The Importance of Combined Tidal and Meteorological Forces for the Flow and Sediment Transport on Intertidal Shoals
de Vet, P.L.M. ; van Prooijen, B.C. ; Schrijvershof, R.A. ; van der Werf, J.J. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Schrijver, M.C. ; Wang, Z.B. - \ 2018
Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 123 (2018)10. - ISSN 2169-9003 - p. 2464 - 2480.
hydrodynamics - intertidal area - morphology - numerical model - sediment transport - wind
Estuarine intertidal areas are shaped by combined astronomical and meteorological forces. This paper reveals the relative importance of tide, surge, wind, and waves for the flow and sediment transport on large intertidal shoals. Results of an intensive field campaign have been used to validate a numerical model of the Roggenplaat intertidal shoal in the Eastern Scheldt Estuary, the Netherlands, in order to identify and quantify the importance of each of the processes over time and space. We show that its main tidal creeks are not the cause for the dominant direction of the net flow on the shoal. The tidal flow over the shoal is steered by the water level differences between the surrounding channels. Also during wind events, the tidal flow (enhanced by surge) is dominant in the creeks. In contrast, wind speeds of order 40 times the typical tidal flow velocity are sufficient to completely alter the flow direction and magnitude on an intertidal shoal. This has significant consequences for the sediment transport patterns. Apart from this wind-driven flow dominance during these events, the wind also increases the bed shear stress by waves. For the largest intertidal part of the Roggenplaat, only ∼1–10% of the yearly transport results from the 50% least windy tides, even if the shoal is artificially lowered half the tidal range. This dominance of energetic meteorological conditions in the transports matches with field observations, in which the migration of the creeks and high parts of the shoal are in line with the predominant wind direction.
Predicting reach-specific properties of fluvial terraces to guide future fieldwork. A case study for the Late Quaternary River Allier (France) with the FLUVER2 model
Veldkamp, Tom ; Schoorl, Jeroen M. ; Viveen, Willem - \ 2016
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 41 (2016)15. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 2256 - 2268.
erosion rate - field work - numerical model - Quaternary - terrace
Numerical models have not yet systematically been used to predict properties of fluvial terrace records in order to guide fieldwork and sampling. This paper explores the potential of the longitudinal profile model FLUVER2 to predict testable field properties of the relatively well-studied, Late Quaternary Allier system in France. For the Allier terraces an overlapping 14C and U-series chronology as well as a record of 10Be erosion rates exist. The FLUVER2 modelling exercise is focused on the last 50 ka of the upper Allier reach because for this location and period the constraints of the available dating techniques are tightest. A systematic calibration based on terrace occurrence and thicknesses was done using three internal parameters related to (1) the sediment erodibility; (2) the sediment transport distance; and (3) the sediment supply derived from the surrounding landscape. As external model inputs, the best available, reconstructed, tectonic, climatic and base-level data were used. Calibrated model outputs demonstrate a plausible match with the existing fluvial record. Validation of model output was done by comparing the modelled and measured timing of aggradation and incision phases for the three locations. The modelled range of landscape erosion rates showed a reasonably good match with existing erosion rate estimates derived from 10Be measurements of fluvial sands. The quasi-validated model simulation was subsequently used to make new testable predictions about the timing and location of aggradation and erosion phases for three locations along the Allier river. The validated simulations predict that along the Allier, reach-specific dynamics of incision and aggradation, related to the variations in sediment supply by major tributaries, cause relevant differences in the local fluvial terrace stratigraphy.