Room for manoeuvre: User participation in water resources management in Burkina Faso
Daré, Williams ; Venot, Jean Philippe - \ 2018
Development Policy Review 36 (2018)2. - ISSN 0950-6764 - p. 175 - 189.
companion modelling - Integrated Water Resources Management - knowledge - participation - power - West Africa
Participation in natural resources management is widely promoted in sub-Saharan Africa, but faces mounting criticism from social science scholars who rarely engage with it in practice. We use the notion of room for manoeuvre to reflect on a multi-level participatory approach designed to support the Burkinabè Integrated Water Resources Management policy and propose ways of engaging constructively with local users and policy-makers. Within an “invited space” of participation, water users’ room for manoeuvre was enhanced through the acquisition of new knowledge on the legal Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) framework. This allowed them to interact with decision-makers and to extend their networks. Power imbalances were discussed, but this did not lead to modifying existing power structures that hinge on broader societal dynamics.
‘I won’t take part!’ : Exploring the multiple identities of the ethnographer in two Ghanaian hospitals
Aberese-Ako, Matilda - \ 2017
Ethnography 18 (2017)3. - ISSN 1466-1381 - p. 300 - 321.
distrust - hospital ethnography - insider - multiple identities - outsider - power - trust - worker motivation
This article reflects on how an ethnographer’s approach to field entry, the topic of study, her use of ethnographic methods and contextual factors shaped research participants’ perception of her multiple identities in a Ghanaian hospital environment. Her perceived multiple identities influenced trust and distrust relations between her and her research participants, which impacted on the research project. The article discusses the paradox of the researcher’s negotiation of her multiple identities of ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ and its influence on the process of data collection, understanding and analysis of the study topic. The article argues that research projects give birth to the ethnographer. Obviously, the observations of the ethnographer, who is the main research instrument, of her own position, are an important source for data collection. Participation and positioning in organizational activities can provide the ethnographer with a personal experience of her study topic and data that enhances understanding of organizational processes.
Perpetuating power through autoethnography : my research unawareness and memories of paternalism among the indigenous Hai//om in Namibia
Koot;, Stasja - \ 2016
Critical Arts 30 (2016)6. - ISSN 0256-0046 - p. 840 - 854.
autoethnography - Hai//om - memory - Namibia - power - unawareness
In this article, I reflect on my longitudinal relation with the indigenous Hai//om Bushmen of the resettlement farm Tsintsabis, in Namibia, exploring my position of power as a development fieldworker. I have been connected to the Hai//om since 1999, doing research and living and working with them while continuously moving between being an ‘outsider’ and an ‘insider’. As an MA student, a development worker/boss (baas) and a PhD researcher, my knowledge of these indigenous people changed over the years. My longest stay on the farm was not as a researcher/anthropologist but as a development fieldworker, engaging with the people in manifold relationships. I argue that there is much epistemological value in an ‘open retrospective analytic autoethnographic experience’. The article explores three under-analysed but crucial and related elements of autoethnography, namely unawareness, memory and power. Even when the awareness of ‘doing research’ is absent, knowledge is acquired. This can be used analytically at a later stage. However, this inevitably implies a major role for the researcher’s memories, thereby perpetuating his/her position of power in the representation and interpretation of events and experiences.
Offshore wind park monitoring programmes, lessons learned and recommendations for the future
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Degraer, S. ; Dannheim, J. ; Gill, A.B. ; Wilhelmsson, D. - \ 2015
Hydrobiologia 756 (2015)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 169 - 180.
renewable energy development - north-sea - communities - impacts - benthos - farms - power - biodiversity - assemblages - management
Over a decade of monitoring offshore wind park environmental impact triggered a reflection on the overall objectives and how to best continue with the monitoring programmes. Essentially, basic monitoring has to be rationalised at the level of the likelihood of impact detection, the meaningfulness of impact size and representativeness of the findings. Targeted monitoring is crucial and should continue to be applied to disentangle processes behind observed impacts, for instance the overarching artificial reef effect caused by wind parks. The major challenge, however, remains to achieve a reliable assessment of the cumulative impacts. A continuous international consultation and collaboration with marine scientists, managers, government officials and industry will be needed to ensure an optimisation of the future monitoring programmes.
Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake
Boer, J.H.W. van den; Mars, M. - \ 2015
Appetite 86 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 25 - 30.
food-intake - social facilitation - behavior - humans - perception - duration - power - size
Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f¿=¿8/22, age: 21.2¿±¿1.9¿years, BMI: 21.2¿±¿1.6¿kg/m2) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3¿bites/min), medium (5¿bites/min) or fast (7¿bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9¿±¿1.3, medium: 4.0¿±¿1.1, fast: 4.0¿±¿1.3¿bites/min (p¿=¿0.75), as was average bite size (11¿±¿2.6¿g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9¿±¿3.6¿min) and fast condition (14.4¿±¿3.7¿min) compared to the slow condition (16.8¿±¿4.8¿min) (post hoc in both cases p¿
The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development
Papaioannou, K.I. ; Zanden, J.L. van - \ 2015
Journal of Institutional Economics 11 (2015)1. - ISSN 1744-1374 - p. 111 - 139.
panel-data - measuring democracy - government size - cross-section - cause growth - institutions - power - democratization - instruments - countries
This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry out sound economic policies. We argue that such economic policies are the result of information asymmetries inherent to dictatorships (known as the ‘dictator dilemma’) and of changes in the personality of dictators (known as the ‘winner effect’). We call the combination of these two terms the ‘dictator effect’. We present evidence to suggest that long years in office impacts on economic growth (which is reduced), inflation (which increases) and the quality of institutions (which deteriorates). The negative effect of long years of tenure (i.e. the ‘dictator effect’) is particularly strong in young states and in Africa and the Near East.
Regional restrictions on environmental impact assessment approval in China: the legitimacy of environmental authoritarianism
Zhu, X. ; Zhang, L. ; Ran, R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 100 - 108.
public-participation - politics - implementation - management - democracy - power - law
The poor enforcement and effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) on construction and investment projects in China has long been blamed for not preventing environmental pollution and degradation. At the same time, freezing EIA approval of all new projects in an administrative region, introduced in 2006 as a punishment for failing to meet regional environmental quality targets, has been regarded as an innovative administrative instrument used by higher level environmental authorities on local governments. But it also raised controversies. Applying an environmental authoritarianism perspective, this study analyzed the legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of freezing EIA approval procedures by reviewing all 25 national cases and 12 provincial cases of so-called EIA Restrictions Targeting Regions between 1 December 2006 and 31 December 2013. The results show that such an environmental authoritarian measure is to some extent environmentally effective but lacks legality and transparency towards and participation of third parties, and hence falls short in legitimacy. Legal foundations and wider third party participation are essential for the long term effectiveness of this policy and its transfer to other countries.
Land-use change arising from rural land exchange: an agent-based simulation model
Bakker, M.M. ; Alam, S.J. ; Dijk, J. van; Rounsevell, M.D.A. - \ 2015
Landscape Ecology 30 (2015). - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 273 - 286.
challenges - improve - quality - power
Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing farmers, nature organizations, and estate owners.
Delineating active citizenship: The subjectification of citizens' initiatives
Dam, R.I. van; Duineveld, M. ; During, R. - \ 2015
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 17 (2015)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 163 - 179.
big society - power - netherlands - governance - implementation - community - systems - policy - nimby
Based on three case studies on citizens' initiatives in their local governance contexts, we analyse the process of subjectification as a performative effect of the dialectical relationship between governmental organizations and citizens' initiatives. We argue that discourses produced by governmental organizations on what it entails to be an active citizen have a performative effect on citizens' initiatives, which adapt themselves, anticipate on what is expected from them and act strategically towards these discourses. As a consequence, some people become ‘good’ citizens meeting the expectations of the governmental discourse. The process of subjectification shows that this not a unilateral act, but mutually activated by both governmental organizations and citizens' initiatives.
Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy
Zeitoun, M. ; Warner, J.F. ; Mirumachi, N. ; Matthews, N. ; McLaughlin, K. - \ 2014
Water Policy 16 (2014)S2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 174 - 193.
global environmental justice - hydro-hegemony - south-africa - nile basin - power - management - allocation - equity - law - hydrosolidarity
By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and diplomacy are grouped under themes of equitability, process/outcomes, and structural concerns. These include shortcomings of analysis and policy based on unfounded assumptions of equality, and options excluded from consideration by the legitimisation of particular concepts of justice over others. As power asymmetry is seen to enable or disable justice claims and conflict resolution efforts, the importance of ensuring equitable outcomes as a pre-condition for cooperation is asserted. Similarly, water conflict resolution is found to be more fair – procedurally – than is conflict management, and may be supported to a limited extent by international water law. A number of analytical tasks are suggested for future research and policy, including a call to scrutinise the source of legitimacy of strands of justice invoked. Given the very many perspectives on justice that exist in the network of relevant actors, potential bias in research and diplomacy could be reduced if all involved openly stated the morals underpinning their understanding of ‘justice’.
Student perceptions of assessment and student self-efficacy in competence-based education
Dinther, M. van; Dochy, F. ; Segers, M. ; Braeken, J. - \ 2014
Educational Studies 40 (2014)3. - ISSN 0305-5698 - p. 330 - 351.
beliefs - performance - framework - feedback - power
The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the interplay between student perceptions of competence-based assessment and student self-efficacy, and how this influences student learning outcomes. Results reveal that student perceptions of the form authenticity aspect and the quality feedback aspect of assessment do predict student self-efficacy, confirming the role of mastery experiences and social persuasions in enhancing student self-efficacy as stated by social cognitive theory. Findings do not confirm mastery experiences as being a stronger source of self-efficacy information than social persuasions. Study results confirm the predictive role of students' self-efficacy on their competence outcomes. Mediation analysis results indicate that student's perceptions of assessment have an indirect effect on student's competence evaluation outcomes through student's self-efficacy. Study findings highlight which assessment characteristics, positively influencing students' learning, contribute to the effectiveness of competence-based education. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are indicated.
Responsible research and innovation in miniature: Information asymmetries hindering a more inclusive 'nanofood' development
Bakker, E. de; Lauwere, C.C. de; Hoes, A.C. ; Beekman, V. - \ 2014
Science and Public Policy 41 (2014)3. - ISSN 0302-3427 - p. 294 - 305.
nanotechnology - risks - power
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is about an interactive and comprehensive development of new technologies, also addressing social needs and ethical issues. But how do these ambitions of RRI relate to the practice of technological innovations? Nanotechnology is currently a large-scale techno-scientific development that offers many chances and opportunities but also raises concerns. Focusing on the issues of power, information (asymmetries) and responsibility we will describe the Dutch policy, assessments and debates on nanotechnology in general and on nanofood in particular. RRI assumes a willingness of all stakeholders to share or communicate information, but the case of nanofood exemplifies that industry can be reluctant to do this because of the fear that discussions will take a 'wrong direction'. We conclude that information asymmetries can be a principal problem for a more inclusive nanofood development and that policies that wish to strengthen RRI should take this into account.
Identifying the ‘if’ for ‘if-then’ plans: Combining implementation intentions with cue-monitoring targeting unhealthy snacking behaviour
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2014
Psychology and Health 29 (2014)12. - ISSN 0887-0446 - p. 1476 - 1492.
habit strength - interventions - metaanalysis - breaking - enhance - weight - trial - power
Implementation intentions aimed at changing unwanted habits require the identification of personally relevant cues triggering the habitual response in order to be effective. To facilitate successful implementation intention formation, in the present study, planning was combined with cue-monitoring, a novel way to gain insight into triggers for unhealthy snacking. It was tested whether keeping a cue-monitoring diary and tailoring implementation intentions accordingly improves plan effectiveness. A 2 Monitoring (cue-monitoring, control)¿×¿2 Planning (implementation intention, goal intention) between subjects design was adopted. Participants (N = 161) monitored their unhealthy snacking behaviour for a week using either a cue-monitoring or a control diary. Participants then formulated a goal intention or an implementation intention tailored to their personal cue. Snacking frequency and caloric intake from unhealthy snacks were examined using a seven-day snack diary. The results did not indicate an interaction but yielded a main effect of Monitoring. Cue-monitoring either or not combined with implementation intentions reduced unhealthy snacking behaviour compared with control. Findings emphasise the effectiveness of cue-monitoring, suggesting that on the short term, cue-monitoring suffices to decrease unhealthy snacking, without additional benefit from planning. Future research should examine whether supplementing cue-monitoring with implementation intentions is required to establish long-term behaviour change maintenance.
