Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture
    Goede, D.M. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bart Gremmen, co-promotor(en): Greet Blom-Zandstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738523 - 151
    duurzame landbouw - duurzame veehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierlijke productie - bedrijfssystemen - perceptie - sustainable agriculture - sustainable animal husbandry - sustainability - animal production - farming systems - perception

    The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of problems that characterize modern agriculture. The Dutch innovation programme “TransForum” considered robustness an important societal value that needed to be developed in relation to innovations for sustainable development of the Dutch agri-sector. However, its meaning to agriculture is unclear, the term is loosely being used in various contexts and has been given equally diverse meanings in different fields of science.

    This project takes a conceptual approach to analyse what robustness is and how is it approached in different fields of science, and addresses the question how these approaches relate to sustainability. The empirical part of the research concentrates on conceptualisations of robustness in practice. Cases are used to study which conceptualisation(s) are being worked out in agriculture. The relevance of robust agriculture vis-à-vis sustainable agriculture is discussed.

    In chapter 2 it is argued that robustness should not be seen as a clear-cut system feature, but rather as a multi-interpretable flip-side of a specific vulnerability aspect or as a description of a particular notion of system stability. Robustness claims have meaning only when the vulnerability of the system is made explicit. Vulnerability is considered to be constituted by one or more vulnerability aspects: exposure, sensitivity and non-resilience. Sensitivity and non-resilience refer to system properties that are revealed when a system is exposed to perturbations, while exposure refers to the degree, duration and extent to which a system is subjected to such perturbations. As a flip side of vulnerability, robustness can be considered accordingly: as a system property describing a capacity to cope with potential perturbations, or as a relational property of system and environment together, referring to a capacity to avoid exposure and keep perturbations at a distance. Whether or not we call a system robust depends on the structural or functional impact that a perturbation may have on the system. From high to low impact, the following results of perturbations are distinguished (chapter 2):

    Permanent loss of structure and function; Permanent change of structure and/or function (adaptation); Temporary loss of structure and/or function; Preservation of structure and function (resistance); Non-exposure

    It is concluded that robustness should be seen as an intermediate sphere between a vulnerability aspect and its opposite notion of stability. The term “robustness state” is introduced to refer to such intermediate spheres. From low to high inclination to follow environmental changes, three robustness states are distinguished: (1) a state of avoiding exposure, (2) a state of inherent resistance, and (3) a state of response and recovery after being perturbed. Determined efforts to approach or enhance any robustness state are referred to as robustness strategies.

    Chapter 3 discusses the relevance of robustness as an image of sustainability. It is argued that robustness has conceptual advantages against sustainability because it is embedded in system thinking and gives direction to operationalisations of sustainable development more than sustainability ever can. This chapter presents a framework against which the robustness conceptualisations of three TransForum projects which were set up to develop the concept of robustness in agricultural innovation are assessed. These projects were:

    ‘Stacking functionality expressed in apple genes’. The aim of this project was the development of high-quality apple varieties that have a durable resistance to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) by means of cisgenesis; ‘A monitoring and control system for conditioning of plants and greenhouses’. The project aimed to quantify physiological effects of climate conditions on plants in energy efficient and energy producing greenhouses, and develop intelligent crop monitoring systems of plant performance; ‘Robustness of animal production systems’. The main objective of this project was to develop the concept of robustness of animal production systems at various levels using system and control theory and apply these concepts to cases in the production system (farm), the production chain and at regional level.

    It is observed that in these projects, robustness was conceptualised from an engineering perspective in relation to system efficiency and control. Considering the benefits of other conceptualisations it is suggested that these should be taken into account when operationalising sustainable development through robustness. The growing interest in complex (adaptive) systems and alternative system approaches within the agricultural sciences requires a wider scope of robustness thinking.

    The dominant engineering approach to robustness in agriculture has unremittingly added complexity to agricultural systems and has steered agricultural production systems towards states of Highly Optimized Tolerance (HOT), susceptible to spiralling complexity to suppress unwanted vulnerabilities and take advantage of opportunities for increased performance. The drawback of optimized tolerance is fragility to unexpected events, and the result of spiralling complexity is a robust, yet fragile system, i.e. high tolerance to anticipated disturbances, combined with extreme fragility to unexpected events. Chapter 4 discusses the potential of Reflexive Interactive Design (RIO) to break through the self-enhancing process of complexity/robustness spiralling, i.e. optimising the production potential of desired outputs, while deliberately integrating resilience and adaptive cycles of co-evolving sub-systems in the production system. Taking the Houden van Hennen (HVH) project as a case, in this chapter the needs of farmer, laying hen and citizen, as compiled by the project team, are categorized in terms of the robustness strategies that are introduced in chapter 2, and their distribution over the social, biological and technological subdomain of the system. The results show that of all needs to cope with potential disturbances, 86% relates to avoiding exposure. Strategies to cope with disturbances were predominantly found in the social-technical sphere, while the vulnerability perception of the laying hen husbandry system in the HvH project concentrated at the animal level. The use of their natural behaviour and adaptive capacities to cope with disturbances seems motivated by system optimisation and purposefully placed under care of the farmer. These results illustrate that designing for robustness in livestock production systems does not break through complexity/robustness spiralling. In other words, livestock production systems tend to develop robustness against well-known stressors. Even though calls for robustness are frequently initiated by an experienced lack of adaptive capacity to new and unexpected developments, solutions are generally found in increased adaptedness to existing stakeholder demands.

