of four. However, this was not true for men’s agricultural wages. Women’s wages in both sectors hardly increased at all during the nineteenth century in both sectors. I therefore conclude that industrial households were already able to realize a breadwinner-homemaker type of labour division from the 1880s, whereas agricultural households still relied for an important part on other sources of income besides the husband’s wage labour by 1910. Thus, men’s wages profoundly influenced household labour division. However, in Britain, men’s real wages were even higher, but so were FLFP rates in the censuses. Thus, if the extent of men’s real wages was indeed the most important explanatory factor, we would have expected even lower participation rates in Britain than in the Netherlands.

Third, the impact of economic structure and the changing demand for labour on FLFP has been a pivotal factor of influence. I show that the structure of the local economy had a statistically significant effect on the chance that a bride stated an occupation in her marriage record. Furthermore, in agriculture women increasingly performed work in a private business which was usually not registered in the censuses. Moreover, technological change in the textile industry and the transition to the factory system negatively impacted women’s position in the labour market because married women could no longer combine domestic chores with wage labour. Finally, many parts of the production process that had traditionally been women’s work were taken over by men when mechanization progressed.

Considering all my research results, I conclude that the structure of the Dutch economy is the most important explanation for the exceptionally low Dutch FLFP rates during the long nineteenth century.

Framing nature : searching for (implicit) religious elements in the communication about nature
Jansen, Peter - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Jochemsen, co-promotor(en): F.W.J. Keulartz; J. van der Stoep. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431323 - 200
nature - policy - netherlands - communication - religion - case studies - frames - perception - public authorities - landscape experience - identity - natuur - beleid - nederland - communicatie - religie - gevalsanalyse - geraamten - perceptie - overheid - landschapsbeleving - identiteit

This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

In this PhD thesis it is argued that the role of communication practitioners is to signal, articulate, and interpret normative elements in the discourse. In other words, to make (non-) congruent frames explicit and clarifying the associated world views in the discourse, including that of the government itself. The government has to be impartial as possible in its communications, but the communications about nature shows that there are questions to be asked about this neutrality. Although not explicit, but through the communications of NGOs, who operate as delegated executors of the Dutch nature policy in the context of this PhD thesis, certain images, i.e., frames regarding nature are communicated. However, the question is raised to what extent the government, based on its alleged neutrality, should condition the communication of NGOs. Here, tension can be observed. If nature conservation NGOs (explicitly) communicate a specific vision about nature, using ‘religious subtexts’, the government appears to support these ‘subtexts’. For nature conservation NGOs, it is appropriate to put forth a certain opinion to raise support for their actions among the public. However, in this PhD thesis it is argued that it is not the responsibility of the government to promote a specific religiously phrased view of nature and nature policy. Hence, this PhD thesis reveals a necessity for reflection on the relationship between government and NGOs regarding their communication, i.e., awareness of distinction and a need for mutual adjustment in the case of close cooperation.

The results of this PhD thesis are placed in a broader cultural context with respect to nature development. A paradox is highlighted: creating nature ‘according to our view of nature’ and, simultaneously, wanting to experience wilderness-nature, preferably without too much human influence. This paradox appears to form a cultural basis for many new nature development projects. In other words, nature development is no longer just driven by ecological interests. In today’s ‘wilderness desire’, a certain form of anthropocentric thinking also manifests, because it focuses on the human experience of nature. In addition, because (new) nature projects can be places to have meaningful experiences, in this PhD thesis it is concluded that (new) nature projects, such as Tiengemeten, not only have ecological value, but societal value as well. It is also argued that in a secular society, we should not lose sight of the mediating role of creating and maintaining nature parks. Designing or maintaining natural areas in a certain way can create conditions for certain meaningful experiences. With our designing vision and communication, we can reap ‘benefits’ from nature. With this conclusion, this PhD thesis shines a different light on the concept of nature development and, indirectly, on the Dutch nature policy.

Finally, this PhD thesis shows that religious elements play a role in the communication about nature. These are linked to meaningful experiences that people can have in nature. A religious depth dimension can be discovered in meaningful experiences. This religious depth dimension is the reason that there are ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature. However, the word ‘subtext’ is crucial. The communication about nature is ‘religionised’ to some extent, but there is no mentioning of a personal God or other reference to a supernatural reality. This PhD thesis also shows that the religious depth dimension does not explicitly come to the fore in what visitors are saying. This means that this PhD thesis, in addition to questioning the appropriateness of ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature, also doubts whether those ‘subtexts’ are convincing from visitors’ perspective.

Rekenregels rundvee voor de Landbouwtelling : verantwoording van het gebruik van het Identificatie & Registratiesysteem
Os, J. van; Bartholomeus, M.G.T.M. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 91) - 68
rundveehouderij - rundvee - landbouwtellingen - emissie - registratie - identificatie - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - nederland - cattle husbandry - cattle - agricultural censuses - emission - registration - identification - farm structure - netherlands
Om te voldoen aan statistische verplichtingen voor veehouderij en bedrijfsstructuur en voor de registratievan emissies is informatie nodig over de rundveehouderij in Nederland. Daartoe vraagt de Rijksoverheid bijveehouders op hoeveel rundvee aanwezig is, uitgesplitst in verschillende diergroepen; dit is een onderdeelvan de jaarlijkse landbouwtelling. De Rijksoverheid streeft naar beperking van administratieve lastendruk bijondernemers. Wageningen Environmental Research heeft op verzoek van het ministerie van EconomischeZaken onderzocht in welke mate het mogelijk is om de benodigde gegevens af te leiden uit het bestaandeIdentificatie & Registratiesysteem (I&R) Rundveehouderij (een systeem voor identificatie en registratie vandieren voor dier- en volksgezondheid). Dat blijkt grotendeels goed haalbaar; voor de meeste bedrijvenkunnen alle diergroepen automatisch uit I&R bepaald worden. Voor sommige bedrijven is een aanvullendeverdeling van diergroepen over productiedoelen nodig. Deze nieuwe werkwijze leidt niet alleen tot lagereadministratieve lasten, maar ook tot een kwaliteitsverbetering van de rundveegegevens.---Information on cattle farming in the Netherlands is needed for the national statistics on beef and dairy farmsand farm structure. To obtain this information the national government asks farmers to submit informationon the number of cattle on their farms, divided into the various animal classes, as part of the annualagricultural census. The government also wants to minimise the administrative burden on farmers. At therequest of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Wageningen Environmental Research has studied to what extentit would possible to derive the required information from the existing identification and registration system(I&R) for beef and dairy farms (a system for identifying and registering livestock for animal and humanhealth purposes). The results show that this is largely possible: for most farms all the animal classes can beautomatically derived from the I&R. For some farms it is necessary to make an additional division of animalclasses by product category. This new way of working will not only reduce the administrative burden, but itwill also lead to better quality data on beef and dairy cattle.
Platte oesters in offshorewindparken (POP)
Smaal, Aad ; Kamermans, Pauline ; Kleissen, Frank ; Duren, Luca van; Have, Tom van der - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C035/17) - 52
ostrea edulis - oesters - oesterteelt - windmolenpark - offshore - noordzee - nederland - oysters - oyster culture - wind farms - north sea - netherlands
Dit rapport gaat over de mogelijkheden voor de ontwikkeling van populaties platte oesters (Ostrea edulis) binnen bestaande en geplande windmolenparken in het Nederlandse deel van de Noordzee. In opdracht van het Ministerie van EZ is nagegaan welke eisen de platte oester stelt aan de omgeving, gericht op de habitatkarakteristieken van windparklocaties in de Noordzee. Daarbij is er vanuit gegaan dat er binnen de windparken geen sprake is van bodemberoerende activiteiten die nadelig zijn voor platte oesters.
Herkomstanalyse gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in het grondwater van de Provincie Drenthe : meetperiode 2002-2007
Kruijne, Roel ; Groenwold, Jan - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2815) - 41
pesticiden - grondwater - monitoring - uitspoelen - waterverontreiniging - drenthe - nederland - pesticides - groundwater - leaching - water pollution - netherlands
In 2008 heeft WEnR-Alterra een analyse gegeven van de mogelijke herkomst van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen die in de jaren 2002, 2004, 2006 en 2007 zijn aangetroffen in het grondwater van de Provincie Drenthe. Ruim de helft van de geanalyseerde gewasbeschermingsmiddelen is niet (meer) toegelaten op de Nederlandse markt. Veel stoffen hebben een brede toepassing (gehad) in meerdere sectoren en daarnaast ook buiten de landbouw. De breedte van deze toepassingen en de wijzingen in de tijd beperken de mogelijkheid om het voorkomen van een stof in verband te brengen met een specifiek gebruik. Uit regionale berekeningen blijkt dat het grondwater in de Provincie Drenthe als geheel minder kwetsbaar is voor uitspoeling van stoffen dan het grondwater in Nederland. Uit berekeningen met lokale invoergegevens blijkt, dat de meest kwetsbare locaties voor uitspoeling van de stof bentazon zijn oververtegenwoordigd in de bemonstering.
Quickscan potentiële natuurwaarden in bestaande Nederlandse offshorewindparken
Tamis, J.E. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Bos, O.G. - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C025/17) - 58
windmolenpark - offshore - natuurwaarde - mariene ecologie - nederland - wind farms - natural value - marine ecology - netherlands
In het kader van het Nationaal Waterplan worden mogelijkheden verkend om offshorewindparken open te stellen voor doorvaart en medegebruik. In dit rapport wordt op basis van literatuuronderzoek een overzicht gegeven van (potentiële) natuurwaarden voor drie bestaande windparken, OWEZ (Offshore Windpark Egmond aan Zee), PAWP (Prinses Amalia Windpark) en Luchterduinen. Het gaat hierbij om biogene riffen (bestaand of potentieel), hardsubstraatgemeenschappen (bestaand of potentieel), vissoorten (rodelijstsoorten), zeezoogdieren en vogels en overige beleidsrelevante soorten (vleermuizen). Vervolgens wordt een beperkt aantal potentiële activiteiten beschreven (handlijnvisserij, visserij met korven, oesterkweek met manden, staand want, mosselteelt) en wordt verkend welke mogelijke invloed deze activiteiten hebben op de (potentiële) natuurwaarden, waarbij de nadruk ligt op beleidsrelevante soorten in het kader van Natura 2000 (Habitatrichtlijn) en de Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie (KRM).
Agricultural policy objectives on productivity, climate change adaptation and mitigation : policy assessment for the Netherlands
Polman, Nico ; Michels, Rolf ; Boonstra, Carla ; Theune, Elmar ; Venema, Gabe ; Reinhard, Stijn ; Velden, Nico van der; Silvis, Huib ; Vrolijk, Maarten - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research memorandum 2017-045) - 33
agricultural policy - climatic change - netherlands - landbouwbeleid - klimaatverandering - nederland
This paper offers a systematic overview of policies that may cause synergies and trade-offs between agricultural policy objectives on productivity, climate change adaptation and mitigation for the Netherlands. Implementation of the climate policy is to a large extent based on voluntary agreements with the private sector, but supported by regulations, subsidies, tax incentives, emissions trade, extension services and demonstration projects. Synergies between objectives are exploited through policy different programmes including public private partnerships (PPP) at different institutional levels.
Ontwikkelen beweidingsystemen bij hoge veebezetting op kleine huiskavel : beweidingsonderzoek op klei- en veengrond in 2015
Galama, P.J. ; Holshof, G. ; Reenen, K. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1016) - 51
melkvee - beweidingssystemen - zware kleigronden - veengronden - bezettingsdichtheid - melkveehouderij - nederland - dairy cattle - grazing systems - clay soils - peat soils - stocking density - dairy farming - netherlands
Characterization of Coxiella burnetii outbreak strains
Kuley, Runa - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Smits; J.M. Wells, co-promotor(en): A. Bossers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431514 - 226
coxiella burnetii - q fever - outbreaks - strains - characterization - pathogenesis - zoonoses - virulence - dna sequencing - polymerase chain reaction - livestock farming - netherlands - coxiella burnetii - q-koorts - uitbraken (ziekten) - stammen (biologisch) - karakterisering - pathogenese - zoönosen - virulentie - dna-sequencing - polymerase-kettingreactie - veehouderij - nederland

Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. During 2007-2010, the largest Q fever outbreak was reported in The Netherlands, where more than 4000 human cases were registered showing a serious burden of the disease. During this outbreak, goats harboring predominantly the CbNL01 genotype strain were identified as the major source of disease in humans and drastic measures such as mass culling of infected goats were implemented to reduce the spread of the pathogen and control the disease. In order to minimize such complications in the future, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of the disease causing pathogen and to develop effective Q fever vaccines. The causes of the large Dutch outbreak are not well-understood and one of the main reasons speculated were the hyper-virulent behavior of the circulating C. burnetii isolates. The research described in this thesis focuses on the characterization of C. burnetii outbreak strains isolated from infected goats, cattle, sheep and human clinical materials. Our studies were initiated to better understand the bacterial pathogenesis, virulence, evolution, adaptations in various environments, host immune responses and to identify pathogen related factors that have modulated the disease outbreak. We specifically aimed to identify the virulence factors and mechanisms that contributed to the increased zoonotic potential of the strain associated with the Dutch Q fever outbreak.

