Room for manoeuvre: User participation in water resources management in Burkina Faso
Daré, Williams ; Venot, Jean Philippe - \ 2018
Development Policy Review 36 (2018)2. - ISSN 0950-6764 - p. 175 - 189.
companion modelling - Integrated Water Resources Management - knowledge - participation - power - West Africa
Participation in natural resources management is widely promoted in sub-Saharan Africa, but faces mounting criticism from social science scholars who rarely engage with it in practice. We use the notion of room for manoeuvre to reflect on a multi-level participatory approach designed to support the Burkinabè Integrated Water Resources Management policy and propose ways of engaging constructively with local users and policy-makers. Within an “invited space” of participation, water users’ room for manoeuvre was enhanced through the acquisition of new knowledge on the legal Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) framework. This allowed them to interact with decision-makers and to extend their networks. Power imbalances were discussed, but this did not lead to modifying existing power structures that hinge on broader societal dynamics.
‘I won’t take part!’ : Exploring the multiple identities of the ethnographer in two Ghanaian hospitals
Aberese-Ako, Matilda - \ 2017
Ethnography 18 (2017)3. - ISSN 1466-1381 - p. 300 - 321.
distrust - hospital ethnography - insider - multiple identities - outsider - power - trust - worker motivation
This article reflects on how an ethnographer’s approach to field entry, the topic of study, her use of ethnographic methods and contextual factors shaped research participants’ perception of her multiple identities in a Ghanaian hospital environment. Her perceived multiple identities influenced trust and distrust relations between her and her research participants, which impacted on the research project. The article discusses the paradox of the researcher’s negotiation of her multiple identities of ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ and its influence on the process of data collection, understanding and analysis of the study topic. The article argues that research projects give birth to the ethnographer. Obviously, the observations of the ethnographer, who is the main research instrument, of her own position, are an important source for data collection. Participation and positioning in organizational activities can provide the ethnographer with a personal experience of her study topic and data that enhances understanding of organizational processes.
Perpetuating power through autoethnography : my research unawareness and memories of paternalism among the indigenous Hai//om in Namibia
Koot;, Stasja - \ 2016
Critical Arts 30 (2016)6. - ISSN 0256-0046 - p. 840 - 854.
autoethnography - Hai//om - memory - Namibia - power - unawareness
In this article, I reflect on my longitudinal relation with the indigenous Hai//om Bushmen of the resettlement farm Tsintsabis, in Namibia, exploring my position of power as a development fieldworker. I have been connected to the Hai//om since 1999, doing research and living and working with them while continuously moving between being an ‘outsider’ and an ‘insider’. As an MA student, a development worker/boss (baas) and a PhD researcher, my knowledge of these indigenous people changed over the years. My longest stay on the farm was not as a researcher/anthropologist but as a development fieldworker, engaging with the people in manifold relationships. I argue that there is much epistemological value in an ‘open retrospective analytic autoethnographic experience’. The article explores three under-analysed but crucial and related elements of autoethnography, namely unawareness, memory and power. Even when the awareness of ‘doing research’ is absent, knowledge is acquired. This can be used analytically at a later stage. However, this inevitably implies a major role for the researcher’s memories, thereby perpetuating his/her position of power in the representation and interpretation of events and experiences.
Offshore wind park monitoring programmes, lessons learned and recommendations for the future
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Degraer, S. ; Dannheim, J. ; Gill, A.B. ; Wilhelmsson, D. - \ 2015
Hydrobiologia 756 (2015)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 169 - 180.
renewable energy development - north-sea - communities - impacts - benthos - farms - power - biodiversity - assemblages - management
Over a decade of monitoring offshore wind park environmental impact triggered a reflection on the overall objectives and how to best continue with the monitoring programmes. Essentially, basic monitoring has to be rationalised at the level of the likelihood of impact detection, the meaningfulness of impact size and representativeness of the findings. Targeted monitoring is crucial and should continue to be applied to disentangle processes behind observed impacts, for instance the overarching artificial reef effect caused by wind parks. The major challenge, however, remains to achieve a reliable assessment of the cumulative impacts. A continuous international consultation and collaboration with marine scientists, managers, government officials and industry will be needed to ensure an optimisation of the future monitoring programmes.
Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake
Boer, J.H.W. van den; Mars, M. - \ 2015
Appetite 86 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 25 - 30.
food-intake - social facilitation - behavior - humans - perception - duration - power - size
Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f¿=¿8/22, age: 21.2¿±¿1.9¿years, BMI: 21.2¿±¿1.6¿kg/m2) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3¿bites/min), medium (5¿bites/min) or fast (7¿bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9¿±¿1.3, medium: 4.0¿±¿1.1, fast: 4.0¿±¿1.3¿bites/min (p¿=¿0.75), as was average bite size (11¿±¿2.6¿g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9¿±¿3.6¿min) and fast condition (14.4¿±¿3.7¿min) compared to the slow condition (16.8¿±¿4.8¿min) (post hoc in both cases p¿
The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development
Papaioannou, K.I. ; Zanden, J.L. van - \ 2015
Journal of Institutional Economics 11 (2015)1. - ISSN 1744-1374 - p. 111 - 139.
panel-data - measuring democracy - government size - cross-section - cause growth - institutions - power - democratization - instruments - countries
This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry out sound economic policies. We argue that such economic policies are the result of information asymmetries inherent to dictatorships (known as the ‘dictator dilemma’) and of changes in the personality of dictators (known as the ‘winner effect’). We call the combination of these two terms the ‘dictator effect’. We present evidence to suggest that long years in office impacts on economic growth (which is reduced), inflation (which increases) and the quality of institutions (which deteriorates). The negative effect of long years of tenure (i.e. the ‘dictator effect’) is particularly strong in young states and in Africa and the Near East.
Regional restrictions on environmental impact assessment approval in China: the legitimacy of environmental authoritarianism
Zhu, X. ; Zhang, L. ; Ran, R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 100 - 108.
public-participation - politics - implementation - management - democracy - power - law
The poor enforcement and effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) on construction and investment projects in China has long been blamed for not preventing environmental pollution and degradation. At the same time, freezing EIA approval of all new projects in an administrative region, introduced in 2006 as a punishment for failing to meet regional environmental quality targets, has been regarded as an innovative administrative instrument used by higher level environmental authorities on local governments. But it also raised controversies. Applying an environmental authoritarianism perspective, this study analyzed the legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of freezing EIA approval procedures by reviewing all 25 national cases and 12 provincial cases of so-called EIA Restrictions Targeting Regions between 1 December 2006 and 31 December 2013. The results show that such an environmental authoritarian measure is to some extent environmentally effective but lacks legality and transparency towards and participation of third parties, and hence falls short in legitimacy. Legal foundations and wider third party participation are essential for the long term effectiveness of this policy and its transfer to other countries.
Land-use change arising from rural land exchange: an agent-based simulation model
Bakker, M.M. ; Alam, S.J. ; Dijk, J. van; Rounsevell, M.D.A. - \ 2015
Landscape Ecology 30 (2015). - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 273 - 286.
challenges - improve - quality - power
Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing farmers, nature organizations, and estate owners.
Delineating active citizenship: The subjectification of citizens' initiatives
Dam, R.I. van; Duineveld, M. ; During, R. - \ 2015
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 17 (2015)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 163 - 179.
big society - power - netherlands - governance - implementation - community - systems - policy - nimby
Based on three case studies on citizens' initiatives in their local governance contexts, we analyse the process of subjectification as a performative effect of the dialectical relationship between governmental organizations and citizens' initiatives. We argue that discourses produced by governmental organizations on what it entails to be an active citizen have a performative effect on citizens' initiatives, which adapt themselves, anticipate on what is expected from them and act strategically towards these discourses. As a consequence, some people become ‘good’ citizens meeting the expectations of the governmental discourse. The process of subjectification shows that this not a unilateral act, but mutually activated by both governmental organizations and citizens' initiatives.
Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy
Zeitoun, M. ; Warner, J.F. ; Mirumachi, N. ; Matthews, N. ; McLaughlin, K. - \ 2014
Water Policy 16 (2014)S2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 174 - 193.
global environmental justice - hydro-hegemony - south-africa - nile basin - power - management - allocation - equity - law - hydrosolidarity
By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and diplomacy are grouped under themes of equitability, process/outcomes, and structural concerns. These include shortcomings of analysis and policy based on unfounded assumptions of equality, and options excluded from consideration by the legitimisation of particular concepts of justice over others. As power asymmetry is seen to enable or disable justice claims and conflict resolution efforts, the importance of ensuring equitable outcomes as a pre-condition for cooperation is asserted. Similarly, water conflict resolution is found to be more fair – procedurally – than is conflict management, and may be supported to a limited extent by international water law. A number of analytical tasks are suggested for future research and policy, including a call to scrutinise the source of legitimacy of strands of justice invoked. Given the very many perspectives on justice that exist in the network of relevant actors, potential bias in research and diplomacy could be reduced if all involved openly stated the morals underpinning their understanding of ‘justice’.
Student perceptions of assessment and student self-efficacy in competence-based education
Dinther, M. van; Dochy, F. ; Segers, M. ; Braeken, J. - \ 2014
Educational Studies 40 (2014)3. - ISSN 0305-5698 - p. 330 - 351.
beliefs - performance - framework - feedback - power
The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the interplay between student perceptions of competence-based assessment and student self-efficacy, and how this influences student learning outcomes. Results reveal that student perceptions of the form authenticity aspect and the quality feedback aspect of assessment do predict student self-efficacy, confirming the role of mastery experiences and social persuasions in enhancing student self-efficacy as stated by social cognitive theory. Findings do not confirm mastery experiences as being a stronger source of self-efficacy information than social persuasions. Study results confirm the predictive role of students' self-efficacy on their competence outcomes. Mediation analysis results indicate that student's perceptions of assessment have an indirect effect on student's competence evaluation outcomes through student's self-efficacy. Study findings highlight which assessment characteristics, positively influencing students' learning, contribute to the effectiveness of competence-based education. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are indicated.
Responsible research and innovation in miniature: Information asymmetries hindering a more inclusive 'nanofood' development
Bakker, E. de; Lauwere, C.C. de; Hoes, A.C. ; Beekman, V. - \ 2014
Science and Public Policy 41 (2014)3. - ISSN 0302-3427 - p. 294 - 305.
nanotechnology - risks - power
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is about an interactive and comprehensive development of new technologies, also addressing social needs and ethical issues. But how do these ambitions of RRI relate to the practice of technological innovations? Nanotechnology is currently a large-scale techno-scientific development that offers many chances and opportunities but also raises concerns. Focusing on the issues of power, information (asymmetries) and responsibility we will describe the Dutch policy, assessments and debates on nanotechnology in general and on nanofood in particular. RRI assumes a willingness of all stakeholders to share or communicate information, but the case of nanofood exemplifies that industry can be reluctant to do this because of the fear that discussions will take a 'wrong direction'. We conclude that information asymmetries can be a principal problem for a more inclusive nanofood development and that policies that wish to strengthen RRI should take this into account.
Identifying the ‘if’ for ‘if-then’ plans: Combining implementation intentions with cue-monitoring targeting unhealthy snacking behaviour
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2014
Psychology and Health 29 (2014)12. - ISSN 0887-0446 - p. 1476 - 1492.
habit strength - interventions - metaanalysis - breaking - enhance - weight - trial - power
Implementation intentions aimed at changing unwanted habits require the identification of personally relevant cues triggering the habitual response in order to be effective. To facilitate successful implementation intention formation, in the present study, planning was combined with cue-monitoring, a novel way to gain insight into triggers for unhealthy snacking. It was tested whether keeping a cue-monitoring diary and tailoring implementation intentions accordingly improves plan effectiveness. A 2 Monitoring (cue-monitoring, control)¿×¿2 Planning (implementation intention, goal intention) between subjects design was adopted. Participants (N = 161) monitored their unhealthy snacking behaviour for a week using either a cue-monitoring or a control diary. Participants then formulated a goal intention or an implementation intention tailored to their personal cue. Snacking frequency and caloric intake from unhealthy snacks were examined using a seven-day snack diary. The results did not indicate an interaction but yielded a main effect of Monitoring. Cue-monitoring either or not combined with implementation intentions reduced unhealthy snacking behaviour compared with control. Findings emphasise the effectiveness of cue-monitoring, suggesting that on the short term, cue-monitoring suffices to decrease unhealthy snacking, without additional benefit from planning. Future research should examine whether supplementing cue-monitoring with implementation intentions is required to establish long-term behaviour change maintenance.