    An example of a new system vulnerability that arises along the complexity/robustness spiral in husbandry systems is the risk of damaging behaviour that appears to increase with trends to create larger groups and the desire to ban beak trimming and tail docking. In chapter 5 it is argued that the incidence of damaging behaviour is not determined by rearing conditions only, and that selection on individual traits cannot solve problems caused by interactions between animals. Robustness as a breeding goal should therefore relate to performance of the group as whole, rather than to individual performance. The capacity of animals to cope with various perturbations and fluctuations can be influenced at many different levels. Early life experiences and organisation of the environment in which animals are reared, can support their capacity to adapt in later life and contribute to the overall robustness of system.

    The general discussion (chapter 6) combines the conceptual analyses and empirical data to consider the relevance of robustness vis-à-vis agricultural sustainability. It is argued that three main approaches to robustness are particularly relevant for agriculture: 1. engineering approaches, focusing on optimization and maintenance of efficiency of function; 2. biological approaches, focussing on fitness and resistance; and 3. ecology approaches, focusing on recovery and structural persistence. From a sustainability perspective, the engineering approach has value especially in the economic domain, and relevance only when robustness criteria can be quantified. The biological approach has value from a social sustainability perspective. It is accessible to ideological considerations and value judgements. The ecology approach, most notably the amplitude conceptualisation to robustness has value in sustainability studies of social-ecological and social-economic systems and is particularly relevant to study the dynamics of complex adaptive systems. A plea is made for a holistic approach to robustness in agriculture, referring to homoiothermism as an example of holistic robustness. It is argued that robustness is a far more tangible concept than sustainability and that it could function as an image of sustainability. Due to its contested nature, robustness can profit from a fundamentally positive attitude of various stakeholders while simultaneously applying to specific systems and sustainability attributes.

    How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour
    Onwezen, M.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739070 - 230
    economie - menselijk gedrag - consumentengedrag - milieu - keuzegedrag - gedragseconomie - economische psychologie - perceptie - consumptie - emoties - zelfbesef - omgevingspsychologie - economics - human behaviour - consumer behaviour - environment - choice behaviour - behavioural economics - economic psychology - perception - consumption - emotions - self perception - environmental psychology

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a tradeoff between environmental motives and more personally related motives such as healthiness, convenience, and price. In this dissertation we explore how feeling good about oneself influences pro-environmental decision making.

    We focus on pride and guilt, which belong to the group of self-conscious emotions. Self-conscious emotions occur when individuals are aware of themselves and reflect on themselves in order to evaluate whether their behaviour is in accordance with their (personal and social) standards. In short, we explore the fundamental way in which pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour via self-reflection. We propose that pride and guilt guide behaviour via a self-regulatory function, meaning that they provide feedback about how one is performing regarding one’s own standards and the perceived standards of others. The emotional feedback is used to guide oneself in accordance with these standards (i.e. self-regulation). Furthermore, we propose that the way one sees the self (who am I in relation to others), affects how individuals evaluate themselves, which in turn affects how pride and guilt are formed and guide behaviour.

    This thesis has both theoretical implications, as we increase understanding in the function of self-conscious emotions, and practical implications, as understanding the functions of pride and guilt in consumer decision making can be used to develop interventions to promote pro-environmental behaviour among consumers. For a thorough discussion of these implications we refer to the General Discussion. Below we provide a short overview of the findings of the individual chapters.

    Chapter 2 explores whether and how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. Previous studies do not provide clear evidence regarding the effects of pride and guilt on subsequent pro-environmental behaviour. Acting or not acting in a pro-environmental way might induce feelings of pride and guilt respectively, which does not necessarily mean that these emotions guide future pro-environmental choices. Three studies show that pride, and to a lesser extent guilt, guide future pro-environmental choices. Chapter 2 additionally explores how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. We propose that pride and guilt influence pro-environmental behaviour by providing information about whether the intended behaviour is in line with one’s standards, and not out of a basic tendency to feel good. Two studies show indeed that only related (endogenous) and not unrelated (exogenous) emotions affect pro-environmental behaviour. These findings imply that pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function and not via a basic mechanism to feel good.

