Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Reconstruction of fig wasp mating structure: how many mothers share a fig?
    Zavodna, M. ; Knapp, S.M. ; Compton, S.G. ; Arens, P.F.P. ; Vosman, B. ; Dijk, P.J. ; Gilmartin, P.M. ; Damme, J.M.M. van - \ 2007
    Ecological Entomology 32 (2007)5. - ISSN 0307-6946 - p. 485 - 491.
    sex-ratios - pollinating wasps - social-behavior - consequences - evolution - oviposition - populations - strategies - allocation - mutualism
    1.¿Fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) represent an important model system for studies of sex ratio evolution, mainly because they may adjust their sex ratios in response to the numbers of ovipositing females (foundresses) that enter a fig and their clutch size. 2.¿Until recently, it was assumed that all foundresses fail to re-emerge from the figs that they have entered to oviposit, but there is increasing evidence that such re-emergence may be routine. The common practice of counting the number of dead foundresses present in a fig in order to deduce the number of foundresses is therefore questionable in species where failure to re-emerge has not been confirmed. 3.¿In this study, the alternative approach of microsatellite markers was used to reconstruct the within-fig breeding structure of a pollinating fig wasp by genetic analysis of the offspring. Broods of Liporrhopalum tentacularis, a species where foundresses regularly re-emerge from figs, were collected from figs of Ficus montana in their natural habitat in Indonesia as well as from an experimental glasshouse population in Leeds (U.K.). 4.¿The estimated foundress densities in the glasshouse population were similar to those in the field and ranged from one to six foundresses per brood. 5.¿Nearly 40% of all broods were produced by a single foundress, indicating that mating in these broods occurs exclusively between full siblings. High levels of inbreeding are therefore common in this species.
    Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae
    Smallegange, R.C. ; Everaarts, T.C. ; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2006
    Animal Biology 56 (2006)2. - ISSN 1570-7555 - p. 157 - 172.
    helicoverpa-armigera - pipevine swallowtail - phytophagous insects - color preferences - foraging behavior - papilio-xuthus - leaf shape - rapae - oviposition - evolution
    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an oviposition stimulant or a deterrent. We employed two training situations. In one situation the two shades of green, carrying either the stimulant or the deterrent, were offered simultaneously, in the other sequentially. During the 1 hour training periods, butterflies were either landing and drumming spontaneously or they were caught at the end of the period and placed on the artificial leaves until tarsal drumming ensued. Our experiments demonstrated that P. brassicae females can learn to associate visually detected substrate characteristics with contact-chemosensory information available only after landing. Furthermore, a learned preference for a substrate could be turned into a preference for the alternative substrate by exposing the insect to a deterrent on the previously preferred substrate. These results provide indications of aversion learning, thus far undocumented in oviposition behaviour of Lepidoptera. Bringing the butterflies into forced contact with the oviposition stimulant resulted in similar effects on landing preference compared to those of spontaneous landing, but spontaneous landing had a stronger effect on preference for associations involving the deterrent. The simultaneous training regime, which supposedly requires a less important role for short-term memory, was more effective in modifying landing preferences
    Influence of adult nutrition on the relationship between body size and reproductive parameters in a parasitoid wasp
    Bezemer, T.M. ; Harvey, J.A. ; Mills, N.J. - \ 2005
    Ecological Entomology 30 (2005)5. - ISSN 0307-6946 - p. 571 - 580.