The studies presented in this thesis majorly applied Pathogenomic approaches at the genome and transcriptome level to decipher host-pathogen interactions and to develop new tools to study C. burnetii infections. A transcriptome analysis of the outbreak C. burnetii strain of the CbNL01 genotype grown under in vivo and in vitro conditions resulted in the identification of distinct metabolic adaptations and virulence mechanisms of the bacterium. Detailed comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of C. burnetii strains showed a high similarity between strains of the same genotype. Genome sequences of the Dutch outbreak CbNL01 genotype strains were more divergent than the genome sequences of the less prevalent CbNL12 genotype strains and the NM reference strain. The analysis also showed that the high virulence of the outbreak strains was not associated with acquiring novel virulence-related genes arguing against the idea that the Dutch outbreak was due to emergence of hyper-virulent strains though horizontal gene transfer. Among the prominent genetic differences in the CbNL01 outbreak strains compared to CbNL12 and NM, were the presence of several point mutations and increased transposon mediated genome plasticity, which might have contributed to its epidemic potential. Point mutations, especially in a large number of membrane proteins, could also have contributed to the increased zoonotic potential of CbNL01 strains allowing this clone to escape the host immune responses in goats and humans. In addition, mutations in critical genes involved in virulence and evasion of the host immune system could be potentially involved in the increased virulence of the CbNL01 outbreak strains. On the contrary, studies on host immune responses in an in vivo (experimental infections in mice) and an in vitro (human PBMC’s stimulation) model did not show any difference associated with the strain genotype. However, differences in immune responses were found to be associated with the host-origin of the C. burnetii strains. Among different host-origin strains, strains derived from goats and humans generated significantly lower innate and adaptive immune responses than strains derived from cattle, whereas no differences in immune responses were observed when strains were grouped based upon their genotype. These observations support immune evasions as a major virulence strategy of goat and human strains in hosts and further suggest that bacteria originating from goats have a greater potential to cause outbreaks in humans. This indicates that for Q fever prevention purposes goats should be efficiently monitored for the presence of C. burnetii. Taken together, the results described in this thesis suggest that the virulence potential of C. burnetii strains is not only based on genetic differences, but also on other host-adaptation mechanisms such as transposition of genomic elements and/or differential regulation of gene expression. Finally, the results from this thesis provide a framework for future studies in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools for Q fever.

Background analysis for a Temporary Measure (State aid) aimed at restructuring the Dutch Dairy Sector
Jongeneel, Roel ; Silvis, Huib ; Daatselaar, Co ; Everdingen, Walter van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Economic Research memorandum 2017-054) - 20
dairy farming - agricultural sector - milk - markets - crises - agricultural crises - netherlands - melkveehouderij - landbouwsector - melk - markten - landbouwcrises - nederland
The EU dairy sector is facing a crisis, which also affects Dutch dairy farmers. Low milk prices have negatively affected dairy farm profitability. At the same time, the structural adjustment in the Dutch dairy sector has slowed down: the reduction in the rate of farm exits was below normal levels and in contrast with the pattern observed in several other EU Member States. Now the Dutch government would like to consider a temporary support programme aimed at restructuring the dairy sector. The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested Wageningen Economic Research to provide a background analysis with respect to such a temporary measure. This analysis is requested because the proposed measure would imply state aid to the Dutch dairy sector, which is only allowable in case a number of criteria are satisfied. This research should provide insight into this matter.
Glass eel monitoring in the Netherlands
Griffioen, A.B. ; Vries, P. de; Twijnstra, R.H. ; Graaf, M. de - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C010/17) - 41
anguilla - european eels - eels - monitoring - netherlands - palingen - nederland
In general there are three subjects described in this report: 1. Overview and brief evaluation of glass eel monitoring projects along the Dutch coast 2. Exploration of a national glass eel index based on multiple datasets along the Dutch Coast 3. Analysis of the relation between tidal currents and glass eel monitoring at Den Oever. The aim of this report is to evaluate the glass eel monitoring in the Netherlands, explore the possibility to produce a national glass eel index and to give advice on monitoring glass eel and selecting new locations.
Verdrogingsinformatie voor de Nederlandse natuur : een vergelijking tussen de actuele en gewenste grondwatersituatie
Delft, S.P.J. van; Hoogland, T. ; Meijninger, W.M.L. ; Roerink, G.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2792) - 85
grondwater - natuur - verdroging (milieu) - monitoring - remote sensing - nederland - groundwater - nature - groundwater depletion - netherlands
Dit rapport beschrijft een studie die is uitgevoerd om de actuele verdrogingssituatie in kaart te brengen en een werkwijze te ontwikkelen om ook in de toekomst op een objectieve, reproduceerbare en gedragen wijze de verdrogingssituatie in kaart brengen.
BasisRegistratie Ondergrond (BRO) Actualisatie Gt/Gd : beschrijving grondwaterkarakteristieken per Gt-klasse voor hoog Nederland
Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Knotters, M. ; Walvoort, D.J.J. ; Hoogland, T. ; Brus, D.J. ; Vries, F. de; Heidema, A.H. ; Okx, J.P. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2797) - 51
grondwater - grondwaterstand - statistiek - nederland - groundwater - groundwater level - statistics - netherlands
Information on the depth and dynamics of the ground water level below the ground
surface, ‘Gt’, associated with the soil map of The Netherlands, is updated incrementally. Only recently
(2014), an updated Gt-map of the lower, western Netherlands was completed. A Gt-map of the higher
grounds was produced in 2016, based on ‘Gd’ information established in 2004. The procedures
followed and the results are reported in this volume. At this time, the compilation of a Gd map for the
lower Netherlands is due. After completion, in conjunction with the update of the ‘Gd’ data for the
higher grounds, a comprehensive, nationwide ‘Gd’ map of The Netherlands will be available.
Meer biodiversiteit met brede groene dijken? : een verkenning van de vegetatie op de Waddenzeedijken
Loon-Steensma, Jantsje M. van; Huiskes, Rik - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2802) - 129
dijken - breedte - vegetatie - biodiversiteit - nederlandse waddeneilanden - nederland - duitsland - denemarken - dykes - width - vegetation - biodiversity - dutch wadden islands - netherlands - germany - denmark
In dit rapport worden de vegetaties op het buitentalud van de brede groene Waddenzeedijken in Duitsland en Denemarken vergeleken met de vegetaties op het buitentalud van de gangbare Waddenzeedijken in Nederland, met als doel om inzicht te krijgen in de mogelijke meerwaarde van het Brede Groene Dijk-concept voor biodiversiteit, en voor vegetatie in het bijzonder.
Versleping in de mengvoederindustrie : inventarisatie en evaluatie van methoden voor het bepalen van bedrijfseigen versleping bij de productie van mengvoeder
Bikker, P. ; Beumer, H. ; Goeij, E.J. de; Hooglugt, J. ; Wegh, R. ; Egmond, H.J. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-rapport 2017.003) - 51
mengvoer - veevoederindustrie - wetgeving - nederland - voedertoevoegingen - compound feeds - feed industry - legislation - netherlands - feed additives
Mengvoederfabrikanten dienen veilige diervoeders van goede kwaliteit te leveren ter bescherming van de dier- en volksgezondheid en het milieu. Door technische en organisatorische maatregelen moet (kruis)verontreiniging met ongewenste stoffen, toevoegingsmiddelen en diergeneesmiddelen zo veel mogelijk worden beperkt (Verordening 183/2005/EG). Om hieraan te kunnen voldoen schrijven nationale kwaliteitssystemen zoals GMP+ International B.V. (GMP+) in Nederland voor om de versleping van productielijnen van mengvoeders te bepalen en hiermee rekening te houden bij de productie van voeders met kritische stoffen. Een goede procedure en uitvoering van de verslepingstest zijn van belang voor de mengvoederbedrijven en voor de controlerende instanties zoals de NVWA om de doelmatigheid van beheersmaatregelen te beoordelen. Het doel van dit project was daarom: - inventariseren van de methoden die binnen GMP+ gebruikt (mogen) worden voor het bepalen van het bedrijfseigen -verslepingspercentage; - in kaart brengen van de kritische stappen in de methoden en uitvoering ervan; - opstellen van aanbevelingen voor het verbeteren en uniformeren van de verslepingstesten ten behoeve van de betrouwbaarheid en vergelijkbaarheid van de resultaten.
Report on the eel stock and fishery in the Netherlands 2015/2016
Graaf, Martin de; Bos, Oscar G. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C003/17) - 59
eels - anguilla - fish stocks - fisheries - netherlands - palingen - visstand - visserij - nederland
Retrospectieve analyse van standaard vastgelegde data in de vleeskuikenproductieketen
Jong, I.C. de; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1013) - 32
vleeskuikens - vleeskuikenproductie - pluimveehouderij - prestatiekenmerken - gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - nederland - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - broilers - broiler production - poultry farming - performance traits - data collection - data analysis - netherlands - animal welfare - animal production
Notenteelt in Nederland : Een technisch economische haalbaarheidsstudie
Baltissen, A.H.M.C. ; Oosterbaan, A. - \ 2017
Randwijk : Wageningen Plant Research , onderdeel van Wageningen University & Research, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit - 53 p.
noten als gewas - hazelnoten - walnoten - haalbaarheidsstudies - teelthandleidingen - fruitteelt - nederland - nut crops - hazelnuts - walnuts - feasibility studies - cultivation manuals - fruit growing - netherlands
Notenteelt (hazel- en walnotenteelt) is in Nederland een kleine sector (50 tot 100 ha). Er zijn echter een aantal ontwikkelingen die nieuwe groeimogelijkheden voor de teelt en afzet bieden. Dat er maar een beperkt productiegebied aan noten in Nederland is, heeft zijn redenen. Nieuwe innovatieve technieken en nieuwe samenwerkingen bieden perspectief op het verkleinen van de teeltrisico’s en op een duurzame en rendabele teelt. Ook de inzet van restproducten voor de Biobased Economie geeft mogelijkheden. Vanuit deze optiek is Wageningen Plant Research (Voorheen Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit) enkele jaren geleden gestart om de groeimogelijkheden voor de notenteelt te verkennen en te stimuleren. Zo is samen met een groep notenkwekers en –telers een haalbaarheidsproject ingediend bij MKB Innovatiestimulering Regio & Topsector (MIT regeling) en gehonoreerd. Dit rapport is het verslag van het project. De focus in dit rapport ligt bij walnoten en hazelnoten.
Effect onkruidbestrijdingsstrategieën op de opbrengstreductie van snijmaïs : Resultaten van een éénjarige veldproef in 2016
Huiting, H.F. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2017
Lelystad : Wageningen Plant Research - 25 p.
zea mays - maïs - onkruiden - onkruidbestrijding - herbiciden - experimenteel veldonderzoek - nederland - maize - weeds - weed control - herbicides - field experimentation - netherlands
Maatregelen ter reductie van ammoniakemissie in bestaande varkensstallen
Vermeij, I. ; Ellen, H. ; Bokma, S. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1010) - 21
varkenshouderij - huisvesting, dieren - ammoniakemissie - reductie - wetgeving - nederland - pig farming - animal housing - ammonia emission - reduction - legislation - netherlands
The ambition of Global Gap Add-on to reduce ammonia emission exceed the legal standards. Scrubber systems comply with the standards, but are not preferable. Alternatives to reduce ammonia emission on existing farms has been mapped out. A combination of measurements from Rav and PAS lead to different options. The reduction of protein in animal feed in addition to a housing measurement has a positive prospect. Internal deduction on farm level leads to different options. The measurements will lead to more exploitation costs on the pig farm.
It takes three to tango : biobased innovaties: een samenwerking tussen overheid, onderwijs en ondernemers
Monteiro da Fonseca, Wendy ; Otterloo, Laura van; Simons, Ralph ; Ankersmit, Elis ; Vilsteren, Gerlinde van - \ 2017
Netherlands : CoE BBE - 47
samenwerking - publiek-private samenwerking - innovaties - biobased economy - kennisoverdracht - colleges - onderzoek - nederland - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - cooperation - public-private cooperation - innovations - knowledge transfer - research - netherlands - professional education
De transitie naar een Biobased Economy (BBE) is al jaren een 'hot item' in Nederland, zowel binnen de Nationaal Wetenschapsagenda als binnen de topsectoren. De MKB-erst, elk in eigen niches, spelen hierbij een bepalende rol. Hiernaast hebben de hogescholen op dit domein de ambitie om een belangrijke rol voor het MKB als kennisleverancier te spelen (onderwijs en onderzoek). In dit rapport probeert helderheid te creëren over hoe dit proces verloopt.
BEN: Bedrijfsspecifieke bemesting met kunstmest stikstof : resultaten 2014 en 2015
Verloop, Koos ; Hilhorst, Gerjan ; Oenema, Jouke ; Gielen, Jaap - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien en kansen nr. 77) - 38
melkveehouderij - bemesting - kunstmeststoffen - stikstof - graslanden - akkerbouw - wetgeving - nederland - dairy farming - fertilizer application - fertilizers - nitrogen - grasslands - arable farming - legislation - netherlands
Erfgoedconstructies in landschapspraktijken van burgers
Braaksma, Patricia - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Joks Janssen, co-promotor(en): A.N. van der Zande; Maarten Jacobs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571549 - 231
landschap - erfgoed - cultureel erfgoed - cultuurgeschiedenis - nederland - landscape - heritage areas - cultural heritage - cultural history - netherlands