    Chapter 3explores howpride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function. Up until now it was not clear how these emotions guide behaviour. The function of pride and guilt is explored in two vested theories: the Norm Activation model (NAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Several researchers who use the NAM propose that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with personal norms. However, these researchers have specified the nature of this association in different ways (including direct effects, mediating effects, or moderating effects), and have rarely tested these proposed associations empirically. This chapter shows how the function of pride and guilt within the NAM can be specified. The results support a self-regulatory function of pride and guilt which shows that they mediate the effects of personal norms on pro-environmental behaviour. Anticipated pride and guilt thus guide individuals to behave themselves in accordance with existing standards regarding the environment (i.e. self-regulatory function). Moreover, we integrated the NAM with the TPB and show that the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt remain present in an integrated NAM-TPB model (Bamberg et al., 2007). Pride and guilt mediate the effects of personal norms, attitudes, and injunctive social norms on intentions. Pride and guilt therefore seem to regulate individual behaviour regarding the environment so as to allow a person to be in accordance with one’s personal and social standards towards the environment.

    Chapter 4initially explores whether the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt differ across personally oriented versus pro-socially oriented contexts. Previous studies that explore the self-regulatory function of self-conscious emotions within the TPB show mixed findings regarding the mediating effects of these emotions. This chapter distinguishes between injunctive and descriptive social norms and includes multiple contexts to explore whether this accounts for the mixed findings. Three survey studies show that anticipated pride and guilt regulate behavioural intentions to make them in accordance with attitudes and injunctive and descriptive social norms. Additionally, we show that the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across contexts, which may account for the mixed findings of previous studies. We show preliminary evidence that anticipated self-conscious emotions have a larger mediating effect in altruistic (i.e. organic and fair trade consumption) rather than personally oriented (i.e. healthy consumption) contexts.

    InChapter 5 we explore whether the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across collectivistic and individualistic countries. Based on previous studies (e.g., Mesquita, 2001), we suggest that the function of emotions might differ due to cultural differences in the construal of the self. We propose that the way one sees the self in relation to others (i.e. self-construal) affects the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt. Individualistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a private self (i.e. independent self) meaning that the self encompasses unique individuals with their own personal goals. Collectivistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a social self (i.e. interdependent self) meaning that the self encompasses family, friends, and important others, and a striving to reach group-based goals. We conducted a survey across eight collectivistic and individualistic countries. As expected the results show that there are no differences across countries in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt withinindividualistic and withincollectivistic cultures, but that there are differences betweencollectivistic and individualistic cultures. Individuals from collectivistic countries use more social standards and less personal standards to anticipate pride and guilt. These findings provide a first indication that the function of emotions is more socially driven for individuals from collectivistic rather than individualistic cultures. These findings imply that cultural differences in the function of emotions are associated with cultural differences in self-construal (i.e. independent and interdependent self).

    Chapter 6explores whether the function of pride and guilt might also vary within individuals due to activating different construals of the self. Previous studies show that contextual cues can activate private versus social selves within an individual. We show that social media can also act as a contextual cue that activates the social self. Moreover, three experiments show that activating the social self increases the effects of guilt on pro-environmental intentions, whereas activating the private self increases the effects of pride on pro-environmental intentions. This finding implies that activating different construals of the self can increase the effects of emotions on intentions. Furthermore, we show that these effects occur because the activation of private versus social selves results in different self-evaluations. Activating the social self makes individuals more sensitive to social norms in self-evaluations that evoke emotions, whereas activating the private self makes individuals more sensitive to attitudes in self-evaluations that evoke emotions. The findings of this chapter imply that guilt is more social in nature than pride.

    Conclusion. The current thesis shows that pride and guilt guide pro-environmental consumer behaviour via a self-regulatory function. Pride and guilt occur after a self-reflection on personal and social standards related to the environment, and in turn they guide pro-environmental behaviour. This function differs when different employments of the self are activated or cultivated. Thus how one sees oneself through one’s own eyes and through the eyes of others affects the emotions that one experiences, and how these emotions affect subsequent pro-environmental intentions.