The Malleability of Participation: The Politics of Agricultural Research under Neoliberalism in Bolivia
Cordoba, D.M. ; Jansen, K. ; Gonzalez, C. - \ 2014
Development and Change 45 (2014)6. - ISSN 0012-155X - p. 1284 - 1309.
governmentality - management - improve - power - age
This article analyses how neoliberal restructuring encouraged the use of participatory methods in agricultural research in Bolivia and how, at a later stage, participatory development initiatives had to be adapted to prevent conflicts with the post-neoliberal views of farmer organizations. The article contributes to the debate on the normalization of participatory methods in agrarian development. Engaging with Foucault's work on governmentality and neoliberalism, our analysis goes beyond interpretations of participation which conceptualize it exclusively as a technology of power to discipline subjects. Drawing on a distinction between a liberal and a neoliberal moment in the restructuring of agricultural research, we study the case of PROINPA (Foundation for the Promotion and Research of Andean Products), a national NGO that was once part of the state system for agricultural research but was then privatized. Although PROINPA employed participation mainly to enhance managerial effectiveness, it also facilitated moments of participation from below. We argue that participation designed by this type of NGO is not just ‘technical’ as PROINPA professionals would like to perceive it, nor is it simply ‘political’ as critical views on participation hold. Instead it is malleable in the sense that each actor is involved in finding a new balance between technical, economic and political considerations.
The riot, the people and the neighborhood: narrative framing of social disorder in four cases
Hulst, M.J. van; Siesling, M. ; Lieshout, M. van; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. - \ 2014
Media, Culture & Society 36 (2014)4. - ISSN 0163-4437 - p. 456 - 472.
frames - news - newspapers - sociology - power - back
This article looks at the ways newspaper articles, through their stories, frame social disorder in urban areas. The article compares reporting on four cases – two Dutch, two Belgian – of violent confrontations between societal groups and between societal groups and the police. News articles on the riots through time widen in terms of their geographic and social scale. At the same time, stories are told about a familiar cast of characters, leaving others out. The practices of newspapers seem to reinforce this pattern. The article contributes to the understanding of the role of traditional media in narrative framing of present-day public problems. Keywords: framing, narrative, news practices, riots, social disorder, story, storytelling
Seawater predesalination with electrodialysis
Galama, A.H. ; Saakes, M. ; Bruning, H. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Post, J.W. - \ 2014
Desalination 342 (2014). - ISSN 0011-9164 - p. 61 - 69.
ion-exchange membranes - electroosmotic water transport - resin membranes - desalination processes - power - electrotransport - salinity - reversal - system - model
The suitability of ED for seawater desalination was investigated and we quantified the energy losses that play a role in electrodialysis. The combination of electrodialysis (ED) and brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) is presented as an alternative desalination strategy for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). Experiments have been performed with a recycling batch electrodialyzer. From this we conclude that in most cases the membrane stack is responsible for the main energy loss in the system. Energy losses due to water transport are generally low. At low applied current density, osmotic water transport is relatively large and as such the energy loss, while electroosmosis was found to be directly proportional to the applied current density. The relative energy loss caused by back diffusion was found to be only of minor importance for higher current densities and was only more pronounced at the lowest applied current density of 10 A/m2. Combining ED with BWRO in a hybrid system does not lead to a reduction in energy consumption compared to ED as standalone technique, when the applied current density becomes lower than 50 A/m2. At low applied current density (10 A/m2) ED can perform desalination energetically cheaper at lower operational costs than SWRO.
Shifting nature conservation approaches in Natura 2000 and the implications for the roles of stakeholders
Ferranti, F. ; Turnhout, E. ; Beunen, R. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2014
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 57 (2014)11. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1642 - 1657.
policy - participation - governance - implementation - netherlands - empowerment - ecosystem - network - power
This paper analyses Natura 2000 as a shifting configuration of different approaches to nature conservation and discusses the consequences of these shifts for the roles of the stakeholders affected by this policy. Natura 2000 started with a technocratic approach that privileged conservation experts and marginalised socio-economic stakeholders. Over time, this approach has been complemented with participatory and economic approaches that offered scope for the inclusion of land users and business actors. However, the analysis also shows that the selective inclusion of economic values and stakeholders in the Natura 2000 framework risks marginalising other important socio-environmental actors.
Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions
Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Schaetzle, O. ; Paz-García, J.M. ; Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Technology Letters 1 (2014)1. - ISSN 2328-8930 - p. 31 - 35.
water salinity difference - capacitive deionization - carbon electrodes - extraction - power - capture
When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a total annual worldwide capacity of 1570 TWh. To harvest the mixing energy from CO2-containing gas emissions, we use pairs of porous electrodes, one selective for anions and the other selective for cations. We demonstrate that when an aqueous electrolyte, flushed with either CO2 or air, alternately flows between these selective porous electrodes, electrical energy is gained. The efficiency of this process reached 24% with deionized water as the aqueous electrolyte and 32% with a 0.25 M monoethanolamine (MEA) solution as the electrolyte. The highest average power density obtained with a MEA solution as the electrolyte was 4.5 mW/m2, significantly higher than that with water as the electrolyte (0.28 mW/m2).
Feeling at home in public: diasporic Moroccan women negotiating leisure in Morocco and the Netherlands
Wagner, L.B. ; Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2014
Gender, Place & Culture : a Journal of Feminist Geography 21 (2014)4. - ISSN 0966-369X - p. 415 - 430.
gender - space - constraints - experience - power - city - fear
Muslim women are often cited as subject to restriction in their mobility through public space, especially in European contexts, in comparison with non-Muslim community members. Yet any woman might face restriction in her access to leisure outside the home through geographies of risk and fear, as well as geographies of care and responsibility. In this article, we describe the ways in which Moroccan Muslim women resident in Europe negotiate access to leisure outside the home, in both Europe and Morocco, demonstrating that they practice mobilities framed by safety, risk and responsibility combined with individual volition to be participants in public spaces. Using examples from interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we discuss a notion of ‘viscosity’ as safe public space that acts as an extension of the home, where women feel comfortable enacting their daily lives and engaging in leisure practices. By comparing data from the Netherlands and Morocco, we highlight the role of Muslim-dominant and Christian-dominant public spheres in these negotiations of leisure. The ways women inhabit such spaces reflect individual concerns about personal safety, as well as maintaining respectful relations with family and being protected from unknown dangers, in ways that reflect not only religious beliefs but also geographies of risk related to other factors. Inhabiting such spaces implicates how they become part of the community at large, as visibly present participants, by negotiating many factors beyond religious beliefs as part of their access to public leisure spaces
Functional Foods as Differentiated Products: the Italian Yogurt Market
Bonanno, A. - \ 2013
European Review of Agricultural Economics 40 (2013)1. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 45 - 71.
consumer acceptance - empirical-analysis - demand system - competition - valuation - industry - europe - price - power - model
In spite of the growing consumers' interest for functional foods, the knowledge regarding the demand for these products and their profitability is limited. Adapting the LA/AIDS (Linear Approximated–Almost Ideal Demand System) model by means of Pinkse, Slade and Brett's distance metric method (2002), this article studies demand, substitution pattern, and profitability of conventional and functional alternatives inside the yogurt category in Italy. Results indicate that, in the yogurt market, functional alternatives' demand is often less elastic than that of their conventional counterparts, that brand loyalty plays a key role, and that the profitability of the functional alternatives is, on average, larger than that of conventional ones.
Statistical guidelines for Apis mellifera research
Pirk, C.W.W. ; Miranda, J.R. ; Kramer, M. ; Murray, T.E. ; Nazzi, F. ; Shutler, D. ; Steen, J.J.M. van der; Dooremalen, C. van - \ 2013
Journal of Apicultural Research 52 (2013)4. - ISSN 0021-8839
division-of-labor - honey-bees - sample-size - nosema-apis - prevalence - viruses - models - larvae - power
In this article we provide guidelines on statistical design and analysis of data for all kinds of honey bee research. Guidelines and selection of different methods presented are, at least partly, based on experience. This article can be used: to identify the most suitable analysis for the type of data collected; to optimise one's experimental design based on the experimental factors to be investigated, samples to be analysed, and the type of data produced; to determine how, where, and when to sample bees from colonies; or just to inspire. Also included are guidelines on presentation and reporting of data, as well as where to find help and which types of software could be useful.
Inequality in new global governance arrangements: the North-South divide in transnational municipal networks
Bouteligier, S. - \ 2013
Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research 26 (2013)3. - ISSN 1351-1610 - p. 251 - 267.
power - policy
Networks are often portrayed as more equal governance arrangements because of their horizontal character. Power relations within networks are neglected as the collaborative activities receive the bulk of attention. However, from a critical reading of the network and flows literature we know that networks are not free of power relations, and that they create new inequalities and even intensify existing ones. Using Manuel Castells's conceptual framework on power in networks, this article studies power relations in two transnational municipal networks that address urban environmental challenges: the World Association of the Major Metropolises and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. Power relations that result from informational and ideational flows are at the core of attention. The paper reveals contributor/receiver linkages and their consequences. The conclusions are framed by reflections on the significance of cities from the Global South in new global governance arrangements.
Genetic diversity and structure in a collection of tulip cultivars assessed by SNP markers
Tang, N. ; Shahin, A. ; Bijman, P.J.J. ; Liu, J. ; Tuyl, J.M. van; Arens, P. - \ 2013
Scientia Horticulturae 161 (2013). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 286 - 292.
single nucleotide polymorphisms - population-structure - genome - identification - conservation - liliaceae - program - power
Although tulip is one of the most important bulbous crops worldwide, the genetic background of most cultivars is unclear at present. The purposes of this study are to investigate genetic diversity and to identify the genetic structure and relationships among tulip cultivars. A total of 236 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from 'Kees Nelis' and 'Cantata', from which 121 SNPs with a minor allele frequency above 0.1 were selected for genetic analysis. The total observed heterozygosity (Ho) among the 72 accessions was 0.35, Ho of cultivar groups ranged from 0.22 (Tulipa fosteriana) to 0.43 (Tulipa gesneriana x T. fosteriana hybrids). Rather small genetic distances were found among T. gesneriana cultivar groups which are defined according to flowering time and morphology. In both PCoA (principle coordinate analysis) and STRUCTURE analysis, the 72 accessions were separated into three clusters (F-ST =0.208, P
The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on nontarget organisms
Semenov, A.V. ; Elsas, J.D. van; Glandorf, D.C.M. ; Schilthuizen, M. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2013
Ecology and Evolution 3 (2013)8. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 2739 - 2750.
herbicide-tolerant crops - farm-scale evaluations - gene flow - population-structure - habitat preference - land snail - dispersal - design - power - invertebrates
To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on varied experimental designs. The recent EFSA guidance document for environmental risk assessment (2010) does not provide clear and structured suggestions that address the statistics of field trials on effects on NTO's. This review examines existing practices in GM plant field testing such as the way of randomization, replication, and pseudoreplication. Emphasis is placed on the importance of design features used for the field trials in which effects on NTO's are assessed. The importance of statistical power and the positive and negative aspects of various statistical models are discussed. Equivalence and difference testing are compared, and the importance of checking the distribution of experimental data is stressed to decide on the selection of the proper statistical model. While for continuous data (e.g., pH and temperature) classical statistical approaches - for example, analysis of variance (ANOVA) - are appropriate, for discontinuous data (counts) only generalized linear models (GLM) are shown to be efficient. There is no golden rule as to which statistical test is the most appropriate for any experimental situation. In particular, in experiments in which block designs are used and covariates play a role GLMs should be used. Generic advice is offered that will help in both the setting up of field testing and the interpretation and data analysis of the data obtained in this testing. The combination of decision trees and a checklist for field trials, which are provided, will help in the interpretation of the statistical analyses of field trials and to assess whether such analyses were correctly applied.