    clutch size - egg-production - bracon-hebetor - host - fitness - hymenoptera - life - field - age - oviposition
    1. An important constraint upon life-history evolution in parasitoids is the limit imposed by body size on allocation of limited metabolic resources to different fitness-related physiological functions such as reproduction and survival. 2. The influence of adult nutrition on reproductive and maintenance variables was studied in the synovigenic ectoparasitoid Mastrus ridibundus, and it was determined whether resource allocation to these different functions depends on body size. 3. Over the course of adult life there was a positive relationship between body size and the number of mature eggs in adult females both in the presence and absence of food. However, only in the presence of food did egg maturation rates increase significantly with body size. Starved wasps produced significantly smaller eggs than fed ones, which has not been documented before. Moreover, starved wasps produced fewer offspring than fed wasps, and attacked fewer hosts. 4. The availability of food had a major effect on longevity, with fed females living about 10 times longer than starved ones. There was also a positive relationship between body size and longevity. In starved wasps, this relationship was the same both in the presence and absence of hosts, but in fed wasps there was a positive relationship between body size and longevity in the absence of hosts only. Allocation to initial eggs relative to lifetime progeny production did not decline with body size. 5. The data reveal that in M. ridibundus the trade-off between maintenance and reproduction varies with life expectancy
    Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus
    Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Dijk, N. van; Sabelis, M.W. - \ 2004
    Agricultural and Forest Entomology 6 (2004)4. - ISSN 1461-9555 - p. 267 - 278.
    curculionidae - coleoptera - strawberry - oviposition - resistance - responses - clones
    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance shows that the host-plant range of the adult vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus in Europe is limited to one gymnosperm genus (Taxus sp.) and a broad range of angiosperm plants in two subclasses of the Dicotyledonae, namely Dilleniidae and Rosidae. The successful reproduction on very distantly related plant taxa suggests that the original weevil- and plant-habitat has mediated the current host-plant range of the vine weevil. 3. Contact-preference tests with equally suitable hosts, such as Aronia, Fragaria, Euonymus and Taxus, and one less suitable host, Humulus, indicate a mismatch between contact preference and performance and, as far as olfactory preferences are known, these match neither the contact preferences nor the performance. This mismatch may arise because (i) host plant species offered do not occur in weevil habitat in Europe (e.g. Aronia and the cultivated Fragaria come from North America) and (ii) predation (or disease) risks differ among host plants, thereby altering effective reproductive performance. 4. With respect to performance on novel hosts (Thuja, Prunus) and bad hosts (Rhododendron), some between-individual variation is found within a single population, suggesting that local populations harbour (possibly genetic) variation for adaptation to new hosts. How this variation is maintained in the face of strong selection pressures on local populations of flightless and thelytokous weevils, is an important question for understanding the broad host plant range in the vine weevil
    Egg laying site preferences in Pterostichus melanarius Illiger (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
    Trefas, H. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2004
    Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society meeting 15 (2004). - ISSN 1874-9542 - p. 105 - 109.
    hordeum vulgare - brassica oleracea var. gemmifera - plantenplagen - natuurlijke vijanden - pterostichus melanarius - ovipositie - biologische bestrijding - hordeum vulgare - brassica oleracea var. gemmifera - plant pests - natural enemies - pterostichus melanarius - oviposition - biological control
    In the case of ground beetles, the number of studies investigating the effects plant-related structure and microclimate on the selection of egg laying sites is very limited. The egg laying site preference of Pterostichus melanarius, an important carabid beetle in agricultural fields, was studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of wet/dry substrate, light/shadow and structured/unstructured environment on the number of eggs laid were investigated, as well as the influence of the presence of barley and Brussels sprout plants. We found that there was a strong influence of plant structure and microclimate on the selection of egg laying sites. Results showed a higher numbers of eggs laid in barley compared to Brussels sprouts. These results were supported by a significant preference for moist, shadowed, structurally complex environments as egg laying sites. Results indicate that vegetation characteristics in themselves may influence egg laying site preferences, beside the availability of prey for the adults and larvae, in the different plant systems.
    Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea
    Boeke, S.J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2004
    Journal of Applied Entomology 128 (2004)6. - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 390 - 396.
    f coleoptera - fabricius coleoptera - egg-production - seed beetle - bruchidae - oviposition - susceptibility - resistance - fecundity - size
    The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptible varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. All beetle strains were assayed in a no-choice and a two-choice test. No major differences were found between the beetle strains. In a no-choice situation, the developmental period from egg to adult was prolonged on the bean variety Kpodjiguegue. In a two-choice situation, the beetles showed a strong preference for the Californian blackeyed bean variety to oviposit on. Here again the development took longer on Kpodjiguegue beans and the intrinsic rate of increase of the beetle population was lower. Using either equal numbers of beans of the same size or equal weights of beans of undetermined size of the two bean varieties did not affect the outcome of the test.