    Natuur in handen van burgers? : kansen voor beleefbare en benutbare natuur
    Haas, W. de; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 28) - 12
    natuurgebieden - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - natural areas - landscape experience - perception
    Het huidige Nederlandse natuurbeleid ondergaat momenteel een forse herijking. Dit geldt voor zowel de inhoud van het beleid, het wettelijk en financiële kader, als de rol van Rijk en provincies. Om een bijdrage te leveren aan de discussie over deze herijking heeft het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040 vier kijkrichtingen op de natuur uitgewerkt (zie kader). Voor de herijking van het beleid zijn de kijkrichtingen Beleefbare natuur en Inpasbare natuur extra interessant omdat ze verder af staan van het huidige beleid dan de andere twee. Daarom staan deze kijkrichtingen centraal in onze paper.
    Benutting ecosysteemdiensten
    Vreke, J. ; Kistenkas, F.H. ; Donders, J.L.M. ; Goossen, C.M. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 349) - 105
    ecosysteemdiensten - groenbeheer - openluchtrecreatie - perceptie - economische analyse - ecosystem services - management of urban green areas - outdoor recreation - perception - economic analysis
    Een belangrijke beleidsopgave is het beter benutten van ecosysteemdiensten. Het doel van dit onderzoek is te komen tot handvatten voor de overheid om de benutting te verbeteren. Daartoe is een theoretisch kader opgesteld, dat een schematisch overzicht geeft van causale relaties tussen de voor het functioneren van een ecosysteemdienst relevante grootheden. Een ecosysteemdienst is gedefinieerd als een productiecapaciteit die pas bij gebruik profijt oplevert. De benutting van de ecosysteemdienst betreft de bijdrage van het gebruik ervan aan de welvaart. Om de benutting te verbeteren, moet voor effecten op de benutting van andere ecosysteemdiensten worden gecorrigeerd. Vervolgens is in een case gekeken naar de invloed van wet- en regelgeving op de mogelijkheden om de benutting van ecosysteemdiensten te verbeteren. In een andere case is voor groengebieden in of grenzend aan een woonbuurt gekeken naar het beeld dat de bewoners hiervan hebben en hun gebruik van deze gebieden
    Natuur: beleven en gebruiken : verdieping van twee kijkrichtingen uit de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040
    Haas, W. de; Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Kruit, J. ; Vries, E.A. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 348) - 71
    natuurgebieden - landschapsbeleving - ecosysteemdiensten - perceptie - governance - zuidelijk flevoland - hondsrug - rotterdam - natural areas - landscape experience - ecosystem services - perception - governance - zuidelijk flevoland - hondsrug - rotterdam
    Beleefbare natuur en de kijkrichting Inpasbare natuur, zijn nader uitgewerkt in drie studiegebieden: de Drentse Hondsrug, de Oostvaardersplassen en omgeving, en Rotterdam-Zuid. De Drentse Hondsrug past momenteel al heel goed in deze kijkrichtingen. Voor de twee andere gebieden gaat het om een nieuwe manier van kijken naar de aanwezige natuur. Voor elk studiegebied is een mogelijke toekomst vanuit de kijkrichting Beleefbare natuur en vanuit de kijkrichting Inpasbare natuur beschreven. Om meer beleefbare natuur te realiseren, is vooral gezamenlijke visievorming en betrokkenheid van burgers nodig. Om meer inpasbare natuur te realiseren, is het nodig om vormen van governance te ontwikkelen die de samenwerking tussen ondernemers en overheden stimuleren. Hiervan worden diverse voorbeelden gegeven
    Saliva and sensory perception : interplay between the person and the food stimuli
    Heinzerling, C.I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): J.H.F. Bult. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736505 - 132
    speeksel - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - smaak - textuur - saliva - sensory evaluation - perception - taste - texture

    The perception of food is influenced by various parameters, many of them being different from individual to individual. What we perceive is not the same because each individual is different. Saliva volume and composition vary widely among people and will influence the chemical and structural composition of the food. Thus, the dilution and mixing of the food with saliva determines the extent of food-saliva interactions and connected to that also how the food item is perceived. It is clear from literature that saliva affects our perception and it is also clear that the rate and composition of salivation is dependent on what we perceive. However, it has not been clear to what extent. Since saliva can be measured objectively for each individual and it can be manipulated in a controlled fashion, more can be learned from the relationship between oral processing and perception. And with that various questions can be addressed, such as: Can the individual differences in sensory assessment be accounted for by their individual salivary composition? Is it possible to affect the sensory perception of an individual by modifying their salivary flow and composition? Different tastes stimulate different amounts of saliva but do they also affect the saliva composition? Or are the differences in saliva composition caused by the differences in salivary flow rate? Can different amounts of saliva, and thus also different dilution factors, affect the taste perception? Furthermore, can taste-taste interactions be explained by an increase in salivary flow rate? Is it possible that the increased salivation, induced by the increased thickness, will dilute the tastant and hence decrease the perceived intensity? Or are taste-texture interactions caused by cross-modal interactions? Or is the increased viscosity of the texture decreasing the concentration of taste molecules? The aim of this thesis is to show how and to what extent saliva influences, and is influenced by, taste and texture.