The effect of temperature and time on the quality of natural fermented marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. Caffra) juice
Hiwilepo-van Hal, P. ; Bille, P.G. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. - \ 2013
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 53 (2013)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 70 - 75.
antioxidant activity - vitamin-c - tropical fruits - wines - power - red
This paper presents the effects of fermentation on the retention of vitamin C, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in the naturally fermented marula juice. The fermentation conditions have been varied: temperature ranged between 20 and 40 °C and fermentation time from 1 to 8 days. Marula juice fermented at higher temperatures ranged between 30 and 40 °C for 6 to 4 days retained high antioxidant activities, and they were positively correlated to its ascorbic acid and phenolic content. The values obtained ranged between 0.0239 ± 0.0051 and 0.029 ± 0.0038 µmol/mg for Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity, 870 ± 80 and 960 ± 130 mg/100 ml for total phenolic content and 90 ± 6 and 159 ± 15 mg/100 ml for ascorbic acid. Overall, fermented marula juice can be used as a good source for natural antioxidants.
Participatory Development and Reconstruction: a literature review
Kyamusugulwa, P.M. - \ 2013
Third World Quarterly 34 (2013)7. - ISSN 0143-6597 - p. 1265 - 1278.
community-driven development - collective action - popular participation - public-participation - elite capture - power - management - accountability - benchmarking - livelihoods
In the past decade researchers and development experts have been preoccupied by participatory development and reconstruction. Despite criticisms of its potential, it has been at the centre of development practices. This review of both published and unpublished literature aims to assess the importance of participatory development and reconstruction, especially its positive and negative characteristics. The paper shows that, despite its potentially transformative role, its main drawback rests in the power relations between elites and non-elites and that creating comprehensible ways through which non-elites can deal with these relations is one issue that needs additional research. Other issues that need more research are related to how to sustain the participatory development and reconstruction outcomes by increasing local ownership, and how to better involve existing structures and institutions (both state and non-state actors) in development and reconstruction efforts for poverty alleviation.
Less is more: The effect of multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Fennis, B.M. - \ 2013
European Journal of Social Psychology 43 (2013)5. - ISSN 0046-2772 - p. 344 - 354.
behavior-change - goal achievement - personal goals - past behavior - strength - plans - metaanalysis - breaking - number - power
Implementation intentions have been shown to effectively change counter-intentional habits. Research has, however, almost solely been concerned with the effectiveness of a single plan. In the present research, we investigated the behavioral and cognitive implications of making multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits and its underlying processes, linking multiple habitual snacking cues to healthy alternatives. Study 1 revealed that formulating multiple implementation intentions was not effective in decreasing unhealthy snacking, whereas formulating a single plan successfully induced behavior change. By using a lexical decision task in Study 2, it was found that when making a single plan, but not multiple plans, the healthy alternative became cognitively more accessible in response to a critical cue prime than the habitual response. However, when making additional plans in an unrelated domain, the negative effects of making multiple plans were absent. In sum, the current findings suggest that formulating multiple implementation intentions is ineffective when changing unwanted behavior. These reduced effects of multiple implementation intentions do not occur when making the plan but are rather due to interference in the enacting phase of the planning process.
Influence of the thickness of the capacitive layer on the performance of bioanodes in Microbial Fuel Cells
Deeke, A. ; Sleutels, T.H.J.A. ; Heijne, A. ter; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2013
Journal of Power Sources 243 (2013). - ISSN 0378-7753 - p. 611 - 616.
waste-water treatment - energy-storage - operation - power
Earlier it was shown, that it is possible to operate a Microbial Fuel Cell with an integrated capacitive bio-anode with a thickness of 0.5 mm and thereby to increase the power output. The integrated capacitive bioanode enabled storage of electricity produced by microorganisms directly inside an MFC. To increase the performance of this integrated storage system even more; the thickness of the capacitive electrode was varied: 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm. Each of these capacitive electrodes was tested in the MFC setup during polarization curves and charge–discharge experiments for the steady-state current density and the maximum charge recovery. The capacitive electrode with a thickness of 0.2 mm outperformed the other electrodes in all experiments: it reached a maximum current density of 2.53 Am-² during polarization curves, and was able to store a cumulative total charge of 96013 cm-² during charge–discharge experiments. The highest relative charge recovery for this electrode was 1.4, which means that 40% more current can be gained from this capacitive electrode during intermittent operation compared to continuous operation of a noncapacitive electrode. Surprisingly it was possible to increase the performance of the MFC through decrease of the thickness of the capacitive electrode.
Wind versus nuclear options for generating electricity in a carbon constrained world: Strategizing in an energy rich economy
Kooten, G.C. van; Johnston, C. ; Wong, L. - \ 2013
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 95 (2013)2. - ISSN 0002-9092 - p. 505 - 511.
Emotional conflicts in rational forestry: Towards a research agenda for understanding emotions in environmental conflicts
Buijs, A.E. ; Lawrence, A. - \ 2013
Forest Policy and Economics 33 (2013). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 104 - 111.
old-growth forests - decision-making - biodiversity conservation - social-movements - participation - management - deliberation - perspectives - policy - power
When looking at social conflicts around forests, both foresters and researchers tend to frame conflicts as rational differences related to diverging knowledge, values, and interests. In past centuries, and in areas where the forests are of immediate livelihood importance, this has been a powerful approach to explaining disputes. However for many stakeholders, including local communities, environmental campaigners and foresters themselves, feelings and emotions are also relevant components of a conflict. In this paper we argue that an overall tendency to ‘rationalise’ nature and forests has pushed emotion out of sight, and delegitimised it. Using examples from our own research in The Netherlands and the UK, we argue that feelings need to be visible and legitimate, in order to address the underlying causes of conflict. We begin the paper by examining how conflicts have been framed as rational, by researchers, managers and politicians. We seek explanations for both the ‘hidden’ nature of emotions and their labelling as ‘irrational’ in the rationalisation of forest science and management as a result of wider modernisation processes. We propose bringing emotions back in, to show how conflict is not merely based in diverging views, but is in fact a dimension of engagement. We suggest four aspects of forest conflicts in which emotions should be incorporated in research, all connected to literature from outside forestry: emotional sources of diverging views on forest management, emotional influences on the processing of information, the motivating power of emotions for social movements and the role of emotions in the escalation of protests.
Historical development of forest policy in Ethopia: Trends of institutionalization and deinstitutionalization
Ayana, A.N. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2013
Land Use Policy 32 (2013). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 186 - 196.
environmental-policy - politics - power
The aim of this paper is to analyse and explain the historical development of forest policy in Ethiopia from post-World War II era up to present. The analysis was conducted by tracing competing ideas, interests, institutions, and power configurations over a period of time. A qualitative historical analysis method was employed to collect and interpret data along the analytical dimensions of the so-called Policy Arrangement Approach (discourse coalitions, rules, resources and power). The development of forest policy in Ethiopia exhibits a dynamic process of institutionalization and deinstitutionalization. The institutionalization and deinstitutionalization process was co-shaped by a complex interplay of structural factors such as national political orientation and economic priorities, environmental calamities; and the dynamics in the global forest related discourses. Forestry was, most of the times, marginalized or integrated into the dominant agricultural development paradigm, where the integration also failed to maximize the synergy between the two sectors. The findings indeed confirm the usefulness of Policy Arrangement Approach to understand and explain such nuanced and dynamic process of (policy) change and continuity.
Making things irreversible. Object stabilization in urban planning and design
Duineveld, M. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. - \ 2013
Geoforum 46 (2013). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 16 - 24.
Based on a detailed reconstruction of the planning process of a controversial major building in the Dutch city of Groningen, we develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for studying object formation and stabilisation. We argue that the many forms of resistance against the object itself triggered a variety of counter-strategies of object formation. We make a distinction between sites, paths and techniques of object formation. To study object formation in more detail we distinguish three techniques: reification, solidification and codification. The techniques of object formation are accompanied by three techniques that produce a relative stability of the object, that increases its irreversibility, the likelihood of object survival: objectification, naturalisation and institutionalisation. We conclude that complete irreversibility is an illusion in governance and planning processes
Re-scaling ‘EU’rope: EU macro-regional fantasies in the Mediterranean
Bialasiewicz, L. ; Giaccaria, P. ; Jones, A. ; Minca, C. - \ 2013
European Urban and Regional Studies 20 (2013)1. - ISSN 0969-7764 - p. 59 - 76.
political geographies - neighborhood policy - governance - union - borders - power - europeanization - europeanisation - geopolitics - commission
This article engages with the most recent spatial fantasy for the making of ‘EU’ropean space: the idea of trans-European macro-regions, currently in vogue in the policy literature. In particular, we focus on the imaginings of a Mediterranean macro-region as the latest incarnation of the macro-regional fad, but also as a useful prism for reflecting on some of the underlying conceptual as well as political and geopolitical challenges of the on-going remaking and rescaling of ‘EU’ropean space. We argue that, although there exists by now a vast literature by geographers and other scholars that engages with the production of ‘EU’ropean spaces through regionalization, the policy literature generated by EU ‘macro-regional experts’ appears to entirely ignore these debates, professing an understanding of regions that is a conceptual pastiche at best, and that entirely occludes the political and geopolitical implications of region-making within, at, and beyond ‘EU’rope’s borders
Nazi spatial theory : the dark geographies of Carl Schmitt and Walter Christaller
Barnes, T.J. ; Minca, C. - \ 2013
Annals of the Association Of American Geographers 103 (2013)3. - ISSN 0004-5608 - p. 669 - 687.
political geographers - national-socialism - history - germany - geopolitik - holocaust - location - place - space - power
The concern with space and, more fundamentally, the formulation of a larger, guiding spatial theory, was central to achieving Nazi objectives during the Third Reich. We disclose critical elements of that theory, focusing on two contributions: the first by the jurist and international legal and political theorist Carl Schmitt (1888–1985) and the second by the geographer Walter Christaller (1893–1969). Applying the perverted biopolitical logic of National Socialism required the military accomplishment and bureaucratic management of two interrelated spatial processes: deterritorialization and reterritorialization. Deterritorialization involved moving non-Germanized Germans (mainly Jews and Slavs) off conquered Eastern lands to create an “empty space” that was then “reterritorialized” by the settlement of “legitimate” Germans (although often not German citizens). Although many German academics were involved in designing and implementing these spatial strategies, we single out two. Carl Schmitt provided a politico-judicial justification for reterritorialization involving the geographical expansion of the Third Reich: Großraum (greater space). Conceived four months before Germany's Blitzkrieg invasion of Poland that triggered World War II, Großraum provided the (literal) grounds for Nazi reterritorialization. Walter Christaller brought his peculiar spatial imaginary of formal geometry and place-based rural romanticism in planning the “empty space” of the East after non-Germanized inhabitants were removed. His central place theory re-created the Nazis' territorial conquests in the geographical likeness of the German homeland
Faster Time Response by the Use of Wire Electrodes in Capacitive Salinity Gradient Energy Systems
Burheim, O.S. ; Liu, F. ; Sales, B.B. ; Schaetzle, O. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2012
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part C: Nanomaterials and Interfaces 116 (2012)36. - ISSN 1932-7447 - p. 19203 - 19210.
pressure-retarded osmosis - reverse electrodialysis - power - extraction - water - sea - performance - density
Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan potential (CDP) and capacitive energy extraction based on double layer expansion (CDLE) are novel electroctrochemical processes to convert the potential free energy of mixing sea and river water into electric work. This is done by the use of supercapacitor electrodes with and without ion exchange membranes. Currently, these techniques rely on improved mass transport in order to become more efficient and give higher power output. In this paper we evaluate the transport phenomena by diffusion and the electrode geometry when switching between sea and river water at open circuit potential (OCP). By changing the electrode geometry from a flat plate to a cylindrical one, experiments and analytical models in combination show that mass transport by diffusion is increased. This is demonstrated without any changes in the hydrodynamic conditions. Improving mass transport without changing the hydrodynamic conditions breaks with what has been the convention in the scientific community of salinity gradient power. Moreover, in sea water the transport phenomena appear to be controlled by diffusion, and the response time for building open circuit potential in CDP and CDLE under this condition is reduced by a factor of 2 when using wire electrodes instead of flat plate electrodes. In river water, the trend is similar though the response time is generally larger.