    Plant competition in pest-suppressive intercropping systems complicates evaluation of herbivore responses
    Bukovinszky, T. ; Tréfás, H. ; Lenteren, J.C. van; Vet, L.E.M. ; Fremont, J. - \ 2004
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 102 (2004). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 185 - 196.
    brevicoryne-brassicae l - host-plant - population-dynamics - cruciferous plants - brussels-sprouts - pieris-rapae - oviposition - diversity - insect - performance
    In the light of current theories on the effects of intercropping on pest reduction, population responses of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and the life history traits of the large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) were studied in a Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea gemmifera)/malting barley (Hordeum vulgare) additive row intercrop and a Brussels sprout monoculture. More P. xylostella adults were caught in the monoculture than in the intercrop. Numbers of R xylostella larvae and pupae per sprout plant were lower in intercropped plots than in monocultures. However, more larvae and pupae were found per m(2) leaf area in the inter- than in the monocrop. Both the densities per plant and per m(2) leaf area of B. brassicae populations were lower in the inter- than in the monocrop. After the barley withered and competition with Brussels sprout abated, aphid densities became higher in the inter- than in the monocrop. These findings may be explained by interspecific plant competition resulting in stressed sprout plants with a smaller size and delayed phenology relative to monocropped plants. Effects of differences in plant nutritional quality on herbivore performance were studied by offering leaves of inter- and monocropped sprout plants to larval R brassicae. Performance and food utilisation were significantly better on leaves from the intercrop, (lower dry weight consumption, higher growth rates) than from the monocrop. Defoliation rate was also higher on leaves of intercropped plants than on monocropped ones. The studies indicate that plant stress and consequent changes in developmental rate and nutritional quality of plants are playing a role in herbivore population responses to intercropping. It is argued that such confounding effects of plant competition in intercropping designs can hamper the evaluation of herbivore responses in pest-suppressive agro-ecosystems. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Predicting the temperature-dependent natural population expansion of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera
    Hemerik, L. ; Busstra, M.C. ; Mols, P. - \ 2004
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 111 (2004). - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 59 - 69.
    coleoptera-chrysomelidae - leconte coleoptera - oviposition - velocity - flight - patterns - northern - dynamics - barberi - spread
    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was accidentally introduced near Belgrade in Serbia just before 1992 and from there its expansion into Europe started. We have estimated its mean rate of expansion from 1992 to 2000 to be approximately 33 km year(-1), using data from the annual surveys of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation. We investigated whether or not D. virgifera can establish itself at certain places in Europe, taking its temperature-dependent development into account. We also estimated the time it will take D. virgifera to reach the Netherlands, considering only its dispersal by flight. All life stage transitions of D. virgifera were simulated with the program INSIM to assess whether or not it could establish itself in particular places. In the simulations, we used the available laboratory data on its life history characteristics, as well as a time series (2-6 years) of daily minimum and maximum temperatures from weather stations across Europe. The temperature-dependent net reproduction resulting from the simulations showed that D. virgifera populations cannot establish themselves at latitudes above 55degreesN. The overall expected velocity of D. virgifera's range expansion was computed with van den Bosch et al.'s formula [van den Bosch F, Hengeveld R & Metz JAJ (1992) Analysing the velocity of animal range expansion. Journal of Biogeography 19: 135-150], where the expansion velocity was based on dispersal characteristics and demographic parameters. We predicted that D. virgifera will not reach the Netherlands by flight from the border of its 2000 range before 2018 using this overall expected velocity. The explanation of this late arrival is that the velocity of population expansion decreases in all directions from the centre of its 2000 range due to unfavourable temperatures. Our analysis is an improvement on former analyses in that it uses temperature-dependent life history characteristics. We stress, however, that the lack of knowledge on dispersal behaviour and on the values of life history characteristics in field situations might severely limit the applicability of the predicted velocity.