    The addition of amylase inhibitor reduces saliva α-amylase activity and increases perceived thickness and creaminess. However, alpha-amylase activity varies widely among subjects and therefore a decreased oral α-amylase activity will not guarantee an increase in perceived thickness and creaminess of starch-based foods. Comparisons of the different tastants show that the pH of stimulated parotid saliva increases linearly, irrespective of the nature of the tastant. Protein concentration decrease and protein amount increase with increase in flow rate for all tastants. After correcting for the effect of flow rate, the protein amount is affected by the nature of the tastant with the greatest secretion after stimulation by citric acid. Flow rate is largely responsible for pH but tastant appears to play an additional role in affecting protein secretion. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates are observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remain unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect is comparable to that of saltiness, further explanations are still needed.

    Suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures is not affected by the rate of salivation. This is more likely explained by psychophysics. When the taste is separated from the texture, no texture-taste effects are observed. Dilution with saliva did occur and the tastant availability was unaffected in this set-up. The conclusion is therefore that texture-taste interactions are not caused by dilution effects or cross-modal interactions but can best be explained by the release of tastants.

    The work described in this thesis shows how the individual perception can be affected by the salivary flow and composition and how the individual salivary flow and composition can be affected by the sensory stimuli taste and texture.

    Potenties van de Hotspotmonitor om de graadmeter Landschap te verfijnen
    Langers, F. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Vries, S. de; Hinsberg, A. van; Kampen, P. van; Marwijk, R.B.M. van; Sijtsma, F.J. ; Tol, S. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 321) - 100
    landschap - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - burgers - plaatselijke bevolking - monitoring - recreatie - platteland - taxatie - methodologie - nederland - landscape - landscape experience - perception - citizens - local population - monitoring - recreation - rural areas - valuation - methodology - netherlands
    Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving werkt aan verfijning van de graadmeter Landschap. Hiertoe is een Hotspotmonitortool ontwikkeld en uitgetest in een landelijke pilot. Aan 300 bewoners van zes studiegebieden is gevraagd op landelijk, regionaal en lokaal schaalniveau landschappelijk aantrekkelijke plekken (hotspots) aan te wijzen. Over deze plekken zijn aanvullende vragen gesteld. De dichtheid aan landelijke hotspots is hoog langs de Nederlandse kust, op de Veluwe en in Zuid-Limburg. Hotspots worden vooral gewaardeerd om de belevingskwaliteiten groen, rust en natuurlijkheid. Afstand blijkt van invloed op de keuze van landelijke hotspots. In relatie tot toekomstig gebruik is van belang dat de Hotspotmonitor zich uitsluitend richt op meest aantrekkelijke groene plekken. De Hotspotmonitor biedt juist vanwege de aandacht voor de bovenkant van de schaal mogelijkheid om de huidige graadmeter te verfijnen. Een probleem, ook richting MKBA’s, is dat in grote delen van Nederland geen hotspots zijn te vinden. Om tot een landsdekkend beeld te komen moet er dus een modelmatige bewerking overheen, het liefst in combinatie met andere meetmethoden.
    Ondernemen met natuur : reflectie op wederkerigheid tussen ondernemen en natuur
    Stuiver, M. ; Boonstra, F.G. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Kruit, J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2429) - 48
    natuur - perceptie - natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - governance - ondernemerschap - industrie - afvalverwerking - beton - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfsvoering - nature - perception - nature management - landscape management - governance - entrepreneurship - industry - waste treatment - concrete - sustainability - management
    Dit rapport verkent de relaties tussen ondernemen en natuur theoretisch en empirisch. Drie koplopers op het gebied van duurzaam ondernemen schuiven langzaam op van impactreductie, waarbij de natuurlijke omgeving zoveel mogelijk wordt ontzien, naar strategieën gericht op wederkerigheid. Bij wederkerigheid benutten ondernemers natuurlijke hulpbronnen niet alleen in hun bedrijfsvoering, maar investeren zij ook in het op peil houden of ontwikkelen van natuur. Obstakels die zij hierbij tegenkomen zijn: een gebrekkige beheersbaarheid van natuurlijke processen, een nadelige kosten-baten verhouding bij investeren in natuur, nadelige concurrentieverhoudingen, een gebrek aan kennis over de werking en bijdrage van wederkerigheid aan de natuurlijke omgeving en belemmerende regelgeving. Om deze obstakels te overwinnen passen ze, met wisselend succes, diverse governance strategieën toe. Kennisuitwisseling en samenwerking met andere ondernemers (zelf governance) en beïnvloeding van overheidsregulering voeren hierbij de boventoon. Ook elementen van markt-governance (certificering) en netwerk-governance (convenanten) zijn zichtbaar. Opvallend zijn de hoge verwachtingen die de ondernemers koesteren van aanpassing van overheidsregulering. Deze verwachtingen staan op gespannen voet met de terugtredende overheid die de verantwoordelijkheid voor natuur steeds meer bij de samenleving neerlegt.
    Exploring the potential of co-investments in land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
    Adimassu Teferi, Z. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Aad Kessler. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734518 - 120
    grondbeheer - landdegradatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - boeren - gewasproductie - perceptie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - watererosie - stakeholders - ethiopië - land management - land degradation - sustainability - farmers - crop production - perception - soil fertility - water erosion - stakeholders - ethiopia

