Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Food reward from a behavioural and (neuro)physiological perspective
    Bruijn, Suzanne E.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C. de Graaf; R.F. Witkamp, co-promotor(en): G. Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436748 - 154
    food - physiological functions - feeding behaviour - food preferences - perception - hormones - responses - neurohormonal control - stomach bypass - gastric bypass - satiety - voedsel - fysiologische functies - voedingsgedrag - voedselvoorkeuren - perceptie - hormonen - reacties - neurohormonale controle - maag bypass - buik bypass - verzadigdheid

    Food reward is an important driver of food intake and triggers consumption of foods for pleasure, so-called hedonic eating, even in the absence of any energy deficits. Hedonic eating can trigger overeating and may therefore lead to obesity. Given the rise in obesity rates and the health risks associated with being obese, hedonic eating and food reward are important phenomena to study. This thesis aimed to add on to the existing knowledge on food reward. The phenomenon was approached from a behavioural, sensory and (neuro)physiological perspective in healthy, lean and in obese gastric bypass populations.

    For the behavioural perspective, the main outcome measure used in this thesis was food preferences. To be able to study food preferences for four macronutrient and two taste categories, a new food preference task was developed. In chapter 2, the development and validation of the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) were described. The MTPRT uses a ranking method to determine preferences for four macronutrient (high-carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein, low-energy) and two taste (sweet and savoury) categories.

    For the sensory and physiological perspective, focus was put on the endocannabinoid system (ECS): a neuromodulatory system that plays a role in food reward. To gain more insight into this role, the effect of ECS modulation with pharmacological challenges on sensory perception of sweet taste and on food preferences were studied, as well as endocannabinoid responses to food intake. In chapter 3 it was shown that inhaling Cannabis with low doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) does not alter sweet taste intensity perception and liking in humans, nor does it affect food preferences. Vice versa, in chapter 4 it was found that liking of a food taste does not affect endocannabinoid responses to food intake, after controlling for expectations. When palatability of the food is unknown until the first bite, response of endocannabinoids, ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide did not differ between a palatable and a neutral food across anticipatory, consummatory and post-ingestive phases of food intake. Endocannabinoid and ghrelin plasma concentrations decreased after food intake, which suggests an orexigenic function for endocannabinoids.

    In chapters 5, 6 and 7, studies with patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were described. These studies were intended to gain more insight into alterations in food reward in relation to (morbid) obesity and in response to surgical treatment by RYGB surgery.

    First, in chapter 5 food preferences were assessed before, and at two months and one year after RYGB. It was shown that patients have decreased preference for high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods, and increased preference for low-energy foods after compared with before surgery. In addition, liking ratings for the high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods were decreased after RYGB surgery, whereas liking of low-energy products changed minimally. Potential mechanisms behind these alterations in food preferences include changes in neural processing of food cues and changes in appetite-related gut hormones.

    In chapter 6, it was shown that alterations in food preferences after RYGB surgery are indeed related to changes in neural activation in response to food cues. With regards to the appetite-related hormones it was shown that plasma concentrations of the endocannabinoid anandamide were increased after compared with before surgery. Plasma concentrations of other endocannabinoids and ghrelin did not change. Moreover, changes in endocannabinoid or ghrelin concentrations did not correlate with changes in food preferences or neural response to food cues. Together, these results suggest that changes in neural processing of food cues contribute to changes in food preferences towards low-energy foods, and provide a first indication that the endocannabinoid system does not seem to play a role in this process.

    To gain more insight into behavioural responses to food cues, a response-inhibition paradigm was used in chapter 7, in which response-inhibition to high-energy and low-energy food cues was assessed during brain imaging. The behavioural data did not show differences in performance when comparing before and two months after RYGB surgery. The brain imaging data showed that activation in reward-related brain areas was decreased in response to both high- and low-energy food pictures after RYGB surgery. Also, prefrontal brain areas were more activated in response to the high-energy pictures, which suggests improved response inhibition.

    In conclusion, the findings in this thesis show that modulating the ECS with low doses of THC and CBD does not influence sweet taste perception and liking and food preferences, and vice versa, food taste liking in the absence of expectations does not affect endocannabinoid responses to food intake. With regards to RYGB surgery it was uncovered that changes in food preferences after RYGB surgery are related to altered brain reward processing, but no relation with changes in endocannabinoid tone was found. The success of RYGB surgery and the changes in food choice might in part be caused by an improved inhibitory response to high-energy foods.

    “Everything tastes different” : The impact of changes in chemosensory perception on food preferences, food intake and quality of life during chemotherapy in cancer patients
    Vries, Yfke Carlijn de - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; H.W.M. van Laarhoven, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; Sanne Boesveldt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436090 - 169
    perception - sensory evaluation - food intake - quality of life - food preferences - neoplasms - taste - macronutrients - drug therapy - breast cancer - perceptie - sensorische evaluatie - voedselopname - kwaliteit van het leven - voedselvoorkeuren - neoplasma - smaak - macronutriënten - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker

    Taste and smell changes are common side effects during chemotherapy in cancer patient and may have an impact on food preferences, food intake and quality of life. However, these relations have hardly been studied systematically in specific cancer populations. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess how the sense of taste and smell change upon treatment with chemotherapy in breast cancer and oesophagogastric cancer patients, and to investigate their consequences in terms of food preferences, food intake and quality of life.

    To measure food preferences for both macronutrients and tastes, the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) was developed. in chapter 2, it was shown that by inducing sensory specific satiety for a standardized sweet and savoury meal, it is possible to detect shifts in preferences for both tastes and macronutrients with the MTPRT, and that these results are reproducible.

    In Chapter 3 we studied objective and subjective taste and smell perception and food preferences in advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. The result showed that only objective taste function decreases during chemotherapy, but other chemosensory measures were unchanged. A lower subjective taste perception was related to a lower preference for high-protein products. Therefore it is important to consider patients’ taste perception, when providing dietary advice to OGC patients

    Chapter 4 describes a study with similar outcome measures as chapter 3, but in breast cancer patients at several time points during and after chemotherapy, and compared to a healthy control group. The study showed that breast cancer patients like high-protein, high-fat, sweet and savoury products less during chemotherapy, thus showing altered preferences for macronutrients, but not for tastes. Furthermore, results showed a temporary decrease in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. These findings show that patients should be informed prior to treatment on chemosensory changes, and that these changes should be monitored during treatment due to the consequences for nutritional intake and quality of life

    In chapter 5 we assessed the dietary intake of breast cancer patients before and during chemotherapy compared to a healthy control group, and associations with experienced symptoms during chemotherapy. It was shown that symptoms induced by chemotherapy were associated with lower total energy, protein and fat intake, which was manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. Therefore, to ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    To better understand the impact of chemosensory changes during chemotherapy on daily life, 13 advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients were interviewed (see chapter 6). Patients described a substantial impact of chemosensory and food-related changes on daily life (by changing daily routines), social life (eating being less sociable) and roles in the household (changing roles in cooking and grocery shopping).

    Finally, in chapter 7, we assessed the association between self-reported taste and smell perception and quality of life in breast cancer patients. A worse taste and smell perception was associated with a worse global quality of life, role, social and emotional functioning shortly after chemotherapy. In patients treated with trastuzumab, a worse taste and smell perception was still associated with quality of life, social and role functioning half a year after chemotherapy had ended.

    From the studies in this thesis we can conclude that chemotherapy mainly affects the sense of taste. The subjective perception of taste was associated with a lower preference for food products and lower energy intake. This indicates that it is not necessarily an actual change in the sense of taste or smell that has an impact on patients, but flavour perception as a whole and potentially a lower enjoyment of food. Moreover, these perceived changes in taste and smell can have a substantial impact on cancer patients’ lives, in a practical way by changing daily patterns of eating, but also socially and in roles in the household. A changed chemosensory perception during chemotherapy may lead to a worsened nutritional status, and could thereby negatively impact the response to chemotherapy. Therefore chemosensory perception should be monitored during chemotherapy. Future studies should further investigate the mechanisms behind chemosensory changes, factors that contribute to subjective taste perception and possible interventions to alleviate chemosensory changes during chemotherapy.

    Framing nature : searching for (implicit) religious elements in the communication about nature
    Jansen, Peter - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Jochemsen, co-promotor(en): F.W.J. Keulartz; J. van der Stoep. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431323 - 200
    nature - policy - netherlands - communication - religion - case studies - frames - perception - public authorities - landscape experience - identity - natuur - beleid - nederland - communicatie - religie - gevalsanalyse - geraamten - perceptie - overheid - landschapsbeleving - identiteit

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

    In this PhD thesis it is argued that the role of communication practitioners is to signal, articulate, and interpret normative elements in the discourse. In other words, to make (non-) congruent frames explicit and clarifying the associated world views in the discourse, including that of the government itself. The government has to be impartial as possible in its communications, but the communications about nature shows that there are questions to be asked about this neutrality. Although not explicit, but through the communications of NGOs, who operate as delegated executors of the Dutch nature policy in the context of this PhD thesis, certain images, i.e., frames regarding nature are communicated. However, the question is raised to what extent the government, based on its alleged neutrality, should condition the communication of NGOs. Here, tension can be observed. If nature conservation NGOs (explicitly) communicate a specific vision about nature, using ‘religious subtexts’, the government appears to support these ‘subtexts’. For nature conservation NGOs, it is appropriate to put forth a certain opinion to raise support for their actions among the public. However, in this PhD thesis it is argued that it is not the responsibility of the government to promote a specific religiously phrased view of nature and nature policy. Hence, this PhD thesis reveals a necessity for reflection on the relationship between government and NGOs regarding their communication, i.e., awareness of distinction and a need for mutual adjustment in the case of close cooperation.

    The results of this PhD thesis are placed in a broader cultural context with respect to nature development. A paradox is highlighted: creating nature ‘according to our view of nature’ and, simultaneously, wanting to experience wilderness-nature, preferably without too much human influence. This paradox appears to form a cultural basis for many new nature development projects. In other words, nature development is no longer just driven by ecological interests. In today’s ‘wilderness desire’, a certain form of anthropocentric thinking also manifests, because it focuses on the human experience of nature. In addition, because (new) nature projects can be places to have meaningful experiences, in this PhD thesis it is concluded that (new) nature projects, such as Tiengemeten, not only have ecological value, but societal value as well. It is also argued that in a secular society, we should not lose sight of the mediating role of creating and maintaining nature parks. Designing or maintaining natural areas in a certain way can create conditions for certain meaningful experiences. With our designing vision and communication, we can reap ‘benefits’ from nature. With this conclusion, this PhD thesis shines a different light on the concept of nature development and, indirectly, on the Dutch nature policy.

    Finally, this PhD thesis shows that religious elements play a role in the communication about nature. These are linked to meaningful experiences that people can have in nature. A religious depth dimension can be discovered in meaningful experiences. This religious depth dimension is the reason that there are ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature. However, the word ‘subtext’ is crucial. The communication about nature is ‘religionised’ to some extent, but there is no mentioning of a personal God or other reference to a supernatural reality. This PhD thesis also shows that the religious depth dimension does not explicitly come to the fore in what visitors are saying. This means that this PhD thesis, in addition to questioning the appropriateness of ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature, also doubts whether those ‘subtexts’ are convincing from visitors’ perspective.