Capacitive Bioanodes Enable Renewable Energy Storage in Microbial Fuel Cells
Deeke, A. ; Sleutels, T.H.J.A. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Environmental Science and Technology 46 (2012)6. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 3554 - 3560.
performance - power
We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive bioanode on the basis of performance and storage capacity. The performance and storage capacity were investigated during polarization curves and charge discharge experiments. During polarization curves the capacitive electrode reached a maximum current density of 1.02 +/- 0.04 A/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode reached a current density output of only 0.79 +/- 0.03 A/m(2). During the charge discharge experiment with S min of charging and 20 min of discharging, the capacitive electrode was able to store a total of 22 831 C/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode was only able to store 12 195 C/m(2). Regarding the charge recovery of each electrode, the capacitive electrode was able to recover 52.9% more charge during each charge discharge experiment compared with the noncapacitive electrode. The capacitive electrode outperformed the noncapacitive electrode throughout each charge discharge experiment. With a capacitive electrode it is possible to use the MFC simultaneously for production and storage of renewable electricity.
Advancing the deliberative turn in natural resource management: An analysis of discourses on the use of local resources
Rodela, R. - \ 2012
Journal of Environmental Management 96 (2012)1. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 26 - 34.
public-participation - citizen participation - impact assessment - democracy - slovenia - policy - power
The natural resource management literature stresses the need for public participation and community involvement in resource management and planning. Recently, some of this literature turned to the theory on deliberative democracy and demonstrated that a deliberative perspective on participation can help to challenge established practices and contribute with new ideas about how to conduct participation. The purpose of this paper is to consider the latest developments in deliberative democracy and outline the implications arising from these insights for a "deliberative turn" in resource management. A bottom-up protected area establishment, the Goricko Landscape Park, is examined. The empirical case is discussed from a discursive perspective, which relied on John Dryzek's approach to discourse analysis here used to explore the construction of discourses on the use of local natural resources. Two discourses are identified and the way these interfaced with the participatory park establishment process is considered. Findings indicate that advocates of the two discourses engaged differently with the participatory tools used and this had important implications for the park establishment. The case study suggests that, in contexts where participation has been recently introduced, knowledge of discourses on the use of local natural resources and of mobilization strategies actors may pursue could usefully assist in the design and implementation of participatory processes.
Indicators of fishing pressure and seafloor integrity
Piet, G.J. ; Hintzen, N.T. - \ 2012
ICES Journal of Marine Science 69 (2012)10. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1850 - 1858.
monitoring-system data - trawl disturbance - vms data - fisheries - impacts - communities - support - metrics - power
This study calculates a suite of indicators reflecting the spatial extent of fishing and its impact on the seafloor and discusses the usefulness of these indicators to inform future management and the issues to consider. It explores several methods to calculate the indicators and shows that they can be informative to report on both fishing pressure and the status of the seafloor. However, although observed overall trends were robust against the specific method of calculation, the absolute values vary greatly with the calculation method. As both aspects are important from a policy perspective, agreement on the methodology to calculate the indicators is required. This study based on the Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) shows that it is possible to calculate indicators required to inform decision-makers on the pressure of fishing as well as the status of the seafloor pending a decision on the following issues: (i) choice of an appropriate grid cell resolution, (ii) use of interpolated VMS tracks instead of VMS position registrations, (iii) choice of an “intensity threshold” dependent on the benthic community recovery capacity, and (iv) the level of confidence required when assessing if an area is not impacted.
The effects of blue energy on future emissions of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants in China
Gao, X. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2012
Journal of integrative Environmental Sciences 9 (2012)S1. - ISSN 1943-815X - p. 177 - 190.
reverse electrodialysis - salinity gradients - power - waters - so2
Blue energy is the electricity generated from salinity gradients in rivers. About half of the global electricity demand could be satisfied if the technical potential was implemented. However, the technique is not yet implemented in full-scale operational plants. We estimate the potential effects of blue energy on future emissions of CO2, non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) and other atmospheric pollutants in China, assuming it would replace coal in electricity and heat production. We focus on emissions from 16 major river basins in China, considering the theoretical, technical blue energy potentials and the practical feasibilities in 2000, 2030 and 2050. We show that blue energy is a promising future renewable energy source in China. It is a clean energy source with a potentially large contribution to the local electricity market. In the Changjiang basin, it could potentially meet more than 40% of the current local electricity demand. Optimistic assumptions on the implementation indicate a slowdown of the increase in future greenhouse gas emissions by about 10%. We argue that blue energy is a promising future renewable energy source in China, which may have positive effect on the global and local environment
The post-Mao gazes: Chinese backpackers in Macau
Ong, C.E. ; Cros, H. du - \ 2012
Annals of Tourism Research 39 (2012)2. - ISSN 0160-7383 - p. 735 - 754.
budget travelers - tourism - power - surveillance - nationality - culture - drifter - state - road - self
This paper offers insights into backpacker tourism from the People’s Republic of China. Chinese backpackers are a distinctively post-Mao reform generation growing up at a time when China shifts from Mao Zedong’s socialist policies to Deng Xiaoping’s policy explorations with capitalism. Through distanced virtual ethnography of a leading internet forum, it has been discovered that the forum members’ post-Mao backpacker gazes appropriate the postcolonial spaces of Macau in ways that contradict existing backpacker ideals and media and academic portrayal and stereotyping of Chinese youths, particularly concerning gender role adoption and the exoticising of postcolonial leisurescape. Backpacking in Macau also reveals the communal and differentiated nature of the tourist gaze and Chinese mobilities
Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change
Vliet, M.T.H. van; Yearsley, J.R. ; Ludwig, F. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2012
Nature Climate Change 2 (2012). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 676 - 681.
global water-resources - power
In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. 1) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern United States were forced to reduce production owing to cooling-water scarcity2, 3, 4. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the United States is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined impacts of lower summer river flows and higher river water temperatures. Using a physically based hydrological and water temperature modelling framework in combination with an electricity production model, we show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3–19% in Europe and 4.4–16% in the United States depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031–2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme (>90%) reductions in thermoelectric power production will on average increase by a factor of three. Considering the increase in future electricity demand, there is a strong need for improved climate adaptation strategies in the thermoelectric power sector to assure futureenergy security
REDD Policy Impacts on Indigenous Property Rights Regimes on Palawan Island, the Philippines
Dressler, W.H. ; McDermott, M. ; Smith, W. ; Pulhin, J. - \ 2012
Human Ecology 40 (2012)5. - ISSN 0300-7839 - p. 679 - 691.
carbon offsets - decentralization - resources - land - management - governance - access - state - power
Several Southeast Asian states have been working feverishly to design and implement REDD policy frameworks to fulfil their commitment to global climate change mitigation. In doing so, state agencies will be challenged to design REDD plus policies that value and conserve forest carbon in ways that align with national policies and local priorities for managing forest landscapes defined by complex property rights regimes. However, as with other market-based policies, the expeditious delivery of REDD could bypass critical analysis of potential interactions with national tenure regimes, customary property rights, and local livelihoods. Drawing on the case of Palawan Island—a forested frontier island in the Philippines—we examine how nascent REDD policies can articulate with state sanctioned tenure, customary tenure, and forest uses in changing livelihood contexts. This paper draws on research among Tagbanua and Pala’wan people to illustrate how complex and changing tenure structures, commodity markets and livelihood dynamics may influence how REDD plus interventions affect indigenous customary lands and forest use. We argue that the ability of indigenous forest users to maintain stored carbon and improve livelihoods is contingent upon the ‘socio-material’ form of carbon—a commodity defined in relation to the resources and social processes of which it is part.
The politics of defining and alleviating poverty: State strategies and their impacts in rural Kerala
Williams, G. ; Thampi, B.V. ; Narayana, D. ; Nandigama, S. ; Bhattacharyya, D. - \ 2012
Geoforum 43 (2012)5. - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 991 - 1001.
citizenship - india - empowerment - exclusion - reduction - program - world - power
This paper presents a relational approach to the study of poverty (Mosse, 2010), and uses this to critically evaluate state strategies for identifying and alleviating poverty in Kerala, India. It traces these from national planning documents through to their point of implementation, drawing on qualitative research in two of Kerala’s poorest Districts. Ideas of participatory poverty classification, economic self-reliance and political empowerment are laudable national policy goals, and Kerala has shown innovation in its adaptation of these within the State’s devolved structures of local governance. However, both the framing of policy and its implementation reproduce ideas of individual transitions out of poverty which indicate that the state pays insufficient attention to the highly unequal social and economic relationships reproducing poverty in contemporary Kerala – in short, to poverty’s inherently political nature.
The value of cultural theory for participatory processes in natural resource management
Hoogstra, M.A. ; Permadi, D.B. ; Yasmi, Y. - \ 2012
Forest Policy and Economics 20 (2012)July. - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 99 - 106.
grid-group theory - risk perception - climate-change - public-participation - forest management - framework - systems - design - policy - power
Participation is viewed as an important means for promoting the sustainable management of natural resources. However, participation is not always successful. Conflicting values and power inequalities are all factors that can severely undermine participatory processes. Where so far the main focus of research has been on power imbalances and conflicting interests, this article focuses on another source of conflict, i.e. differing views of reality and underlying cultural biases. Research states that cultural theory (CT), which subdivides the divergent notions of reality into four worldviews (hierarchism, individualism, egalitarianism, fatalism), could be a useful tool to gain insight in conflicting views of reality and the consequences of these conflicting views for participatory processes. To investigate the value of CT for participation, a study in Java (Indonesia) was carried out to determine to what extent worldviews can be used to predict preferred strategies in forestry problems. The results show that an empirical identification of worldviews was possible. These worldviews however do not automatically explain how individuals address forestry problems. This might be because of the difficulty of measuring worldviews in relation to individuals' strategies. It might also be that CT's explanatory capacity is overestimated. In either case, we can conclude that CT the way it is used now is not the instrument that will help us solving the problems in participatory processes.