    Food preference of wireworms analyzed with multinomial logit models
    Hemerik, L. ; Gort, G. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 2003
    Journal of Insect Behavior 16 (2003). - ISSN 0892-7553 - p. 647 - 665.
    feeding-preference - host-plant - beetles coleoptera - elateridae - curculionidae - chrysomelidae - grasslands - oviposition - specificity - collembola
    Many species of wireworms (larvae of click beetles, Elateridae) are polyphagous root herbivores. In grasslands under restoration succession with various grass species, we aim to determine the role of wireworms in aboveground vegetation succession. Therefore, it is crucial to know whether wireworms prefer some food plants to others. We have investigated the root preference to different grass species for Agriotes obscurus and Athous haemorrhoidalis and whether these preferences can be explained by covariates. In Experiment 1, individual wireworms could choose between four different plants, one of each species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanatus, and Lolium perenne). In Experiment 2, groups of wireworms were released into the soil in the center of 16 plants (4 from each species). We used multinomial logit models (MLMs) to analze the data. In the appendix the use of multinomial response models is clarified with a fictitious example, using the SAS statistic software package. No preference was found in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 we found differences in attractiveness of plant species depending on wireworm species: A. obscurus preferred grass species from nutrient-rich grasslands (L. perenne and H. lanatus). Both wireworm species disliked F. rubra. The distance from the release point influenced the probability of being found at a certain place at the end of the experiment: wireworms tended to stay in the proximity of the release point. A. haemorrhoidalis was more often found farther from the point of release than A. obscurus. Dispersal was farther from the release point in experiments with young plants (6 weeks) compared to older ones (9 weeks). Results are discussed in a broad ecological context.
    Effects of prey mite species on life history of the phytoseiid predators Typhlodromalus manihoti and Typhlodromalus aripo
    Gnanvossou, D. ; Yaninek, J.S. ; Hanna, R. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2003
    Experimental and Applied Acarology 30 (2003). - ISSN 0168-8162 - p. 265 - 278.
    cassava green mite - acari - preference - africa - food - tetranychidae - oviposition - kairomone - survival - rates
    The effects of prey mite suitability on several demographic characteristics of phytoseiid predators and the relationship of these effects to the potential of phytoseiid predators to control herbivorous mite populations are well documented. Evidence has also accumulated in the last 20 years demonstrating that phytoseiid predators utilize herbivorous prey mite-induced plant volatiles as olfactory cues in locating their herbivorous mite prey, but less well established is the predictability of reproductive success from the ability of the predators to utilize olfactory cues to locate their prey, and how these processes are related to the success of the predators as biological control agents of the herbivorous mite. In this study, we determined in laboratory no choice experiments, the development, survivorship and fecundity of the two neotropical phytoseiid predators Typhlodromalus manihoti Moraes and T. aripo DeLeon when feeding on three herbivorous mites, including the key prey species Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), and the two alternative prey species Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher) and Tetranychus urticae (Koch). Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of T. aripo was 2.1 fold higher on M. tanajoa as prey compared with T. urticae as prey, while it was almost nil on O. gossypii. For T. manihoti, rm was 2.3 fold higher on M. tanajoa as prey compared with O. gossypii as prey, while reproduction was nil on T. urticae. An independent experiment on odor-related prey preference of the two predator species (Gnanvossou et al. 2002) showed that T. manihoti and T. aripo preferred odors from M. tanajoa-infested leaves to odors from O. gossypii-infested leaves. Moreover, both predator species preferred odors from M. tanajoa-infested leaves over those from T. urticae-infested leaves. As reported here, life history of the two predatory mites matches odor-related prey preference if the key prey species is compared to the two inferior prey species. The implications of our findings for the persistence of T. manihoti and T. aripo and biological control of M. tanajoa in the cassava agroecosystem in Africa are discussed.
