In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type
Zelst, M. van; Hesta, M. ; Alexander, L.G. ; Gray, K. ; Bosch, G. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Laing, G. Du; Meulenaer, B. de; Goethals, K. ; Janssens, G. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1888 - 1894.
nutrient digestion - organic selenium - bioavailability - absorption - dog - bioaccessibility - selenomethionine - metabolism - prediction - fiber
Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for absorption after in vitro digestion. Sixty-two diets (dog, n 52; cat, n 10) were in vitro enzymatically digested: fifty-four of them were commercially available (kibble, n 20; pellet, n 8; canned, n 17; raw meat, n 6; steamed meat, n 3) and eight were unprocessed (kibble, n 4; canned, n 4) from the same batch as the corresponding processed diets. The present investigation examined if Se Aiv was affected by diet type, dietary protein, methionine, cysteine, lysine and Se content, DM, organic matter and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Se Aiv differed significantly among diet types (P<0·001). Canned and steamed meat diets had a lower Se Aiv than pelleted and raw meat diets. Se Aiv correlated positively with CP digestibility in extruded diets (kibbles, n 19; r 0·540, P =0·017) and negatively in canned diets (n 16; r - 0·611, P =0·012). Moreover, the canning process (n 4) decreased Se Aiv (P =0·001), whereas extrusion (n 4) revealed no effect on Se Aiv (P =0·297). These differences in Se Aiv between diet types warrant quantification of diet type effects on in vivo Se bioavailability.
Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep
Khan, N.A. ; Habib, G. - \ 2012
Tropical Animal Health and Production 44 (2012)7. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 1375 - 1381.
tree leaves - northern grasslands - nutrient digestion - detergent fiber - pakistan - feed - degradability - rangeland - rumen
In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (> 164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P <0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 +/- 3 kg BW; age 11 +/- 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P <0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep.
Evaluation of models to predict the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid profiles in rumen fluid of lactating Holstein cows
Morvay, Y. ; Bannink, A. ; France, J. ; Kebreab, E. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2011
Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3063 - 3080.
dairy-cows - milk-production - corn-silage - alfalfa silage - ruminal fermentation - mechanistic model - nutrient digestion - methane production - feeding-behavior - grazing behavior
Volatile fatty acids (VFA), produced in the rumen by microbial fermentation, are the main energy source for ruminants. The VFA profile, particularly the nonglucogenic (acetate, Ac; butyrate, Bu) to glucogenic (propionate, Pr) VFA ratio (NGR), is associated with effects on methane production, milk composition, and energy balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate extant rumen VFA stoichiometry models for their ability to predict in vivo VFA molar proportions. The models were evaluated using an independent data set consisting of 101 treatments from 24 peer-reviewed publications with lactating Holstein cows. All publications contained a full diet description, rumen pH, and rumen VFA molar proportions. Stoichiometric models were evaluated based on root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis. Of all models evaluated, the 1998 Friggens model had the lowest RMSPE for Ac and Bu (7.2 and 20.2% of observed mean, respectively). The 2006 Bannink model had the lowest RMSPE and highest CCC for Pr (14.4% and 0.70, respectively). The 2008 Bannink model had comparable predictive performance for Pr to that of the 2006 Bannink model but a larger error due to overall bias (26.2% of MSPE). The 1982 Murphy model provided the poorest prediction of Bu, with the highest RMSPE and lowest CCC (24.6% and 0.15, respectively). The 1988 Argyle and Baldwin model had the highest CCC for Ac with an intermediate RMSPE (0.47 and 8.0%, respectively). The 2006 Sveinbjörnsson model had the highest RMSPE (13.9 and 34.0%, respectively) and lowest CCC (0.31 and 0.40, respectively) for Ac and Pr. The NGR predictions had the lowest RMSPE and highest CCC in the 2 models of Bannink, whereas the lowest predictive performance was in the 2006 Sveinbjörnsson model. It appears that the type of VFA produced is not a simple linear relationship between substrate inputs and pH as currently represented. The analysis demonstrates that most rumen VFA stoichiometric approaches explain a large part of the variation in VFA molar proportions among diets, in particular for Ac, whereas predictive power for Pr and Bu differ largely among approaches. The move toward feed evaluation systems based on animal response might necessitate an improved representation of rumen fermentation, focused on improving our understanding of VFA proportions in diets that vary from the mean.