Decisions to cut down monumental trees or demolish historic buildings can always count on civilian protests. Every year, the Dutch tradition of Zwarte Piet (‘Black Pete’) is heavily debated, the protests almost a tradition themselves. There are regular reports about concerned people protesting the disappearance of heritage or the damage about to be done to it. People value traditions, narratives or historic objects, and these are called heritage. Not everyone values these in the same way, though. Where to one person Zwarte Piet is inextricably bound up with the Sinterklaas festivities, to another he is nothing less than an expression of racism. What constitutes heritage depends on the meaning people assign to objects, events, stories and traditions. In the past, experts usually decided what was considered to be heritage. The examples show that civilians also assign heritage meaning and thus construct heritage as well. Policy-makers have expressed a wish to cooperate with citizens to come to a concerted and widely supported valuation of heritage. Since heritage is not an objective and static given, but a product of dynamic assignment of meaning, groups of people can produce multiform heritage values. Insights into what meanings people assign to heritage in their everyday environments could on the one hand help preserve the existing values regarding heritage, sites and landscapes and respect these. On the other hand they can be helpful in the development of policies for heritage and the efforts of the government for more cooperation with citizens. The aim of this study is to obtain these insights.

Theoretical perspective and research questions

In science, the concept of heritage is the subject of lively discussions. Traditionally, heritage was presented as a collection of artefacts, of which the historic characteristics and the ways in which they could be shown were studied. Later, the attention shifted to heritage as a construction of meaning. The study focused primarily on representations; the way old things were linguistically represented by different groups of people. The material artefacts thus disappeared from view. More recently, heritage researchers propose an integrated approach: no longer an exclusive focus on either the artefacts or the representations thereof, but rather the relations between these should be the object of study. This study is consistent with the latter conceptualisation, and departs from the matching theoretical perspective of landscape practices. These are routines shared by groups of interacting people who are involved with landscapes. In these landscape practices, motives, actions, material objects and the meanings assigned to them form a coherent whole. This theoretical approach is ideally suited to study heritage as meaning construction on a micro-level (the level of people's daily lives), and to understand this assignment of meaning against the background of routines in which actions and material objects are also important. In addition to the characterisation of different landscape practices in which heritage is constructed, this research is meant to make four additional contributions to heritage literature. First, heritage studies so far focused on explicit meanings, i.e. meanings in which historical artefacts are explicitly presented as heritage. From practice theory, however, it follows that there can also be implied meanings and that these can be just as relevant. These are meanings assigned to historical artefacts, without presenting these as heritage. Secondly, I focused on the ways experts and people in practices exchange knowledge. In literature, this exchange has mostly been studied as a conflict, but other forms, such as cooperation, are equally conceivable. Thirdly, I looked for changes in heritage constructions resulting from recent or upcoming spatial changes in the surroundings. Studies on the assignment of meaning to places show that these meanings may shift when change is about to come to a place; whether and how this is the case for heritage meanings is still a largely open question. Fourthly, I looked at the willingness of people to cooperate in heritage management. It is because of this perspective of practice theory that this study can add to the studies on representations of heritage, in which the emphasis is often on conflicts between governments and citizens.

On the basis of these considerations, the following research questions were leading for the empirical research:

Which motives, activities, and scenic elements play a role in landscape practices, and what meanings do people in these practices assign to historic artefacts?

To what extent is the distinction between implicit and explicit meanings relevant for understanding the construction of heritage in landscape practices?

What are the roles of external expert knowledge in the construction of scenic heritage in landscape practices?

To what extent do spatial changes influence the heritage constructions in landscape practices?

To what extent are citizens in landscape practices willing to participate with the government in taking care of heritage?

Research design

To answer the research questions, a qualitative research design was chosen. I have collected information about motives, activities and meanings by conducting [aantal] semi-structured interviews with people who are active in landscape practices. These interviews were conducted in four study areas: the Tjongervallei, the Roerstreek, the Amstelland and the IJsselvallei. In two of these areas spatial changes play a prominent role (Amstelland and IJsselvallei), and in the other two they do not. Moreover, historical experts highly value two of these areas (Roerstreek and Amstelland) and not the other two. This combination of study areas was chosen with the research questions about the influence of spatial changes and the roles of expert knowledge in mind. In the phase of qualitative data analysis, the information from the interviews was processed by systematically coding quotes from the interviews, based on similarities and differences in these quotes, and on the concepts that gave direction to the research.


Seven distinctive types of landscape practices were found in the different study areas. In practices centring around the collection of historical information, the activities for the most part consist of visiting archives and libraries, and organising the obtained information. The focus is on the social aspects of history, what the life of our ancestors was like. Within these practices, historic landscape features are assigned meaning as signs of this social history. An old turf hut, for instance, reflects the hard life of peat workers in the past.

Within practices focused on the education of local history, people organise exhibitions and tours and develop teaching materials for schools. These people like to make a contribution to society, to be active and to provide younger generations with knowledge about history. Landscape elements that show an area's history are valuable to these people.

The people in conservation practices focus on legislation, for which they administer and collect data on species and their habitat. They also go out to work on small projects to contribute to nature. That is what they love to do most. Historical elements and features that also have a high ecological value have a special meaning within these practices.

Being active in the landscape characterises the practices of landscape maintenance, activities such as pruning, pollarding and digging. What motivates these people are the social contacts they have during these activities and that these are outdoor activities. The objects of their activities are central to the assignment of meaning to the surroundings. The aesthetic meaning is paramount here, while the historical dimension hardly plays a role.

In practices focused on monument conservation, getting other local residents involved is an important activity. Being active for the community and preserving something for future generations are important motivations for participants. It is not the larger landscape structures, but specific historical objects that are of interest. If there are spatial changes, these historical meanings are strongly articulated and defended, even in court, if necessary.

In the practice of landscape development, found only in the Tjongervallei, people make plans for the area and organise consultations. It is about improving the landscape and using history to this end. Therefore, there is special emphasis on historical artefacts, which become meaningful in new plans such as the development of tourist routes.

Depending on the study area, protest activities or support activities are at the heart of landscape development practices. When protesting proposed plans, this means taking part in participation procedures and court procedures. Support activities involve persuading other locals of their perspectives on the future, in order to prevent administrators of making decisions that are not in line with those perspectives. Historical landscape structures, rather than specific objects, are assigned meaning from the desire to steer spatial developments.

Throughout the practices and study areas, different dominant modes of production of meaning were found, within which heritage is constructed: on the basis of landscape aesthetics, in response to upcoming or recent spatial changes, from the perspective of people's own family history, the wish to make a social contribution, and on the basis of utility value.

This research shows that assigning meanings to historic landscape features and structures is diverse. This diversity does not only exist between study areas but also between practices within an area. Heritage is therefore a social construct. At the same time, heritage is not a completely random construct. Some historical artefacts easily get assigned meaning, and therefore play an important role in different practices. Also, these heritage meanings are often understandable seeing the activities, motives and knowledge in the relevant practices.

The theoretically assumed distinction between explicit and implicit meanings does indeed turn out to be relevant. Some people assign meaning to historical objects in a landscape, while there is not any actual historical connotation. In their view, for instance, the objects are valuable in relation to the aesthetics of the landscape, or as elements with value for nature.

Different ways of knowledge exchange with experts were found in this research. Sometimes participants in practices worked together with experts to gain knowledge. Especially in practices that revolve around collecting historical information amateur archaeologists and professional archaeologists work together to increase historical knowledge. In conservation practices, people consult experts to become familiar with statutory frameworks that are relevant to their activities.

Practice members and experts appreciate each other's work. Within some practices, such as that of monument conservation, expert knowledge and consultation are actively sought out to strengthen the legitimacy of arguments. People think, for example, that the likelihood of success in court cases increases when an expert agrees with them.

The extent to which upcoming and recent spatial changes are of influence varies greatly between landscape practices. In some practices, activities and the assignment of meaning explicitly address these spatial changes. People protest against changes using various means, such as public inquiries and lawsuits, and by accentuating or even newly constructing historical meanings of objects as a strategy to influence changes. Other practices do not react to spatial changes, because the historical artefacts that are important within these practices remain untouched by these changes.

This research shows that many people are prepared to take care of heritage in their own way. We also see cooperation with the government. Sometimes practices execute public tasks through volunteer work, and vice versa the government facilitates some practices through grants and by organising public inquiries. However, this does not mean that we can already see joint assignment of heritage meanings and values. In its wake, a broad willingness to participate in public policies for heritage was not found. The way in which the government frames interaction can be a major obstacle. In the IJsselvallei, there is discontent among citizens about the small extent to which they can share their perspectives within the planning procedures as established by the government.

Conclusion and discussion

Heritage literature often emphasises the importance of heritage for people. This research shows that it is indeed important, but also that we should not exaggerate this importance. The interest in history is usually fragmented and often limited to a specific object that is of interest in a landscape practice. Moreover, this study looked at people who are actively involved in the landscape, and landscape heritage is probably even less important to people that are not actively involved. Heritage researchers also often emphasise that heritage is important for people's identity formation. Although this issue has not been examined directly empirically, the findings do necessitate a nuancing of this idea. The interviewees hardly indicate that historical artefacts are important to their sense of identity. Some measure of identity contribution does seem plausible though, because, for example, people find some objects typical for the region to which they feel connected. The main attraction of landscape practices for the participants lies in the social relations. That is what it is really about for most people, and that is what makes them feel good. In this sense, historical artefacts are often, but not always, a reason for doing things together, and that is what the participants enjoy the most.