Small-scale processing of biomass for biorefinery
Bruins, M.E. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2012
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 6 (2012)2. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 135 - 145.
bulk chemicals - cost - economy - heat - energy - waste - plant - water - power
The current fossil-based economy is moving towards a more bio-based economy. To enable this transition, many different processes for biorefinery are being developed. Small-scale biorefinery processes can be beneficial, not only socially and ecologically, but also economically. The main motivation for small-scale biorefinery is local re-use of materials, like water, minerals, organic matter, CO2, and heat. This minimizes costs for recycling and transport. A smart and integrated process design can beat the advantages of economy of scale applied in large-scale processes. Examples of two fully operational small-scale systems that produce ethanol and starch are given to illustrate our theory. Specific design rules for small-scale biorefineries are defined. The focus in design for small-scale processes should be on minimizing capital costs. Moreover, it is shown that separation of relatively simple pre-processing at small decentralized and more capital-intensive processing at large centralized factories, respectively, is advantageous. Integration with a biogas and combined heat and power (CHP) unit will furthermore allow usage of residual material to produce energy needed in the rest of the process
The danger of naturalizing water policy concepts: Water productivity and effiency discourses from field irrigation to virtual water trade
Boelens, R.A. ; Vos, J.M.C. - \ 2012
Agricultural Water Management 108 (2012). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 16 - 26.
markets - rights - performance - politics - commons - gender - impact - chile - power - food
Naturalization and universal application of concepts such as ‘efficiency’ and ‘productivity’ by policy makers and water experts in the water sector leads water managers and water users to internalize these norms. As we show in this exploratory paper, the effects could be threefold: first, evidence suggests that ‘efficiency’ discourses may justify policies and projects that deprive smallholders of water use rights; second, expert-driven water policy and project notions of efficiency tend to interfere with existing local water management practices and may harm livelihood and production strategies, and third, water users may come to blame themselves for underachieving according to the norms that are established in the dominant power-knowledge structures. This article deals with three mutually connected water policy arenas where maximization of water productivity and efficiency is fiercely promoted: technical water use efficiency (the engineer's realm), allocation efficiency (the economist's realm) at national levels, and the arena of international trade, where allocation efficiency is sought through virtual water flows embedded in agricultural commodities trade. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hopeful tourism: A New Transformative Perspective
Pritchard, A. ; Morgan, N. ; Ateljevic, I. - \ 2011
Annals of Tourism Research 38 (2011)3. - ISSN 0160-7383 - p. 941 - 963.
management - education - power
This paper makes a philosophical and ontological contribution to tourism knowledge. It discusses emergent perspectives and paradigms, identifies major omissions in tourism knowledge and challenges its dominant assumptions, reviewing the imperatives for a regime change in the field. The paper argues that the new hopeful tourism perspective which combines co-transformative learning and action offers a distinctive approach to tourism study. It defines the characteristics of this values-led humanist perspective and presents a reflexive accounting of its evolution. It concludes with a three part agenda for tourism educators and researchers concerned to embrace co-transformative learning, which responds to the challenges of creating just and sustainable tourism worlds
Analysis of natural allelic variation in Arabidopsis using a multiparent recombinant inbred line population
Huang, X. ; Caldas Paulo, M.J. ; Boer, M.P. ; Effgen, S. ; Keizer, P. ; Koornneef, M. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van - \ 2011
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (2011)11. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 4488 - 4493.
quantitative trait loci - flowering-time - complex traits - genetic architecture - collaborative cross - maize - power - qtl - thaliana - resolution
To exploit the diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana, eight founder accessions were crossed to produce six recombinant inbred line (RIL) subpopulations, together called an Arabidopsis multiparent RIL (AMPRIL) population. Founders were crossed pairwise to produce four F1 hybrids. These F1s were crossed according to a diallel scheme. The resulting offspring was then selfed for three generations. The F4 generation was genotyped with SNP and microsatellite markers. Data for flowering time and leaf morphology traits were determined in the F5 generation. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for these traits was performed using especially developed mixed-model methodology, allowing tests for QTL main effects, QTL by background interactions, and QTL by QTL interactions. Because RILs were genotyped in the F4 generation and phenotyped in the F5 generation, residual heterozygosity could be used to confirm and fine-map a number of the QTLs in the selfed progeny of lines containing such heterozygosity. The AMPRIL population is an attractive resource for the study of complex traits.
Forest tenure reform: exclusion of tribal women's rights in semi-arid Rajasthan, India
Bose, P. - \ 2011
International Forestry Review 13 (2011)2. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 220 - 232.
natural-resources - property-rights - access - gender - power
The current trend in forest tenure reform promotes identity-based categories, such as indigenous people, on the assumption that this provides better access to forest resources for marginalized groups. India's historic Forest Rights Act of 2006 recognizes the traditional rights of the scheduled tribes and other forest-dependent people dwelling in and around forestlands. This paper examines the politics of individual and collective access to forestland and the political representation of Bhil tribal women in the semi-arid Banswara district, Rajasthan, India. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 54 informants, and two focus group discussions. A rights-based access approach was used to analyse outcomes of forest tenure reform on tribal women's access to forestland, and inclusion in, and/or exclusion from, collective decision making about forestland management. The findings indicate that the new identity-based forest tenure reform is mere tokenism and hinders rather than promotes tribal women's political empowerment and access to forest-based resources
Genome wide SNP discovery, analysis and evaluation in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)
Kraus, R.H.S. ; Kersten, H.H.D. ; Hooft, W.F. van; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Elmberg, J. ; Vignal, A. ; Huang, Y. ; Li, N. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Groenen, M.A.M. - \ 2011
BMC Genomics 12 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 11 p.
pathogenic avian influenza - conservation - divergence - markers - virus - birds - power - base - map
Background - Next generation sequencing technologies allow to obtain at low cost the genomic sequence information that currently lacks for most economically and ecologically important organisms. For the mallard duck genomic data is limited. The mallard is, besides a species of large agricultural and societal importance, also the focal species when it comes to long distance dispersal of Avian Influenza. For large scale identification of SNPs we performed Illumina sequencing of wild mallard DNA and compared our data with ongoing genome and EST sequencing of domesticated conspecifics. This is the first study of its kind for waterfowl. Results - More than one billion base pairs of sequence information were generated resulting in a 16× coverage of a reduced representation library of the mallard genome. Sequence reads were aligned to a draft domesticated duck reference genome and allowed for the detection of over 122,000 SNPs within our mallard sequence dataset. In addition, almost 62,000 nucleotide positions on the domesticated duck reference showed a different nucleotide compared to wild mallard. Approximately 20,000 SNPs identified within our data were shared with SNPs identified in the sequenced domestic duck or in EST sequencing projects. The shared SNPs were considered to be highly reliable and were used to benchmark non-shared SNPs for quality. Genotyping of a representative sample of 364 SNPs resulted in a SNP conversion rate of 99.7%. The correlation of the minor allele count and observed minor allele frequency in the SNP discovery pool was 0.72. Conclusion We identified almost 150,000 SNPs in wild mallards that will likely yield good results in genotyping. Of these, ~101,000 SNPs were detected within our wild mallard sequences and ~49,000 were detected between wild and domesticated duck data. In the ~101,000 SNPs we found a subset of ~20,000 SNPs shared between wild mallards and the sequenced domesticated duck suggesting a low genetic divergence. Comparison of quality metrics between the total SNP set (122,000 + 62,000 = 184,000 SNPs) and the validated subset shows similar characteristics for both sets. This indicates that we have detected a large amount (~150,000) of accurately inferred mallard SNPs, which will benefit bird evolutionary studies, ecological studies (e.g. disentangling migratory connectivity) and industrial breeding programs.
Delineating locals: Transformations of knowledge/power and the governance of the Danube delta
Assche, K.A.M. van; Duineveld, M. ; Beunen, R. ; Teampau, P. - \ 2011
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 13 (2011)1. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 1 - 21.
protected area management - participation - romania - conservation - power - failure - state - work
In this paper, we adopt a Foucauldian perspective on power/knowledge interactions to investigate the evolution and implementation of policy for the Romanian Danube delta. We argue that a better understanding of the potential for citizen participation in environmental governance can be obtained from a careful analysis of the pathways of emergence, enactment and implementation of policies affecting an area. Policies are seen as temporary conceptual structures coordinating knowledge and power, in constant transmutation because of the confrontation with other power/knowledge configurations. For the Danube delta, it is argued that policies originating at various levels of government co-create a 'local' that is scrutinized, silenced, exoticized, subjugated and marginalized. Finally, we investigate the implications of this and similar processes of delineation of actors for participatory natural resource governance
A prototype cell for extracting energy from a water salinity difference by means of double layer expansion in nanoporous carbon electrodes
Brogioli, D. ; Zhao, R. ; Biesheuvel, P.M. - \ 2011
Energy & Environmental Science 4 (2011)3. - ISSN 1754-5692 - p. 772 - 777.
Electrical energy can be obtained from the controlled mixing of fresh (river) and saline (sea) water. Existing technologies such as pressure retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis make use of ion-exchange membranes which must be crossed by either the water or the ions. Recently a new physical principle has been experimentally demonstrated, which allows extraction of electrical energy without making use of membranes, based on the temporary storage of ions inside two porous electrodes kept at different electrical potentials, and the repeatable expansion/contraction of the electrostatic double layers formed inside the electrodes upon changing the salt concentration [D. Brogioli, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2009, 103, 058501]. To make further investigations and to improve the energy recovery, we developed a simple prototype cell of much larger dimensions. Because of the larger dimensions (thus higher currents), testing is more facile, while this design can be the basis for further scaling-up of this technology. In order to reduce the internal resistance of the cell, the electrodes are no longer placed side-by-side, but parallel to one another, separated only by a 250 µm-thick open spacer channel to form a “sandwich”-like flow cell. In a lab-scale experimental stack consisting of 8 such cells (with outer dimensions 6 × 6 × 1 cm3) we extract about 2 J per charging/discharging cycle in 500 mM/1 mM NaCl salt solution, an amount which is 20 times higher per cycle per unit electrode mass than previously obtained. The extracted energy increases with the operating voltage, in line with predictions of the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model for double layer formation
Water Assessment as controlled informality
Dijk, J. van; Vlist, M.J. van der; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2011
Environmental Impact Assessment Review 31 (2011)2. - ISSN 0195-9255 - p. 112 - 119.
planning-theory - power - rationality - paradigm - policy - old
The expectations about the effectiveness of new developed policy instruments are usually very high. In the case of the introduction of Water Assessment in The Netherlands, the ambitious aim of the instrument was to connect the policy domains of spatial planning and water management. The instrument has been monitored continuously and was evaluated two times after the introduction in 2002, by civil servants of ministries, water boards, provinces and municipalities. By combining elements of rational and communicative planning approaches and introducing a three-layered model of power, it was possible to analyse WA as a form of controlled informality, which enables water managers to use the interplay of informal and formal practices strategically at different levels of power
Comparison of two methods for estimating the abundance, diversity and habitat preference of fluvial macroinvertebrates in contrasting habitats
Alonso, A. ; Camargo, J.A. - \ 2010
Limnologica 40 (2010)1. - ISSN 0075-9511 - p. 23 - 29.
aquatic plant management - community-wide patterns - invertebrate fauna - submerged macrophytes - benthic invertebrates - surface-area - chalk stream - system - power - microdistribution
In this research we evaluate the effects of the method used for estimating the potential surface available for benthic macroinvertebrates in macrophyte and unvegetated habitats on several metrics and habitat preference of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the upper catchment of the Henares River (Guadalajara, Central Spain). Three sampling sites were selected: a well-preserved stream (site A), a stream with no wood riparian vegetation (site B), and a straightened and deforested reach (site Q. Two habitats were selected in each site: unvegetated habitat (i.e., substrata without macrophytes) and macrophyte habitat (i.e., substrata covered by macrophytes). In each habitat, six macroinvertebrate samples (including all macrophytes or mineral particles) were collected using a Hess sampler. Diversity and density of major families were referred to the surface of the Hess sampler ( = Hess surface method) and to the actual surface of either mineral particles or macrophytes actual surface method). In general, for the actual Surface method, biomass, richness, dominance, and diversity metrics were higher in the mineral habitat than in the macrophyte habitat. This trend was different for the Hess surface method. In general, densities turned out to be higher in the unvegetated habitat than in the macrophyte habitat when using the actual Surface method, but the reverse occurred when using the Hess Surface method. This fact is relevant for river biomonitoring, especially when reaches with different dominant Substrates (macrophytes vs mineral) are compared using just one of the methods. It is concluded that the macrobenthic metrics and density values are influenced by the method used to estimate the potential available surface for aquatic macroinvertebrates.
Sales promotion and channel coordination
Wierenga, B. ; Soethoudt, J.M. - \ 2010
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 38 (2010)3. - ISSN 0092-0703 - p. 383 - 397.
trade promotions - bargaining problem - retailer response - pass-through - manufacturers - performance - competition - deals - power
Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the channel as a whole. Independent profit maximization by channel parties leads to a lack of channel coordination with the implication of leaving money on the table. This may well contribute to the notoriously low profitability of sales promotions. This paper first shows analytically why the suboptimality occurs, and then presents an empirical demonstration, using a unique dataset from an Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) project; ECR is a movement in which parties work together to optimize the distribution channel). In this dataset, actual profit is only a small fraction of potential profit, implying that there is a large degree of suboptimality. It is important that (1) channel parties are aware of this suboptimality; and (2) that they have tools to deal with it. Solutions to the channel coordination problem should ensure that the goals of the individual channel parties are aligned with the goals of the channel as a whole. The paper proposes one particular agreement for this purpose, called proportional discount sharing. Application to the ECR data shows a win-win result for both the manufacturer and the retailer. Recognition of the channel coordination problem by the manufacturer and the retailer is the necessary starting point for agreeing on a way of solving it in a win-win fashion.
