Statistical guidelines for Apis mellifera research
Pirk, C.W.W. ; Miranda, J.R. ; Kramer, M. ; Murray, T.E. ; Nazzi, F. ; Shutler, D. ; Steen, J.J.M. van der; Dooremalen, C. van - \ 2013
Journal of Apicultural Research 52 (2013)4. - ISSN 0021-8839
division-of-labor - honey-bees - sample-size - nosema-apis - prevalence - viruses - models - larvae - power
In this article we provide guidelines on statistical design and analysis of data for all kinds of honey bee research. Guidelines and selection of different methods presented are, at least partly, based on experience. This article can be used: to identify the most suitable analysis for the type of data collected; to optimise one's experimental design based on the experimental factors to be investigated, samples to be analysed, and the type of data produced; to determine how, where, and when to sample bees from colonies; or just to inspire. Also included are guidelines on presentation and reporting of data, as well as where to find help and which types of software could be useful.
Inequality in new global governance arrangements: the North-South divide in transnational municipal networks
Bouteligier, S. - \ 2013
Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research 26 (2013)3. - ISSN 1351-1610 - p. 251 - 267.
power - policy
Networks are often portrayed as more equal governance arrangements because of their horizontal character. Power relations within networks are neglected as the collaborative activities receive the bulk of attention. However, from a critical reading of the network and flows literature we know that networks are not free of power relations, and that they create new inequalities and even intensify existing ones. Using Manuel Castells's conceptual framework on power in networks, this article studies power relations in two transnational municipal networks that address urban environmental challenges: the World Association of the Major Metropolises and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. Power relations that result from informational and ideational flows are at the core of attention. The paper reveals contributor/receiver linkages and their consequences. The conclusions are framed by reflections on the significance of cities from the Global South in new global governance arrangements.
Genetic diversity and structure in a collection of tulip cultivars assessed by SNP markers
Tang, N. ; Shahin, A. ; Bijman, P.J.J. ; Liu, J. ; Tuyl, J.M. van; Arens, P. - \ 2013
Scientia Horticulturae 161 (2013). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 286 - 292.
single nucleotide polymorphisms - population-structure - genome - identification - conservation - liliaceae - program - power
Although tulip is one of the most important bulbous crops worldwide, the genetic background of most cultivars is unclear at present. The purposes of this study are to investigate genetic diversity and to identify the genetic structure and relationships among tulip cultivars. A total of 236 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from 'Kees Nelis' and 'Cantata', from which 121 SNPs with a minor allele frequency above 0.1 were selected for genetic analysis. The total observed heterozygosity (Ho) among the 72 accessions was 0.35, Ho of cultivar groups ranged from 0.22 (Tulipa fosteriana) to 0.43 (Tulipa gesneriana x T. fosteriana hybrids). Rather small genetic distances were found among T. gesneriana cultivar groups which are defined according to flowering time and morphology. In both PCoA (principle coordinate analysis) and STRUCTURE analysis, the 72 accessions were separated into three clusters (F-ST =0.208, P
The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on nontarget organisms
Semenov, A.V. ; Elsas, J.D. van; Glandorf, D.C.M. ; Schilthuizen, M. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2013
Ecology and Evolution 3 (2013)8. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 2739 - 2750.
herbicide-tolerant crops - farm-scale evaluations - gene flow - population-structure - habitat preference - land snail - dispersal - design - power - invertebrates
To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on varied experimental designs. The recent EFSA guidance document for environmental risk assessment (2010) does not provide clear and structured suggestions that address the statistics of field trials on effects on NTO's. This review examines existing practices in GM plant field testing such as the way of randomization, replication, and pseudoreplication. Emphasis is placed on the importance of design features used for the field trials in which effects on NTO's are assessed. The importance of statistical power and the positive and negative aspects of various statistical models are discussed. Equivalence and difference testing are compared, and the importance of checking the distribution of experimental data is stressed to decide on the selection of the proper statistical model. While for continuous data (e.g., pH and temperature) classical statistical approaches - for example, analysis of variance (ANOVA) - are appropriate, for discontinuous data (counts) only generalized linear models (GLM) are shown to be efficient. There is no golden rule as to which statistical test is the most appropriate for any experimental situation. In particular, in experiments in which block designs are used and covariates play a role GLMs should be used. Generic advice is offered that will help in both the setting up of field testing and the interpretation and data analysis of the data obtained in this testing. The combination of decision trees and a checklist for field trials, which are provided, will help in the interpretation of the statistical analyses of field trials and to assess whether such analyses were correctly applied.