    Like in any other part of the country, land degradation resulting from water erosion and nutrient depletion is one of the most challenging problems for farmers in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, investments in land management to reduce land degradation and increase agricultural production by smallholder farmers have been limited. In addition, public and private sector organizations have never collaborated to stimulate (investments in) land improvement. This study focuses on coinvestments, which are conceived as the collaboration of different stakeholders in land management in the form of material, labour, finance, technology, knowledge and governance. The overall aim of this study was to explore the potential of co-investments to foster land management and increase land productivity in the CRV of Ethiopia. Chapter 2 presents farmers’ perceptions of crop productivity and their strategies to cope with perceived changes in the CRV of |Ethiopia. It reveals that farmers perceive a decrease in crop productivity and food production over the last decades and that they blame a decline in rainfall for this. As a consequence, farmers apply different strategies to cope with, and adapt to perceived rainfall shortages and related expected yield losses. However, an analysis of rainfall data in the CRV shows that rainfall characteristics have not changed over the last three decades. Moreover, according to analysis of official data, crop productivity per hectare in the CRV even shows a slight increase over the last decade. Therefore, farmers’ perception of a decline in crop productivity and rainfall can be explained by i) the increased demand to grow more crops to feed the rapidly growing population, and ii) the lower moisture availability for plant growth as a consequence of more intensive farming (often on less suitable fields) and land degradation. The root causes of frequent food shortages are thus not only related to rainfall, but also to soil fertility decline, soil erosion and lack of rainwater storage in the soil. Current farmers’ strategies are, therefore, not adequate to cope with the increased food demand. There is an urgent need to invest in sustainable land management (SLM) practices that enhance local food production. Chapter 3 focuses on the farmers’ perception of land degradation (especially soil erosion and nutrient depletion) and their investments in land management. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. Results reveal that land degradation in the form of water erosion and fertility depletion is a problem and has increased over