    Rivierenland leeft! Verbinden door samenwerking : Quickscan naar trends, kansen en opgaven met betrekking tot de leefbaarheid in Regio Rivierenland
    Gies, T.J.A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2777) - ISBN 9789463430791 - 41
    levensomstandigheden - perceptie - omgevingspsychologie - milieu - rivierengebied - living conditions - perception - environmental psychology - environment - rivierengebied
    Leefbaarheid gaat over prettig wonen, werken en leven en is daarom is een belangrijk thema voor Regio Rivierenland, een samenwerkingsverband van tien gemeenten, te weten Buren, Culemborg, Geldermalsen, Lingewaal, Maasdriel, Neder-Betuwe, Neerrijnen, Tiel, Zaltbommel en West Maas en Waal. In deze quickscan brengen we de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen m.b.t. de leefbaarheid in beeld. We geven inzicht in de kansen en bedreigingen waarin naast de huidige situatie ook de verwachte ontwikkelingen en trends voor Regio Rivierenland geschetst worden. Daarmee concretiseren we de belangrijkste opgaven en uitdagingen voor de komende jaren in regio Rivierenland.
    Double emulsions as fat replacers : linking emulsion design to stability and sensory perception
    Oppermann, Anika - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; Elke Scholten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430722 - 186
    fats - fat - sensory sciences - sensory evaluation - emulsions - perception - gelation - vetten - vet - sensorische wetenschappen - sensorische evaluatie - emulsies - perceptie - gelering

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have to be achieved, (2) double emulsions have to be stable against conditions encountered during processing and storage, and (3) the mouthfeel and sensory perception have to be similar to that of full-fat equivalents. With the present work, significant progress was made in understanding the complex relations between double emulsion design, achievable levels of fat reduction, emulsion stability and sensory perception. We show that through careful emulsion design, stable double emulsions with high levels of fat reduction (up to 50%) can be obtained while maintaining fat-related sensory properties, making double emulsions a promising approach for the development of fat-reduced food products.

    Resultaten van 10 jaar daarmoetikzijn voor de provincie Zuid-Holland
    Goossen, C.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2781) - 27
    landschap - perceptie - natuur - omgevingspsychologie - zuid-holland - landscape - perception - nature - environmental psychology - zuid-holland
    Op basis van 8.935 bezoekers van de websites www.daarmoetikzijn.nl en myplacetobe.eu uit de provincie Zuid-Holland is een analyse gemaakt naar de aantrekkelijkheid van het landschap. Het gemiddelde rapportcijfer van het landschap in Zuid-Holland is de afgelopen tien jaar een zes en de laatste jaren dalend. Vooral bebouwing draagt negatief bij aan het rapportcijfer, maar ook bedrijventerreinen, industriegebieden en geluid van auto’s, treinen, vliegverkeer en bossen. Heide-, zand- en duingebieden leveren daarentegen een positieve bijdrage aan het rapportcijfer, evenals hoogteverschillen. Deze zes, van de vijftien, gebruikte indicatoren verklaren voor 8 procent het rapportcijfer. Circa een derde van de bezoekers (32 procent) uit Zuid-Holland geeft een onvoldoende aan het landschap rond de eigen woonplaats. Ruimtelijk gezien krijgt echter het grootste deel van het landschap in Zuid-Holland een voldoende. Bos is het meest gewilde landschapstype. Twee derde van de bezoekers wil bezienswaardigheden hebben in het ideale landschap en geluidbelasting, horizonvervuiling en drukte door recreatieve fietsers worden als storend ervaren.
    Farmers’ perception of opportunities for farm development
    Methorst, Ron - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Dirk Roep; Jos Verstegen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579439 - 192
    farm development - perception - agriculture - entrepreneurship - case studies - sociology - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - perceptie - landbouw - ondernemerschap - gevalsanalyse - sociologie

    Differences in the perception of opportunities for farm development is researched in this thesis in relation to differences in the embedding of the farm in the socio-material context. This study contributes to a Sociology of Entrepreneurship in focusing on the decision-maker specific aspects using the concepts Opportunity Identification, Strategic Decision-Making and Embeddedness. In a case study of family dairy farmers operating in a highly comparable socio-material context at the level of the case study, a mix of quantitative and qualitative data were used to analyse differences at the level of the decision-makers on the family farm. Based on the perceived viability of 15 opportunities for farm development to contribute to farm income, four clusters of opportunities were found that represent different farm development strategies: 1) maximising production; 2) optimising the use of own resources; 3) diversifying production; and 4) ending dairy farming. Personal views and preferences showed to be the most influential driver, mediating the influence of the combined set of seven drivers on the perception of opportunities. Taking the perspective of embeddedness, every farm development strategy appeared to have different sets of relations for three dimensions of the socio-material context: the socio-cultural context, the dairy value chain and the use of resources for production. These sets of relations differ on a scale ranging from more ‘close’ to more ‘stretched’ set of relations, resembling a mixing paned of three sliders on which the family farmer positions itself, a positioning that is related to personal views and preference. The socio-material characteristics of a farm, thus, result from, and reflect how it is embedded in a set of heterogeneous relations. This finding supports the relevance of a relational perspective on farm development where strategic decision-making is the reiterative process of embedding farm practices in the different sets of relations of the farm with the socio-material context. The farmer’s interpretation of the complex and dynamic relations in the socio-material context affects the identification of opportunities for farm development. Approaching strategic decision-making as the positioning in sets of relations offers a non-normative approach to family farm development in relation to the socio-material context. Awareness of the influence of personal views and preferences combined with a non-normative approach is of relevance for effective policies and support programmes to support the development of vital farms in vital rural areas.

    Keywords: family farm, farm development, strategy, opportunity identification, strategic decision-making, embeddedness

    Beleefbare natuur: van recreatieve infrastructuur naar bioculturele diversiteit.
    Wiersum, K.F. ; Elands, B.H.M. - \ 2016
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 2016 (2016)feb. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 14 - 17.
    natuur - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - recreatie - biodiversiteit - culturele psychologie - ecosysteemdiensten - natuurwaarde - cultuur - bosbeheer - nature - landscape experience - perception - recreation - biodiversity - cultural psychology - ecosystem services - natural value - culture - forest administration
    Traditioneel richt de aandacht van het bosbeheer voor een beleefbare natuur zich op de ontwikkeling van de recreatieve infrastructuur. Tegenwoordig krijgen ook andere vormen van samenleven met natuur aandacht. Deze ontwikkeling wordt weerspiegeld in het nieuwe begrip “bioculturele diversiteit”.
    Groen voor gezondheid: wat hebben gezondheidsprofessionals nodig? : Achtergronddocument
    Hermans, C.M.L. ; Lemmens, L. ; Postma, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2665) - 49
    natuur - openbaar groen - gezondheid - volksgezondheid - omgevingspsychologie - perceptie - welzijn - stress - lichamelijke activiteit - beweging - nature - public green areas - health - public health - environmental psychology - perception - well-being - stress - physical activity - movement
    Natuur werkt positief op gezondheid en welbevinden van mensen. De werkingsmechanismen achter deze positieve relatie zijn bekend: stress vermindert, lichamelijke activiteit neemt toe, de sociale cohesie in de buurt verbetert. Toch wordt natuur nauwelijks ingezet door professionals uit de eerste lijn of publieke gezondheid. Wat belemmert hen en wat zijn de oplossingen?
    Oral coatings: a study on the formation, clearance and perception
    Camacho, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; F. van de Velde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575653 - 223
    afdeklagen - eiwitten - orale toediening - tong - mond - smering - emulsies - in vivo experimenten - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - dynamica - zoetheid - fluorescentie - coatings - proteins - oral administration - tongue - mouth - lubrication - emulsions - in vivo experimentation - sensory evaluation - perception - dynamics - sweetness - fluorescence

    Oral coatings are residues of food and beverages that coat the oral mucosa after consumption. Several studies have reported on the lubrication properties in mouth, and the after-feel and after-taste impact of oral coatings. Further, oral coatings have been suggested to influence subsequent taste perception. Although it is well known that oral coatings can influence sensory perception, there was little information available on the chemical composition and physical properties of oral coatings. As such, the aim of this thesis was to understand which factors influence the composition of oral coatings and their sensory perception.

    This study started with the development of an appropriate calibration method for an already described methodology to quantify oil oral coatings: in vivo fluorescence. Further, the samples studied were shifted from pure oil (used on previous studies) to a more realistic food beverage: o/w emulsions. Pig´s tongues are known to be a good model of human tongue. As such, Chapter 2 used pig´s tongues on the calibration of the method, to mimic the fluorescence in mouth of oil coatings. On chapter 2, Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy images showed that stable o/w emulsions (1-20% (w/w)) stabilised by Na-caseinate created individual oil droplets on the surface of the pigs tongue, as such a new descriptor for oil coatings was developed. Oil fraction, i.e. mass of oil per surface area of the tongue, was shown to be higher on the back compared to the front anterior part of the tongue. This is thought to be due to the morphology of the tongue and abrasion of the oil coating owed to the rubbing with the palate. Further, in vivo measurements showed that oil fraction deposited on the tongue increased linearly with oil content of o/w emulsions. Coating clearance from the tongue was a fast process with around 60% of the oil being removed on the first 45s. After-feel perception (Fatty Film and Flavour Intensity) was shown to be semi-logarithmic related to oil fraction on the tongue.

    Chapter 3, further investigated different properties of 10% (w/w) o/w emulsions that influence the oil fraction deposited on the tongue, its clearance and after-feel perception. Three different properties were studied: protein type, protein content and viscosity of the o/w emulsions. To study the influence of protein type, two different proteins which behave differently in-mouth were studied: Na-caseinate - creates emulsions which do not flocculate under in mouth conditions, and lysozyme – creates emulsions which flocculate under in mouth conditions. To study the influence of protein content, three concentrations of Na-caseinate and lysozyme were used (0.2, 3, 5.8% (w/w) all in excess to stabilize the water/oil interface). To study the influence of viscosity of o/w emulsions, three o/w emulsions stabilized with 3% (w/w) Na-caseinate were thickened with varying concentrations of xanthan gum (0-0.5%) (w/w).

    Generally, the irreversible flocculation of lysozyme stabilized emulsions with saliva did not create a significant difference on oil deposition compared to emulsions stabilized with Na-caseinate, immediately after expectoration of the emulsions. Nevertheless, lysozyme stabilised emulsions caused slower oil clearance from the tongue surface compared to emulsions stabilized with Na-caseinate. Protein content had a negative relation with oil fraction on the tongue for lysozyme stabilized emulsions and no relation for Na-caseinate stabilized emulsions. The presence of thickener decreased deposition of oil on tongue, although viscosity differences (i.e., thickener content) did not affect oil fraction. After-feel perception of creaminess and fatty-film was strongly influenced by the presence of thickener likely due to lubrication in-mouth, i.e., the higher the concentration of thickener in the emulsions the stronger was the perception. Oral coatings perception was further influenced by the protein used in the emulsions, with Na-caseinate stabilised emulsions creating coatings with higher perception on creaminess and fatty-film.

    Chapter 2 and chapter 3 provided knowledge on the deposition and clearance of oil coatings, but little was known on the formation of oil coatings. Chapter 4 focused on the formation of oil coatings formed by Na-caseinate stabilised o/w emulsions (1-20% (w/w)). The formation of oil coatings was a rapid process, where the maximum oil deposition was achieved at normal drinking behaviour (~3s). Further, in Chapter 4 we investigated the hypothesis often referred on literature, in which oil coatings form a physical barrier which prevents tastants to reach the taste buds, and thus create a reduction on taste perception. It was concluded that oil coatings formed by emulsions within one sip did not affect subsequent sweetness perception of sucrose solutions. We suggested that the oil droplets deposited on the tongue (as seen on chapter 2) did not form a hydrophobic barrier that is sufficient to reduce the accessibility of sucrose to the taste buds and consequently does not suppress taste perception.

    Previous chapters focused on oral coatings formed by liquid o/w emulsions, however studies describing oral coatings formed by semi-solids and solids are scarce. As such, chapter 5 focused on the formation, clearance and sensory perception of fat coatings from emulsion-filled gels. Four emulsion-filled gelatin gels varying in fat content and type of emulsifier (whey protein isolate - created fat droplets bound to matrix; tween 20 - created fat droplets unbound to matrix) were studied. As in for oil coatings formed by liquid o/w emulsions, fat coatings formed by emulsion-filled gels reach their maximum deposition in the first seconds of mastication. This suggests that the first bites are the most relevant for the formation of fat coatings on the tongue. Further, fat fraction deposited on tongue increased when oral processing time of the gels increased. This trend was clearer for gels with higher fat content (15%) compared to gels with lower fat content (5%). Fatty perception increased with increasing mastication time, and decreased after expectoration with increasing clearance time. Fat fraction deposited on tongue and fatty perception are higher in gels with unbound droplets compared to bound droplets, as well as in gels with 15% fat compared to 5% fat.