Social Relevance

The current heritage policy focuses increasingly on citizens. Policymakers think that shared values ​​should be established in the collaboration between heritage professionals and citizens. This study provides insights into both the conflicts that arise in practice and the current cooperation between citizens and heritage professionals.

A striking finding in the studied landscape practices is that there are no conflicts between practices themselves. Many meanings assigned to heritage, although different, are not inherently conflicting in the sense that they are mutually exclusive. The importance of social relations for those involved in a landscape practice means that they do not easily start a conflict. While conflicts between practices were not found in this study, there are many conflicts between landscape practices and governments. Spatial change is a major driver of conflict. Especially in those situations, governments should therefore focus on interactive participation processes in a planning context.

In addition to the negatively oriented cooperation between citizens and governments, this research also identified a positively oriented cooperation. These forms of cooperation are not very interactive yet. It is therefore questionable whether they will lead to shared heritage values. For governments and other heritage professionals, landscape practices are interesting contacts. They are organized and often already actively involved in heritage, so they are easier to approach than individual citizens. To give new meaning to heritage policy with the shared values ​​of governments and citizens at the centre, a change is required in the way professionals work. More than they do now, participatory processes should focus on the actions of people and the diversity of the meanings they assign to heritage. If they do, the results from this study indicate that it might well be possible to share the care for heritage.

Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes : Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study
Wardenaar, Floris C. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): Marco Mensink; Jeanne de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430326 - 189
food intake - food supplements - athletes - nutrition - sport - dietary guidelines - netherlands - voedselopname - voedselsupplementen - atleten - voeding - sport - dieetrichtlijnen - nederland

Background: Well-trained elite athletes differ from the general population in being considerably more physically active and by other lifestyle characteristics including intensive training routines and periodisation of their training programs. Hence, adequate intake of energy and nutrients is of great importance to this population to ensure optimal performance and recovery during training or competition and also to minimize health risks. A consistent dietary intake pattern, in line with the sport-specific recommendations can be difficult to achieve for this group. The specific recommendations are formulated for nutritional intake during and after training or within competition. However, a large variation is seen in dietary intake by athletes. Therefore, the question arises as to what extent athletes meet recommendations and use nutritional supplements in an optimal manner.

Aims: First, to investigate dietary intake and nutritional supplement use by well-trained Dutch athletes and compare these intakes with recommendations both for the general population and sport nutrition recommendations, which are based on expert consensus. Second, to provide an up-to-date overview of nutrient intake levels in a diverse and relatively large group of Dutch elite and sub-elite athletes practicing sports at the highest competitive level.

Methods: As part of this thesis 24-hour recalls and questionnaires were used to gain insight into dietary intake and nutritional supplement use (n=553). To validate our methods, 24-hour nitrogen urine excretions were obtained in a subsample of our athletic population (n=47). A questionnaire was used to 1) investigate the prevalence of nutritional supplement use in a large sample of the athletic population (n=778) and 2) investigate the prevalence of nutritional supplement use in a large sample of the Dutch general population (n=1544). Finally, food intake during an ultramarathon was monitored (n=4) and questioned using a food frequency questionnaire (n=41).

Results: Our validation study showed that 24-hour recalls and accompanying questionnaires underestimated protein intake in young elite athletes to the same extent as reported for non- athlete populations. Notwithstanding this, the method was considered suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. It was found that most athletes were able to meet the estimated average requirement (EAR) for carbohydrate and protein. Regarding sport nutrition recommendations, most of the athletes met protein (1.2 g/kg) but not carbohydrate recommendations (5 g/kg). No major differences in carbohydrate and protein intake were seen between sports categories (i.e. endurance, team and strength athletes). Athletes were at risk of too low intake levels of several micronutrients, especially when they did not use dietary supplements (i.e. vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and B2 in men and women, and iron in women), whereas users of supplements showed a slightly elevated risk of intake levels exceeding the upper intake level (UL). This was in particular the case for vitamin B3. Our investigations in ultramarathon runners showed that these athletes did not reach sports nutrition recommendations from their habitual diet. In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation in nutrient and fluid intake was seen. This may be related to a high incidence of GI distress (82% of the runners reported GI complaints, but severe GI distress was low). Use of dietary supplements and sport nutrition products in the general population was reported by two-thirds of all respondents. Thirty-three percent reported the use of sport nutrition products. One could question whether the use of these energy containing sport nutrition products fits all respondents’ physical activity needs. Furthermore, it was shown that almost all athletes (97%) have used nutritional supplements some time during their athletic careers. Additionally, receiving dietary counselling seems to result in better choices with respect to nutritional supplement use.

Conclusion: On a population level and with respect to the existing sport nutrition recommendations, nutritional intake in well-trained Dutch competitive athletes was low to moderate for carbohydrate intake and sufficient for protein intake. Suboptimal consumption of micronutrients was reported based on comparison with the estimated average requirement (EAR) for several micronutrients, especially for vitamin D. The use of dietary supplements adds to dietary intake. However, not all athletes consume these types of products, and day to day compliance in supplement users is low. Athletes are advised to focus on the selection of whole food carbohydrate-rich products with a high nutrient density and to consume a large variety of products containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. When athletes experience difficulties in following these recommendations, the advice could be to use a low dose multivitamin (50-100% RDA).

Opportunity identification competence : explaining individual and exploring team opportunity identification by employees
Baggen, Yvette - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans; Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579682 - 182
entrepreneurship - professional competence - competences - education - businesses - small businesses - medium sized businesses - employment opportunities - netherlands - portugal - europe - ondernemerschap - vakbekwaamheid - bevoegdheden - onderwijs - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - middelgrote bedrijven - kansen op werk - nederland - portugal - europa

Opportunities and their identification are of significant importance for competitiveness in today’s complex and turbulent business environment because they serve as a key influencing factor for new value-creation. Opportunity identification (OI) is interesting not only from the perspective of new business start-ups, but also from the perspective of employees in existing organisations. Each entrepreneurial process starts with an imagined, rudimentary idea in the mind of an individual. The further exploration and development of such opportunities by employees can lead to the realisation of all kinds of corporate entrepreneurship outcomes, such as innovation, strategic renewal, and internal or external venturing.

This dissertation reports on the capability of employees to identify opportunities, referred to as opportunity identification competence (OIC). The importance of OI by employees is widely recognised in practice, and scholars have contributed significantly to understanding what opportunities are, how opportunities come into being, and how OIC can be measured. Nevertheless, substantial research challenges still need to be addressed. More specifically, based on both entrepreneurship literature and literature on organisational learning and entrepreneurship education, three overarching research issues have been identified:

The OI process has not been fully mapped out, including the role of individuals and teams.

Defining and explaining OIC is problematic because scholars tend not to agree whether opportunities are discovered in the economic environment or created by individuals.

Existing measurements of OIC have been criticised, because most of them include self-perceptions or the recall of earlier identified opportunities.

The main goal of this thesis was to contribute to the literature by addressing these three overarching research issues. Accordingly, the central research question was: What characterises opportunity identification by employees on the individual and team level?

In the dissertation, OIC is both conceptually mapped and empirically explored. A performance instrument to measure OIC is developed and tested in higher education. As well, 12 businesses, including 234 employees in 51 teams, participated in this research project. Most companies were in the category known as small and medium-sized enterprise (SME). The participating companies have in common that they felt an urgent need for entrepreneurship as a driver of competitiveness. Furthermore, they aimed to commit and stimulate their employees to contribute to the entrepreneurial process, without having formal mechanisms or structures for doing so.

Main conclusions

In light of the central research question of this dissertation, What characterises opportunity identification by employees on the individual and team level?, the results suggest that OI deserves attention in existing businesses, both as a meaningful process leading towards new value-creation and as a relevant capability of employees. OIC is a multi-phased phenomenon consisting of two main competencies, namely business idea generation and business idea evaluation. In business idea generation, individuals generate all kinds of (business) ideas that may have the potential to become a real opportunity. In business idea evaluation, those ideas are selected that actually have potential success. Employees can have one of the competencies (business idea generation or business idea evaluation) to a greater extent, or both of them. Organisations need employees that are able to generate business ideas and employees that are able to evaluate the potential success of business ideas. The results of this thesis suggest that, just like independent entrepreneurs, employees mainly acquire such competencies by a process of learning by doing; this means that employees should become involved in entrepreneurial activities on the shop floor. Creating teams can be a solution, bringing together the competencies needed for the successful identification of opportunities. Moreover, the results suggest that the commitment of teams in the early stages of the entrepreneurial process is highly relevant, because the team cognitive framework for identifying opportunities seems more effective than the individual cognitive framework.

Taken together, at the defining, initial stage of the entrepreneurial process opportunities are identified by individuals or, preferably, by teams – in a process by which business ideas are generated and evaluated for their potential success. When studying opportunities and their identification, scholars should take into account the differences in OIC between SMEs, employees, and even within OIC itself (i.e., between business idea generation and business idea evaluation). In practice as well, these differences should be considered in the selection and management of employees, in assessing OIC and in composing teams, because teams need both business idea generators and business idea evaluators.