The effect of temperature and time on the quality of natural fermented marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. Caffra) juice
Hiwilepo-van Hal, P. ; Bille, P.G. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. - \ 2013
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 53 (2013)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 70 - 75.
antioxidant activity - vitamin-c - tropical fruits - wines - power - red
This paper presents the effects of fermentation on the retention of vitamin C, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in the naturally fermented marula juice. The fermentation conditions have been varied: temperature ranged between 20 and 40 °C and fermentation time from 1 to 8 days. Marula juice fermented at higher temperatures ranged between 30 and 40 °C for 6 to 4 days retained high antioxidant activities, and they were positively correlated to its ascorbic acid and phenolic content. The values obtained ranged between 0.0239 ± 0.0051 and 0.029 ± 0.0038 µmol/mg for Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity, 870 ± 80 and 960 ± 130 mg/100 ml for total phenolic content and 90 ± 6 and 159 ± 15 mg/100 ml for ascorbic acid. Overall, fermented marula juice can be used as a good source for natural antioxidants.
Participatory Development and Reconstruction: a literature review
Kyamusugulwa, P.M. - \ 2013
Third World Quarterly 34 (2013)7. - ISSN 0143-6597 - p. 1265 - 1278.
community-driven development - collective action - popular participation - public-participation - elite capture - power - management - accountability - benchmarking - livelihoods
In the past decade researchers and development experts have been preoccupied by participatory development and reconstruction. Despite criticisms of its potential, it has been at the centre of development practices. This review of both published and unpublished literature aims to assess the importance of participatory development and reconstruction, especially its positive and negative characteristics. The paper shows that, despite its potentially transformative role, its main drawback rests in the power relations between elites and non-elites and that creating comprehensible ways through which non-elites can deal with these relations is one issue that needs additional research. Other issues that need more research are related to how to sustain the participatory development and reconstruction outcomes by increasing local ownership, and how to better involve existing structures and institutions (both state and non-state actors) in development and reconstruction efforts for poverty alleviation.
Less is more: The effect of multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Fennis, B.M. - \ 2013
European Journal of Social Psychology 43 (2013)5. - ISSN 0046-2772 - p. 344 - 354.
behavior-change - goal achievement - personal goals - past behavior - strength - plans - metaanalysis - breaking - number - power
Implementation intentions have been shown to effectively change counter-intentional habits. Research has, however, almost solely been concerned with the effectiveness of a single plan. In the present research, we investigated the behavioral and cognitive implications of making multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits and its underlying processes, linking multiple habitual snacking cues to healthy alternatives. Study 1 revealed that formulating multiple implementation intentions was not effective in decreasing unhealthy snacking, whereas formulating a single plan successfully induced behavior change. By using a lexical decision task in Study 2, it was found that when making a single plan, but not multiple plans, the healthy alternative became cognitively more accessible in response to a critical cue prime than the habitual response. However, when making additional plans in an unrelated domain, the negative effects of making multiple plans were absent. In sum, the current findings suggest that formulating multiple implementation intentions is ineffective when changing unwanted behavior. These reduced effects of multiple implementation intentions do not occur when making the plan but are rather due to interference in the enacting phase of the planning process.
Influence of the thickness of the capacitive layer on the performance of bioanodes in Microbial Fuel Cells
Deeke, A. ; Sleutels, T.H.J.A. ; Heijne, A. ter; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2013
Journal of Power Sources 243 (2013). - ISSN 0378-7753 - p. 611 - 616.
waste-water treatment - energy-storage - operation - power
Earlier it was shown, that it is possible to operate a Microbial Fuel Cell with an integrated capacitive bio-anode with a thickness of 0.5 mm and thereby to increase the power output. The integrated capacitive bioanode enabled storage of electricity produced by microorganisms directly inside an MFC. To increase the performance of this integrated storage system even more; the thickness of the capacitive electrode was varied: 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm. Each of these capacitive electrodes was tested in the MFC setup during polarization curves and charge–discharge experiments for the steady-state current density and the maximum charge recovery. The capacitive electrode with a thickness of 0.2 mm outperformed the other electrodes in all experiments: it reached a maximum current density of 2.53 Am-² during polarization curves, and was able to store a cumulative total charge of 96013 cm-² during charge–discharge experiments. The highest relative charge recovery for this electrode was 1.4, which means that 40% more current can be gained from this capacitive electrode during intermittent operation compared to continuous operation of a noncapacitive electrode. Surprisingly it was possible to increase the performance of the MFC through decrease of the thickness of the capacitive electrode.