    To elucidate the role of protein on oral coatings, Chapter 6 focused on the development of a method to quantify protein in the oral coatings. Further, Chapter 6 studied the influence of protein content, in-mouth protein behaviour (lysozyme - protein which creates flocs with saliva vs. Na-Caseinate - protein which does not create flocs with saliva) and presence of thickener on the formation of protein oral coatings and sensory perception of protein coatings. Protein coatings were collected from the front and middle part of the anterior tongue using cotton swabs after subjects orally processed protein solutions for different time periods. Protein concentration of the coating (mass protein/mass coating) was quantified with the Lowry method. Similarly to oil/fat coatings, results show protein coatings are formed rapidly, reaching maximum deposition on the first seconds of the samples´ oral processing. Further, different protein in mouth-behaviour (Na-caseinate vs. lysozyme) did not create differences on protein deposition on the tongue. Presence of xanthan-gum in the processed samples decreased protein deposition on the tongue, compared to when samples without xanthan-gum were processed. The perception of protein coatings was strongly influenced by the viscosity and protein used in the samples. Higher viscosity of the samples lead to higher intensity on creaminess and thickness. Lysozyme samples created coatings with high sweetness and astringent intensity, which is related to the molecular structure of the protein.

    Changes in the viscosity of beverages can cause changes in thickness perception. The changes in thickness perception can be accompanied by differences in other sensory properties, such as sweetness and creaminess which might be undesirable when reformulating beverages or developing new products. Knowledge on the differences by which viscosity of beverages can be modified to create a difference in sensory perception is currently lacking. Chapter 7 focus on the determination of the Just Noticeable Difference (the minimal difference that can be detected between two stimuli) for thickness perception of beverages. Oral thickness sensitivity (K=0.26) was found to be comparable to literature values for kinesthetic food firmness and spreadability, creaminess, sourness and bitterness perception.

    The aim of this thesis was to determine and characterize factors influencing oral coatings and their sensory perception. For this purpose, reliable methods to quantify oil and protein deposited on the tongue had to be developed to later study the macronutrients deposition. Further, the influence of stimulus properties on the formation and clearance dynamics of oral coatings and their impact on sensory perception were investigated.

    Bolus matters: impact of food oral breakdown on dynamic texture perception
    Devezeaux de Lavergne, M.S.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; F. van de Velde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574496 - 227
    textuuranalyse - textuur - voedsel - structuur - eigenschappen - perceptie - spijsvertering - gels - elektromyografie - masticatie - kwalitatieve analyse - worstjes - texture analysis - texture - food - structure - properties - perception - digestion - gels - electromyography - mastication - qualitative analysis - sausages

    Background and aims:

    Texture is an important, yet complex, quality attribute of food. Food structure and properties can be linked to texture perception during the first bite. However, the perception of attributes during chew down is more difficult to explain, as food requires to be broken down to be swallowed safely. Food oral processing, which is a recent discipline connecting food science to the physiology of the eating process, is considered to be the key for understanding dynamic food texture perception. The aim of this thesis is to understand the link between food properties and texture perception by investigating oral food breakdown, in simple model foods.

    Methods:

    Gels were used as a model for soft solid foods. Several properties of the gels were controlled by modifying the composition of gels, including fracture stress and fracture strain, oil droplets binding to the gels matrix, melting, serum release and mechanical contrast. The texture perception of the gels was measured using several sensory methods. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA), progressive profiling and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) were compared in the assessment of dynamic texture perception. In order to link gel properties to texture perception, the oral processing of gels was measured through analyses on the gel bolus and measurements of chewing behaviour. Gel boli were expectorated at various stages of oral processing and were analysed for gel fragments size and number, mechanical properties and saliva incorporation. These analyses were used to quantify the degree of breakdown of gels and to relate bolus properties to changes in texture perception. Chewing behaviour was measured using Electromyography (EMG) to understand the role of oral processing behaviour in bolus formation and dynamic texture perception.

    Results:

    Dynamic texture perception of gels could be measured by QDA, progressive profiling and TDS which were complementary methods. Fracture properties of gels could predict the perception of first bite texture attributes. Fracture stress and fracture strain were correlated to first bite firmness and brittleness respectively. During chew down, the link between gel properties and texture perception became less clear. Nonetheless, fracture properties and other gels properties, such as melting and serum release, related to chew down perception. Bolus properties depended on gel properties, but related better to chew down texture perception than gel properties. Mainly changes in mechanical properties and fragmentation of the bolus could explained the perception of complex texture attributes, such as creaminess and graininess respectively. Chewing behaviour depended on products properties. In addition, chewing behaviour impacted the formation of the bolus and could result in differences in dynamic texture perception between groups of individuals.

    Conclusions:

    The oral breakdown of food is a valuable input to understand the perception of complex chew down texture attributes. Such an input could be used to design foods with a desired texture sensory profile for reformulation of foods fitting in a healthier diet or foods for target consumer groups.

    A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients
    Mennella, I. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Vincenzo Fogliano, co-promotor(en): P. Vitaglione. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575448 - 138
    eetlustcontrole - perceptie - voedselvoorkeuren - speeksel - cannabinoïden - biomarkers - ingrediënten - ontwikkeling - gewichtscontrole - appetite control - perception - food preferences - saliva - cannabinoids - biomarkers - ingredients - development - weight control

    A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control.

    From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients.

    Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can

    influence these factors throughout extrinsic (marketing suggestions, portion sizes, form) and

    intrinsic characteristics (taste, flavour, smell, texture). In turn biochemical response and

    psychological traits influenced food taste, flavour, smell and texture perception determining the

    hedonic value of a meal. This interplay between the food and the subjective psychophysiological

    response determine the control of energy intake, therefore must be considered in developing food

    for appetite control.

    In the present thesis four human studies are described. Of these two were conducted to investigate

    the role of the saliva and the endocannabinoids system in the food preference and liking during the

    cephalic phase of digestion. We found out that salivary enzymes activity are influenced by

    nutritional status, food preference and food habits. Moreover, food palatability influenced some

    plasma endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine concentrations during the cephalic phase

    response and indicated that 2-arachidonoylglycerol and pancreatic polypeptide can be used as

    biomarkers of food liking in humans. These findings can have interesting implications in designing

    foods for appetite control:

    ­ salivary enzymatic activity must be considered because it influence taste and texture

    perception and consequently food choice;

    ­ the measure of 2-arachidonoylglycerol can offer the possibility to merge the sensory and

    biochemical approach to compare the satiating and rewarding capacity of foods.

    The other two studies investigated the potential satiating effect on the short term energy intake of

    specific food ingredients. As previous in animal studies shown, we demonstrated (chapter 4) that

    also in humans the circulating oleoylethanolamide levels can be modulated by the fatty acid

    composition of a meal and this can influence the short-term energy intake. Therefore, we

    highlighted the anorexigenic effect of the oleoylethanolamide that can be a target of specific food

    ingredients. In the study described in the chapter 5, we aimed in assessing the appetite control

    capability of bitter compounds. The ingredient was microencapsulated with the double aim to avoid

    the (not palatable) taste perception in the mouth and to deliver the compounds directly in the

    gastrointestinal tract and target the enteroendocrine bitter taste receptors. We showed that

    microencapsulated bitter compounds are effective to reduce daily energy intakes in humans. This

    study demonstrated that sense the taste receptors directly in the gastrointestinal tract may be a valid

    way to trigger satiety and control appetite.

    The general conclusions of the present thesis are that a fine design of ingredients for appetite

    control is necessary to develop novel foods for appetite control that has to take in account from one

    side the hedonic value from the other side the functionality.

    Colourful green : immigrants’ and non-immigrants’ recreational use of greenspace and their perceptions of nature
    Kloek, M.E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Matthijs Schouten; J.J. Boersema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574113 - 194
    natuur - recreatieactiviteiten - recreatie - omgevingspsychologie - perceptie - immigranten - nature - recreational activities - recreation - environmental psychology - perception - immigrants
    Natuurorganisaties, waaronder Staatsbosbeheer, hebben sterke vermoedens dat allochtone Nederlanders minder in de natuur komen dan autochtone Nederlanders. Ook bij natuurorganisaties in andere westerse landen, zoals in Duitsland en het Verenigd Koninkrijk, leeft het idee dat allochtonen weinig in de natuur komen. Omdat recreatie in de natuur mogelijk het draagvlak voor natuurbeheer vergroot en een positief effect heeft op gezondheid, welzijn en sociale integratie, wordt ‘onder-participatie’ in recreatie in de natuur als zorgelijk gezien. Er zijn echter weinig harde cijfers over het natuurbezoek van allochtonen. Ook is weinig bekend over verschillen in recreatief gedrag tussen groepen allochtonen van diverse komaf. In dit proefschrift is onderzocht hoe allochtonen en autochtonen in Nederland recreëren in de groene ruimte en hoe ze denken over natuur
    Maatschappelijk gedragen landschapsregeneratie
    Kasper, L. ; Bijker, F. ; Roncken, P.A. ; Maat, H. - \ 2015
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 32 (2015)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 80 - 89.
    landschap - landgebruik - ecosysteemdiensten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - perceptie - modellen - actieonderzoek - landscape - land use - ecosystem services - sustainability - perception - models - action research
    Een model wordt gepresenteerd, dat os ontwikkeld om de steun voor landschappelijke regeneratie te vergroten door inzicht te bieden in de relatie tussen landschap en lokale bevolking. Het Sociale Terugkoppeling Model brengt tegengestelde belangen van lokale bevolking, bestuurders en experts in kaart die tot weerstand tegen verandering kunnen leiden; het toont voorwaarden voor succesvolle landschapsregeneratie en biedt een reflectie op specifieke elementen van betrokkenheid waarmee lokale ondersteuning van landschappelijke regeneratie op een mideellange termijn mogelijk is.
    De potentie van natuurcombinaties : inzicht en reflecties op de meerwaarde van een nieuw concept
    Fontein, R.J. ; Michels, R. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Goossen, M. ; Graaff, R.P.M. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2648) - 55
    natuurbeleid - natuurontwikkeling - regionale planning - perceptie - innovaties - nederland - nature conservation policy - nature development - regional planning - perception - innovations - netherlands
    In de Rijksnatuurvisie staat het concept Natuurcombinaties centraal. Natuurcombinaties zijn initiatieven die tegelijkertijd de natuur én andere maatschappelijke functies versterken. Deze studie reflecteert op het concept Natuurcombinaties, biedt een methodiek om natuurcombinaties inzichtelijk te maken, geeft inzicht in de meerwaarde van natuurcombinaties voor verschillende functies en het natuurbeleid en gaat in op de randvoorwaarden, kansen en belemmeringen van natuurcombinaties en de rol van het rijk bij het stimuleren hiervan.
    Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia
    Woldegiorgiss, W.E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth van der Waaij; T. Dessie. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573161 - 130
    kippen - pluimvee - inheems vee - genetische verbetering - houding van boeren - perceptie - kippenrassen - prestatieniveau - dierveredeling - ethiopië - fowls - poultry - native livestock - genetic improvement - farmers' attitudes - perception - fowl breeds - performance - animal breeding - ethiopia

    Abstract

    Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using improved indigenous chicken. The approaches were structured survey questionnaire, village poultry simulation model (VIPOSIM), Heckman two-step model (econometric model), and experiments involving laboratory and field. First factors that determine the probability and intensity of adoption of exotic chickens were assessed. The probability of adopting exotic chickens was found to be positively affected by access to an off-farm income and negatively by livestock income. The intensity of adoption was negatively affected by being male household head, having a larger farm size, and having livestock income. Then, perceptions of farmers towards village poultry and impacts of interventions on flock and economic performance were assessed. Farmers’ perceptions affected their decisions about implementation of interventions, and interventions increased productivity but only in a few cases the increased revenues outweighed the additional costs. Subsequently, the evaluation of the breeds was conducted by comparing the natural antibody and productivity of improved indigenous chicken with crossbred, commercial and unimproved indigenous chickens. The results revealed that not only the NAb levels but also the effect of NAbs on survival differ between indigenous and improved breeds. NAb levels are associated with survival in commercial layer breed, but reduced survival in indigenous chickens placed in confinement. Improved indigenous chickens showed higher performance than unimproved one for all traits measured on-station, but remains lighter and developed more into a laying type than meat through the short-term selective breeding program. Overall, the present studies indicate that interventions need to be tailored towards the local situation to ensure that they lead not only to improved productivity but also to improved income.