Beoordeling van mogelijk gebruik van N-bijmestsystemen voor aardappelen als equivalente maatregel
Ruijter, F.J. de; Schröder, J.J. ; Geel, W.C.A. van; Postma, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport 672) - 37
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - akkerbouw - bemesting - maatregelen - stikstofmeststoffen - nederland - potatoes - arable farming - fertilizer application - measures - nitrogen fertilizers - netherlands
Het vijfde Nederlandse Actieprogramma Nitraatrichtlijn biedt ruimte voor zgn. equivalente maatregelen: maatregelen waarbij gebruiksnormen verhoogd kunnen worden zonder dat de milieukwaliteit verslechtert. Dit onderzoek richt zich op evaluatie van N-bijmestsystemen voor aardappel en gebruik als equivalente maatregel. Een theoretische verkenning laat zien dat ideale N-bijmestsystemen die voor verschillende groeiomstandigheden de juiste N-gift geven een iets lager N-overschot geven ten opzichte van bemesting volgens een vaste totale gift. Evaluatie van proeven liet zien dat N-bijmestsystemen mogelijke besparingen ten opzichte van de N-bemestingsrichtlijn veelal goed konden aangeven, maar situaties met een hogere optimale N-gift niet. Daarmee heeft gebruik van N-bijmestsystemen als equivalente maatregel momenteel onvoldoende perspectief.
Ankerkuilmonitoring Westerschelde: resultaten 2016
Boois, I.J. de; Asch, M. van; Couperus, A.S. - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C113/16) - 19
monitoring - visserij - visstand - westerschelde - nederland - fisheries - fish stocks - western scheldt - netherlands
Spatial distribution and habitat preference of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Dutch North Sea
Aarts, Geert ; Cremer, Jenny ; Kirkwood, Roger ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der; Matthiopoulos, Jason ; Brasseur, Sophie - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C118/16) - 43
seals - phoca vitulina - spatial distribution - habitats - animal ecology - marine ecology - north sea - netherlands - zeehonden - ruimtelijke verdeling - dierecologie - mariene ecologie - noordzee - nederland
TBT-gehalten en effecten bij de Gewone Alikruik, de Gevlochten Fuikhoorn en de Purperslak langs de Nederlandse kust in 2016
Kotterman, M. ; Jol, J. ; Barneveld, E. van - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C110/16) - 35
gastropoda - organo-tinverbindingen - bemonsteren - kustgebieden - toxicologie - nederland - organotin compounds - sampling - coastal areas - toxicology - netherlands
Onderhoudsstaat en onderhoudskosten van groen erfgoed in Nederland
Paulissen, Maurice ; Debie, Patricia ; Brus, Dick ; Koomen, Arjen ; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Schuiling, Rini ; Verkuijl, Paul - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2773) - 81
tuinen - parken - nederland - kosten - onderhoud - groenbeheer - buitenplaatsen - gardens - parks - netherlands - costs - maintenance - management of urban green areas - country estates
Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd door Wageningen Environmental Research en onderzoeksbureau Debie & Verkuijl. De resultaten van het onderzoek naar de staat en onderhoudsbehoefte van groene rijksmonumenten zijn bij brief van 8 mei 2017 (TK 32 156, nr. 81) door de Minister aan de Tweede Kamer aangeboden. Kort samengevat blijkt dat 69% redelijk scoort, 20% goed, 11% matig en 0% slecht. Verontrustend is dat uit het onderzoek is gebleken dat van de beschermde groenaanleg in Nederland 30% totaal is verdwenen en dat 14% is aangetast. Grof afgerond betekent dit dus dat bijna de helft van de als groen aangewezen rijksmonument niet meer of nog slechts deels bestaat. Kanttekening hierbij is dat de beschrijvingen vaak decennia geleden zijn opgesteld en soms summier zijn. Controle is dus soms lastig. Het onderzoek betreft de instandhoudingsbehoefte van de onderhoudskosten om de groenaanleg door middel van sober en doelmatig onderhoud in redelijke staat te houden volgens de normen van de Leidraad subsidiabele instandhoudingskosten. De restauratiebehoefte is daarbij niet in kaart gebracht.
Monitoring vooroeververdediging Oosterschelde 2015 : locaties: Zeelandbrug en Lokkersnol
Tangelder, Martijn ; Heuvel-Greve, Martine van den; Kluijver, Maria de - \ 2016
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C098/16) - 86
oeverbescherming van rivieren - dijken - steenwerk - aquatische ecosystemen - zware metalen - waterorganismen - oosterschelde - westerschelde - nederland - riverbank protection - dykes - stonework - aquatic ecosystems - heavy metals - aquatic organisms - eastern scheldt - western scheldt - netherlands
Rijkswaterstaat heeft aan Wageningen Marine Research opdracht gegeven om in 2015 de T6-monitoring uit te voeren voor Cluster 1 locaties Zuidhoek-De Val (“Zeelandbrug”) en Cauwersinlaag (“Lokkersnol”) in de Oosterschelde. Het doel van deze monitoring is het bepalen van de samenstelling en biodiversiteit van de aanwezige levensgemeenschappen op harde en zachte substraten, en de bepaling van de gehalten aan zware metalen in mosselen en oesters. Voor locatie Lokkersnol is de monitoring alleen op levensgemeenschappen van zachte substraten gericht. De monitoring is uitgevoerd in samenwerking met Stichting Zeeschelp en TNO.
Quickscan zodekwaliteit dijkgrasland Afsluitdijk op basis van visuele beoordeling van doorworteling, vegetatietype en bedekking; situatie 2016
Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Vries, Daisy de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Alterra - 42 p.
graslanden - dijken - graslanden, conditie - wortels - vegetatie - graslandbeheer - afsluitdijk - nederland - grasslands - dykes - grassland condition - roots - vegetation - grassland management - netherlands
In februari 2016 is door Alterra, onderdeel van Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum, een quickscan uitgevoerd om de kwaliteit van de zode van de Afsluitdijk te bepalen. Gegevens over de doorworteling van de zode, het graslandtype en de vegetatiebedekking vormen de basis om tot een kwaliteitsoordeel van de zode te komen. Daarnaast is een korte vergelijking gemaakt tussen de huidige uitkomst en de situatie van 2010. Afsluitend wordt een beheeradvies gegeven.
Systeemverantwoordelijkheid in het natuurbeleid : input voor agendavorming van de Balans van de Leefomgeving 2014
Boonstra, F.G. ; Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 47) - 35
natuur - natuurbeleid - verantwoordelijkheid - overheid - milieubeheer - milieubeleid - nederland - nature - nature conservation policy - responsibility - public authorities - environmental management - environmental policy - netherlands
The Natinonal Government carries system responsibility for nature. Some ambiguity in the understanding ofthe concept of system responsibility seems to exist, however. The ways in which system responsibility isimplemented vary in practice also. The Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment gives expression to itssystem responsibility within spatial planning in a largely facilitating manner, but its role also shows someregulating elements. With regard to water policy there is, on the contrary, a largely regulating interpretationwith some facilitating elements. The Ministry of the Interior has a facilitating role concerning the issue ofdemographic decline. The Ministry of Economic Affairs is still searching for a way to handle its systemresponsibility in nature policy and is showing at the time of this research (beginning 2013) an inclinationtowards a largely facilitating role. The Assessment of the Dutch Human Environment may be helpful with thissearch by clarifying the concept, indicating further options for implementation and making clear what theconsequences will be of the different possible roles.
Nationale parken in transitie : governance-implicaties van een veranderend beleidskader
Pleijte, M. ; During, R. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 47) - 8 p.
nationale parken - natuurbeleid - decentralisatie - overheidsbeleid - provincies - regionaal beleid - nederland - national parks - nature conservation policy - decentralization - government policy - provinces - regional policy - netherlands
De nationale parken verkeren in een transitie. Met de decentralisatie van het natuurbeleid heeft het Rijksinds januari 2013 veel Rijkstaken voor nationale parken laten vallen. Het Rijk is alleen nog verantwoordelijkom nationale parken in te stellen en te begrenzen. Provincies konden zelf beslissen of zij die vervallenRijkstaken al dan niet overnamen. Hierdoor is onduidelijk geworden wie nu verantwoordelijk is voor denationale parken en waar ze hun middelen vandaan moeten halen. Dit heeft geleid tot een zoektocht naarregionale inbedding en nieuwe financieringsvormen. Daarbij zijn grote verschillen ontstaan tussen nationaleparken. Het merendeel van de nationale parkorganisaties is hierdoor bezig met overleven.
Staand want monitoring IJsselmeer en Markermeer survey- en datarapportage 2016
Hal, R. van; Sluis, M.T. van der - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C131/16) - 36
vismethoden - vistuig - netten - visbestand - monitoring - nederland - fishing methods - fishing gear - nets - fishery resources - netherlands
In september 2016 heeft een monitoring met staandwantnetten plaatsgevonden op het IJsselmeer en Markermeer. De doelstelling van deze monitoring is een beter beeld te krijgen van de populatie-opbouw van de visbestanden. De reguliere monitoring van vis in het open water (met de actieve vistuigen verhoogde boomkor en electrokor) is met name selectief voor kleine vissen. Grotere vissen worden in deze reguliere monitoring niet goed gevangen. In het staandwantmonitoringsproject is bemonsterd met staandwantnetten met een breed scala aan maaswijdtes. Zodoende kan een breed scala aan vislengtes bemonsterd worden.
Soortenlijst Nederlandse Noordzee
Bos, O.G. ; Gittenberger, A. ; Boois, I.J. de; Asch, M. van; Wal, J.T. van der; Cremer, J. ; Hoorn, B. van der; Pieterse, S. ; Bakker, P.A.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C125/16) - 108
waterorganismen - soorten - soortenrijkdom - biodiversiteit - mariene ecologie - noordzee - nederland - aquatic organisms - species - species richness - biodiversity - marine ecology - north sea - netherlands
In dit rapport is een soortenlijst opgesteld voor de Nederlandse Noordzee in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken. Er is behoefte aan een concrete lijst van inheemse en niet-inheemse Noordzeesoorten omdat het rijk direct en indirect werkt aan behoud en duurzaam gebruik van de van nature voorkomende biodiversiteit van het Nederlandse deel van de Noordzee, aan beleid over “Bouwen met Noordzeenatuur” en aan het volgen van niet-inheemse soorten (exoten) in de Noordzee.
Rijksprojecten: hét natuurinclusieve werken? : een analyse van relaties tussen rijksprojecten en de Rijksnatuurvisie
Pleijte, M. ; Beunen, R. ; During, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 82) - 116
infrastructuur - natuurbeleid - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - projecten - landbouw - nederland - infrastructure - nature conservation policy - environmental policy - government policy - projects - agriculture - netherlands
In de Rijksnatuurvisie ‘Natuurlijk Verder’ zijn de concepten natuurcombinaties en natuurinclusiefgeïntroduceerd. In deze studie is nagegaan of rijksoverheden in rijksprojecten zelf met natuurcombinaties ennatuurinclusief werken en welke mogelijkheden er zijn om deze manier van werken te versterken. Om hetonderzoek uit te voeren, is gebruik gemaakt van inzichten uit Evolutionary Governance Theory. Dit is eentheoretisch kader om de co-evolutie van discoursen, actoren en institutionele kaders te analyseren. Voor vierbeleidsvelden, te weten windenergie, landbouw, water en infrastructuur is nagegaan hoe rijksoverhedenwerken. Het onderzoek laat zien dat de begrippen natuurinclusief werken en natuurcombinaties steeds meeraandacht krijgen in het beleid en de programma’s en projecten van de Rijksoverheid. Vooralsnog lijktnatuurinclusief werken nog meer uitzondering dan regel.---The government vision ‘The Natural Way Forward’ (2014) introduced the policy concepts of naturecombinations and the nature-inclusive approach. This study investigates whether national governmentagencies implement these strategies in national projects and what possibilities exist to strengthen this wayof working. The researchers made use of ideas from Evolutionary Governance Theory, a theoreticalframework for analysing the coevolution of discourses, actors and institutional frameworks. The workingmethods employed by national government agencies were investigated in four policy areas: wind energy,agriculture, water management and infrastructure. The study shows that nature-inclusive working andnature combinations are gradually being adopted in national government policies, programmes and projects,but that so far nature-inclusive working has been more the exception than the rule.
Crop Wild Relatives (CWRs) in Nederland
Hoekstra, R. ; Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2016
wilde verwanten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - conservering - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - natuurgebieden - genenbanken - nederland - wild relatives - plant genetic resources - conservation - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - natural areas - gene banks - netherlands
Genetische monitoring van de Nederlandse otterpopulatie : ontwikkeling van populatieomvang en genetische status 2015/2016
Kuiters, A.T. ; Groot, G.A. de; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Bovenschen. J., Jan - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 81) - 47
otters - lutra - populatiebiologie - monitoring - populatiegroei - inteelt - genetica - nederland - population biology - population growth - inbreeding - genetics - netherlands
Jaarlijks wordt in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken de Nederlandse otterpopulatiegenetisch gemonitord. Daarmee wordt een vinger aan de pols gehouden voor de ontwikkeling van degenetische status van de populatie. Deze vorm van monitoring, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van DNAgeïsoleerd uit uitwerpselen en doodvondsten, maakt het tevens mogelijk veranderingen in de ruimtelijkeverspreiding en de populatieomvang te volgen. De monitoringsronde van 2015/2016 laat zien dat depopulatie verder is gegroeid naar ca. 185 individuen. Op populatieniveau is de genetische variatie weer wattoegenomen doordat op steeds meer plekken otters van Duitse origine in de Nederlandse populatie opduikendie hier op eigen kracht komen. De genetische variatie binnen individuen is niet verder afgenomen zoals deeerste periode van het herintroductieprogramma. Onderdeel van deze monitoring is ook autopsie van dodeotters, waarbij wordt gekeken naar de doodsoorzaak en de belangrijkste lichaamskenmerken. Verkeer isverreweg de belangrijkste doodsoorzaak. Het aantal verkeersslachtoffers neemt nog ieder jaar toe, waarbijde toename evenredig is aan de toename in de populatieomvang. Locaties waar otters worden doodgereden,worden geregistreerd en toegevoegd aan een database. Deze informatie is belangrijk om knelpuntlocatiesveiliger te maken om zo het aantal verkeersslachtoffers te beperken---The Ministry of Economic Affairs requires that the Dutch otter population is surveyed each year to monitorthe genetic status of the population using DNA isolated from spraints and tissue from dead individuals. Theresulting information is also used to detect changes in the spatial range and population size. The 2015/2016survey showed that the population size has further increased to about 185 individuals. The amount ofgenetic variation at the population level has further increased, mainly as the result of migration of otters ofGerman origin to the Dutch population. In contrast to previous years, genetic variation within individuals hasnot declined further. The survey includes autopsies of dead otters to assess body condition and the mostlikely cause of death. Traffic is by far the most important cause of mortality. The annual number of road killsis still increasing in proportion to the increase in population size. Locations where road kills occur areregistered and added to a database. This information is important to localise places where mitigatingmeasures have to be taken to improve the safety for otters
Dit is mijn hof : een beschouwing over de biodiversiteit in Nederland
Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2016