    WoesteLand : vijftig jaar natuurbeschermingskampen voor jongeren
    Langers, F. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Luttik, J. ; Cate, B. ten - \ 2012
    Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel
    natuur- en milieueducatie - jeugdprogramma's - omgevingspsychologie - particuliere organisaties - perceptie - kennisoverdracht - nature and environmental education - youth programmes - environmental psychology - private organizations - perception - knowledge transfer
    WoesteLand is de landelijke jongerenwerkgroep van het IVN, Instituut voor natuureducatie en duurzaamheid. De werkgroep organiseert al vijftig jaar activiteiten in de natuur voor en door jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar. Tijdens de kampen wordt vrijwilligerswerk in de natuur gedaan. Het enthousiasme van de deelnemers weerlegt de stelling dat jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar in het algemeen geen belangstelling hebben voor natuur.
    WoesteLand : effecten en motieven bij vijftig jaar natuurbeschermingskampen voor jongeren
    Langers, F. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Luttik, J. ; Cate, B. ten - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 286) - 78
    natuurbescherming - jeugdprogramma's - vrijwilligerssector - attitudes - natuur - particuliere organisaties - jeugd - kennisoverdracht - natuur- en milieueducatie - perceptie - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - youth programmes - voluntary sector - attitudes - nature - private organizations - youth - knowledge transfer - nature and environmental education - perception - environmental psychology
    WoesteLand is de landelijke jongerenwerkgroep van het IVN, Instituut voor natuureducatie en duurzaamheid. De werkgroep organiseert al vijftig jaar activiteiten in de natuur voor en door jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar. Tijdens de kampen wordt vrijwilligerswerk in de natuur gedaan. Het enthousiasme van de deelnemers weerlegt de stelling dat jongeren van 12 tot 30 jaar in het algemeen geen belangstelling hebben voor natuur. WoesteLand biedt naast de natuurervaring ook een sociale ervaring, en die combinatie werkt goed bij deze doelgroep. WoesteLanders hebben en houden hart voor de natuur. Dit uit zich in opleidings- en beroepskeuze, in levensstijl en in de opvoeding die zij hun kinderen geven. Daarmee werkt het door naar de volgende generaties. Een relatief groot deel van hen wordt lid van een natuurorganisatie.
    Ruimte voor waarden : een onderzoek naar het belang van waarden rondom het project Flexibel Peilbeheer – Muyeveld
    Breman, B.C. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Groot, M. de; Ottow, B. ; Ellen, G.J. - \ 2012
    Water Governance 2 (2012)5. - ISSN 2211-0224 - p. 38 - 43.
    peilbeheer - waterbeheer - besluitvorming - governance - perceptie - regionale planning - utrecht - water level management - water management - decision making - governance - perception - regional planning - utrecht
    In toenemende mate is er bij wateropgaven sprake van complexe onderlinge afhankelijkheid tussen maatregelen in het waterbeheer – ingegeven vanuit (Europees) beleid- en bestaande ruimtelijke, economische en maatschappelijke functies in een gebied. Door de verschuiving naar een integrale opvatting van waterbeheer bevinden waterschappers zich steeds vaker in een centrale rol in gebiedsprocessen. Zij passen in besluitvormingsprocessen – zoals het opstellen van een watergebiedsplan – steeds vaker een interactieve benadering toe waarbij diverse stakeholders direct bij het proces worden betrokken. Dit vraagt om andere vaardigheden en roept vragen op over de communicatie met betrokkenen en over hun beleving. Gevolg is dat meer partijen betrokken zijn bij dergelijke gebiedsprocessen, waardoor het voor een waterschap, anders dan voorheen, steeds moeilijker wordt om te sturen en de gewenste doelen te halen.
    Research and Design for Thermal Comfort in Dutch Urban Squares
    Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2012
    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 64 (2012). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 39 - 48.
    klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - perceptie - climatic change - urban areas - temperature - perception - space - environment - vegetation - behavior
    Human thermal comfort in urban outdoor places was generally not an issue in Dutch urban design. This neglect shows problematic effects of discomfort, but also missed chances in urban life quality. The existing problems are alleviated due to the expected effects of climate change with even higher temperatures. This altogether requires adaptations in the setup of the urban environment. But there still is a lack of usable urban design guidelines. Therefore, a “research for design” and a “research by design” project was conducted, generating design guidelines for thermally comfortable Dutch urban squares. The “research for design” entailed a survey on people's microclimate perceptions resulting in a range of design guidelines. These guidelines and additional new design hypotheses were applied in a design process - a “research by design” and tested further through microclimate simulations. These lead to improved design guidelines in the form of spatial patterns for optimized thermal comfort conditions in Dutch urban squares. The results of this project, being a range of design recommendations, facilitate the easy implementation of measures to improve thermal comfort in Dutch public squares and make cities more climate-proof.
    Alle natuur is beleefbare natuur : Naar een beter natuurbeschermingsverhaal
    Koppen, C.S.A. van - \ 2012
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 29 (2012)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 69 - 73.
    natuurbescherming - landschapsbeleving - natuur - perceptie - recreatie - biodiversiteit - attitudes - burgers - nature conservation - landscape experience - nature - perception - recreation - biodiversity - attitudes - citizens
    Het regeringsbeleid van de afgelopen twee jaar heeft een schok teweeggebracht binnen de Nederlandse natuurbescherming. Na jaren van positieve ondersteuning werd er plotseling grimmig bezuinigd. Die schok gaf een krachtige impuls aan het debat over de koers van de natuurbescherming en de relatie met de Nederlandse burgers. Inmiddels is het politieke tij gekeerd en klinkt er nieuwe hoop, maar dat maakt het debat over de relatie tussen natuurbescherming en burgers niet minder actueel.