    Temporal and spatial variability of urban heat island and thermal comfort within the Rotterdam agglomeration
    Hove, B. van; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Driel, B.L. van; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2015
    Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 91 - 103.
    klimaatverandering - temperatuur - perceptie - stedelijke gebieden - ruimtelijke variatie - variatie in de tijd - rotterdam - climatic change - temperature - perception - urban areas - spatial variation - temporal variation - rotterdam - air-temperature - street geometry - canyon geometry - climate zones - land-use - environment - areas - radiation - impact - fluxes
    This paper reports on temporal and spatial variability of local climate and outdoor human thermal comfort within the Rotterdam agglomeration. We analyse three years of meteorological observations (2010–2012) from a monitoring network. Focus is on the atmospheric urban heat island (UHI); the difference in air temperature between urban areas and rural surroundings. In addition, we calculate the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) which is a measure of thermal comfort. Subsequently, we determine the dependency of intra-urban variability in local climate and PET on urban land-use and geometric characteristics. During a large part of the year, UHI-intensities in densely built areas can be considerable, under calm and clear (cloudless) weather conditions. The highest maximum UHI-values are found in summer, with 95-percentile values ranging from 4.3 K to more than 8 K, depending on the location. In winter, UHI-intensities are generally lower. Intra-urban variability in maximum UHI-intensity is considerable, indicating that local features have an important influence. It is found to be significantly related to building, impervious and green surface fractions, respectively, as well as to mean building height. In summer, urban areas show a larger number of discomfort hours (PET > 23 °C) compared to the reference rural area. Our results indicate that this is mainly related to the much lower wind velocities in urban areas. Also intra-urban variability in thermal comfort during daytime appears to be mainly related to differences in wind velocity. After sunset, the UHI effect plays a more prominent role and hence thermal comfort is more related with urban characteristics.
    Natuurverkenning twee jaar later : over gebruik en doorwerking van Natuurverkenning 2010-2040
    Vader, J. ; Bogaardt, M.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 11) - 61
    natuurbeleid - natuur - perceptie - scenario-analyse - inventarisaties - nature conservation policy - nature - perception - scenario analysis - inventories
    In dit rapport staat beschreven door wie, hoe en waarvoor de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040 is gebruikt. Dit is onderzocht op basis van deskresearch en interviews. De resultaten worden gebruikt voor de volgende Natuurverkenning. De verkenning is door een brede doelgroep ontvangen en op wordt op diverse manieren gebruikt. Geïnterviewden noemen vooral het onderdeel kijkrichtingen. Kijkrichtingen zijn bruikbaar om natuur mee in te delen, elkaars beeld van natuur te begrijpen, een dialoog op gang te brengen en zelfs vastgelopen discussies mee open te breken. De Natuurverkenning wordt als legitimatie gebruikt voor het bredere denken over natuur en gebruik van natuur. De Natuurverkenning is input voor diverse (beleids)trajecten waarvan de Rijksnatuurvisie 2014 van het ministerie van Economische Zaken één van de belangrijkste is. Gebruik van de Natuurverkenning wordt door diverse factoren beïnvloed. Het interactieve proces met stakeholders, het gebruik van normatieve scenario’s en de beleidscontext zijn een aantal van de belangrijkste
    Rapportage onderzoeksproject Genieten aan tafel : een toegepast onderzoek naar maaltijdbeleving in verpleeghuizen
    Zeinstra, G.G. ; Atten, M.N. van; Ziylan, C. ; Boelsma, E. ; Peppelenbos, H.W. ; Brok, P. den - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1483) - ISBN 9789462570535 - 86
    verpleeghuizen - ouderenvoeding - ouderen - perceptie - volksgezondheid - ziektepreventie - maaltijden - nederland - ondervoeding - voedselconsumptie - nursing homes - elderly nutrition - elderly - perception - public health - disease prevention - meals - netherlands - undernutrition - food consumption
    Er komen steeds meer ouderen in Nederland. Zij doen over het algemeen een groter beroep op de gezondheidszorg, wat tot stijgende zorgkosten leidt en een lagere kwaliteit van leven. Eten en drinken speelt een belangrijke rol bij de preventie van ziekte. Hoewel er steeds meer aandacht is voor de voedingsstatus van ouderen en screeningsprocedures steeds meer toegepast worden, laten de laatste metingen in Nederland zien dat 17% van de cliënten in instellingen ondervoed is en dat 28% risico loopt op ondervoeding. Om ziekte en daarmee verhoogde zorgkosten te voorkomen, en om de kwaliteit van leven te optimaliseren, is preventie van ondervoeding bij ouderen noodzakelijk. Het onderzoek ‘Genieten aan tafel’ beoogde de maaltijdbeleving van verpleeghuiscliënten te optimaliseren, met als doel om eetlust, voedingsstatus, functionele status en kwaliteit van leven te verbeteren en zo zorgkosten te verminderen.
    Focusgroepdiscussies over pizza en groentesalade met kinderen van 10-12 jaar: resultaten en aanbevelingen voor productontwikkeling
    Janssen, A.M. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Zeinstra, G.G. ; Vrijhof, M.N. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1449) - ISBN 9789461739858 - 86
    kinderen - perceptie - pizza's - groenten - salades - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - voeding en gezondheid - productontwikkeling - nederland - children - perception - pizzas - vegetables - salads - food consumption - consumption patterns - nutrition and health - product development - netherlands
    In the Netherlands, the consumption of fruit and vegetables is too low among children. One of the main reasons is that children often do not like to eat vegetables. The focus in the project Healthy food for kids - Kids University was to measure children’s product experience of (more) healthy vegetable foods and to translate gained knowledge into food concepts high in vegetable content developed for children aged 10-12 years. In this report, results of the research aiming to better understand factors that are important for children when eating pizza and vegetable salad, is described. Another goal was to determine what choices children make when they compose their own pizza or vegetable salad.
    Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture
    Goede, D.M. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bart Gremmen, co-promotor(en): Greet Blom-Zandstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738523 - 151
    duurzame landbouw - duurzame veehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierlijke productie - bedrijfssystemen - perceptie - sustainable agriculture - sustainable animal husbandry - sustainability - animal production - farming systems - perception

    The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of problems that characterize modern agriculture. The Dutch innovation programme “TransForum” considered robustness an important societal value that needed to be developed in relation to innovations for sustainable development of the Dutch agri-sector. However, its meaning to agriculture is unclear, the term is loosely being used in various contexts and has been given equally diverse meanings in different fields of science.

    This project takes a conceptual approach to analyse what robustness is and how is it approached in different fields of science, and addresses the question how these approaches relate to sustainability. The empirical part of the research concentrates on conceptualisations of robustness in practice. Cases are used to study which conceptualisation(s) are being worked out in agriculture. The relevance of robust agriculture vis-à-vis sustainable agriculture is discussed.

    In chapter 2 it is argued that robustness should not be seen as a clear-cut system feature, but rather as a multi-interpretable flip-side of a specific vulnerability aspect or as a description of a particular notion of system stability. Robustness claims have meaning only when the vulnerability of the system is made explicit. Vulnerability is considered to be constituted by one or more vulnerability aspects: exposure, sensitivity and non-resilience. Sensitivity and non-resilience refer to system properties that are revealed when a system is exposed to perturbations, while exposure refers to the degree, duration and extent to which a system is subjected to such perturbations. As a flip side of vulnerability, robustness can be considered accordingly: as a system property describing a capacity to cope with potential perturbations, or as a relational property of system and environment together, referring to a capacity to avoid exposure and keep perturbations at a distance. Whether or not we call a system robust depends on the structural or functional impact that a perturbation may have on the system. From high to low impact, the following results of perturbations are distinguished (chapter 2):

    Permanent loss of structure and function; Permanent change of structure and/or function (adaptation); Temporary loss of structure and/or function; Preservation of structure and function (resistance); Non-exposure

    It is concluded that robustness should be seen as an intermediate sphere between a vulnerability aspect and its opposite notion of stability. The term “robustness state” is introduced to refer to such intermediate spheres. From low to high inclination to follow environmental changes, three robustness states are distinguished: (1) a state of avoiding exposure, (2) a state of inherent resistance, and (3) a state of response and recovery after being perturbed. Determined efforts to approach or enhance any robustness state are referred to as robustness strategies.

    Chapter 3 discusses the relevance of robustness as an image of sustainability. It is argued that robustness has conceptual advantages against sustainability because it is embedded in system thinking and gives direction to operationalisations of sustainable development more than sustainability ever can. This chapter presents a framework against which the robustness conceptualisations of three TransForum projects which were set up to develop the concept of robustness in agricultural innovation are assessed. These projects were:

    ‘Stacking functionality expressed in apple genes’. The aim of this project was the development of high-quality apple varieties that have a durable resistance to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) by means of cisgenesis; ‘A monitoring and control system for conditioning of plants and greenhouses’. The project aimed to quantify physiological effects of climate conditions on plants in energy efficient and energy producing greenhouses, and develop intelligent crop monitoring systems of plant performance; ‘Robustness of animal production systems’. The main objective of this project was to develop the concept of robustness of animal production systems at various levels using system and control theory and apply these concepts to cases in the production system (farm), the production chain and at regional level.

    It is observed that in these projects, robustness was conceptualised from an engineering perspective in relation to system efficiency and control. Considering the benefits of other conceptualisations it is suggested that these should be taken into account when operationalising sustainable development through robustness. The growing interest in complex (adaptive) systems and alternative system approaches within the agricultural sciences requires a wider scope of robustness thinking.

    The dominant engineering approach to robustness in agriculture has unremittingly added complexity to agricultural systems and has steered agricultural production systems towards states of Highly Optimized Tolerance (HOT), susceptible to spiralling complexity to suppress unwanted vulnerabilities and take advantage of opportunities for increased performance. The drawback of optimized tolerance is fragility to unexpected events, and the result of spiralling complexity is a robust, yet fragile system, i.e. high tolerance to anticipated disturbances, combined with extreme fragility to unexpected events. Chapter 4 discusses the potential of Reflexive Interactive Design (RIO) to break through the self-enhancing process of complexity/robustness spiralling, i.e. optimising the production potential of desired outputs, while deliberately integrating resilience and adaptive cycles of co-evolving sub-systems in the production system. Taking the Houden van Hennen (HVH) project as a case, in this chapter the needs of farmer, laying hen and citizen, as compiled by the project team, are categorized in terms of the robustness strategies that are introduced in chapter 2, and their distribution over the social, biological and technological subdomain of the system. The results show that of all needs to cope with potential disturbances, 86% relates to avoiding exposure. Strategies to cope with disturbances were predominantly found in the social-technical sphere, while the vulnerability perception of the laying hen husbandry system in the HvH project concentrated at the animal level. The use of their natural behaviour and adaptive capacities to cope with disturbances seems motivated by system optimisation and purposefully placed under care of the farmer. These results illustrate that designing for robustness in livestock production systems does not break through complexity/robustness spiralling. In other words, livestock production systems tend to develop robustness against well-known stressors. Even though calls for robustness are frequently initiated by an experienced lack of adaptive capacity to new and unexpected developments, solutions are generally found in increased adaptedness to existing stakeholder demands.

    An example of a new system vulnerability that arises along the complexity/robustness spiral in husbandry systems is the risk of damaging behaviour that appears to increase with trends to create larger groups and the desire to ban beak trimming and tail docking. In chapter 5 it is argued that the incidence of damaging behaviour is not determined by rearing conditions only, and that selection on individual traits cannot solve problems caused by interactions between animals. Robustness as a breeding goal should therefore relate to performance of the group as whole, rather than to individual performance. The capacity of animals to cope with various perturbations and fluctuations can be influenced at many different levels. Early life experiences and organisation of the environment in which animals are reared, can support their capacity to adapt in later life and contribute to the overall robustness of system.