Motorvermogen van vissersschepen naar de wettelijke normen; Eindevaluatie Co-management en motorvermogen
Hoefnagel, E.W.J. ; Mil, E.M. van - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Natuurlijke hulpbronnen ) - ISBN 9789086154548 - 162
vissersschepen - vis vangen - motoren - kracht - capaciteit - normen - rechtshandhaving - publiek-private samenwerking - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouwbeleid - Nederland - fishing vessels - fishing - engines - power - capacity - standards - law enforcement - public-private cooperation - sustainability - agricultural policy - Netherlands
Dit onderzoeksverslag betreft een eindevaluatie van de uitbreiding van het co-managementsysteem op het vlak van het motorvermogen. In deze derde evaluatie wordt de uitvoering, naleving en effectiviteit van het arrangement onderzocht. Co-management blijkt een geschikt instrument om het proces op gang te brengen het motorvermogen van viskotters beheersbaar te maken. Dit proces is ondersteund door de hoge olieprijs en verslechterde economische situatie in de visserij, waardoor vissers er belang bij hebben zuinig om te gaan met energie en daardoor geneigd zijn hun scheepsmotor niet voluit te gebruiken.
The EU-Ghana VPA: a comprehensive policy analysis of its design
Beeko, C. ; Arts, B. - \ 2010
International Forestry Review 12 (2010)3. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 221 - 230.
discourse - power
The European Union's FLEGT initiative aims at eliminating illegal timber from its market. An important instrument to achieve this is the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) to install, amongst others, wood tracking systems in timber exporting countries. Ghana was the first to conclude VPA negotiations with the EU. Using the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA), this paper presents a critical policy analysis of the consensus building and negotiation process and outcome (so far). It shows that the national forest discourse of Ghana has been reshaped by the VPA process, that the traditional forest sector has been opened up, that new forest rules have been designed and that power relations have changed in favour of so-called fringe actors. Theses developments seem in line with the wider shift from government to governance in politics. Yet the question is whether these observable changes will be sustained in the implementation phase of the VPA
The consideration of emergency management issues in spatial planning practices
Neuvel, J.M.M. ; Brink, A. van den - \ 2010
Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 28 (2010)1. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 37 - 53.
risk - netherlands - power
Spatial planning can play an important role in increasing the possibilities for emergency response. Nevertheless, little research has been done that explicitly looks at the way emergency management issues are addressed in predisaster spatial planning. We explore the consideration of emergency management issues in the context of a Netherlands case study. In the Netherlands regional fire departments provide local planning authorities with recommendations regarding the consideration of emergency management issues. We found that only some of these recomendations were implemented in the land allocation plan itself and that risks were often reduced but seldom eliminated. Nevertheless, possibilities for emergency response in general were increased. Moreover, the communicative character of the safety advice process and the resulting collaboration between planners and emergency responders fit in well with the more general communicative and collaborative approaches to planning. For these reasons these experiences can also be relevant for the integration of spatial planning and emergency management in other countries
Rural partnerships in Europe, a differentiated view frm a country perspective: the Netherlands and Wales
Derkzen, P.H.M. - \ 2010
European Urban and Regional Studies 17 (2010)1. - ISSN 0969-7764 - p. 17 - 30.
local-government - governance - power - participation - agenda - policy
In recent years partnership has become an established aspect of rural development across rural Europe. Both Wales and the Netherlands have seen similar trends towards more decentralized and territorial modes of rural governance in which policy networks of governmental and societal actors work together at a local or regional level to further rural development. Such networks are called ‘partnerships’ in English and ‘gebiedscommissies’ in Dutch. This paper addresses differences in the composition and organization of rural partnerships in these two countries and attributes the differences between them to the policy context in each country. Four policy factors are identified as contributing to the specific approach to partnership adopted in the two countries.The review sustains the presumption that in Dutch rural partnerships the integration discourse is more important than the participation discourse, which is more prominent in Wales.
Spatial planning of offshore wind farms: A windfall to marine environmental protection?
Punt, M.J. ; Groeneveld, R.A. ; Ierland, E.C. van; Stel, J. - \ 2009
Ecological Economics 69 (2009)1. - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 93 - 103.
metapopulation dynamics - north-sea - power - model - management - example - fish - biodiversity - electricity - landscape
Wind farms are often planned offshore where wind conditions are favourable and the visual impact is less important. Wind farms have both positive and negative effects on the marine environment. Negative effects include bird collisions, underwater sounds and electromagnetic fields, whilst positive effects constitute functioning as artificial reef and acting as no-take zones for fish, with possible spill-over effects. This paper presents a spatially explicit framework to analyze effects of wind farms on the marine environment and aims to evaluate how wind farms can contribute to protection of the marine environment through strategic and economically viable location choices. The functioning and the applicability of the model are demonstrated in a numerical example for the Dutch exclusive economic zone. We find that the careful spatial planning of wind farms is a key factor for profitability and environmental protection, and that, if carefully planned, the environment can benefit from offshore wind farms.
Wind Integration into Various Generation Mixtures
Maddaloni, J.D. ; Rowe, A.M. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2009
Renewable Energy 34 (2009)3. - ISSN 0960-1481 - p. 807 - 814.
part load performance - energy - power
A load balance model is used to quantify the economic and environmental effects of integrating wind power into three typical generation mixtures. System operating costs over a specified period are minimized by controlling the operating schedule of the existing power generating facilities for a range of wind penetrations. Unlike other studies, variable generator efficiencies, and thus variable fuel costs, are taken into account, as are the ramping constraints on thermal generators. Results indicate that the system operating cost will increase by 83%–280% (pending generation mixture) at a wind penetration of 100% of peak demand. System emissions also decrease by 13%–32% (depending on the generation mixture) at a wind penetration of 100%. This leads to emission abatement costs in the range of $1300/tonne-CO2e for hydro dominated mixtures, $240/tonne-CO2e for coal dominated mixtures, and $215/tonne-CO2e for natural gas dominated mixtures.
Fallacies of Virtualization: a Case Study of Farming, Manure, Landscapes, and Dutch Rural Policy
Boonstra, W.J. ; Bock, B.B. - \ 2009
Science, technology and human values 34 (2009)4. - ISSN 0162-2439 - p. 427 - 448.
deliberative democracy - power - politics - technology - fetishism - science
The recent rapprochement between Science and Technology Studies (STS) and Political Science (PS) is induced by the broadened understanding of political action. The debate concerning the nature of ``the political'' produces an important question concerning the possibilities of an issue- or object-oriented focus for understanding political action. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this debate through an analysis of how relations between material and social entities are continuously recontextualized and decontextualized in social and political interaction. The authors discuss established approaches to explain the concept of virtualization. Virtualization is then used in a case study on the implementation of manure regulation in East Fryslân, the Netherlands, to illustrate how cases or issues are virtualized in political decision making, which produces initial presumptions that carry conclusive weight. The authors conclude that a broad understanding of the political in both STS and PS can only be sustained through an understanding of how relations between social and material entities are continuously decontextualized and recontextualized in political and social interaction
Integrated Rural Policy in Context: A Case Study on the Meaning of 'Integration' and the Politics of 'Sectoring'
Derkzen, P.H.M. ; Bock, B.B. ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2009
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 11 (2009)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 143 - 163.
local-government - governance - partnerships - power - accountability - participation - exclusion - framework
Partnerships for rural development are often presented as powerful ways of promoting 'integration'. This paper examines the reality of this claim, first by analysing what 'integration' means and then presenting a case study of a Dutch rural partnership that shows how 'integration' was diluted by the 'politics of sectoring'. In this case study, 'integration' was taken to mean harmonizing sectoral policies for the physical environment and to imply the integration of competing land-use claims. Representatives of different policy sectors sought to safeguard and advance their sectoral objectives through a number of strategies, including expanding conflicts to other playing fields and containing conflicts through private settlement. The interplay of these interests created a paradoxical outcome. The existing sectoral policies were maintained and 'integration' was achieved through the spatial separation of the most conflicting land uses, those of intensive husbandry farming and protecting nature. The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture sees such partnerships as a good example of 'integrated rural policy' but the example shows that the integration of existing sectoral policies for the physical environment has little to do with the achievement of wider socio-economic objectives
Partnership and role perception, three case studies on the meaning of being a representative in rural partnerships
Derkzen, P.H.M. ; Bock, B.B. - \ 2009
Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 27 (2009)1. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 75 - 89.
local governance - communities - power
We focus on the governance instrument of partnerships for rural areas, because these have become important for the implementation of rural development policy in Britain. Emergent forms of governance are often assumed to enhance participatory democracy as they facilitate the involvement of nongovernmental actors and citizens. However, governmental policies about partnerships often use `representation¿ to democratically legitimise these new forms. Partnership members themselves also use these concepts in their everyday language¿they too say that they represent and participate. We explore the different meanings of both being a representative and being a participant, based on a qualitative study of three local rural partnerships in Wales. Our analysis reveals important nuances in how four types of representatives (from the public, private, community, and voluntary sectors) differ in their perceived duties and attitudes towards their constituencies. But, above all, most partnership members see themselves rather as participants than as representatives. However, partnership members can also hide behind being participants in two ways. First, they can downplay their organisational membership and their organisation¿s self-interest. Partnership members who most actively participate in `driving the partnership forward¿ are also those who have the most self-interest in doing so. And, second, they do not have to worry about accountability mechanisms because their individualised participation has been decoupled from responsiveness to `others¿. The neoliberal notions of participation obscure the political nature of working in partnership where decisions over rural development have to be made among members with different and possibly conflicting interests.
International relations theory and water do mix: A response to Furlong's troubled waters, hydro-hegemony and international water relations
Warner, J.F. ; Zeitoun, M. - \ 2008
Political Geography 27 (2008)7. - ISSN 0962-6298 - p. 802 - 810.
virtual water - policy - power
Information on fishing vessels and gear dimensions working in areas 35F1-4 and 36F1-4 of the North Sea
Marlen, B. van; Bol, R.A. - \ 2008
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C087/08) - 43
vistuig - vissersschepen - motoren - kracht - technologie - visserij - fishing gear - fishing vessels - engines - power - technology - fisheries
This study gives an extract from the Dutch VIRIS database for ICES rectangles 35F1 to 35F4 and 36F1 to 36F4 over the years 2003#2007 by gear type and vessel power. The most common gear type in this area in the beam trawl and most common vessel classes are those with 221 kW (300 hp) and 1471 kW (2000 hp) main engine power. Technical details of the beam trawl gear for the most common vessel class of 1471 kW (2000 hp) are given and also current developments in technology of these gears .
A mixed model QTL analysis for a complex cross population consisting of a half diallel of two-way hybrids in Arabidopsis thaliana : analysis of simulated data
Paulo, M.J. ; Boer, M.P. ; Huang, X. ; Koornneef, M. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van - \ 2008
Euphytica 161 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 107 - 114.
quantitative trait loci - collaborative cross - lines - resolution - resource - maize - power
To improve QTL detection power for QTL main effects and interactions and QTL mapping resolution, new types of multi-founder crossing populations are created in plants and animals. Some recent examples are complex intercrossed populations in mice and Arabidopsis thaliana. For the latter, a set of eight accessions was intercrossed to produce four two-way hybrids that were subsequently intercrossed again in a half diallel fashion leading to six subpopulations of four-way hybrids, each subpopulation containing 100 individuals. Within each subpopulation, individuals were inbred for four generations via single seed descent. QTL mapping in the complex crosses requires new statistical tools. We present a first sketch of a QTL mapping methodology for the complex cross in Arabidopsis based on mixed model analyses. As experimental data were not yet available, we illustrate our methodology on simulated but realistic data.
QTL mapping designs for aquaculture.
Massault, C. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Haley, C.S. ; Koning, D.J. de - \ 2008
Aquaculture 285 (2008)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 23 - 29.
quantitative-trait loci - outbred populations - complex traits - linkage maps - marker loci - power - sib - crosses - l.