Wind versus nuclear options for generating electricity in a carbon constrained world: Strategizing in an energy rich economy
Kooten, G.C. van; Johnston, C. ; Wong, L. - \ 2013
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 95 (2013)2. - ISSN 0002-9092 - p. 505 - 511.
Emotional conflicts in rational forestry: Towards a research agenda for understanding emotions in environmental conflicts
Buijs, A.E. ; Lawrence, A. - \ 2013
Forest Policy and Economics 33 (2013). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 104 - 111.
old-growth forests - decision-making - biodiversity conservation - social-movements - participation - management - deliberation - perspectives - policy - power
When looking at social conflicts around forests, both foresters and researchers tend to frame conflicts as rational differences related to diverging knowledge, values, and interests. In past centuries, and in areas where the forests are of immediate livelihood importance, this has been a powerful approach to explaining disputes. However for many stakeholders, including local communities, environmental campaigners and foresters themselves, feelings and emotions are also relevant components of a conflict. In this paper we argue that an overall tendency to ‘rationalise’ nature and forests has pushed emotion out of sight, and delegitimised it. Using examples from our own research in The Netherlands and the UK, we argue that feelings need to be visible and legitimate, in order to address the underlying causes of conflict. We begin the paper by examining how conflicts have been framed as rational, by researchers, managers and politicians. We seek explanations for both the ‘hidden’ nature of emotions and their labelling as ‘irrational’ in the rationalisation of forest science and management as a result of wider modernisation processes. We propose bringing emotions back in, to show how conflict is not merely based in diverging views, but is in fact a dimension of engagement. We suggest four aspects of forest conflicts in which emotions should be incorporated in research, all connected to literature from outside forestry: emotional sources of diverging views on forest management, emotional influences on the processing of information, the motivating power of emotions for social movements and the role of emotions in the escalation of protests.
Historical development of forest policy in Ethopia: Trends of institutionalization and deinstitutionalization
Ayana, A.N. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2013
Land Use Policy 32 (2013). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 186 - 196.
environmental-policy - politics - power
The aim of this paper is to analyse and explain the historical development of forest policy in Ethiopia from post-World War II era up to present. The analysis was conducted by tracing competing ideas, interests, institutions, and power configurations over a period of time. A qualitative historical analysis method was employed to collect and interpret data along the analytical dimensions of the so-called Policy Arrangement Approach (discourse coalitions, rules, resources and power). The development of forest policy in Ethiopia exhibits a dynamic process of institutionalization and deinstitutionalization. The institutionalization and deinstitutionalization process was co-shaped by a complex interplay of structural factors such as national political orientation and economic priorities, environmental calamities; and the dynamics in the global forest related discourses. Forestry was, most of the times, marginalized or integrated into the dominant agricultural development paradigm, where the integration also failed to maximize the synergy between the two sectors. The findings indeed confirm the usefulness of Policy Arrangement Approach to understand and explain such nuanced and dynamic process of (policy) change and continuity.
Making things irreversible. Object stabilization in urban planning and design
Duineveld, M. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. - \ 2013
Geoforum 46 (2013). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 16 - 24.
Based on a detailed reconstruction of the planning process of a controversial major building in the Dutch city of Groningen, we develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for studying object formation and stabilisation. We argue that the many forms of resistance against the object itself triggered a variety of counter-strategies of object formation. We make a distinction between sites, paths and techniques of object formation. To study object formation in more detail we distinguish three techniques: reification, solidification and codification. The techniques of object formation are accompanied by three techniques that produce a relative stability of the object, that increases its irreversibility, the likelihood of object survival: objectification, naturalisation and institutionalisation. We conclude that complete irreversibility is an illusion in governance and planning processes
Re-scaling ‘EU’rope: EU macro-regional fantasies in the Mediterranean
Bialasiewicz, L. ; Giaccaria, P. ; Jones, A. ; Minca, C. - \ 2013
European Urban and Regional Studies 20 (2013)1. - ISSN 0969-7764 - p. 59 - 76.