    The general discussion (chapter 6) combines the conceptual analyses and empirical data to consider the relevance of robustness vis-à-vis agricultural sustainability. It is argued that three main approaches to robustness are particularly relevant for agriculture: 1. engineering approaches, focusing on optimization and maintenance of efficiency of function; 2. biological approaches, focussing on fitness and resistance; and 3. ecology approaches, focusing on recovery and structural persistence. From a sustainability perspective, the engineering approach has value especially in the economic domain, and relevance only when robustness criteria can be quantified. The biological approach has value from a social sustainability perspective. It is accessible to ideological considerations and value judgements. The ecology approach, most notably the amplitude conceptualisation to robustness has value in sustainability studies of social-ecological and social-economic systems and is particularly relevant to study the dynamics of complex adaptive systems. A plea is made for a holistic approach to robustness in agriculture, referring to homoiothermism as an example of holistic robustness. It is argued that robustness is a far more tangible concept than sustainability and that it could function as an image of sustainability. Due to its contested nature, robustness can profit from a fundamentally positive attitude of various stakeholders while simultaneously applying to specific systems and sustainability attributes.

    How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour
    Onwezen, M.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739070 - 230
    economie - menselijk gedrag - consumentengedrag - milieu - keuzegedrag - gedragseconomie - economische psychologie - perceptie - consumptie - emoties - zelfbesef - omgevingspsychologie - economics - human behaviour - consumer behaviour - environment - choice behaviour - behavioural economics - economic psychology - perception - consumption - emotions - self perception - environmental psychology

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a tradeoff between environmental motives and more personally related motives such as healthiness, convenience, and price. In this dissertation we explore how feeling good about oneself influences pro-environmental decision making.

    We focus on pride and guilt, which belong to the group of self-conscious emotions. Self-conscious emotions occur when individuals are aware of themselves and reflect on themselves in order to evaluate whether their behaviour is in accordance with their (personal and social) standards. In short, we explore the fundamental way in which pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour via self-reflection. We propose that pride and guilt guide behaviour via a self-regulatory function, meaning that they provide feedback about how one is performing regarding one’s own standards and the perceived standards of others. The emotional feedback is used to guide oneself in accordance with these standards (i.e. self-regulation). Furthermore, we propose that the way one sees the self (who am I in relation to others), affects how individuals evaluate themselves, which in turn affects how pride and guilt are formed and guide behaviour.

    This thesis has both theoretical implications, as we increase understanding in the function of self-conscious emotions, and practical implications, as understanding the functions of pride and guilt in consumer decision making can be used to develop interventions to promote pro-environmental behaviour among consumers. For a thorough discussion of these implications we refer to the General Discussion. Below we provide a short overview of the findings of the individual chapters.

    Chapter 2 explores whether and how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. Previous studies do not provide clear evidence regarding the effects of pride and guilt on subsequent pro-environmental behaviour. Acting or not acting in a pro-environmental way might induce feelings of pride and guilt respectively, which does not necessarily mean that these emotions guide future pro-environmental choices. Three studies show that pride, and to a lesser extent guilt, guide future pro-environmental choices. Chapter 2 additionally explores how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. We propose that pride and guilt influence pro-environmental behaviour by providing information about whether the intended behaviour is in line with one’s standards, and not out of a basic tendency to feel good. Two studies show indeed that only related (endogenous) and not unrelated (exogenous) emotions affect pro-environmental behaviour. These findings imply that pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function and not via a basic mechanism to feel good.

    Chapter 3explores howpride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function. Up until now it was not clear how these emotions guide behaviour. The function of pride and guilt is explored in two vested theories: the Norm Activation model (NAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Several researchers who use the NAM propose that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with personal norms. However, these researchers have specified the nature of this association in different ways (including direct effects, mediating effects, or moderating effects), and have rarely tested these proposed associations empirically. This chapter shows how the function of pride and guilt within the NAM can be specified. The results support a self-regulatory function of pride and guilt which shows that they mediate the effects of personal norms on pro-environmental behaviour. Anticipated pride and guilt thus guide individuals to behave themselves in accordance with existing standards regarding the environment (i.e. self-regulatory function). Moreover, we integrated the NAM with the TPB and show that the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt remain present in an integrated NAM-TPB model (Bamberg et al., 2007). Pride and guilt mediate the effects of personal norms, attitudes, and injunctive social norms on intentions. Pride and guilt therefore seem to regulate individual behaviour regarding the environment so as to allow a person to be in accordance with one’s personal and social standards towards the environment.

    Chapter 4initially explores whether the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt differ across personally oriented versus pro-socially oriented contexts. Previous studies that explore the self-regulatory function of self-conscious emotions within the TPB show mixed findings regarding the mediating effects of these emotions. This chapter distinguishes between injunctive and descriptive social norms and includes multiple contexts to explore whether this accounts for the mixed findings. Three survey studies show that anticipated pride and guilt regulate behavioural intentions to make them in accordance with attitudes and injunctive and descriptive social norms. Additionally, we show that the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across contexts, which may account for the mixed findings of previous studies. We show preliminary evidence that anticipated self-conscious emotions have a larger mediating effect in altruistic (i.e. organic and fair trade consumption) rather than personally oriented (i.e. healthy consumption) contexts.

    InChapter 5 we explore whether the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across collectivistic and individualistic countries. Based on previous studies (e.g., Mesquita, 2001), we suggest that the function of emotions might differ due to cultural differences in the construal of the self. We propose that the way one sees the self in relation to others (i.e. self-construal) affects the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt. Individualistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a private self (i.e. independent self) meaning that the self encompasses unique individuals with their own personal goals. Collectivistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a social self (i.e. interdependent self) meaning that the self encompasses family, friends, and important others, and a striving to reach group-based goals. We conducted a survey across eight collectivistic and individualistic countries. As expected the results show that there are no differences across countries in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt withinindividualistic and withincollectivistic cultures, but that there are differences betweencollectivistic and individualistic cultures. Individuals from collectivistic countries use more social standards and less personal standards to anticipate pride and guilt. These findings provide a first indication that the function of emotions is more socially driven for individuals from collectivistic rather than individualistic cultures. These findings imply that cultural differences in the function of emotions are associated with cultural differences in self-construal (i.e. independent and interdependent self).

    Chapter 6explores whether the function of pride and guilt might also vary within individuals due to activating different construals of the self. Previous studies show that contextual cues can activate private versus social selves within an individual. We show that social media can also act as a contextual cue that activates the social self. Moreover, three experiments show that activating the social self increases the effects of guilt on pro-environmental intentions, whereas activating the private self increases the effects of pride on pro-environmental intentions. This finding implies that activating different construals of the self can increase the effects of emotions on intentions. Furthermore, we show that these effects occur because the activation of private versus social selves results in different self-evaluations. Activating the social self makes individuals more sensitive to social norms in self-evaluations that evoke emotions, whereas activating the private self makes individuals more sensitive to attitudes in self-evaluations that evoke emotions. The findings of this chapter imply that guilt is more social in nature than pride.

    Conclusion. The current thesis shows that pride and guilt guide pro-environmental consumer behaviour via a self-regulatory function. Pride and guilt occur after a self-reflection on personal and social standards related to the environment, and in turn they guide pro-environmental behaviour. This function differs when different employments of the self are activated or cultivated. Thus how one sees oneself through one’s own eyes and through the eyes of others affects the emotions that one experiences, and how these emotions affect subsequent pro-environmental intentions.

    Natuur in handen van burgers? : kansen voor beleefbare en benutbare natuur
    Haas, W. de; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 28) - 12
    natuurgebieden - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - natural areas - landscape experience - perception
    Het huidige Nederlandse natuurbeleid ondergaat momenteel een forse herijking. Dit geldt voor zowel de inhoud van het beleid, het wettelijk en financiële kader, als de rol van Rijk en provincies. Om een bijdrage te leveren aan de discussie over deze herijking heeft het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040 vier kijkrichtingen op de natuur uitgewerkt (zie kader). Voor de herijking van het beleid zijn de kijkrichtingen Beleefbare natuur en Inpasbare natuur extra interessant omdat ze verder af staan van het huidige beleid dan de andere twee. Daarom staan deze kijkrichtingen centraal in onze paper.
    Benutting ecosysteemdiensten
    Vreke, J. ; Kistenkas, F.H. ; Donders, J.L.M. ; Goossen, C.M. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 349) - 105
    ecosysteemdiensten - groenbeheer - openluchtrecreatie - perceptie - economische analyse - ecosystem services - management of urban green areas - outdoor recreation - perception - economic analysis
    Een belangrijke beleidsopgave is het beter benutten van ecosysteemdiensten. Het doel van dit onderzoek is te komen tot handvatten voor de overheid om de benutting te verbeteren. Daartoe is een theoretisch kader opgesteld, dat een schematisch overzicht geeft van causale relaties tussen de voor het functioneren van een ecosysteemdienst relevante grootheden. Een ecosysteemdienst is gedefinieerd als een productiecapaciteit die pas bij gebruik profijt oplevert. De benutting van de ecosysteemdienst betreft de bijdrage van het gebruik ervan aan de welvaart. Om de benutting te verbeteren, moet voor effecten op de benutting van andere ecosysteemdiensten worden gecorrigeerd. Vervolgens is in een case gekeken naar de invloed van wet- en regelgeving op de mogelijkheden om de benutting van ecosysteemdiensten te verbeteren. In een andere case is voor groengebieden in of grenzend aan een woonbuurt gekeken naar het beeld dat de bewoners hiervan hebben en hun gebruik van deze gebieden
    Natuur: beleven en gebruiken : verdieping van twee kijkrichtingen uit de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040
    Haas, W. de; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Kruit, J. ; Vries, E.A. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 348) - 71
    natuurgebieden - landschapsbeleving - ecosysteemdiensten - perceptie - governance - zuidelijk flevoland - hondsrug - rotterdam - natural areas - landscape experience - ecosystem services - perception - governance - zuidelijk flevoland - hondsrug - rotterdam
    Beleefbare natuur en de kijkrichting Inpasbare natuur, zijn nader uitgewerkt in drie studiegebieden: de Drentse Hondsrug, de Oostvaardersplassen en omgeving, en Rotterdam-Zuid. De Drentse Hondsrug past momenteel al heel goed in deze kijkrichtingen. Voor de twee andere gebieden gaat het om een nieuwe manier van kijken naar de aanwezige natuur. Voor elk studiegebied is een mogelijke toekomst vanuit de kijkrichting Beleefbare natuur en vanuit de kijkrichting Inpasbare natuur beschreven. Om meer beleefbare natuur te realiseren, is vooral gezamenlijke visievorming en betrokkenheid van burgers nodig. Om meer inpasbare natuur te realiseren, is het nodig om vormen van governance te ontwikkelen die de samenwerking tussen ondernemers en overheden stimuleren. Hiervan worden diverse voorbeelden gegeven
    Saliva and sensory perception : interplay between the person and the food stimuli
    Heinzerling, C.I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): J.H.F. Bult. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736505 - 132
    speeksel - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - smaak - textuur - saliva - sensory evaluation - perception - taste - texture

    The perception of food is influenced by various parameters, many of them being different from individual to individual. What we perceive is not the same because each individual is different. Saliva volume and composition vary widely among people and will influence the chemical and structural composition of the food. Thus, the dilution and mixing of the food with saliva determines the extent of food-saliva interactions and connected to that also how the food item is perceived. It is clear from literature that saliva affects our perception and it is also clear that the rate and composition of salivation is dependent on what we perceive. However, it has not been clear to what extent. Since saliva can be measured objectively for each individual and it can be manipulated in a controlled fashion, more can be learned from the relationship between oral processing and perception. And with that various questions can be addressed, such as: Can the individual differences in sensory assessment be accounted for by their individual salivary composition? Is it possible to affect the sensory perception of an individual by modifying their salivary flow and composition? Different tastes stimulate different amounts of saliva but do they also affect the saliva composition? Or are the differences in saliva composition caused by the differences in salivary flow rate? Can different amounts of saliva, and thus also different dilution factors, affect the taste perception? Furthermore, can taste-taste interactions be explained by an increase in salivary flow rate? Is it possible that the increased salivation, induced by the increased thickness, will dilute the tastant and hence decrease the perceived intensity? Or are taste-texture interactions caused by cross-modal interactions? Or is the increased viscosity of the texture decreasing the concentration of taste molecules? The aim of this thesis is to show how and to what extent saliva influences, and is influenced by, taste and texture.