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 13 (2016)129. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 18 - 20.
biodiversiteit - natuurbeheer - natuurbescherming - landschapsbeheer - nationale parken - nederland - biodiversity - nature management - nature conservation - landscape management - national parks - netherlands
Er is van alles te zeggen over de toestand van de biodiversiteit in Nederland. Goede berichten en slechte berichten wisselen elkaar af. Onder staatssecretaris Bleker leek de natuur er steeds slechter van af te komen maar sinds zijn opvolger Dijksma waait er een nieuwe wind. De natuur wordt weer gezien als van groot belang voor onze samenleving, een rijkdom die we graag willen doorgeven aan volgende generaties.
Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2015
Trapman, B.K. ; Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C106/16) - 30
cod - fisheries - fish catches - monitoring - demersal fisheries - netherlands - kabeljauw - visserij - visvangsten - demersale visserij - nederland
Wettelijke Onderzoek Taken WOT-05 Visserijonderzoek : werkafspraken en werkplan 2017
Verver, S.W. - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Stichting Wageningen Research, Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO) (CVO rapport 16.009) - 103
visserij - onderzoek - wetgeving - planning - nederland - fisheries - research - legislation - netherlands
Dit rapport beschrijft het werkplan voor 2017 voor het Wettelijke taken programma Visserij onderzoek van Wageningen UR. Wageningen UR voert voor het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) een aantal programma’s met Wettelijke Onderzoek Taken (WOT) uit. Binnen programma WOT- 05 worden Wettelijke Onderzoek Taken uitgevoerd die betrekking hebben op het beheer van de visserij op zee, in Nederlandse kust- en binnenwateren en de aquacultuur. Het werkplan is een uitwerking van de Uitvoeringsovereenkomst en werkafspraken tussen het Ministerie van EZ en de Stichting Wageningen Research, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, voor diensten vanwege wettelijke taken op het terrein van visserijonderzoek voor de periode 2011-2015. In september 2015 is de Uitvoeringsovereenkomst voor WOT-05 met 1 jaar verlengd tot 31 december 2016. Voor 2017 wordt deze Uitvoeringsovereenkomst verlengd of vernieuwd. De Uitvoeringsovereenkomst en de bijbehorende werkafspraken vormen de basis voor de jaarlijkse werkplannen. Daarnaast zijn in deze overeenkomst afspraken gemaakt over de KennisBasis (KB-WOT) die specifiek aan dit programma is gekoppeld. KB-WOT is bedoeld voor het in stand houden en ontwikkelen van de specifieke kennisinfrastructuur die nodig is om het programma te kunnen uitvoeren. Voor de inzet van KB-WOT visserijonderzoek wordt jaarlijks een afzonderlijk werkplan gemaakt. In brede zin heeft de inhoud van het programma betrekking op de advisering van het visserijbeleid en het verzamelen van gegevens die daarvoor nodig zijn. Tevens wordt via de internationale organisaties meegewerkt aan de advisering voor het beheer van de visbestanden in internationale wateren.
Mosselbanken en oesterbanken op droogvallende platen in de Nederlandse kustwateren in 2016: bestand en arealen
Ende, D. van den; Troost, K. ; Asch, M. van; Brummelhuis, E. ; Zweeden, C. van - \ 2016
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C109/16) - 42
mytilus edulis - mossels - crassostrea gigas - oesters - kustwateren - monitoring - nederland - mussels - oysters - coastal water - netherlands
Als onderdeel van het onderzoeksprogramma WOT (Wettelijke Onderzoeks Taken) worden jaarlijks door Wageningen Marine Research (WMR, voorheen IMARES) de mossel- en oesterbestanden in de Nederlandse kustwateren geïnventariseerd. Voorliggend rapport omvat de resultaten van de inventarisatie van het areaal en bestand aan mosselen (Mytilus edulis) en Japanse oesters (Crassostrea gigas) op de droogvallende platen van de Waddenzee, Oosterschelde en de Westerschelde. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken en is één van de schelpdierinventarisaties die jaarlijks door WMR wordt uitgevoerd in samenwerking met het ministerie. De uitkomsten zijn van belang voor het beleid voor de schelpdiervisserij en vormen daarbij een bron van informatie voor verdere ecosysteem- en effectstudies.
Vangstsamenstelling per tuigcategorie : herziening contingentenstelsel visserij in Nederland in het kader van de aanlandplicht
Helmond, A.T.M. ; Steins, N.A. - \ 2016
IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C107/16) - 62
vangstsamenstelling - visvangsten - visserij - quota - vistuig - nederland - catch composition - fish catches - fisheries - quotas - fishing gear - netherlands
In het nieuwe Gemeenschappelijke Visserijbeleid is vastgelegd dat vissers uiterlijk eind 2019 verplicht zijn de volledige vangst van alle soorten waarvoor vangstquota gelden, mee te nemen naar de wal (aanlandplicht). Tot nu moesten vissers soorten waarvoor ze geen vangstrechten hadden of niet marktwaardig waren, juist terug zetten (discarden). Dit betekent dat het huidige Nederlandse co-management systeem voor quotabeheer moet worden afgestemd op de aanlandplicht. In Nederland wordt het Europese quotabeleid sinds eind jaren ’70 ingevuld via een stelsel van individuele contingenten. Een contingent is een (overdraagbaar) aandeel dat een visserijbedrijf heeft in het nationale quotum voor die soort. Op dit moment zijn er contingenten voor schol, tong, kabeljauw, wijting, haring, makreel, horsmakreel, blauwe wijting en grote zilversmelt. Vissers die geen of onvoldoende contingenten voor een soort hebben, mogen deze niet aan boord houden of aanlanden. De nieuwe aanlandplicht verplicht deze groep vissers echter wel tot aanlanden. Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) bereidt daarom een herziening van het contingentenstelsel voor. Een van de maatregelen die wordt verkend is een uitvaarverbod. Dit houdt in een visser niet met een specifiek vistuig mag uitvaren als hij geen of onvoldoende contingent heeft voor de soorten die naar verwachting een substantieel onderdeel uitmaken van de vangsten met dat betreffende vistuig.
Dioxines, dioxineachtige- en niet dioxineachtige PCB’s in rode aal uit Nederlandse binnenwateren : resultaten van 2016
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Kotterman, M.J.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-rapport 2016.016) - 33
palingen - osteichthyes - monitoring - dioxinen - polychloorbifenylen - binnenwateren - besmetting - nederland - eels - dioxins - polychlorinated biphenyls - inland waters - contamination - netherlands
In 2016 zijn in het kader van het monitoringsprogramma “Monitoring contaminanten ten behoeve van de Nederlandse sportvisserij” 14 zoetwaterlocaties en één zoutwater locatie bemonsterd. Hiervan liggen twaalf locaties binnen het voor aalvisserij gesloten gebied en voor de overige 3 locaties is de aalvisserij toegestaan. Alle locaties zijn in voorgaande jaren al bemonsterd, behalve de Weespertrekvaart, die voor het eerst is bemonsterd in 2016. Dit jaar is voor de bemonstering van grote alen rekening gehouden met het zwaartepunt van de beroepsmatige vangst, waardoor meestal iets grotere aal is bemonsterd (>53 cm) dan in voorgaande jaren (was >45 cm).
Afstand tussen veehouderij en woningen : een onderzoek naar aantallen veehouderijen en woningen op minder dan 250 meter van elkaar
Os, J. van; Smidt, R.A. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2658) - 51
veehouderij - landbouwbedrijven - woningen - milieu - milieufactoren - nederland - livestock farming - farms - dwellings - environment - environmental factors - netherlands
Ter voorbereiding op een debat in de Tweede Kamer op 15 september 2014 heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken aan Alterra gevraagd om te bepalen hoeveel veehouderijen er liggen op een afstand van 250 m of minder van burgerwoningen, niet zijnde agrarische bedrijfswoningen. Achtergrond van deze vraag is de mogelijke negatieve beïnvloeding van de omgevingskwaliteit van woningen door veehouderijen. Naar aanleiding van het debat en het eerste gepubliceerde document heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken Alterra gevraagd om een actualisatie en nadere detaillering te maken van de eerste resultaten. Met behulp van GIS heeft Alterra daarop zowel voor de jaren 2011 en 2013 bepaald dat ca. 70-90% van de veehouderijen op minder dan 250 m van een woning ligt. Andersom geredeneerd ligt ca. 30-40% van de woningen in het buitengebied op minder dan 250 m van een veehouderij; voor woningen in bevolkingskernen is dat 3%. Binnen Nederland zijn er aanzienlijke verschillen tussen regio’s, vooral veroorzaakt door verschillen in dichtheid van veehouderijen en woningen.
Calculation of exposure concentrations for NL standard scenarios by the TOXSWA model : use of FOCUS_TOXSWA 4.4.3 software for plant protection products and their metabolitesin Dutch risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems
Beltman, W.H.J. ; Vink, C. ; Poot, A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-technical report 77) - 46
pesticides - models - exposure - exposure assessment - surface water - netherlands - pesticiden - modellen - blootstelling - blootstellingsbepaling - oppervlaktewater - nederland
TOXSWA calculates exposure concentrations of plant protection products in water and in sediment and is
used in risk assessment studies of aquatic organisms. Replacement of the TOXSWA 1.2 software by the more
recent FOCUS_TOXSWA software for use with the NL standard scenarios was investigated. The impact of the
replacement on the calculated exposure concentrations of parent compounds and of metabolites was
determined. For parent substances the calculated exposure concentrations of the two TOXSWA versions were
equivalent. Due to a different way to simulate metabolites, the differences in exposure concentrations
calculated by the two versions can be large. For the simulation of metabolite substances two approaches are
given to handle situations where the formation fraction is not known.
Stelling : “ niet de natuurkwaliteit, maar de PR-machine bepaalt uiteindelijk de publieksverkiezing Mooiste Natuurgebied van Nederland”
Lindeboom, Han - \ 2016
natural areas - natural value - publicity - public relations - opinions - netherlands
Begin november werden drie natuurgebieden gekozen tot de drie top-natuurgebieden van Nederland. Het leek daarbij eigenlijk helemaal niet te gaan om de natuurwaarden in die gebieden, maar om wie de PR het beste voor elkaar had. Alleen in natuurgebied de Moerputten bij Den Bosch komt nog het pimpernelblauwtje voor. Nergens komt de droge natuur van de Veluwe zo dicht bij het rivierengebied als in het herstelde Renkumse beekdal. De bosanemonen en sleutelbloemen in het Geuldal zijn in het voorjaarslicht betoverend mooi. Toch hadden deze gebieden geen schijn van kans tegen de publiciteitscampagne van de ‘Grote Drie’. Het is dus niet de natuurkwaliteit, maar de PR-machine die uiteindelijk de publieksverkiezing Mooiste Natuurgebied van Nederland bepaalt.
Kansenkaarten voor duurzaam benutten Natuurlijk Kapitaal
Knegt, B. de; Hoek, D.C.J. van der; Veerkamp, C.J. ; Woltjer, I. ; Aa, N.G.F.M. van der; Boekel, E.M.P.M. van; Diederiks, J.F.H.A. ; Goosen, H. ; Koekoek, A. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Vries, F. de; Hendriks, C.M.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 75) - 122
ecosysteemdiensten - natuur - water - drinkwater - hoogwaterbeheersing - landbouw - nederland - ecosystem services - nature - drinking water - flood control - agriculture - netherlands
Local projects conducted within the framework of the Natural Capital Netherlands (NKN) programmeidentified various opportunities for mutual improvement of natural capital and the economy. In a follow-upstudy we investigated whether the insights gained also apply to other parts of the Netherlands. Which areasoffer the best opportunities? What measures are needed in these areas to actually capitalise on theseopportunities, and who are the relevant stakeholders? To address these questions, the local opportunitiesidentified in the NKN projects were explored at the national level, using ‘opportunity maps’. The three localprojects are: Greening the Common Agricultural Policy, Clean Water and Delta Programme
Open data voor precisielandbouw in Nederland
Dijk, C.J. van; Kempenaar, C. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport 662) - 32 p.
gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - gegevensbeheer - precisielandbouw - nederland - data collection - data analysis - data management - precision agriculture - netherlands
In Nederland is het aanbod van open data voor precisielandbouw toepassingen divers maar relatief beperkt. Het zijn vooral de nationale en lokale overheden en (semi-overheids) instellingen zoals KNMI, Kadaster, CBS, PDOK, PBL en kennisinstellingen die hun data vrij beschikbaar stellen voor gebruik door derden. Binnen het agrarisch bedrijfsleven is er weinig tot geen bereidheid is tot het delen van data. Dit is terug te voeren op de zorgen die leven met betrekking tot eigendomsrechten, compliance, kwaliteit, aansprakelijkheid, beveiliging en privacy. Deze terughoudendheid is een rem op de mogelijkheden om toepassingen voor precisielandbouw te ontwikkelen. Naast technische oplossingen op het gebied van data management, infrastructuur en interoperability is er een sterke behoefte aan ‘verdienmodellen’ waarbij partijen die gegevens aanleveren delen in de revenuen (benefit-sharing).
Regionalisatie van gegevens over het landelijk gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen : een verkenning voor de EmissieRegistratie
Kruijne, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2763) - 61
pesticiden - gezamenlijke statistieken - landbouwstatistieken - emissie - nederland - pesticides - aggregate statistics - agricultural statistics - emission - netherlands
Green Business Benefits : analyse van natuurpraktijken door Nederlandse bedrijven
Vreke, Jan ; Coninx, Ingrid ; Och, Renze van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2768) - 25
bedrijven - energiebesparing - natuur - nederland - businesses - energy saving - nature - netherlands
Landelijk gebied en Leegstand : aard, omvang en oplossingsrichtingen van huidige en toekomstige leegstand agrarischvastgoed in Nederland
Gies, T.J.A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Naeff, H.S.D. ; Vleemingh, I. ; Paulissen, M. ; Ros, Peter ; Heijmerink, Jeroen ; Ronden, Michel ; Dijkstra, Karin - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2755) - 63
landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - sloop (afbraak) - erfgoed - plattelandsbeleid - nederland - farms - farm closures - demolish - heritage areas - rural policy - netherlands
Jaarlijks stoppen veel agrarische bedrijven. Afgelopen decennia werden deze boerderijen, vaak nog kleinschalig, via erftransities omgebouwd tot woonboerderijen of werden de bedrijfsgebouwen voor andere functies gebruikt. Sinds de jaren zeventig zijn er door schaalvergroting in de sector grote schuren en grote ligboxstallen bijgekomen die komende jaren vrij zullen komen. In Nederland staat momenteel ca. 10 miljoen m2 agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen leeg. De prognose voor de toekomst is dat de omvang nog groter wordt en er tot 2030 bijna 16 miljoen m2 lege agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen bijkomen. Ingeschat wordt dat ca. 3-8% daarvan historische boerderijen zijn die behoren tot het cultureel erfgoed. Voor die grote schuren die leeg komen te staan, wordt het moeilijk om een goede nieuwe economische bestemming te vinden. De grote, te verwachten leegstand vraagt om indringende aandacht van beleidsmakers, bestuurders, ondernemers en gebruikers. Verslechtering van de vitaliteit en ruimtelijke kwaliteit in het landelijk gebied ligt op de loer. Innovatieve oplossingen voor zowel herbestemmen als sloop zijn naast de nu al gebruikelijke oplossingen hard nodig.
Selenium speciation and bioavailability in Dutch agricultural soils: the role of soil organic matter
Supriatin, Supriatin - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rob Comans, co-promotor(en): Liping Weng. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579309 - 265
agricultural soils - selenium - bioavailability - soil organic matter - grasslands - soil chemistry - fertilizers - fertilizer application - netherlands - landbouwgronden - selenium - biologische beschikbaarheid - organisch bodemmateriaal - graslanden - bodemchemie - kunstmeststoffen - bemesting - nederland