The Malleability of Participation: The Politics of Agricultural Research under Neoliberalism in Bolivia
Cordoba, D.M. ; Jansen, K. ; Gonzalez, C. - \ 2014
Development and Change 45 (2014)6. - ISSN 0012-155X - p. 1284 - 1309.
governmentality - management - improve - power - age
This article analyses how neoliberal restructuring encouraged the use of participatory methods in agricultural research in Bolivia and how, at a later stage, participatory development initiatives had to be adapted to prevent conflicts with the post-neoliberal views of farmer organizations. The article contributes to the debate on the normalization of participatory methods in agrarian development. Engaging with Foucault's work on governmentality and neoliberalism, our analysis goes beyond interpretations of participation which conceptualize it exclusively as a technology of power to discipline subjects. Drawing on a distinction between a liberal and a neoliberal moment in the restructuring of agricultural research, we study the case of PROINPA (Foundation for the Promotion and Research of Andean Products), a national NGO that was once part of the state system for agricultural research but was then privatized. Although PROINPA employed participation mainly to enhance managerial effectiveness, it also facilitated moments of participation from below. We argue that participation designed by this type of NGO is not just ‘technical’ as PROINPA professionals would like to perceive it, nor is it simply ‘political’ as critical views on participation hold. Instead it is malleable in the sense that each actor is involved in finding a new balance between technical, economic and political considerations.
The riot, the people and the neighborhood: narrative framing of social disorder in four cases
Hulst, M.J. van; Siesling, M. ; Lieshout, M. van; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. - \ 2014
Media, Culture & Society 36 (2014)4. - ISSN 0163-4437 - p. 456 - 472.
frames - news - newspapers - sociology - power - back
This article looks at the ways newspaper articles, through their stories, frame social disorder in urban areas. The article compares reporting on four cases – two Dutch, two Belgian – of violent confrontations between societal groups and between societal groups and the police. News articles on the riots through time widen in terms of their geographic and social scale. At the same time, stories are told about a familiar cast of characters, leaving others out. The practices of newspapers seem to reinforce this pattern. The article contributes to the understanding of the role of traditional media in narrative framing of present-day public problems. Keywords: framing, narrative, news practices, riots, social disorder, story, storytelling
Seawater predesalination with electrodialysis
Galama, A.H. ; Saakes, M. ; Bruning, H. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Post, J.W. - \ 2014
Desalination 342 (2014). - ISSN 0011-9164 - p. 61 - 69.
ion-exchange membranes - electroosmotic water transport - resin membranes - desalination processes - power - electrotransport - salinity - reversal - system - model
The suitability of ED for seawater desalination was investigated and we quantified the energy losses that play a role in electrodialysis. The combination of electrodialysis (ED) and brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) is presented as an alternative desalination strategy for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). Experiments have been performed with a recycling batch electrodialyzer. From this we conclude that in most cases the membrane stack is responsible for the main energy loss in the system. Energy losses due to water transport are generally low. At low applied current density, osmotic water transport is relatively large and as such the energy loss, while electroosmosis was found to be directly proportional to the applied current density. The relative energy loss caused by back diffusion was found to be only of minor importance for higher current densities and was only more pronounced at the lowest applied current density of 10 A/m2. Combining ED with BWRO in a hybrid system does not lead to a reduction in energy consumption compared to ED as standalone technique, when the applied current density becomes lower than 50 A/m2. At low applied current density (10 A/m2) ED can perform desalination energetically cheaper at lower operational costs than SWRO.