    The addition of amylase inhibitor reduces saliva α-amylase activity and increases perceived thickness and creaminess. However, alpha-amylase activity varies widely among subjects and therefore a decreased oral α-amylase activity will not guarantee an increase in perceived thickness and creaminess of starch-based foods. Comparisons of the different tastants show that the pH of stimulated parotid saliva increases linearly, irrespective of the nature of the tastant. Protein concentration decrease and protein amount increase with increase in flow rate for all tastants. After correcting for the effect of flow rate, the protein amount is affected by the nature of the tastant with the greatest secretion after stimulation by citric acid. Flow rate is largely responsible for pH but tastant appears to play an additional role in affecting protein secretion. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates are observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remain unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect is comparable to that of saltiness, further explanations are still needed.

    Suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures is not affected by the rate of salivation. This is more likely explained by psychophysics. When the taste is separated from the texture, no texture-taste effects are observed. Dilution with saliva did occur and the tastant availability was unaffected in this set-up. The conclusion is therefore that texture-taste interactions are not caused by dilution effects or cross-modal interactions but can best be explained by the release of tastants.

    The work described in this thesis shows how the individual perception can be affected by the salivary flow and composition and how the individual salivary flow and composition can be affected by the sensory stimuli taste and texture.

    Potenties van de Hotspotmonitor om de graadmeter Landschap te verfijnen
    Langers, F. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Vries, S. de; Hinsberg, A. van; Kampen, P. van; Marwijk, R.B.M. van; Sijtsma, F.J. ; Tol, S. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 321) - 100
    landschap - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - burgers - plaatselijke bevolking - monitoring - recreatie - platteland - taxatie - methodologie - nederland - landscape - landscape experience - perception - citizens - local population - monitoring - recreation - rural areas - valuation - methodology - netherlands
    Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving werkt aan verfijning van de graadmeter Landschap. Hiertoe is een Hotspotmonitortool ontwikkeld en uitgetest in een landelijke pilot. Aan 300 bewoners van zes studiegebieden is gevraagd op landelijk, regionaal en lokaal schaalniveau landschappelijk aantrekkelijke plekken (hotspots) aan te wijzen. Over deze plekken zijn aanvullende vragen gesteld. De dichtheid aan landelijke hotspots is hoog langs de Nederlandse kust, op de Veluwe en in Zuid-Limburg. Hotspots worden vooral gewaardeerd om de belevingskwaliteiten groen, rust en natuurlijkheid. Afstand blijkt van invloed op de keuze van landelijke hotspots. In relatie tot toekomstig gebruik is van belang dat de Hotspotmonitor zich uitsluitend richt op meest aantrekkelijke groene plekken. De Hotspotmonitor biedt juist vanwege de aandacht voor de bovenkant van de schaal mogelijkheid om de huidige graadmeter te verfijnen. Een probleem, ook richting MKBA’s, is dat in grote delen van Nederland geen hotspots zijn te vinden. Om tot een landsdekkend beeld te komen moet er dus een modelmatige bewerking overheen, het liefst in combinatie met andere meetmethoden.
    Ondernemen met natuur : reflectie op wederkerigheid tussen ondernemen en natuur
    Stuiver, M. ; Boonstra, F.G. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Kruit, J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2429) - 48
    natuur - perceptie - natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - governance - ondernemerschap - industrie - afvalverwerking - beton - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfsvoering - nature - perception - nature management - landscape management - governance - entrepreneurship - industry - waste treatment - concrete - sustainability - management
    Dit rapport verkent de relaties tussen ondernemen en natuur theoretisch en empirisch. Drie koplopers op het gebied van duurzaam ondernemen schuiven langzaam op van impactreductie, waarbij de natuurlijke omgeving zoveel mogelijk wordt ontzien, naar strategieën gericht op wederkerigheid. Bij wederkerigheid benutten ondernemers natuurlijke hulpbronnen niet alleen in hun bedrijfsvoering, maar investeren zij ook in het op peil houden of ontwikkelen van natuur. Obstakels die zij hierbij tegenkomen zijn: een gebrekkige beheersbaarheid van natuurlijke processen, een nadelige kosten-baten verhouding bij investeren in natuur, nadelige concurrentieverhoudingen, een gebrek aan kennis over de werking en bijdrage van wederkerigheid aan de natuurlijke omgeving en belemmerende regelgeving. Om deze obstakels te overwinnen passen ze, met wisselend succes, diverse governance strategieën toe. Kennisuitwisseling en samenwerking met andere ondernemers (zelf governance) en beïnvloeding van overheidsregulering voeren hierbij de boventoon. Ook elementen van markt-governance (certificering) en netwerk-governance (convenanten) zijn zichtbaar. Opvallend zijn de hoge verwachtingen die de ondernemers koesteren van aanpassing van overheidsregulering. Deze verwachtingen staan op gespannen voet met de terugtredende overheid die de verantwoordelijkheid voor natuur steeds meer bij de samenleving neerlegt.
    Exploring the potential of co-investments in land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
    Adimassu Teferi, Z. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Aad Kessler. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734518 - 120
    grondbeheer - landdegradatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - boeren - gewasproductie - perceptie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - watererosie - stakeholders - ethiopië - land management - land degradation - sustainability - farmers - crop production - perception - soil fertility - water erosion - stakeholders - ethiopia

    Like in any other part of the country, land degradation resulting from water erosion and nutrient depletion is one of the most challenging problems for farmers in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, investments in land management to reduce land degradation and increase agricultural production by smallholder farmers have been limited. In addition, public and private sector organizations have never collaborated to stimulate (investments in) land improvement. This study focuses on coinvestments, which are conceived as the collaboration of different stakeholders in land management in the form of material, labour, finance, technology, knowledge and governance. The overall aim of this study was to explore the potential of co-investments to foster land management and increase land productivity in the CRV of Ethiopia. Chapter 2 presents farmers’ perceptions of crop productivity and their strategies to cope with perceived changes in the CRV of |Ethiopia. It reveals that farmers perceive a decrease in crop productivity and food production over the last decades and that they blame a decline in rainfall for this. As a consequence, farmers apply different strategies to cope with, and adapt to perceived rainfall shortages and related expected yield losses. However, an analysis of rainfall data in the CRV shows that rainfall characteristics have not changed over the last three decades. Moreover, according to analysis of official data, crop productivity per hectare in the CRV even shows a slight increase over the last decade. Therefore, farmers’ perception of a decline in crop productivity and rainfall can be explained by i) the increased demand to grow more crops to feed the rapidly growing population, and ii) the lower moisture availability for plant growth as a consequence of more intensive farming (often on less suitable fields) and land degradation. The root causes of frequent food shortages are thus not only related to rainfall, but also to soil fertility decline, soil erosion and lack of rainwater storage in the soil. Current farmers’ strategies are, therefore, not adequate to cope with the increased food demand. There is an urgent need to invest in sustainable land management (SLM) practices that enhance local food production. Chapter 3 focuses on the farmers’ perception of land degradation (especially soil erosion and nutrient depletion) and their investments in land management. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. Results reveal that land degradation in the form of water erosion and fertility depletion is a problem and has increased over