Rumen stoichiometric models and their contribution and challenges in predicting enteric methane production
Alemu, A.W. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Bannink, A. ; France, J. ; Kebreab, E. - \ 2011
Animal Feed Science and Technology 166-167 (2011). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 761 - 778.
lactating dairy-cows - volatile fatty-acids - midrib-3 corn-silage - grain endosperm type - high-moisture corn - ruminal digestion kinetics - whole-crop wheat - grass-silage - milk-production - nutrient digestion
Black (toilet) water contains half of the organic load in the domestic wastewater, as well as the major fraction of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. When collected with vacuum toilets, the black water is 25 times more concentrated than the total domestic wastewater stream, i.e. including grey water produced by laundry, showers etc. A two-stage nitritation–anammox process was successfully employed and removed 85%–89% of total nitrogen in anaerobically treated black water. The (free) calcium concentration in black water was too low (42 mg/L) to obtain sufficient granulation of anammox biomass. The granulation and retention of the biomass was improved considerably by the addition of 39 mg/L of extra calcium. This resulted in a volumetric nitrogen removal rate of 0.5 gN/L/d, irrespective of the two temperatures of 35 °C and 25 °C at which the anammox reactors were operated. Nitrous oxide, a very strong global warming gas, was produced in situations of an incomplete anammox conversion accompanied by elevated levels of nitrite.
A model of enteric fermentation in dairy cows to estimate methane emission for the Dutch National Inventory Report using the IPCC Tier 3 approach
Bannink, A. ; Schijndel, M.W. van; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2011
Animal Feed Science and Technology 166-167 (2011). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 603 - 618.
volatile fatty-acids - mechanistic rumen models - lactating cows - nutrient digestion - prediction - absorption - simulation - ph - netherlands - parameters
The protocol for the National Inventory of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in The Netherlands includes a dynamic and mechanistic model of animal digestion and fermentation as an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 3 approach to estimate enteric CH4 emission by dairy cows. The model differs from an IPCC Tier 2 approach in that it predicts hydrogen sources (i.e., production of acetate and butyrate, microbial growth on amino acids as an N source) and sinks (i.e., production of propionate and the remainder of the volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial growth on ammonia as an N source, saturation of unsaturated long chain fatty acids) in the rumen and large intestine, and elimination of excess hydrogen by methanogenesis. As a result, the model predicts CH4 emission by considering various dietary characteristics, including the types of carbohydrate, protein, fat, intrinsic degradation characteristics of feeds, as well as ruminal fractional passage rates, fluid volume and acidity, instead of assuming a fixed CH4 energy conversion factor in the Tier 2 approach. Annual statistics of diet and performance of the average dairy cow in The Netherlands from 1990 until 2008 indicate that dry matter intake and yield of fat and crude protein corrected milk (FPCM) per cow/year increased by 20 and 34% respectively. Based on annual data for diet and FPCM, the model predicted an increase in enteric CH4 emission from 111 (1990) to 128 (2008) kg/cow/year. As a result, CH4 emission per kg FPCM milk decreased by 13%. The predicted fraction of gross energy intake lost as CH4 energy gradually declined and was close to 0.06, which is the IPCC (1997) Tier 2 default value of 0.06 for dairy cows, but ~10% lower than the IPCC (2006) updated value of 0.065. The 15% uncertainty value for predicted CH4 emissions for a reference diet was lower than the 20% assumed under Tier 2. Our analysis indicated that uncertainty of model predictions of CH4 emission is determined mostly by errors in feed intake estimation, in the representation of the stoichiometry of production of VFA from fermented substrate, and in the acidity of rumen contents. Further uncertainty of predicted CH4 emission was due to errors in estimation of dietary composition of ingredients and in chemical compositions of dietary components. Results demonstrate that prediction of CH4 should not solely focus on representing effects of nutrition on overall digestion and apparent feed utilization by cows, but that additional attention is needed to address effects of nutrition on intra-ruminal fermentation conditions, and their effects on formation of VFA and the rumen hydrogen balance.
Simulating the effects of grassland management and grass ensiling on methane emission from lactating cows
Bannink, A. ; Smits, M.C.J. ; Kebreab, E. ; Mills, J.A.N. ; Ellis, J.L. ; Klop, A. ; France, J. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2010
The Journal of Agricultural Science 148 (2010). - ISSN 0021-8596 - p. 55 - 72.