    Cannibalism and predation among larvae of the Anopheles gambiae complex
    Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Takken, W. - \ 2003
    Medical and Veterinary Entomology 17 (2003). - ISSN 0269-283X - p. 61 - 66.
    giles complex - arabiensis diptera - western kenya - culicidae - density - identification - oviposition - selection - mosquitos - habitats
    Among the aquatic developmental stages of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae), both inter- and intra-specific interactions influence the resulting densities of adult mosquito populations. For three members of the complex, An. arabiensis Patton, An. quadriannulatus (Theobald) and An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto , we investigated some aspects of this competition under laboratory conditions. First-instar larvae were consumed by fourth-instar larvae of the same species (cannibalism) and by fourth-instar larvae of other sibling species (predation). Even when larvae were not consumed, the presence of one fourth-instar larva caused a significant reduction in development rate of first-instar larvae. Possible implications of these effects for population dynamics of these malaria vector mosquitoes are discussed.
    Invloed voersamenstelling op broedresultaten
    Haar, J.W. van der; Lourens, S. - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 10 (1999)3. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 12 - 16.
    vleeskuikens - hennen - ovipositie - voer - samenstelling - maïs - tarwe - vruchtbaarheid - vleeskuikenouderdieren - broilers - hens - oviposition - feeds - composition - maize - wheat - fertility - broiler breeders
    Bij Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij Het Spelderholt (PP) is onderzocht of een voer met 50 maos betere broedresultaten oplevert dan een voer met 50 tarwe. Bij de overschakeling op 53 weken leeftijd op voer van een andere samenstelling en structuur vonden we bij de groep met 50 maos in het voer een daling van het percentage gezonde kuikens dat uit de bevruchte eieren is uitgekomen.
    Tussentijdse resultaten onderzoek leghennen in batterijen
    Emous, R.A. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Niekerk, Th.G.C.M. van - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 10 (1999)3. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 4 - 11.
    hennen - batterijhuisvesting - diervoedering - voer - samenstelling - linoleenzuur - eiwitten - ovipositie - snavelkappen - lichtregiem - bezettingsdichtheid - productiviteit - hens - battery husbandry - animal feeding - feeds - composition - linolenic acid - proteins - oviposition - debeaking - light regime - stocking density - productivity
    Eind december 1998 is een nieuw koppel leghennen geplaatst in de batterijstal van het Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij Het Spelderholt. Diverse onderwerpen worden onderzocht, waarvan we enkele tussentijdse resultaten in dit artikel bespreken. De eindresultaten zijn in het voorjaar van 2000 bekend.
    Ontwikkeling lichaamsgewichten zesde koppel voor de batterijstal leghennen
    Emous, R.A. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Niekerk, Th.G.C.M. van - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 10 (1999)2. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 7 - 12.
    hennen - kippen - pluimveehokken - batterijkooien - belichting - lichtregiem - verlichting - licht - groei - massa - gewicht - ontwikkeling - productiviteit - rentabiliteit - diervoedering - voer - dierfysiologie - ovipositie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - snavelkappen - fysische factoren - dierverzorging - hens - fowls - poultry housing - battery cages - illumination - light regime - lighting - light - growth - mass - weight - development - productivity - profitability - animal feeding - feeds - animal physiology - oviposition - farm management - debeaking - physical factors - care of animals
    In de batterijstal van het Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij Het Spelderholt (PP) is in december 1998 een nieuw koppel leghennen opgezet. Gedurende de opfok waren al verschillen aangebracht op het gebied van verlichtingsschema's en snavelbehandeling.In dit artikel gaan we in op het verloop en de resultaten van de opfokperiode.
    Legnestgebruik bij het Voletage systeem
    Haar, J.W. van der - \ 1998
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 9 (1998)4. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 26 - 29.
    vleeskuikens - pluimveehokken - diergedrag - ovipositie - productie - vleeskuikenouderdieren - broilers - poultry housing - animal behaviour - oviposition - production - broiler breeders
    Bij het Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij (PP) is voor de derde maal onderzocht welke technische resultaten met vleeskuikenouderdieren zijn te behalen in het Voletage systeem. Na de tweede proef zijn bij dit systeem enkele aanpassingen aangebracht waarvan verwacht werd dat ze mogelijk ook invloed hebben op het legnestgebruik.