    Drijfveren, sociaal kapitaal en strategie van collectieve burgeracties tegen grote landschappelijke ingrepen
    Groot, M. de; Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Donders, J.L.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 117) - 96
    landschap - overheidsbeleid - burgers - regionale planning - sociale processen - perceptie - interviews - landscape - government policy - citizens - regional planning - social processes - perception - interviews
    In dit onderzoek worden de drijfveren, het sociaal kapitaal en de strategie van vier actiegroepen beschreven die in verweer zijn gekomen tegen grootschalige ingrepen in het landschap: Red ons bos, Werkgroep Zwartendijk, Bewonersvereniging Horstermeerpolder en Actiecomité Horstermeerpolder. Uit interviews met de actievoerders blijkt dat hun identificatie met het landschap en hun ideologie over natuur belangrijke drijfveren zijn. Uit deze drijfveren volgt een boosheid die de uiteindelijke ‘trigger’ is om in verzet te komen. Bij ingrepen in cultuurlandschappen is de collectieve identiteit van de groep grotendeels gebaseerd op de cultuur van de lokale gemeenschap en de historie van het landschap. Dit is vooral het geval bij de Horstermeerpolder omdat de burgers daar in het gebied wonen. De actiegroepen in de Horstermeerpolder en Werkgroep Zwartendijk komen voort uit een hechte gemeenschap en vinden informatie en aanhang vooral via sociale contacten. Red ons bos maakt hiervoor gebruik van internet. Alle actiegroepen benadrukken vooral objectiverende argumenten. Trefwoorden: actiegroep, drijfveren, sociaal kapitaal, strategie, burgerinitiatief
    Gedreven streven voor natuur en landschap : over actiegroepen van burgers tegen grote landschappelijke ingrepen
    Groot, M. de; Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Donders, J.L.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 19) - 8
    landschap - overheidsbeleid - burgers - regionale planning - sociale processen - perceptie - interviews - landscape - government policy - citizens - regional planning - social processes - perception - interviews
    Veel Nederlanders voelen zich betrokken bij natuur en landschap. Zij zetten zich in voor het natuurbehoud door donaties of vrijwilligerswerk. De overheid stimuleert de betrokkenheid van burgers en het huidige kabinet benadrukt de behoefte aan bevlogen mensen die verantwoordelijkheid nemen voor het landschap. Maar wat als deze bevlogen mensen het niet eens zijn met het overheidsbeleid? De betrokkenheid bij natuur en landschap kan zich net zo goed tegen de overheid keren. Hoewel het meestal een kleine groep is die zich verzet, bepaalt deze vaak wel het beeld naar buiten toe van een bevolking die het ‘niet pikt’. WOt-paper 19 gaat over burgergroepen die in verzet komen tegen ingrepen in het landschap en wat hun invloed is op de beeldvorming en het planproces.
    Natuurcompensatie: slim beleid begint op tijd
    Broekmeyer, M.E.A. ; Bugter, R.J.F. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van - \ 2012
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 29 (2012)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 57 - 67.
    natuurcompensatie - ecologische hoofdstructuur - natuurwaarde - perceptie - natura 2000 - flora - fauna - nature compensation - ecological network - natural value - perception - natura 2000 - flora - fauna
    Natuurcompensatie is de plicht om verliezen aan natuurwaarden die ontstaan door menselijke activiteiten te compenseren. Ook in de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur is compensatie vereist, maar de uitvoering ervan blijft achter en de effectiviteit is onduidelijk. Op basis van een studie naar compensatiebeginselen en rekenregels voor natuurwaardering, pleiten de auteurs ervoor om bij de EHS het tijdigheidsbeginsel toe te passen.
    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction
    Steg, L. ; Berg, A.E. van den; Groot, J.I.M. de - \ 2012
    UK : Wiley-Blackwell (BPS textbooks in psychology ) - ISBN 9780470976388 - 406
    omgevingspsychologie - gezondheid - welzijn - landschapsbeleving - wild - natuur - perceptie - gedrag - milieubeheer - stedelijke gebieden - studieboeken - environmental psychology - health - well-being - landscape experience - wildlife - nature - perception - behaviour - environmental management - urban areas - textbooks
    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's effects on human wellbeing and behaviour, factors influencing environmental behaviour and ways of encouraging pro-environmental action •Provides a state-of-the-art overview of recent developments in environmental psychology, with an emphasis on sustainability as a unifying principle for theory, research and interventions •While focusing primarily on Europe and North America, also discusses environmental psychology in non-Western and developing countries •Responds to a growing interest in the contribution of environmental psychologists to understanding and solving environmental problems and promoting the effects of environmental conditions on health and wellbeing
    Daar moet ik zijn : www.daarmoetikzijn.nl
    Alterra - Centrum Landschap, ; Goossen, C.M. - \ 2012
    Alterra
    landschap - perceptie - openluchtrecreatie - natuurtoerisme - besluitvorming - natuur - landscape - perception - outdoor recreation - nature tourism - decision making - nature
    Naar wat voor omgeving gaat u het liefst op vakantie? Hoe moet het landschap daar eruit zien? Nederland kent vele mooie landschappen, maar ook minder mooie. Maar wat is mooi en wat is lelijk en wie bepaalt dat? Op deze site bepaalt u dat zelf. Een website, ontwikkeld door Alterra, in opdracht van LNV
    Het natuurdebat ontward : natuur als erfgoed, als kapitaalgoed en als consumentengoed
    Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2012
    Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk - 50
    natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - perceptie - attitudes - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - perception - attitudes
    Veeneklaas onderscheidt in zijn essay drie motieven voor natuurbescherming: natuur als erfgoed, natuur als kapitaalgoed en natuur als consumptiegoed. Deze motieven zijn niet alleen wezenlijk verschillend in doelstellingen, maar kennen ook eigen obstakels en verschillende primaire actoren. Zijn stelling is dat de motieven tot dusverre te weinig zijn onderscheiden, met als gevolg een welhaast onontwarbare kluwen van argumenten en tegenargumenten.
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