Rapid development of genomics technology is providing new opportunities for genetic studies, including QTL mapping, in many aquaculture species. This paper investigates the strengths and limitations of QTL mapping designs for fish and shellfish under three different controlled breeding schemes. For each controlled breeding scheme, the potential and limitations are described for typical species and are illustrated by three different designs using interval mapping. The results show that, regardless of the species, the family structure is extremely important in experimental designs. The heritability of the QTL (controlled by its allele frequency and effect on the trait) also has an important impact on the power to detect QTL, while the overall polygenic heritability of the trait is less important. Marker density does not greatly affect the power when the distance between markers is less than 10 cM; but ideally spacing should not exceed 20 cM. For each of the systems studied, it is possible to design an experiment that would have an 80% power to detect a QTL of moderate effect (explaining between 1.5 and 5% of the trait variation) by genotyping 1000 or fewer individuals.
Extending potential flow modelling of flat-sheet geometries as applied in membrane-based systems
Dirkse, M.H. ; Loon, W.K.P. van; Stigter, J.D. ; Post, J.W. ; Veerman, J. ; Bot, G.P.A. - \ 2008
Journal of Membrane Science 325 (2008)2. - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 537 - 545.
reverse electrodialysis - mass-transport - power - energy
Abstract The efficiency of chemical reactors can be analysed using the residence time distribution. This research focusses on flat-sheet geometries applied in membrane-based systems. The residence time distribution depends mainly on the 2D velocity field, parallel to the membrane. The velocity average over the transversal direction is calculated using potential flow theory. A combination of real and virtual sources and sinks are used to model the internal inlets and outlets. Furthermore, a novel method is presented to calculate the residence time distribution. By ignoring diffusion and dispersion, every streamline is modelled to have a fixed residence time, which can be calculated with a simple quadrature based on a coordinate transformation. The model predicts the impact of the two-dimensional geometry on the residence time distribution, but it is demonstrated that large zones of nearly stagnant flow have only a limited impact on the residence time distribution. The new model can predict the travelling time from the inlet to each interior location, providing a better tool to analyse spatially distributed chemical reactions. The models agreed highly with pressure measurements (R2 = 0.94¿0.98) and they agreed well with tracer experiments for the residence time (R2 = 0.73¿0.99).
Reconstructing Biotechnologies: critical social analyses
Ruivenkamp, G.T.P. ; Hisano, S. ; Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860623 - 367
biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - samenleving - sociologie - analyse - technologie - kracht - politiek - plattelandssamenleving - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - kwaliteit - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - sociologische analyse - plantenbiotechnologie - transgene organismen - politieke economie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - kennissystemen - kritische theorie - biotechnology - food biotechnology - society - sociology - analysis - technology - power - politics - rural society - agricultural development - agriculture - quality - rural sociology - developed countries - developing countries - sociological analysis - plant biotechnology - transgenic organisms - political economy - agriculture as branch of economy - knowledge systems - critical theory
Tussenevaluatie co-management en motorvermogen : controle en sanctionering
Hoefnagel, E.W.J. ; Mil, E.M. van - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152100 - 81
landbouwbeleid - vis vangen - vissersschepen - kracht - schepen - motoren - capaciteit - noordzee - nederland - rechtshandhaving - straf - publiek-private samenwerking - agricultural policy - fishing - fishing vessels - power - ships - engines - capacity - north sea - netherlands - law enforcement - punishment - public-private cooperation
Dit onderzoeksverslag betreft een evaluatie van de uitbreiding van het co-managementsysteem op het vlak van het motorvermogen. Deze tweede evaluatie concentreert zich vooral op de uitvoering van de controle en sanctionering door de beheergroepen en de AID, en de meningen van gecontroleerde vissers over deze activiteiten.
A functional analysis of myotomal muscle-fibre reorientation in developing zebrafish Danio rerio
Leeuwen, J.L. van; Meulen, T. van der; Schipper, H. ; Kranenbarg, S. - \ 2008
Journal of Experimental Biology 211 (2008)8. - ISSN 0022-0949 - p. 1289 - 1304.
brachydanio-rerio - spatial arrangement - myoseptal tendons - musculature - fishes - recruitment - power - transformations - differentiation - immobilization
The fast muscle fibres in the anterior trunk of teleost fish are primarily responsible for large amplitude undulatory swimming motions. Previous theoretical studies suggested that the near-helical arrangement of these fibres results in a (fairly) uniform distribution of fibre strain and work output during swimming. However, the underlying simplifications of these studies precluded unequivocal support for this hypothesis. We studied the fast muscle-fibre reorientation and the concomitant myotomal strain variance in a body segment near the anus during larval and juvenile development in the zebrafish. From 2 to 4 days post fertilization (d.p.f.), the measured angles between the muscle fibres and the longitudinal axis of the zebrafish were small. Yet, onset of a near-helical muscle-fibre arrangement was recognized. Juveniles of 51 d.p.f. have larger mean fibre angles and already possess the near-helical pattern of adult teleosts. We present a model that computes the distribution of the strain along the muscle fibres from measured muscle-fibre orientations, body curvature and prescribed tissue deformations. We selected the most extreme body curvatures, which only occur during fast starts and turning manoeuvres. Using the model, we identified the (non-linear) tissue deformations that yield the least variance in the muscle-fibre strain. We show that simple beam theory cannot reliably predict the strain distribution: it results in very small strains and negligible work output of the most medial fibres. In our model, we avoided these functional limitations by adding a shear deformation to the simple beam deformation. At 2 d.p.f., the predicted variance in the muscle-fibre strain for the shear deformation optimized for strain uniformity is fairly small, due to the small variation in the fibre distances to the medial plane that is caused by the relatively large spinal cord and notochord. The predicted minimal strain variance increases sharply from 2 d.p.f. to 3 d.p.f., remains relatively large at 4 d.p.f., but decreases again considerably at 15 and 39 d.p.f. The 51 d.p.f. stage exhibits the smallest variance in the fibre strains (for the identified optimal deformation), in spite of the widely varying muscle-fibre distances to the medial plane. The non-linear nature of the body deformations with the least strain variance implies an interesting optimization constraint: the juvenile muscle-fibre arrangement results in small predicted spatial strain variations at large-amplitude body curvatures, at the (modest) expense of a large coefficient of variation for small curvatures. We conclude that larval fish rapidly change their muscle-fibre orientations (probably in response to mechanical signals). Within the theoretically examined plausible range of deformations, the closest correspondence to a uniform strain field was found for the juvenile stage.
Changes in antioxidant and metabolite profiles during production of tomato paste
Capanoglu, E. ; Beekwilder, M.J. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Hall, R.D. ; Vos, C.H. de - \ 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)3. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 964 - 973.
capacity assays - phenolic-compounds - vitamin-c - lycopene - fruit - carotenoids - polyphenols - flavonoids - raspberry - power
Tomato products and especially concentrated tomato paste are important sources of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Tomato fruit contain well-known antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. The industrial processing of this fruit into tomato paste involves several treatments that potentially affect the final profile of antioxidants and other metabolites in the commercial product. Here we have used both biochemical and metabolomic techniques to assess the effect of each separate step in the industrial production chain starting from fresh fruit to the final tomato paste. Material was collected from five independent tomato paste production events spread over two successive years. Samples comprised the intact ripe fruits and semifinished products after fruit-breaking, separation of the pulp from skin and seeds, evaporation, and finally after canning and pasteurization. The effect of each processing step was determined by different types of analysis. First, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were determined by commonly used spectrophotometric methods. Second, individual antioxidants in the extracts were identified and compared using an HPLC with online antioxidant detection. Third, in each sample the levels of the major individual antioxidants present, i.e., vitamin C, phenolic compounds (such as rutin and chlorogenic acid), tocopherols, and carotenoids, were quantified. Fourth, an untargeted metabolomic approach using LC-QTOF-MS was used to identify those production steps that have the largest impact on the overall metabolic profile in the final paste as compared to the original fruits. This multifaceted approach has revealed that each processing step induces specific alterations in the metabolic profile, as determined by the different analysis procedures, and that in particular the fruit-breaking step and the removal of seed and skin significantly affect the levels of antioxidants and many other metabolites present in commercial tomato paste.
Network constrained wind integration on Vancouver Island
Maddaloni, J.D. ; Rowe, A.M. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2008
Energy Policy 36 (2008)2. - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 591 - 602.
power - energy - flows
The aim of this study is to determine the costs and carbon emissions associated with operating a hydro-dominated electricity generation system (Vancouver Island, Canada) with varying degrees of wind penetration. The focus is to match the wind resource, system demand and abilities of extant generating facilities on a temporal basis, resulting in an operating schedule that minimizes system cost over a given period. This is performed by taking the perspective of a social planner who desires to find the lowest-cost mix of new and existing generation facilities. Unlike other studies, this analysis considers variable efficiency for thermal and hydro-generators, resulting in a fuel cost that varies with respect to generator part load. Since this study and others have shown that wind power may induce a large variance on existing dispatchable generators, forcing more frequent operation at reduced part load, inclusion of increased fuel cost at part load is important when investigating wind integration as it can significantly reduce the economic benefits of utilizing low-cost wind. Results indicate that the introduction of wind power may reduce system operating costs, but this depends heavily on whether the capital cost of the wind farm is considered. For the Vancouver Island mix with its large hydro-component, operating cost was reduced by a maximum of 15% at a wind penetration of 50%, with a negligible reduction in operating cost when the wind farm capital cost was included.
Letter to the editor: Malnutrition, zinc deficiency, and malaria in Africa
Verhoef, H. - \ 2007
The Lancet 369 (2007)9580. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 2156 - 2156.
confidence-intervals - power
Co-management en motorvermogen : nulmeting van opvattingen van vissers
Hoefnagel, E.W.J. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789086151387 - 69
landbouwbeleid - vis vangen - vissersschepen - motoren - kracht - capaciteit - noordzee - nederland - agricultural policy - fishing - fishing vessels - engines - power - capacity - north sea - netherlands
Met het versterken en uitbreiden van het co-managementsysteem, op het vlak van het motorvermogen, neemt de visserijsector zelf verantwoordelijkheid voor het terugdringen vanhet gebruik van motoren met een groter vermogen dan de motor op grond van de verstrektevisvergunning zou mogen hebben. Dit onderzoeksverslag betreft een zogenaamde nulmeting,dat als uitgangspunt gebruikt kan worden om na te gaan of er veranderingen zijnopgetreden tijdens de werking van dit arrangement in opvattingen en gedragingen van vissersmet betrekking tot het gebruik van motorvermogen in de Noordzeevisserij
Policies in de Polder How Institutions Mediate between Norms and Practices of Rural Governance
Boonstra, W.J. - \ 2006
Sociologia Ruralis 46 (2006)4. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 299 - 317.
civil-society - q-methodology - power - politics - participation - discourses - democracy - state
Matching rural policy and practice has become increasingly difficult. Despite a shift from government to governance, a void is often perceived to exist between policy and practice. This article discusses two hypotheses on the emergence of such a void. The first argues that the void is a result of a process of value differentiation. The second explains the void as a result of a process of depoliticisation. This article examines whether these hypotheses hold true for Dutch rural policy. The analysis shows that though both hypotheses are true for a limited extent, neither succeeds in explaining the changes in Dutch (rural) policy on its own. Instead, it is argued that both are needed for a comprehensive analysis.