greenhouse-gas emissions - dairy-cows - rumen fermentation - mechanistic model - perennial ryegrass - nutrient digestion - starch digestion - grazing behavior - milk-production - fresh grass
A dynamic, mechanistic model of enteric fermentation was used to investigate the effect of type and quality of grass forage, dry matter intake (DMI) and proportion of concentrates in dietary dry matter (DM) on variation in methane (CH4) emission from enteric fermentation in dairy cows. The model represents substrate degradation and microbial fermentation processes in rumen and hindgut and, in particular, the effects of type of substrate fermented and of pH on the production of individual volatile fatty acids and CH4 as end-products of fermentation. Effects of type and quality of fresh and ensiled grass were evaluated by distinguishing two N fertilization rates of grassland and two stages of grass maturity. Simulation results indicated a strong impact of the amount and type of grass consumed on CH4 emission, with a maximum difference (across all forage types and all levels of DMI) of 49 and 77% in g CH4/kg fat and protein corrected milk (FCM) for diets with a proportion of concentrates in dietary DM of 0·1 and 0·4, respectively (values ranging from 10·2 to 19·5 g CH4/kg FCM). The lowest emission was established for early cut, high fertilized grass silage (GS) and high fertilized grass herbage (GH). The highest emission was found for late cut, low-fertilized GS. The N fertilization rate had the largest impact, followed by stage of grass maturity at harvesting and by the distinction between GH and GS. Emission expressed in g CH4/kg FCM declined on average 14% with an increase of DMI from 14 to 18 kg/day for grass forage diets with a proportion of concentrates of 0·1, and on average 29% with an increase of DMI from 14 to 23 kg/day for diets with a proportion of concentrates of 0·4. Simulation results indicated that a high proportion of concentrates in dietary DM may lead to a further reduction of CH4 emission per kg FCM mainly as a result of a higher DMI and milk yield, in comparison to low concentrate diets. Simulation results were evaluated against independent data obtained at three different laboratories in indirect calorimetry trials with cows consuming GH mainly. The model predicted the average of observed values reasonably, but systematic deviations remained between individual laboratories and root mean squared prediction error was a proportion of 0·12 of the observed mean. Both observed and predicted emission expressed in g CH4/kg DM intake decreased upon an increase in dietary N:organic matter (OM) ratio. The model reproduced reasonably well the variation in measured CH4 emission in cattle sheds on Dutch dairy farms and indicated that on average a fraction of 0·28 of the total emissions must have originated from manure under these circumstances
Modelling the implications of feeding strategy on rumen fermentation and functioning of the rumen wall
Bannink, A. ; France, J. ; Lopez, S. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kebreab, E. ; Tamminga, S. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2008
Animal Feed Science and Technology 143 (2008)1-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 3 - 26.
volatile fatty-acids - lactating dairy-cows - splanchnic metabolism - washed reticulorumen - nutrient digestion - mechanistic model - water kinetics - late-gestation - energy costs - absorption
The present study gives a critique of the mechanisms involved with the formation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) formed in the lumen of the reticulo-rumen, the absorption of VFA across the reticulo-rumen wall, and the intra-epithelial metabolism of VFA by reticulo-rumen epithelium. In contrast to the empirical treatment of these aspects in previous rumen modelling studies, a mechanistic model was developed which represents each of these aspects separately. Because tissues of the reticulo-rumen may strongly adapt to changing nutritional conditions, this adaptive response was included in the model. The model enabled an evaluation of the implications of VFA yield on the development of the rumen wall, on the transport of VFA, on the extent of intra-epithelial metabolism of VFA, and on the consequences for the supply of VFA to the ruminant. The current modelling effort allowed the integration of existing knowledge on each of these aspects and the model reproduced some essential characteristics of experimental observations on VFA absorption and metabolism. Although further development is still needed, the model appears helpful to distinguish elements that require specific consideration when evaluating rates of net portal appearance of VFA, or when testing hypothesis on the interaction between formation, absorption and intra-epithelial metabolism of VFA under various experimental conditions
Estimation of the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid production in the rumen of lactating cows
Bannink, A. ; Kogut, J. ; Dijkstra, J. ; France, J. ; Kebreab, E. ; Vuuren, A.M. van; Tamminga, S. - \ 2006
Journal of Theoretical Biology 238 (2006)1. - ISSN 0022-5193 - p. 36 - 51.
ruminal protein-degradation - treated soybean-meal - dairy-cows - small-intestine - amino-acids - nutrient digestion - dietary-protein - calcium salts - holstein cows - grass-silage
The purpose of this study was to improve the prediction of the quantity and type of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) produced from fermented substrate in the rumen of lactating cows. A model was formulated that describes the conversion of substrate (soluble carbohydrates, starch, hemi-cellulose, cellulose, and protein) into VFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate, and other VFA). Inputs to the model were observed rates of true rumen digestion of substrates, whereas outputs were observed molar proportions of VFA in rumen fluid. A literature survey generated data of 182 diets (96 roughage and 86 concentrate diets). Coefficient values that define the conversion of a specific substrate into VFA were estimated meta-analytically by regression of the model against observed VFA molar proportions using non-linear regression techniques. Coefficient estimates significantly differed for acetate and propionate production in particular, between different types of substrate and between roughage and concentrate diets. Deviations of fitted from observed VFA molar proportions could be attributed to random error for 100%. In addition to regression against observed data, simulation studies were performed to investigate the potential of the estimation method. Fitted coefficient estimates from simulated data sets appeared accurate, as well as fitted rates of VFA production, although the model accounted for only a small fraction (maximally 45%) of the variation in VFA molar proportions. The simulation results showed that the latter result was merely a consequence of the statistical analysis chosen and should not be interpreted as an indication of inaccuracy of coefficient estimates. Deviations between fitted and observed values corresponded to those obtained in simulations