political geographies - neighborhood policy - governance - union - borders - power - europeanization - europeanisation - geopolitics - commission
This article engages with the most recent spatial fantasy for the making of ‘EU’ropean space: the idea of trans-European macro-regions, currently in vogue in the policy literature. In particular, we focus on the imaginings of a Mediterranean macro-region as the latest incarnation of the macro-regional fad, but also as a useful prism for reflecting on some of the underlying conceptual as well as political and geopolitical challenges of the on-going remaking and rescaling of ‘EU’ropean space. We argue that, although there exists by now a vast literature by geographers and other scholars that engages with the production of ‘EU’ropean spaces through regionalization, the policy literature generated by EU ‘macro-regional experts’ appears to entirely ignore these debates, professing an understanding of regions that is a conceptual pastiche at best, and that entirely occludes the political and geopolitical implications of region-making within, at, and beyond ‘EU’rope’s borders
Nazi spatial theory : the dark geographies of Carl Schmitt and Walter Christaller
Barnes, T.J. ; Minca, C. - \ 2013
Annals of the Association Of American Geographers 103 (2013)3. - ISSN 0004-5608 - p. 669 - 687.
political geographers - national-socialism - history - germany - geopolitik - holocaust - location - place - space - power
The concern with space and, more fundamentally, the formulation of a larger, guiding spatial theory, was central to achieving Nazi objectives during the Third Reich. We disclose critical elements of that theory, focusing on two contributions: the first by the jurist and international legal and political theorist Carl Schmitt (1888–1985) and the second by the geographer Walter Christaller (1893–1969). Applying the perverted biopolitical logic of National Socialism required the military accomplishment and bureaucratic management of two interrelated spatial processes: deterritorialization and reterritorialization. Deterritorialization involved moving non-Germanized Germans (mainly Jews and Slavs) off conquered Eastern lands to create an “empty space” that was then “reterritorialized” by the settlement of “legitimate” Germans (although often not German citizens). Although many German academics were involved in designing and implementing these spatial strategies, we single out two. Carl Schmitt provided a politico-judicial justification for reterritorialization involving the geographical expansion of the Third Reich: Großraum (greater space). Conceived four months before Germany's Blitzkrieg invasion of Poland that triggered World War II, Großraum provided the (literal) grounds for Nazi reterritorialization. Walter Christaller brought his peculiar spatial imaginary of formal geometry and place-based rural romanticism in planning the “empty space” of the East after non-Germanized inhabitants were removed. His central place theory re-created the Nazis' territorial conquests in the geographical likeness of the German homeland
Faster Time Response by the Use of Wire Electrodes in Capacitive Salinity Gradient Energy Systems
Burheim, O.S. ; Liu, F. ; Sales, B.B. ; Schaetzle, O. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2012
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part C: Nanomaterials and Interfaces 116 (2012)36. - ISSN 1932-7447 - p. 19203 - 19210.
pressure-retarded osmosis - reverse electrodialysis - power - extraction - water - sea - performance - density
Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan potential (CDP) and capacitive energy extraction based on double layer expansion (CDLE) are novel electroctrochemical processes to convert the potential free energy of mixing sea and river water into electric work. This is done by the use of supercapacitor electrodes with and without ion exchange membranes. Currently, these techniques rely on improved mass transport in order to become more efficient and give higher power output. In this paper we evaluate the transport phenomena by diffusion and the electrode geometry when switching between sea and river water at open circuit potential (OCP). By changing the electrode geometry from a flat plate to a cylindrical one, experiments and analytical models in combination show that mass transport by diffusion is increased. This is demonstrated without any changes in the hydrodynamic conditions. Improving mass transport without changing the hydrodynamic conditions breaks with what has been the convention in the scientific community of salinity gradient power. Moreover, in sea water the transport phenomena appear to be controlled by diffusion, and the response time for building open circuit potential in CDP and CDLE under this condition is reduced by a factor of 2 when using wire electrodes instead of flat plate electrodes. In river water, the trend is similar though the response time is generally larger.
Capacitive Bioanodes Enable Renewable Energy Storage in Microbial Fuel Cells
Deeke, A. ; Sleutels, T.H.J.A. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Environmental Science and Technology 46 (2012)6. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 3554 - 3560.
performance - power
We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive bioanode on the basis of performance and storage capacity. The performance and storage capacity were investigated during polarization curves and charge discharge experiments. During polarization curves the capacitive electrode reached a maximum current density of 1.02 +/- 0.04 A/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode reached a current density output of only 0.79 +/- 0.03 A/m(2). During the charge discharge experiment with S min of charging and 20 min of discharging, the capacitive electrode was able to store a total of 22 831 C/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode was only able to store 12 195 C/m(2). Regarding the charge recovery of each electrode, the capacitive electrode was able to recover 52.9% more charge during each charge discharge experiment compared with the noncapacitive electrode. The capacitive electrode outperformed the noncapacitive electrode throughout each charge discharge experiment. With a capacitive electrode it is possible to use the MFC simultaneously for production and storage of renewable electricity.