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. In the food chain, the intake of Se by animals and humans depends largely on Se content in plants, whereas the major source of Se in plants lies in the soil. Therefore, understanding Se bioavailability in soils for plant uptake and its controlling factors and mechanisms is important. The objective of this thesis is to study the amount, speciation, bioavailability, plant uptake and fertilization of Se in agricultural soils in the Netherlands and underlying controlling factors and mechanisms, to provide guidance for soil testing and fertilization recommendation for efficient Se management in agriculture.

The majority of agricultural soils (grassland and arable land) in the Netherlands contains low total Se (i.e. in the range of Se deficient), which is predominantly present as organic Se. Only a small fraction of total Se is present as inorganic Se (mainly as selenite) and residual Se. In this thesis, the evidences of association between Se and soil organic matter in these low Se soils have been shown. The associations include: (1) the total Se content is positively correlated to soil organic matter content; (2) the solubility and extractability of Se in soils follow the solubility and extractability of soil organic C; (3) the majority of Se present in soils is in organic form, both in the soil solution and solid phase; (4) the distributions of Se and organic C in the different fractions of solid organic matter (i.e. humic acids, hydrophobic organic neutral, hydrophilic acids) and dissolved organic matter (i.e. hydrophilic acids and fulvic acids) are comparable; and (5) the Se richness in solid and dissolved organic matter are related to properties of soil organic matter from different land uses. The relatively high soil organic matter content in these low Se soils is likely responsible for these associations.

In general, Se content in crops (e.g. grass and wheat) grown on grassland soils and arable land soils, respectively in the Netherlands is low due to low amount of bioavailable Se in the soils. Different soil parameters determine Se plant uptake in these low Se soils with predominantly organic Se, depending on the properties of Se-containing soil organic matter. The intensity parameter of Se-rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil solution (i.e. Se to DOC ratio in 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction) determines Se plant uptake in soils containing Se-rich organic matter (e.g. potato arable land soils), whereas the buffer capacity of labile organic Se to supply Se-rich DOM in soil solution limits Se plant uptake in soils containing Se-poor organic matter (e.g. grassland soils). Further research is needed to confirm the generality of the conclusion above, because the two experiments were carried out under different conditions (pot experiment and field experiment), using different plant species (wheat and grass) and covering different soil types from different land uses (potato fields and grassland). Site-specific properties in the field in addition to soil parameters included in the current study may largely (> 50%) determine Se content in grass under field conditions, which is in contrast with the results of the pot experiment in which the soil parameter explains 88% of Se content in wheat shoots. In general, the content of Se-rich DOM in soils increases with the increase of soil pH (with the decrease of soil C:N ratio), and the amount of labile organic matter in soils that can resupply Se-rich DOM is determined by the amount of clay (and Fe-(hydr)oxide). NPK fertilization, as one of the external factors, can reduce Se plant uptake, especially in organic-rich soils.

Selenium (as selenate) fertilization on grassland with N plus cattle slurry or NPK application shows a positive effect to increase Se content in grass grown on different soil types with a large range of total Se, pH, clay content and organic matter content. Selenium content in grass grown on different soil types upon Se fertilization becomes more similar than before the fertilization. The results indicate that the effectiveness of Se fertilization is only weakly modified by soil properties, probably due to the high solubility of selenate in the soils. Nevertheless, the Se fertilization tends to be slightly more effective on sandy soils than on clay and organic rich soils.

This thesis has shown that the content and quality of soil organic matter play an important role in determining the amount, speciation and bioavailability of Se in low Se soils with predominantly organic Se. The results in this thesis can be used as guidance to develop soil testing and fertilization recommendation for efficient Se management, especially in low Se soils with predominantly organic Se, such as in Dutch agricultural soils.

WOT schelpdiermonitoring in de Nederlandse kustzone in 2016
Perdon, K.J. ; Troost, K. ; Asch, M. van; Jol, J. - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C093/16) - 34
shellfish - shellfish fisheries - coastal areas - netherlands - schaaldieren - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - kustgebieden - nederland
De visserij op schelpdieren in de Nederlandse kustwateren heeft zich ontwikkeld van een vrije visserij tot een sterk gereguleerde visserij waarbij naast economische ook ecologische doelstellingen nagestreefd worden. In het kader van de uitvoering van dit beleid is een bestandsopname van Amerikaanse zwaardscheden (Ensis directus), halfgeknotte strandschelpen (Spisula subtruncata), en de overige veel voorkomende soorten met een potentieel belang voor visserij, uitgevoerd door Wageningen Marine Research (IMARES). Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken: programma Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken, BAS code: WOT-05-001-018-IMARES-3. De inventarisatie is uitgevoerd in het voorjaar van 2016 en is daarmee de 22ste opeenvolgende gebiedsdekkende survey die op deze manier sinds 1995 wordt uitgevoerd.
Perceptions des intervenants de la gestion des sites Natura 2000 : une étude en France, Flandre, Grande-Bretagne et aux Pays-Bas
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - netherlands - france - belgium - great britain - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - groot-brittannië
Stakeholder perceptions about the management of Natura 2000 sites : a survey in France, Flanders, England and the Netherlands
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - netherlands - france - belgium - great britain - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - groot-brittannië
Percepties van betrokkenen op het beheer van Natura 2000-gebieden : een onderzoek in Frankrijk, Vlaanderen, Engeland en Nederland
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - frankrijk - nederland - belgië - groot-brittannië - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - france - netherlands - belgium - great britain
Stakeholder perceptions in relation to changes in the management of Natura 2000 sites and the causes and consequences of change. : A survey in England, Flanders, France and the Netherlands
Bouwma, I.M. ; Donders, J.L.M. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Frissel, J.Y. ; Wegman, R.M.A. ; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 128) - 98 p.
Natura 2000, management, change, perception - natura 2000 - stakeholders - natuurbescherming - natuurbeheer - natuurbeleid - nederland - belgië - frankrijk - groot-brittannië - nature conservation - nature management - nature conservation policy - netherlands - belgium - france - great britain
This report presents the result of an online survey amongst key-stakeholders involved in the management planning and management of Natura 2000 sites in in England, Flanders, France and the Netherlands. The survey was held in a total of 91 sites and resulted in 464 (fully or partially) completed surveys (response rate was 20%). Overall, the results of the survey indicate that perceptions of actors in the area differ among actor groups, especially in regard to statements that measure impacts or value judgements. This result underlines the importance of including a broad range of stakeholders in the policy evaluations of the management of the area. Overall, the differences between the geographical areas are small, except on topics related to the discussion between the government and involved stakeholders were a moderate difference was found. Also the status of prior designation has a small effect on how respondents view the discussion on management.
Onderzoek naar het voorkomen van de wasbeer in Nederland
Grift, E.A. van der; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Wegman, R.M.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2764) - 43
procyon lotor - zoögeografie - dierecologie - nederland - duitsland - zoogeography - animal ecology - netherlands - germany
In opdracht van het Bureau Risicobeoordeling en onderzoeksprogrammering (BuRO) van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA) is het voorkomen van de Wasbeer (Procyon lotor) in Nederland en de Duitse grensstreek in beeld gebracht en onderzocht of er sprake is van gevestigde populaties. Vooralsnog zijn er geen aanwijzingen dat er binnen Nederland sprake is van een lokaal gevestigde populatie. In de Duitse grensstreek met Nederland zijn de aantallen nog relatief laag, maar als de huidige populatietrends doorzetten, verandert dat naar verwachting op korte termijn. Hoewel concrete gegevens ontbreken, is de kans groot dat inmiddels, op een aantal plaatsen, gevestigde populaties dicht bij de Nederlandse landsgrens voorkomen.
Financiële prikkels in de landbouw voor verbetering van de waterkwaliteit
Bergevoet, Ron ; Bondt, Nico ; Lauwere, Carolien de; Buurma, Jan ; Linderhof, Vincent ; Rijk, Piet - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-033) - ISBN 9789462577794 - 89
waterkwaliteit - waterverontreiniging - landbouw - financiële ondersteuning - emissie - nederland - water quality - water pollution - agriculture - financial support - emission - netherlands
While many instruments have already been implemented in various chains in order to limit the emission of pollutants into water, only a fraction of the existing instruments are economic in nature, and very few are geared towards the ‘polluter pays’ principle (as applied in this study). Despite this, agriculture and horticulture in general, and certain sectors in particular, incur expenses in their limiting of noxious substances. There is nevertheless potential to utilize new instruments in order to give further effect to the ‘polluter pays’ principle. These instruments could be most effectively implemented on a company level and/or during the removal of pollutants. New instruments must not be introduced in isolation; instead, an optimum mix must be created in conjunction with other instruments, both existing and new. Further research ought to shed light on the compatibility of proposed instruments within existing policy frameworks as well as in which areas there is a need for entirely new instruments to be developed.
Monitoringsprotocol Energie Duurzame Zuivelketen
Hoogeveen, M.W. ; Helmes, R.J.K. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Smit, P.X. ; Reijs, J.W. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-043) - ISBN 9789462578166 - 45
melkveehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouw en milieu - duurzame energie - monitoring - emissiereductie - agro-industriële ketens - melkveebedrijven - nederland - dairy farming - sustainability - agriculture and environment - sustainable energy - emission reduction - agro-industrial chains - dairy farms - netherlands
With the Sustainable Dairy Chain initiative, dairy businesses and dairy farmers are pursuing a futureproof and responsible dairy sector. A monitoring protocol has been developed for the theme ‘Climateneutral development’. This protocol describes the calculation methods and data sources in a systematic manner. The protocol was created following a request by the Sustainable Dairy Chain steering group and developed by LEI Wageningen UR in collaboration with the ‘Climate-neutral development’ programme team and various other stakeholders. This project was also used to make improvements to the monitor thus providing more insight into sector developments in terms of the energy objectives.
On the edge of fluidity: international cooperation in turbulent times
Umans, Laurent - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579033 - 202
development cooperation - policy processes - international cooperation - bolivia - actor-network theory - netherlands - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - beleidsprocessen - internationale samenwerking - bolivia - actor-network theorie - nederland