    WoesteLand : vijftig jaar natuurbeschermingskampen voor jongeren
    Langers, F. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Luttik, J. ; Cate, B. ten - \ 2012
    Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel
    natuur- en milieueducatie - jeugdprogramma's - omgevingspsychologie - particuliere organisaties - perceptie - kennisoverdracht - nature and environmental education - youth programmes - environmental psychology - private organizations - perception - knowledge transfer
    WoesteLand is de landelijke jongerenwerkgroep van het IVN, Instituut voor natuureducatie en duurzaamheid. De werkgroep organiseert al vijftig jaar activiteiten in de natuur voor en door jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar. Tijdens de kampen wordt vrijwilligerswerk in de natuur gedaan. Het enthousiasme van de deelnemers weerlegt de stelling dat jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar in het algemeen geen belangstelling hebben voor natuur.
    WoesteLand : effecten en motieven bij vijftig jaar natuurbeschermingskampen voor jongeren
    Langers, F. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Luttik, J. ; Cate, B. ten - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 286) - 78
    natuurbescherming - jeugdprogramma's - vrijwilligerssector - attitudes - natuur - particuliere organisaties - jeugd - kennisoverdracht - natuur- en milieueducatie - perceptie - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - youth programmes - voluntary sector - attitudes - nature - private organizations - youth - knowledge transfer - nature and environmental education - perception - environmental psychology
    WoesteLand is de landelijke jongerenwerkgroep van het IVN, Instituut voor natuureducatie en duurzaamheid. De werkgroep organiseert al vijftig jaar activiteiten in de natuur voor en door jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar. Tijdens de kampen wordt vrijwilligerswerk in de natuur gedaan. Het enthousiasme van de deelnemers weerlegt de stelling dat jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar in het algemeen geen belangstelling hebben voor natuur. WoesteLand biedt naast de natuurervaring ook een sociale ervaring, en die combinatie werkt goed bij deze doelgroep. WoesteLanders hebben en houden hart voor de natuur. Dit uit zich in opleidings- en beroepskeuze, in levensstijl en in de opvoeding die zij hun kinderen geven. Daarmee werkt het door naar de volgende generaties. Een relatief groot deel van hen wordt lid van een natuurorganisatie.
    Ruimte voor waarden : een onderzoek naar het belang van waarden rondom het project Flexibel Peilbeheer – Muyeveld
    Breman, B.C. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Groot, M. de; Ottow, B. ; Ellen, G.J. - \ 2012
    Water Governance 2 (2012)5. - ISSN 2211-0224 - p. 38 - 43.
    peilbeheer - waterbeheer - besluitvorming - governance - perceptie - regionale planning - utrecht - water level management - water management - decision making - governance - perception - regional planning - utrecht
    In toenemende mate is er bij wateropgaven sprake van complexe onderlinge afhankelijkheid tussen maatregelen in het waterbeheer – ingegeven vanuit (Europees) beleid- en bestaande ruimtelijke, economische en maatschappelijke functies in een gebied. Door de verschuiving naar een integrale opvatting van waterbeheer bevinden waterschappers zich steeds vaker in een centrale rol in gebiedsprocessen. Zij passen in besluitvormingsprocessen – zoals het opstellen van een watergebiedsplan – steeds vaker een interactieve benadering toe waarbij diverse stakeholders direct bij het proces worden betrokken. Dit vraagt om andere vaardigheden en roept vragen op over de communicatie met betrokkenen en over hun beleving. Gevolg is dat meer partijen betrokken zijn bij dergelijke gebiedsprocessen, waardoor het voor een waterschap, anders dan voorheen, steeds moeilijker wordt om te sturen en de gewenste doelen te halen.
    Research and Design for Thermal Comfort in Dutch Urban Squares
    Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2012
    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 64 (2012). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 39 - 48.
    klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - perceptie - climatic change - urban areas - temperature - perception - space - environment - vegetation - behavior
    Human thermal comfort in urban outdoor places was generally not an issue in Dutch urban design. This neglect shows problematic effects of discomfort, but also missed chances in urban life quality. The existing problems are alleviated due to the expected effects of climate change with even higher temperatures. This altogether requires adaptations in the setup of the urban environment. But there still is a lack of usable urban design guidelines. Therefore, a “research for design” and a “research by design” project was conducted, generating design guidelines for thermally comfortable Dutch urban squares. The “research for design” entailed a survey on people's microclimate perceptions resulting in a range of design guidelines. These guidelines and additional new design hypotheses were applied in a design process - a “research by design” and tested further through microclimate simulations. These lead to improved design guidelines in the form of spatial patterns for optimized thermal comfort conditions in Dutch urban squares. The results of this project, being a range of design recommendations, facilitate the easy implementation of measures to improve thermal comfort in Dutch public squares and make cities more climate-proof.
    Alle natuur is beleefbare natuur : Naar een beter natuurbeschermingsverhaal
    Koppen, C.S.A. van - \ 2012
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 29 (2012)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 69 - 73.
    natuurbescherming - landschapsbeleving - natuur - perceptie - recreatie - biodiversiteit - attitudes - burgers - nature conservation - landscape experience - nature - perception - recreation - biodiversity - attitudes - citizens
    Het regeringsbeleid van de afgelopen twee jaar heeft een schok teweeggebracht binnen de Nederlandse natuurbescherming. Na jaren van positieve ondersteuning werd er plotseling grimmig bezuinigd. Die schok gaf een krachtige impuls aan het debat over de koers van de natuurbescherming en de relatie met de Nederlandse burgers. Inmiddels is het politieke tij gekeerd en klinkt er nieuwe hoop, maar dat maakt het debat over de relatie tussen natuurbescherming en burgers niet minder actueel.
    Drijfveren, sociaal kapitaal en strategie van collectieve burgeracties tegen grote landschappelijke ingrepen
    Groot, M. de; Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Donders, J.L.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 117) - 96
    landschap - overheidsbeleid - burgers - regionale planning - sociale processen - perceptie - interviews - landscape - government policy - citizens - regional planning - social processes - perception - interviews
    In dit onderzoek worden de drijfveren, het sociaal kapitaal en de strategie van vier actiegroepen beschreven die in verweer zijn gekomen tegen grootschalige ingrepen in het landschap: Red ons bos, Werkgroep Zwartendijk, Bewonersvereniging Horstermeerpolder en Actiecomité Horstermeerpolder. Uit interviews met de actievoerders blijkt dat hun identificatie met het landschap en hun ideologie over natuur belangrijke drijfveren zijn. Uit deze drijfveren volgt een boosheid die de uiteindelijke ‘trigger’ is om in verzet te komen. Bij ingrepen in cultuurlandschappen is de collectieve identiteit van de groep grotendeels gebaseerd op de cultuur van de lokale gemeenschap en de historie van het landschap. Dit is vooral het geval bij de Horstermeerpolder omdat de burgers daar in het gebied wonen. De actiegroepen in de Horstermeerpolder en Werkgroep Zwartendijk komen voort uit een hechte gemeenschap en vinden informatie en aanhang vooral via sociale contacten. Red ons bos maakt hiervoor gebruik van internet. Alle actiegroepen benadrukken vooral objectiverende argumenten. Trefwoorden: actiegroep, drijfveren, sociaal kapitaal, strategie, burgerinitiatief
    Gedreven streven voor natuur en landschap : over actiegroepen van burgers tegen grote landschappelijke ingrepen
    Groot, M. de; Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Donders, J.L.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 19) - 8
    landschap - overheidsbeleid - burgers - regionale planning - sociale processen - perceptie - interviews - landscape - government policy - citizens - regional planning - social processes - perception - interviews
    Veel Nederlanders voelen zich betrokken bij natuur en landschap. Zij zetten zich in voor het natuurbehoud door donaties of vrijwilligerswerk. De overheid stimuleert de betrokkenheid van burgers en het huidige kabinet benadrukt de behoefte aan bevlogen mensen die verantwoordelijkheid nemen voor het landschap. Maar wat als deze bevlogen mensen het niet eens zijn met het overheidsbeleid? De betrokkenheid bij natuur en landschap kan zich net zo goed tegen de overheid keren. Hoewel het meestal een kleine groep is die zich verzet, bepaalt deze vaak wel het beeld naar buiten toe van een bevolking die het ‘niet pikt’. WOt-paper 19 gaat over burgergroepen die in verzet komen tegen ingrepen in het landschap en wat hun invloed is op de beeldvorming en het planproces.
    Natuurcompensatie: slim beleid begint op tijd
    Broekmeyer, M.E.A. ; Bugter, R.J.F. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van - \ 2012
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 29 (2012)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 57 - 67.
    natuurcompensatie - ecologische hoofdstructuur - natuurwaarde - perceptie - natura 2000 - flora - fauna - nature compensation - ecological network - natural value - perception - natura 2000 - flora - fauna
    Natuurcompensatie is de plicht om verliezen aan natuurwaarden die ontstaan door menselijke activiteiten te compenseren. Ook in de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur is compensatie vereist, maar de uitvoering ervan blijft achter en de effectiviteit is onduidelijk. Op basis van een studie naar compensatiebeginselen en rekenregels voor natuurwaardering, pleiten de auteurs ervoor om bij de EHS het tijdigheidsbeginsel toe te passen.
    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction
    Steg, L. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Groot, J.I.M. de - \ 2012
    UK : Wiley-Blackwell (BPS textbooks in psychology ) - ISBN 9780470976388 - 406
    omgevingspsychologie - gezondheid - welzijn - landschapsbeleving - wild - natuur - perceptie - gedrag - milieubeheer - stedelijke gebieden - studieboeken - environmental psychology - health - well-being - landscape experience - wildlife - nature - perception - behaviour - environmental management - urban areas - textbooks
    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's effects on human wellbeing and behaviour, factors influencing environmental behaviour and ways of encouraging pro-environmental action •Provides a state-of-the-art overview of recent developments in environmental psychology, with an emphasis on sustainability as a unifying principle for theory, research and interventions •While focusing primarily on Europe and North America, also discusses environmental psychology in non-Western and developing countries •Responds to a growing interest in the contribution of environmental psychologists to understanding and solving environmental problems and promoting the effects of environmental conditions on health and wellbeing
    Daar moet ik zijn : www.daarmoetikzijn.nl
    Alterra - Centrum Landschap, ; Goossen, C.M. - \ 2012
    Alterra
    landschap - perceptie - openluchtrecreatie - natuurtoerisme - besluitvorming - natuur - landscape - perception - outdoor recreation - nature tourism - decision making - nature
    Naar wat voor omgeving gaat u het liefst op vakantie? Hoe moet het landschap daar eruit zien? Nederland kent vele mooie landschappen, maar ook minder mooie. Maar wat is mooi en wat is lelijk en wie bepaalt dat? Op deze site bepaalt u dat zelf. Een website, ontwikkeld door Alterra, in opdracht van LNV
    Het natuurdebat ontward : natuur als erfgoed, als kapitaalgoed en als consumentengoed
    Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2012
    Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk - 50
    natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - perceptie - attitudes - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - perception - attitudes
    Veeneklaas onderscheidt in zijn essay drie motieven voor natuurbescherming: natuur als erfgoed, natuur als kapitaalgoed en natuur als consumptiegoed. Deze motieven zijn niet alleen wezenlijk verschillend in doelstellingen, maar kennen ook eigen obstakels en verschillende primaire actoren. Zijn stelling is dat de motieven tot dusverre te weinig zijn onderscheiden, met als gevolg een welhaast onontwarbare kluwen van argumenten en tegenargumenten.
    Over Spoelen en Vermalen : bewonersonderzoek naar percepties and gebruikerservaringen van het project Waterschoon in Sneek
    Naus, J. ; Vliet, B.J.M. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 28
    nieuwe sanitatie - aangepaste technologie - vacuümpompen - woningen - milieutechnologie - burgers - perceptie - friesland - new sanitation - appropriate technology - vacuum pumps - dwellings - environmental technology - citizens - perception - friesland
    Op dit moment zijn er een aantal demonstratieprojecten gaande in Nederland waarin alternatieve vormen van sanitatie (nieuwe sanitatie) worden toegepast. Een van de meest vooruitstrevende projecten is het Waterschoon project in Sneek. Hier worden 230 huurwoningen gerealiseerd (bouwproject Noorderhoek) waarbij toiletten en keukenvermalers voor organisch afval worden aangesloten op een vacuümsysteem en een vergistingsinstallatie in de wijk. Het project bouwt voort op de ervaringen van een demonstratieproject met vacuüm toiletten bij 32 woningen in Lemmerweg-Oost in Sneek.
    Druktebeleving in groengebieden : bepaling, gevolgen en mogelijke mitigrerende maatregelen
    Vries, S. de; Boer, T.A. de; Goossen, C.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2312) - 51
    openluchtrecreatie - recreatieactiviteiten - natuurgebieden - bossen - parken - crowding - perceptie - omgevingspsychologie - outdoor recreation - recreational activities - natural areas - forests - parks - crowding - perception - environmental psychology
    Er is experimenteel onderzoek uitgevoerd hoe de druktebeleving afhankelijk is van de feitelijke bezoekdruk en welke andere factoren daarbij een rol spelen. Naast de feitelijke bezoekdruk zijn het recreatiemotief en het type gebied systematisch gevarieerd. Situaties werden voorgelegd via filmpjes, die door leden van een internetpanel zijn beoordeeld. Naast op de druktebeleving, zijn de filmpjes beoordeeld op de aantrekkelijkheid van de setting voor een wandeling in het groen. Verder zijn vragen gesteld over de druktebeleving in het groen in de eigen omgeving. Tot slot zijn mogelijke beheersmaatregelen om de overlast te beperken geïnventariseerd.
    Parknatuur : over de kijkrichtingen beleefbare natuur en inpasbare natuur
    Haas, W. de; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Kruit, J. ; Arnouts, R.C.M. ; Kempenaar, J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 296) - 24
    parken - natuur - perceptie - landschapsbeleving - interviews - burgers - nederland - parks - nature - perception - landscape experience - interviews - citizens - netherlands
    In 2011 onderzocht Alterra, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, in opdracht van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving de mogelijke ruimtelijke en organisatorische betekenis van de kijkrichtingen Beleefbare natuur en Inpasbare natuur uit de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040. Daartoe interviewden de onderzoekers burgers en bedrijven en verzamelden zij voorbeelden van nieuwe natuur- en recreatie-initiatieven en organisatievormen. In dit werkdocument zijn deze nieuwe initiatieven geordend langs een as tussen twee uitersten: ‘natuur als doel’ enerzijds en ‘natuur als middel’ anderzijds. Vervolgens zijn de organisatorische thema’s en trends beschreven. De conclusie is dat het nieuwe gebruik dat vorm krijgt in Parknatuur allereerst een maatschappelijk proces is. In 2012 zal Alterra de kijkrichtingen Beleefbare natuur en Inpasbare natuur in drie proefgebieden uitwerken. Deze uitwerking richt zich vooral op de manier waarop nieuw gebruik gerealiseerd kan worden en op de relatie tussen ontwerpen van de fysieke ruimte en het ontwikkelen van een maatschappelijk of economisch initiatief.
    Klimaatverandering in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen
    Blom-Zandstra, G. ; Bos, E.J. ; Klundert, M. van de; Tempelman, M. ; Provoost, K. ; Verkruysse, B. - \ 2012
    Landwerk 1 (2012)februari. - ISSN 1567-1844 - p. 8 - 12.
    klimaatverandering - regionale planning - landgebruik - weer - perceptie - akkerbouw - tuinbouw - zeeuws-vlaanderen - climatic change - regional planning - land use - weather - perception - arable farming - horticulture - zeeuws-vlaanderen
    Scenariostudies van het KMNI over mogelijke klimaatverandering laten zien dat het weer in de nabije toekomst merkbaar zal veranderen. Volgens het Klimaateffectschetstboek Zeeland zijn in deze provincie klimaateffecten aanzienlijk. De vraag is wat de gevolgen daarvan zijn voor ondernemers in de landbouw en de toeristische sector. Zeker als de Zeeuws-Vlaamse economie verder onder druk komt te staan door krimp en vergrijzing, is het voor beide sectoren in de regio van belang voorbereid te zijn op de toekomst.
    Plaats, Filosofische beschouwingen over verbondenheid met natuur en landschap
    Born, R.J.G. van den; Drenthen, M. ; Lemmens, P.C. ; Slobbe, T. - \ 2011
    Zeist : KNNV - ISBN 9789050113939 - 212
    natuur - landschap - omgevingspsychologie - perceptie - filosofie - nature - landscape - environmental psychology - perception - philosophy
    Dit boek beschrijft op persoonlijke wijze hoe mensen de verbondenheid met plaatsen ervaren. In een verzameling essays, columns en literaire fragmenten geven uiteenlopende auteurs hun kijk op het begrip plaats in relatie tot de natuur. Sommigen blikken terug op bijzondere plaatsen uit hun jeugd of betogen dat fietsen de ultieme manier is van natuurbeleving. Anderen gaan in op het gevoel van thuishoren en hoe bijvoorbeeld de aanwezigheid van specifieke planten daaraan bijdraagt. In duidelijke taal wordt beschreven hoe die verbondenheid tot stand komt. Plaats laat ook zien dat veel mensen die plekjes uit hun jeugd en de verbondenheid met de natuur missen.
    Cross-modal interactions in complex food matrices
    Knoop, J.E. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; J.H.F. Bult. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730367 - 218
    sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - zintuigen - smaak - aroma - appelsap - kazen - zout - caloriearm voedsel - sensory evaluation - perception - senses - taste - aroma - apple juice - cheeses - salt - low calorie foods

    In the light of increasing rates of nutrition related diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke it is necessary to reduce sugar, salt and fat contents of industrial produced food. Reduction of those components generally leads to changes of the sensory properties of the products and rejection by the consumer. Traditional compensation strategies like the use of taste enhancers, artificial sweeteners or fat replacers often lead to off-flavours and consequently to consumer rejection. This thesis describes cross-modal interactions as an alternative strategy to reduce sugar, salt and fat. In the past cross-modal interactions have been describe to influence taste and texture perception, however up to now research focused on simple model systems lacking in perceptual, as well as chemical complexity. This thesis aimed on the application of cross modal interactions involving aroma modification to complex food systems, such as apple juice and cheese. It was investigated whether aromas are able to modify taste perception in complex food matrices and what the driving factors are to which extend aromas can enhance taste perception. Furthermore different cross modal approaches were combined in order to investigate possible additive or synergistic effects on taste enhancement.