Partial fishing mortality per fishing trip: a useful indicator of effective fishing effort in mixed demersal fisheries
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Daan, N. ; Dekker, W. - \ 2006
ICES Journal of Marine Science 63 (2006)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 556 - 566.
plaice pleuronectes-platessa - north-sea plaice - solea-solea l - fleet dynamics - trawl fishery - competitive interactions - flatfish - power - behavior - management
Effort management has been proposed as an alternative for quota management in mixed demersal fisheries. It requires a metric to estimate the fishing mortality imposed by a given quantity of nominal fishing effort. Here, we estimate the partial fishing mortality rate imposed by one unit of fishing effort (Fpue) during individual fishing trips and explore the usefulness of this indicator for managing North Sea beam trawlers >300 hp targeting sole (Solea solea) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Fpue is positively related to vessel engine power, and increased annually by 2.8% (sole) and 1.6% (plaice). The positive trend was due to an increase in skipper skills and investment in auxiliary equipment, the replacement of old vessels by new ones and, to a lesser extent, to upgrade engines. The average Fpue imposed per day at sea by a 2000 hp beam trawler was estimated to be 1.0 × 10¿5 (sole) and 0.6 × 10¿5 (plaice), and it showed substantial seasonal and spatial variations. The Fpue of sole and plaice were negatively related in summer and showed no relationship in winter. The existence of predictive seasonal and spatial patterns in Fpue opens up the possibility of fine-tuning management by directed effort restrictions and uncoupling management of plaice and sole
What happens in a merger? Experiences of the State Department for Water Resources in Khorezm, Uzbekistan
Wegerich, K. - \ 2005
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 30 (2005)6-7. - ISSN 1474-7065 - p. 455 - 462.
organizational-change - power
The paper focuses on the organisational problems of the state Department of Water Resources at the district level in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan. The study opens the organisational `black box¿ and looks inside the organisational structure of the Department of Water Resources. The analysis goes beyond the current studies and reports focusing on the duties of the organisation, by analysing the logistical capabilities and the constraining factors due to the organisational structure after the merger in 1997 between the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Melioration and Water Management. The paper utilises organisational theory approaches to power for analysing the state Department of Water Resources. Even though the merger between the two Ministries was supposed to create two equally important departments within one Ministry, the analysis shows that the Department of Water Resources got submerged into the organisation. The water department lost its old organisational objective of distributing water `equitably¿ to agricultural water users. The dominant objective of the whole organisation became the old objective of the agricultural department, namely fulfilling the target of the state order. In addition, the ability of the water resource department to manage and to control water resources was reduced during the merger. The merger reduced not only the resource power of the water department, but also its process power. The collected data shows that the decisions on water distribution were strongly influenced by the agricultural department and the governors of the districts
|Indexing constitutional accountability in local governance: the search for the water-power interface
Regmi, A. - \ 2004
Resources, Energy, and Development 1 (2004)1 en 2. - ISSN 0973-0516 - p. 91 - 94.
irrigatiewater - waterverdeling - kracht - internationale samenwerking - nepal - irrigation water - water distribution - power - international cooperation - nepal
This paper cites an example from a case study of the first small 2.4 MW anauti hydropower system in Nepal. Designed and implemented by Russian technical assistence in 1965, this power plant has impacted on several local irrigation systems and has become a site of contestation for local people, both for water and power
The Motivation for Hedging Revisited
Pennings, J.M.E. ; Leuthold, R.M. - \ 2000
Journal of Futures Markets 20 (2000)9. - ISSN 0270-7314 - p. 865 - 885.
futures markets - developing-country - shareholder value - channel - power - prices - uncertainty - dependence - conflict - firm
This article develops an alternative view on the motivation to hedge. A conceptual model shows how hedging facilitates contract relationships between firms and can solve conflicts between firms. In this model, the contract preferences, level of power, and conflicts in contractual relationships of firms are driving the usage of futures contracts. The model shows how using futures markets can provide a jointly preferred contracting arrangement, enhancing relationships between firms. The robust nature of the conceptual model is empirically examined through a computer-guided study of various firms. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
|The Domestic Domain: Chances, choices and strategies of family households
Pennartz, P. ; Niehof, A. - \ 1999
Aldershot [etc.] : Ashgate - ISBN 9780754610113 - 241
gezinnen - huishoudens - besluitvorming - huishoudbudgetten - arbeidsverdeling - man-vrouwrelaties - huisvesting - kracht - ontwikkelingslanden - wereld - zorg - families - households - decision making - household budgets - division of labour - gender relations - housing - power - Developing Countries - world - care
|Specifiek brandstofverbruik en vermogensbehoefte van trekkers = Specific fuel consumption and required power of tractors
Straelen, B.C.P.M. van; Maeyer, E.E.A. de - \ 1997
Wageningen : IMAG-DLO (Rapport / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Milieu- en Agritechniek 97-10) - ISBN 9789054061588 - 33
trucks - trekkers - transportvoertuigen - kracht - trekkrachtefficiëncy - prestatieniveau - motoren - technologie - brandstoffen - vloeistoffen (liquids) - mineraaloliën - verbrandingsmotoren - dieselmotoren - aardolie - dieselolie - stookoliën - energie - efficiëntie - energiegebruik - brandstofverbruik - trucks - tractors - transporters - power - tractive efficiency - performance - engines - technology - fuels - liquids - mineral oils - internal combustion engines - diesel engines - petroleum - diesel oil - fuel oils - energy - efficiency - energy consumption - fuel consumption
Haalbaarheidsstudie van een biomassa gestookte warmte/kracht-installatie in de gemeente Groningen
Rijk, P.J. ; Loo, S. van; Webb, R. - \ 1996
Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Publicatie / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 2.205) - ISBN 9789052423524 - 103
warmte - kracht - warmtepompen - afvalwarmtebenutting - nuttig gebruik - energie - biomassa - bio-energie - krachtcentrales - energiebronnen - capaciteit - toepassingen - haalbaarheidsstudies - nederland - groningen - heat - power - heat pumps - waste heat utilization - utilization - energy - biomass - bioenergy - power stations - energy sources - capacity - applications - feasibility studies - netherlands - groningen
Levering van warmte aan glastuinbouwbedrijven; Warmte/kracht-contracten en bedrijfseconomische aspecten
Verhoeven, A.T.M. ; Velden, N.J.A. van der; Verhaegh, A.P. - \ 1996
Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 563) - ISBN 9789052423500 - 90
energiebeleid - energie - economie - probleemanalyse - warmte - kracht - warmtepompen - afvalwarmtebenutting - kosten-batenanalyse - kostenanalyse - investering - economische evaluatie - glastuinbouw - energy policy - energy - economics - problem analysis - heat - power - heat pumps - waste heat utilization - cost benefit analysis - cost analysis - investment - economic evaluation - greenhouse horticulture
Energie - effecten bij inzet WKK in eiland- en parallelbedrijf in kassen = Energy effects of on-site and parallel use of cogeneration of heat and power in greenhouses
Huijs, J.P.G. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 1995
Wageningen : Instituut voor Milieu- en Agritechniek (Rapport / IMAG-DLO 95-4) - ISBN 9789054061168 - 51
klimaat - efficiëntie - energie - energiegebruik - brandstofverbruik - kassen - warmte - warmtepompen - kracht - afvalwarmtebenutting - climate - efficiency - energy - energy consumption - fuel consumption - greenhouses - heat - heat pumps - power - waste heat utilization
Warmte/kracht installaties in de glastuinbouw; Gebruikersrendementen en dekkingsgraden
Verhoeven, A.T.M. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 1995
Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Publikatie / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 4.137) - ISBN 9789052422800 - 76
efficiëntie - energie - energiegebruik - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - brandstofverbruik - warmte - warmtepompen - kracht - rentabiliteit - afvalwarmtebenutting - glastuinbouw - efficiency - energy - energy consumption - farm results - fuel consumption - heat - heat pumps - power - profitability - waste heat utilization - greenhouse horticulture
|Grote verschillen in besparing energie met warmtekracht
Verhoeven, S. ; Velden, N. van der; Kempkes, F. - \ 1995
Oogst : CLO-land en tuinbouwblad 8 (1995)14. - ISSN 0923-0769 - p. 48 - 49.
efficiëntie - energie - energiebehoud - energiegebruik - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - brandstofverbruik - brandstoffen - warmte - warmtepompen - kracht - technologie - afvalwarmtebenutting - glastuinbouw - efficiency - energy - energy conservation - energy consumption - farm comparisons - fuel consumption - fuels - heat - heat pumps - power - technology - waste heat utilization - greenhouse horticulture
Gegevens van onderzoek met installaties die door het nutsbedrijf bij tuinders zijn geinstalleerd
|Grote verschillen in energiebesparing 'nuts-WK's'
Verhoeven, S. ; Velden, N. van der; Kempkes, F. - \ 1995
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 14 (1995). - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 52 - 53.
energiebehoud - warmte - warmtepompen - verwarmingsapparatuur - kracht - ventilatoren - afvalwarmtebenutting - glastuinbouw - energy conservation - heat - heat pumps - heaters - power - ventilators - waste heat utilization - greenhouse horticulture
|Energie-effect WK reikt over grenzen van tuinbouwbedrijf
Huijs, J.P.G. ; Zwart, H.F. de; (NOVEM.) Custers, C.H.M.G. - \ 1995
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij (1995)7. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 66 - 67.
heat - heat pumps - power - waste heat utilization - greenhouse horticulture
Optimale bufferafmeting bij assimilatiebelichting met WKK in eilandbedrijf in de glastuinbouw = Optimum storage dimension for greenhouses with supplementary lighting and on-site cogeneration of heat and power
Zwart, H.F. de; Huijs, J.P.G. - \ 1994
Wageningen etc. : IMAG-DLO [etc.] (Rapport / Instituut voor Milieu- en Agritechniek no. 94-24) - ISBN 9789054060932 - 50
kunstlicht - warmte - warmtepompen - verlichting - kracht - afvalwarmtebenutting - glastuinbouw - artificial light - heat - heat pumps - lighting - power - waste heat utilization - greenhouse horticulture
Optimalisering energiegebruik bij toepassing van warmtekrachtkoppeling en assimilatiebelichting bij tomaten = Optimization of energy consumption with cogeneration of heat and power and supplementary lighting in tomatoes
Huijs, J.P.G. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 1992
Wageningen : IMAG-DLO (Rapport / DLO-Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen 92-5) - ISBN 9789054060253 - 67
kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - efficiëntie - energie - energiegebruik - brandstofverbruik - warmte - warmtepompen - solanum lycopersicum - kracht - tomaten - afvalwarmtebenutting - artificial light - artificial lighting - efficiency - energy - energy consumption - fuel consumption - heat - heat pumps - solanum lycopersicum - power - tomatoes - waste heat utilization
Het gebruik van warmte/kracht - installaties in de glastuinbouw : een inventarisatie
Leeuwen, R.C.L. van; Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 1992
Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Publikatie / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 4.134) - ISBN 9789052421926 - 55
warmte - warmtepompen - kracht - afvalwarmtebenutting - glastuinbouw - heat - heat pumps - power - waste heat utilization - greenhouse horticulture
|Animal traction in Zambia : status, progress and trends 1991
Starkey, P. ; Dibbits, H. ; Mwenya, E. - \ 1991
Wageningen etc. : Institute of Agricultural Engineering (IMAG-DLO) [etc.] - 113
kracht - dierlijke trekkracht - tractie - zambia - trekdieren - werkdieren - power - animal power - traction - zambia - draught animals - working animals
|Jaarbelastingsduurkromme en energiebesparing voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw : een studie naar relevante invloeden
Breuer, J.J.G. - \ 1987
Wageningen : IMAG (Rapport / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen 90) - 67
bedrijven - energie - energiebehoud - ondernemingen - verwarmingsapparatuur - verwarming - nederland - kracht - aanbod - ventilatie - ventilatoren - binnenklimaat - energiebesparing - glastuinbouw - businesses - energy - energy conservation - enterprises - heaters - heating - netherlands - power - supply - ventilation - ventilators - indoor climate - energy saving - greenhouse horticulture
Voor 3 verschillende teelten van groenten en snijbloemen is de invloed van een aantal factoren op de jaarbelastingsduurkromme onderzocht. De onderzochte factoren zijn de warmtedoorgangscoefficient van een kas (k-waarde), de minimumbuisteperatuur, het droogstoken, het lichtafhankelijk verhogen van de stooktemperatuur en het wijzigen van de binnentemperatuur . Bij het onderzoek is gekeken naar de energiebesparing en de verandering van het verloop van de jaarbelastingsduurkromme, t.g.v. variaties in de 5 genoemde factoren. I.v.m. de keuze van de k-waarde bij de uitgangspunten is in een vooronderzoek gekeken naar de invloed van een aantal factoren op de warmtedoorgangscoefficient van een kas