Advancing the deliberative turn in natural resource management: An analysis of discourses on the use of local resources
Rodela, R. - \ 2012
Journal of Environmental Management 96 (2012)1. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 26 - 34.
public-participation - citizen participation - impact assessment - democracy - slovenia - policy - power
The natural resource management literature stresses the need for public participation and community involvement in resource management and planning. Recently, some of this literature turned to the theory on deliberative democracy and demonstrated that a deliberative perspective on participation can help to challenge established practices and contribute with new ideas about how to conduct participation. The purpose of this paper is to consider the latest developments in deliberative democracy and outline the implications arising from these insights for a "deliberative turn" in resource management. A bottom-up protected area establishment, the Goricko Landscape Park, is examined. The empirical case is discussed from a discursive perspective, which relied on John Dryzek's approach to discourse analysis here used to explore the construction of discourses on the use of local natural resources. Two discourses are identified and the way these interfaced with the participatory park establishment process is considered. Findings indicate that advocates of the two discourses engaged differently with the participatory tools used and this had important implications for the park establishment. The case study suggests that, in contexts where participation has been recently introduced, knowledge of discourses on the use of local natural resources and of mobilization strategies actors may pursue could usefully assist in the design and implementation of participatory processes.
Indicators of fishing pressure and seafloor integrity
Piet, G.J. ; Hintzen, N.T. - \ 2012
ICES Journal of Marine Science 69 (2012)10. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1850 - 1858.
monitoring-system data - trawl disturbance - vms data - fisheries - impacts - communities - support - metrics - power
This study calculates a suite of indicators reflecting the spatial extent of fishing and its impact on the seafloor and discusses the usefulness of these indicators to inform future management and the issues to consider. It explores several methods to calculate the indicators and shows that they can be informative to report on both fishing pressure and the status of the seafloor. However, although observed overall trends were robust against the specific method of calculation, the absolute values vary greatly with the calculation method. As both aspects are important from a policy perspective, agreement on the methodology to calculate the indicators is required. This study based on the Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) shows that it is possible to calculate indicators required to inform decision-makers on the pressure of fishing as well as the status of the seafloor pending a decision on the following issues: (i) choice of an appropriate grid cell resolution, (ii) use of interpolated VMS tracks instead of VMS position registrations, (iii) choice of an “intensity threshold” dependent on the benthic community recovery capacity, and (iv) the level of confidence required when assessing if an area is not impacted.
The effects of blue energy on future emissions of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants in China
Gao, X. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2012
Journal of integrative Environmental Sciences 9 (2012)S1. - ISSN 1943-815X - p. 177 - 190.
reverse electrodialysis - salinity gradients - power - waters - so2
Blue energy is the electricity generated from salinity gradients in rivers. About half of the global electricity demand could be satisfied if the technical potential was implemented. However, the technique is not yet implemented in full-scale operational plants. We estimate the potential effects of blue energy on future emissions of CO2, non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) and other atmospheric pollutants in China, assuming it would replace coal in electricity and heat production. We focus on emissions from 16 major river basins in China, considering the theoretical, technical blue energy potentials and the practical feasibilities in 2000, 2030 and 2050. We show that blue energy is a promising future renewable energy source in China. It is a clean energy source with a potentially large contribution to the local electricity market. In the Changjiang basin, it could potentially meet more than 40% of the current local electricity demand. Optimistic assumptions on the implementation indicate a slowdown of the increase in future greenhouse gas emissions by about 10%. We argue that blue energy is a promising future renewable energy source in China, which may have positive effect on the global and local environment
The post-Mao gazes: Chinese backpackers in Macau
Ong, C.E. ; Cros, H. du - \ 2012
Annals of Tourism Research 39 (2012)2. - ISSN 0160-7383 - p. 735 - 754.
budget travelers - tourism - power - surveillance - nationality - culture - drifter - state - road - self
This paper offers insights into backpacker tourism from the People’s Republic of China. Chinese backpackers are a distinctively post-Mao reform generation growing up at a time when China shifts from Mao Zedong’s socialist policies to Deng Xiaoping’s policy explorations with capitalism. Through distanced virtual ethnography of a leading internet forum, it has been discovered that the forum members’ post-Mao backpacker gazes appropriate the postcolonial spaces of Macau in ways that contradict existing backpacker ideals and media and academic portrayal and stereotyping of Chinese youths, particularly concerning gender role adoption and the exoticising of postcolonial leisurescape. Backpacking in Macau also reveals the communal and differentiated nature of the tourist gaze and Chinese mobilities