    At first, the question whether individual aroma components can be identified that have the capacity to enhance taste perception in a complex beverage was addressed [chapter 2]. Apple juice was choosen to represent a complex matrix where interactions between taste and aroma are a natural product characteristic. Ethylhexanoate was identified to significantly enhance sweetness in apple juice, while three other esters selected on the same basis did not show sweetness enhancement. Ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement appeared to be concentration dependent. Concentrations of 5 ppm were found to be most effective to enhance sweetness in this specific system. However, next to sweetness undesired attributes such as flowery and synthetic were also increased significantly. As a conclusion it has to be noticed that flavour balance in complex food is fragile and has to be carefully altered in order to use odour induced taste enhancement as a tool in sugar, salt and fat reduction. Chapter 3 describes the masking of off-flavours induced by ethylhexanoate as described in chapter 2. It was hypothesised that ethylhexanoate induced off-flavours can be masked by restoring flavour balance by equally adding combinations of all four esters. A combination of ethylhexanoate, ethylbutanoate and ethyl-2-methylbutanoate was found to be most effective to restore flavour quality while maintaining ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement. It was concluded that all components that are naturally part of an aroma are needed to achieve a balanced product.

    Optimisation of odour presentation time in order to achieve maximum taste enhancement was subject to the study described in chapter 4. Swallowing is the key to aroma release during food consumption. It was demonstrated that aroma is most presented most effectively either 1.7 – 2.5 seconds before or 2.6 – 3.6 seconds after the moment of swallow. Aroma presented directly at the moment of swallow was found to be least effective to enhance taste. It is assumed that olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) do not transmit the activation signal to the brain at the exact moment of swallow in order to spare energy and function most effective, as during normal food consumption the aroma is released shortly after swallowing. This hypothesis was further tested in an fMRI study. Preliminary results support this theory, however at the moment of completion of this thesis data evaluation was still in progress.

    In chapter 5 further optimisation of odour/taste interactions was studied, by investigating the influence of temperature on odour induced taste enhancement. Consumption temperatures differ strongly among products. As aroma release strongly depends on the temperature of the food, it was hypothesised that the magnitude of aroma effects on taste perception changes over consumption temperature. Subjects consumed a sweet and a savoury system at four different temperatures (7, 25, 37 and 50°C). Stimuli temperature and odour presentation were fully controlled by temperature optimised gustometry and olfactometry. Both aroma/taste systems were known to have induced taste enhancement in the past (sweet: apple flavoured tea/ethylhexanoate; savoury: broth/sotolon). No significant effect of temperature was found for either of the stimulus pairs. Results indicate that the complexity of the experiment led to confusion by the panelists under fully randomised stimuli delivery conditions. It was therefore concluded, that temperature effects on the magnitude of odour induced taste enhancement need to be studied in a reduced experimental design.

    Temporal contrast as a strategy to enhance salty taste was studied in the experiments described in chapter 6. Salty solutions of different NaCl concentrations were presented in alternating sequence by a gustometer, creating a sensory contrast of low-in salt and high-in salt pulses. It was demonstrated that the sensory contrast induced by the pulsed delivery led to significant taste enhancement. It was shown that high concentrations of NaCl delivered in short pulses were most effective to enhance salty taste. It was concluded that pulsed stimulus delivery can be an additional tool to reduce salt and sugar concentrations in industrial produced food. Chapter 7 combines both cross-modal strategies to enhance taste in this thesis so far, odour induced taste enhancement and temporal contrast of stimulus delivery. Subjects were presented with taste and aroma pulses timed via a gustometer. The aroma was either presented in-phase or out-of-phase with the taste stimulus. A cumulative effect of aroma/taste interactions and temporal contrast of tastant delivery was found, resulting in higher taste enhancement than each of the strategies alone. Overall highest sweetness enhancement was observed when aroma and taste pulses were presented out-of-phase.

    Texture modification is a third cross-modal strategy to enhance taste perception. Combinatory effects of texture modification and odour induced taste enhancement are subject to the study reported in chapter 8. Apple juice containing gels were engineered differing in textural properties, aroma and sugar concentration. In contrast to the results presented in chapter 7, only an additive but no synergistic effect was found for those strategies. Texture modification was found to be more effective than aroma modification.

    Chapter 9 studies effects of aroma on the taste and the texture of cheese and dairy model gels. In the first study subjects consumed different types of cheese with and without a nose-clip. This way the contribution of the aroma phase on the flavour and texture perception of cheese was studied. Saltiness was influenced significantly by the aroma. It was concluded that the aroma of cheese strongly contributes to a cheeses salty taste. Furthermore it was observed that a decrease in cheese firmness strongly correlated with an increase in buttery aroma notes. This was further studied in fully controlled dairy model gels. For gels tasting of cream cheese a significant decrease in firmness was found upon increasing aroma concentration. No effect of butter aroma on firmness was found for yoghurt-like gels. This once more demonstrates the importance of congruency between stimuli. Only congruent sensory impressions can influence each other. In addition, an increase in creaminess was observed with increasing aroma concentration. The results described in chapter 9 clearly show that aromas cannot only modify taste perception, but also are a valid tool for texture modification.

    This thesis demonstrates for the first time, that flavour and texture modification and subsequently the reduction of sugar, salt and (possibly also) fat can be achieved by using cross modal interactions in complex food matrices. New methods have been developed and existing methods have been combined to study aroma/taste interactions in fully controlled settings. Its multidisciplinary approach combines chemical, physical and psychological knowledge in order to discuss and explain results. It furthermore shows that combinations of different strategies are most effective in order to achieve healthier products reduced in sugar, salt and fat.

    Fytosanitaire risico's vanuit de ondernemer bekeken; Praktijktoetsing van een analytisch kader
    Breukers, M.L.H. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Bremmer, J. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Buurma, J.S. - \ 2011
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector en ondernemerschap ) - ISBN 9789086155194 - 96
    tuinbouwgewassen - ondernemerschap - fytosanitaire maatregelen - plantenziekten - besluitvorming - risicofactoren - risicobeheersing - bewustzijn (awareness) - perceptie - horticultural crops - entrepreneurship - phytosanitary measures - plant diseases - decision making - risk factors - risk management - awareness - perception
    De Nederlandse overheid wil dat de plantaardige sectoren meer eigen verantwoordelijkheid nemen bij het beheersen van fytosanitaire risico's. Hiervoor moeten de betreffende ondernemers preventieve bedrijfsmaatregelen willen en kunnen nemen. In een eeerder verschenen studie is een analytisch kader ontwikkeld, gebaseerd op de Theorie van Gepland Gedrag. In deze studie wordt dit kader kwantitatief toegepast aan de hand van mondelinge interviews met ruim 300 werknemers, verdeeld over drie plantaardige sectoren. Op de uitkomsten daarvan wordt een beschrijvende en statistische analyse toegepast.
    Pilot projects in Evidence Based Policy Making
    Vreugdenhil, H.S.I. ; Ker Rault, P.A. - \ 2010
    German Policy studies 6 (2010)2. - ISSN 1523-9764 - p. 115 - 151.
    hydrologie van stroomgebieden - waterbeheer - perceptie - kennisoverdracht - proefprojecten - innovaties - catchment hydrology - water management - perception - knowledge transfer - pilot projects - innovations
    In Evidence Based Policy Making, pilot projects have been recognized as important tools to develop ‘evidence’ of policy innovations. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical study of three water management pilot projects in the Rhine basin to deepen understanding of how they can contri-bute to EBPM and which limitations and problems may arise when realizing EBPM. Three types of pilot projects have been identified: research, mana-gerial and political-entrepreneurial pilot projects. To different extent all types of pilot project have the following effects: biophysical- and actor-network system response, knowledge development and diffusion into wider public policy. The Beuningen pilot demonstrated that anticipated evidence can be sufficient to change policy or management due to its strong mana-gerial characteristics and that the lack of policy ambassadors limits its insti-tutionalization. The Basel case illustrated the importance of interpretation of evidences and the consequences of the use of evidence as alibi. The Alten-heim case demonstrated that top-down research pilot projects are easily in-stitutionalized but lack to take the step to dissemination. In order to contri-bute to the realization of EBPM, pilot projects might need to be designed as both a means to develop and to transfer evidence through experience.
    Consumer insight and user-producer interaction : tussenrapportage
    Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Gorselink, M. ; Broekstra, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1153) - 16
    voedselconsumptie - voeding en gezondheid - consumenten - smaak - belevingswaarde - perceptie - consumentengedrag - food consumption - nutrition and health - consumers - taste - experiential value - perception - consumer behaviour
    Binnen de groep Consumer Science van Food & Biobased Research doet men onderzoek aan het ontwikkelen van productconcepten en interventieconcepten om de keuze en inname van gezond en duurzaam geproduceerd voedsel te stimuleren. Bij dit onderzoek wordt gekozen voor een consumentgedreven benadering. De informatie uit dergelijke projecten – het zogenaamde consumer insight – is voor producenten zeer interessant. Daarnaast bieden de onderzoeksfaciliteiten (zoals het sensorisch lab en het Restaurant van de Toekomst) en de onderzoeksmethoden (zoals stage-gate procedures en motives and barriers studies) producenten de mogelijkheid om snel een productie-test-cylcus te doorlopen. Dergelijke user-producer interactie leidt tot een efficiënte productontwikkeling. In dit project richten we ons op het gestructureerd inventariseren en ontsluiten van de opgedane kennis en conclusies.
    Deliverable 1.2.7: Cross-cultural benefit segmentation of consumers
    Reinders, M.J. ; Onwezen, M.C. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Berg, I. van den; Jasiulewicz, A. ; Guardia, M.D. ; Guerrero, L. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 80
    fruit - consumentenvoorkeuren - voeding en gezondheid - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - voedselconsumptie - perceptie - levensstijl - reclamecampagne van voedsel - fruit - consumer preferences - nutrition and health - food marketing - food consumption - perception - lifestyle - food merchandising
    The present report, deliverable D.1.2.7, gives a final view of the work done in ISAFruit Work Package (WP) 1.2. Average Europe fruit consumption is below the recommended level and moreover the consumption level is still decreasing in Europe. A large survey was carried out in four European countries that consisted of questions regarding the importance consumers attach to food related benefits in general and for specific situations, personal orientations of the consumers, personal characteristics of the consumers, the perception of fruit products, and the fruit consumption behaviour of the consumers. A cross-cultural benefit situation segmentation was conducted. Based on the results of this cross-cultural benefit segmentation two scientific papers are presented.
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