Shifting nature conservation approaches in Natura 2000 and the implications for the roles of stakeholders
Ferranti, F. ; Turnhout, E. ; Beunen, R. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2014
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 57 (2014)11. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1642 - 1657.
policy - participation - governance - implementation - netherlands - empowerment - ecosystem - network - power
This paper analyses Natura 2000 as a shifting configuration of different approaches to nature conservation and discusses the consequences of these shifts for the roles of the stakeholders affected by this policy. Natura 2000 started with a technocratic approach that privileged conservation experts and marginalised socio-economic stakeholders. Over time, this approach has been complemented with participatory and economic approaches that offered scope for the inclusion of land users and business actors. However, the analysis also shows that the selective inclusion of economic values and stakeholders in the Natura 2000 framework risks marginalising other important socio-environmental actors.
Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions
Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Schaetzle, O. ; Paz-García, J.M. ; Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Technology Letters 1 (2014)1. - ISSN 2328-8930 - p. 31 - 35.
water salinity difference - capacitive deionization - carbon electrodes - extraction - power - capture
When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a total annual worldwide capacity of 1570 TWh. To harvest the mixing energy from CO2-containing gas emissions, we use pairs of porous electrodes, one selective for anions and the other selective for cations. We demonstrate that when an aqueous electrolyte, flushed with either CO2 or air, alternately flows between these selective porous electrodes, electrical energy is gained. The efficiency of this process reached 24% with deionized water as the aqueous electrolyte and 32% with a 0.25 M monoethanolamine (MEA) solution as the electrolyte. The highest average power density obtained with a MEA solution as the electrolyte was 4.5 mW/m2, significantly higher than that with water as the electrolyte (0.28 mW/m2).
Feeling at home in public: diasporic Moroccan women negotiating leisure in Morocco and the Netherlands
Wagner, L.B. ; Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2014
Gender, Place & Culture : a Journal of Feminist Geography 21 (2014)4. - ISSN 0966-369X - p. 415 - 430.
gender - space - constraints - experience - power - city - fear
Muslim women are often cited as subject to restriction in their mobility through public space, especially in European contexts, in comparison with non-Muslim community members. Yet any woman might face restriction in her access to leisure outside the home through geographies of risk and fear, as well as geographies of care and responsibility. In this article, we describe the ways in which Moroccan Muslim women resident in Europe negotiate access to leisure outside the home, in both Europe and Morocco, demonstrating that they practice mobilities framed by safety, risk and responsibility combined with individual volition to be participants in public spaces. Using examples from interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we discuss a notion of ‘viscosity’ as safe public space that acts as an extension of the home, where women feel comfortable enacting their daily lives and engaging in leisure practices. By comparing data from the Netherlands and Morocco, we highlight the role of Muslim-dominant and Christian-dominant public spheres in these negotiations of leisure. The ways women inhabit such spaces reflect individual concerns about personal safety, as well as maintaining respectful relations with family and being protected from unknown dangers, in ways that reflect not only religious beliefs but also geographies of risk related to other factors. Inhabiting such spaces implicates how they become part of the community at large, as visibly present participants, by negotiating many factors beyond religious beliefs as part of their access to public leisure spaces
Functional Foods as Differentiated Products: the Italian Yogurt Market
Bonanno, A. - \ 2013
European Review of Agricultural Economics 40 (2013)1. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 45 - 71.
consumer acceptance - empirical-analysis - demand system - competition - valuation - industry - europe - price - power - model
In spite of the growing consumers' interest for functional foods, the knowledge regarding the demand for these products and their profitability is limited. Adapting the LA/AIDS (Linear Approximated–Almost Ideal Demand System) model by means of Pinkse, Slade and Brett's distance metric method (2002), this article studies demand, substitution pattern, and profitability of conventional and functional alternatives inside the yogurt category in Italy. Results indicate that, in the yogurt market, functional alternatives' demand is often less elastic than that of their conventional counterparts, that brand loyalty plays a key role, and that the profitability of the functional alternatives is, on average, larger than that of conventional ones.