    Waterrantsoenering bij leghennen op batterijen
    Niekerk, Th.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Rommers, J.M. - \ 1997
    Beekbergen : Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij (PP uitgave : praktijkonderzoek pluimveehouderij 60) - 67
    drinken - drinkwater - hennen - batterijhuisvesting - gerantsoeneerde voeding - ovipositie - dierlijke meststoffen - drijfmest - drinking - drinking water - hens - battery husbandry - restricted feeding - oviposition - animal manures - slurries
    Reeds enige tijd wordt in de praktijk geëxperimenteerd met het rantsoeneren van water bij leghennen, teneinde luxe consumptie en vermorsing van water tegen te gaan. Dit wordt gedaan door het beperken van de tijd dat water ter beschikking is.
    Alternatieve huisvesting leghennen
    Niekerk, Th.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. - \ 1997
    Beekbergen : Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij (PP uitgave : praktijkonderzoek pluimveehouderij 57) - 89
    hennen - pluimveehokken - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - batterijhuisvesting - ovipositie - productiviteit - rentabiliteit - dierhouderij - groepshuisvesting - hens - poultry housing - animal welfare - animal housing - battery husbandry - oviposition - productivity - profitability - animal husbandry - group housing
    In 1993 is het Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij gestart met een nieuw onderzoek: 'Alternatieve huisvesting voor leghennen', ofwel kortweg 'project 1030'. Dit project wordt bijna volledig door het bedrijfsleven betaald. Uitgangspunt bij dit onderzoekis niet alleen het verbeteren van het welzijn van leghennen, maar ook het zoveel mogelijk behouden van het economisch en arbeidstechnisch voordeel van de batterij. Er wordt dus gezocht naar een compromis tussen de wensen van de leghen en die van de pluimveehouder. In het onderzoek zijn de volgende zaken onderzocht: het scharrelsysteem, verschillende aanpassingen aan het bestaande batterijsysteem en de zogenaamde welzijnskooi (een groepskooi).
    Resultaten bij witte en bruine kunststof roosters
    Haar, J.W. van der - \ 1997
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 8 (1997)1. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 13 - 16.
    vleeskuikens - vruchtbaarheid - bevruchting - vloeren - roostervloeren - infertiliteit - ligstro - ovipositie - stallen - vleeskuikenouderdieren - broilers - fertility - fertilization - floors - grid floors - infertility - litter - oviposition - stalls - broiler breeders
    Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij (PP) heeft bij vleeskuikenouderdieren onderzocht of de kleur van kunststof roosters invloed had op het legnestgebruik. Bij de witte was het legnestgebruik net zo goed als bij de bruine.
    Tussentijdse resultaten onderzoek leghennen in batterijen
    Niekerk, Th.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. - \ 1996
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 7 (1996)3. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 4 - 7.
    batterijhuisvesting - snavelkappen - drogen - voer - hennen - mest - ovipositie - eiwitten - triticum aestivum - tarwe - battery husbandry - debeaking - drying - feeds - hens - manures - oviposition - proteins - triticum aestivum - wheat
    In februari van 1996 is een nieuw koppel leghennen in de batterijstal van PP geplaatst. Er worden weer diverse onderwerpen onderzocht: vroegrijpheid, tarwe bijvoeren, laag-eiwitvoer, snavelkappen en mestdroging.
    Vleeskuikenouderdieren: het broedeigewicht als richtlijn bij gecontroleerd voeren
    Haar, J.W. van der - \ 1996
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 7 (1996)2. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 20 - 24.
    diervoedering - broedsheid - ontwikkeling - eierproductie - voedingsrantsoenen - groei - uitbroeden - ovipositie - vleeskuikenouderdieren - animal feeding - broodiness - development - egg production - feed rations - growth - hatching - oviposition - broiler breeders
    Om bij vleeskuikenouderdieren een goede broedeiproductie te realiseren en de voerkosten zo laag mogelijk te houden, moet er voldoende, maar niet teveel voer aan de hennen worden verstrekt. De voergift zal dan ook regelmatig aangepast moeten worden.
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