This thesis reflects the results of action-research carried out in development cooperation, policy development and diplomacy. Research was conducted in three communities in Bolivia as well as in the offices of development practitioners, policy makers and diplomats. The research focuses on international cooperation in practice and as a practice. In this thesis I share my insights on how strategies, approaches and policies affect and shape international cooperation. In practice, development practitioners tend to shape their practices as interventions in order to fix the recipient’s problems through transfers. They shape the so-called beneficiaries’ social, discursive, political and performative practices. They assume policies will guide their actions through straightforward implementation. This might work very efficiently and effectively in rather simple situations in which entities (singular things or phenomena) and relations are separable, processes are linear and causality is easily understood. Both this interventionist type of development cooperation and simple situations are characterized by assumptions regarding high levels of differentiation, segmentation, predictability and stability.

If the situation becomes complex rather than simple, which is often the case in development cooperation, then entities are still separable but relations have become inseparable (one relation affects other relations). And processes have become non-linear (feedback loops). I argue that in such a complex situation, development cooperation can best be shaped by the facilitation strategy and the fit-in-context approach. And it is better to understand policies as not being transferred through intermediaries but as being translated through mediators during implementation. To understand how ‘shaping’ takes place in such complex situations, the Actor-oriented approach and Actor-Network Theory are a useful frameworks.

In my field research I noted that besides being complex, the reality I encountered can be fluid. This occurs when even the entities are inseparable, unstable, undifferentiated, volatile, turbulent or undetermined. I will give four examples. First, the Yuracaré corregimientos. These are territorial subdivisions. My research revealed that near the river they are demarcated by clear points and lines and that inside the forest their boundaries is blurred. So their nature is partly bounded and neat as well as partly amorphous and fused. The second example is about a sawmill. The sawmill the Yuracaré received from a development organization, has multiple, sticky imprints. These make its boundary blurred. Its nature is not a material singularity (one machine) but a socio-material assemblage of materialities and embodied knowledges, meanings, etc. Its sticky, blurred nature makes it inseparable from its earlier context. The third example is about inseparable policy issues. My research revealed that traide is an emerging policy assemblage which merges aid and trade and dissolves the traditional dividing line between those policy fields or practices. Finally, the example of Earth-beings. These are unknowns rather than determined entities. These various rather undifferentiated ‘objects’ that I encountered in my research, are causes for failure and surprise. They escape the common practice and notions used in international cooperation. Therefore, I propose different concepts to analyse them: becomings rather than beings and multities rather than entities.

These becomings and multities render the situation fluid rather than complex. This poses challenges for development cooperation, policy development and diplomacy in practice. Instead of intervention or facilitation I argue there is a need to encourage self-development and to not be afraid to let-go. This strategy requires a different set of social, discursive, political and performative practices. Instead of the ‘fix-their-problems’ or ‘fit-in-context’ approaches, this research shows a need for a ‘go-with-the-flow approach’. Instead of controlling or mediating the policy cycle, there is a need to give space for creative reassembling.

In these ways fluidity affects international cooperation as practice. Becomings and multities reveal a viscous reality of different differences. The entities constitute a topographic, solid space-time of points (positions), lines (relations, transitions), figures, extensions, phases, calculations and external references. The multities constitute a topological, fluid space-time of vectors, manifolds, intensities, flows (transformations), escapes and self-references. The solid and fluid are not separable but co-constituted and form an immanent viscous entirety. In this thesis, the viscosity does not refer to the nature or physicality of materiality but viscosity refers to the nature of realities, that is to see, it is ontological. Realities of different natures are enfolding in a continuous movement in-between becoming-a-being (stabilizing, differentiating) and being-a-becoming (destabilizing, deterritorializing). In such dynamic realities, development is not an externally aided or imposed transition from A to B but is always self-development of a partly amorphous assemblage. Development as a becoming is a transformation and movement in-between A and B (solid and fluid). Development cooperation is neither shaped by transfers nor actor-networking but by the continuous practices of assembling in the midst of processes of de- and reterritorialization. And policy development is not a cyclical process in time (where formulation is followed by implementation) but a movement in space-time, with stabilizing forces and escapes affecting the assemblages (see Chapter 6).

As part of working in and studying international cooperation I also engaged with the practice of diplomacy (see Chapter 7). My research focuses on the changing bilateral relationship between the Netherlands and Bolivia. Both governments explored and desired a relation among equals. Equality was to be found in mutually beneficial geo-economic cooperation. In the new bilateral relationship, the lithium deposits in Bolivia became central, but the nature of lithium was differently perceived. Lithium can be conceived of as a passive natural resource out there. It is a chemical, inert substance placed in the periodic table of the elements. However, in Andean ontologies, lithium is an animated matter, an Earth-being. Through Andean practice, lithium is enacted as being alive and it must be taken care of. These different natures of lithium were negotiated in the diplomatic encounter I studied. What was foreign to politics (the natures of nature) has become part of foreign politics. This ontological politics is a transformative force for diplomacy as a practice. Diplomacy, seen as the art of overcoming incommensurable differences, is no longer merely a geopolitical or geo-economic affair but it became an ontological affair. It is needed to address peacefully the different ways of shaping, thinking and enacting worlds. The world is not only prior to practice (in terms of acting and performing) but a practice is prior to the world. The performativity of practice is enacting the world. Diplomats then become creative world-makers.

Through a different practice, people bring different and multiple worlds into being. These multiple worlds can have different natures. I argue there is a need for acknowledging the different natures of the natural and of the human. The political nature of negotiating and enacting (often implicitly) different ontologies has to be acknowledged and should become part of diplomacy. The significance of this particular diplomatic practice no longer lies in the negotiation of incommensurable political positions but in negotiating incommensurable ontologies and worlds. In turbulent times, diplomacy is needed more than ever but simultaneously in need of transformation and expansion.

Finally, diplomatic skills are needed in social sciences to address certain biases towards the topographical, particularly in Actor-Network Theory. A Deleuzian complementation, focusing on the varying intensities of separability, differentiation, stability and determination, would bring in more symmetry between the topographical and topological.

Uitbreiding mogelijkheden voor valkerij onder de Nieuwe Natuurbeschermingswet : mogelijkheden om de torenvalk in te zetten als jachtvogel in de valkerij
Buij, Ralph ; Jansman, Hugh - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 16
valkerij - falconidae - roofvogels - haviken - falco - luchthavens - vliegtuigen - nederland - falconry - predatory birds - hawks - airports - airplanes - netherlands
In Nederland mag vooralsnog alleen met de inheemse havik en slechtvalk vrij gevlogen worden door valkeniers. Het voorstel voor de Nieuwe Natuurbeschermingswet zou roofvogelhouders de mogelijkheid bieden om in het kader van verjaging bij vliegvelden ook de torenvalk in te zetten. Hier is verkend welke mogelijke nadelige gevolgen een dergelijke uitbreiding kan hebben. Aanbeveling op basis van dit rapport is om niet over te gaan tot uitbreiding van de lijst valkerijvogels met torenvalk. Afgezien van de waarschijnlijk zeer beperkte effecten van torenvalk op vermindering van aanvaringsrisico’s door vogels op vliegvelden, wegen de mogelijke nadelige effecten (toename illegale handel, genetische vervuiling door uitheemse taxons na ontsnapping) niet op tegen het al bestaande gebruik van de reeds toegestane valkerijvogels, vooral de slechtvalk.
Landelijke Vegetatie Databank : technische documentatie, Status A
Hennekens, S.M. ; Boss, M. ; Schmidt, A.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 74) - 59
vegetatie - databanken - planten - nederland - vegetation - databases - plants - netherlands
Dit document bevat een beschrijving van de technische omgeving, hulpmiddelen en modellen die van belang zijn voor het beheer van de landelijke vegetatiedatabank. Het is bedoeld om de processen en procedures
vast te leggen. Het verkrijgen van kwaliteitsstatus A is hierbij geen doel op zich maar is wel de stip op de horizon waar dit document aan bijdraagt. Het doel van de landelijke vegetatiedatabank is het op een gestructureerde manier vastleggen van gegevens over het voorkomen van vegetaties en daarmee ook
plantensoorten in Nederland. De procedures voor het verzamelen en beheren van deze gegevens zijn beschreven in dit document
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands : update 2015
Franeker, J.A. van; Kühn, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E.L. - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C091/16) - 50
fulmarus - sea birds - wastes - water pollution - marine environment - monitoring - netherlands - zeevogels - afval - waterverontreiniging - marien milieu - nederland
Stelling : "we moeten ons meer richten op houtproductie hier in Nederland om de bossen elders op de wereld te beschermen"
Prins, Herbert - \ 2016
forest administration - woody plants - logging - timber production - biodiversity - natural value - netherlands - international cooperation - discussion
Waar is het bosbeleid gebleven? : (en wie zit er eigenlijk op te wachten?)
Arts, Bas ; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan - \ 2016
forest policy - nature conservation policy - netherlands - felling - ecology - timber production
Welk lid van de Tweede Kamer weet nog iets van bos? Hoeveel bosbouwers werken er nog bij het ministerie van Economische zaken? Waarom hebben we geen Boswet, bosvisie of Bosbeleidsplan meer? Allemaal vragen die bosbouwers onder elkaar zich regelmatig afvragen. Vindt de samenleving het bos niet meer de moeite waard? Of is er iets anders aan de hand?
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