Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Werkende wijs worden : procesevaluatie van Bioveem in LNV onderzoeksprogramma PO-34 (2001-2004)
    Wolf, P.L. de; Proost, M.D.C. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Hubeek, F.B. - \ 2005
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving BV (Rapport PPO 530176) - 59
    melkveehouderij - biologische landbouw - programma-evaluatie - nederland - dairy farming - organic farming - program evaluation - netherlands
    Epidemiologic and economic risk analysis of Johne's Disease control
    Groenendaal, H. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ruud Huirne; D.T. Galligan, co-promotor(en): M. Nielen. - Wageningen : Ponsen & Looijen BV - ISBN 9789085042136 - 160
    rundvee - paratuberculose - rundveestapel - melkveestapel - ziektebestrijding - epidemiologie - economische impact - monitoring - certificering - programma-evaluatie - simulatiemodellen - risicoschatting - agrarische economie - nederland - vs - dierziektepreventie - cattle - paratuberculosis - beef herds - dairy herds - disease control - epidemiology - economic impact - monitoring - certification - program evaluation - simulation models - risk assessment - agricultural economics - netherlands - usa - animal disease prevention
    Johne's disease or paratuberculosis in cattle is a chronic, progressive intestinal disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). There is a growing concern about the apparent increase in the prevalence of Johne's disease and the resulting economic and possible trade implications. In addition, although there has not been any definitive proof, Johne's disease may be associated with some forms of Crohn's disease in humans. As a result, there is an increased need for effective and economically attractive control programs against Johne's disease. The main objective of the research described in this thesis was to support decision-making in the design and development of control and certification-and-monitoring programs for Johne's disease by providing insight into the epidemiologic and economic effects of different strategies. To meet this objective, a stochastic simulation model, the 'JohneSSim' model was developed and used to evaluate control and certification-and-monitoring strategies on Dutch and mid-size US cattle herds. According to the model when applied to Dutch dairy farms, test-and-cull strategies alone using the current tests available do not considerably reduce the prevalence of Johne's disease and are economically unattractive. As a consequence, the focus of policy-makers changed to management measures to prevent the spread of Map within herds. A new Dutch Johne's disease program was designed, called Paratuberculosis Program Netherlands (PPN), and evaluated with the JohneSSim model. It was found that under PPN, a low true prevalence could be reached within 20 years and that PPN was on average economically attractive. AIso, a number of certification-and-monitoring schemes for Johne's disease test-negative dairy herds were evaluated on their costs and effectiveness. Furthermore, control strategies on Dutch beef herds were evaluated, and it was concluded that under current practical circumstances no control strategy was economically attractive and realistic. For US mid-size dairy herds, similar results were obtained as for Dutch dairy herds. Vaccination was found to be economically attractive, but not able to reduce the prevalence. Measures to prevent spread of Map within herds and contract heifer rearing were found to be better control strategies that both decrease the prevalence and have economic benefits. Both in The Netherlands and in the US, this study greatly supported the decision making process in the development and improvement of Johne's disease control and certification-and-monitoring strategies.
    Beleidsevaluatie agrarisch en particulier natuurbeheer voor de Natuurbalans 2003 : waarin: particulieren in samenwerkingsverbanden met terreinbeherende organisaties
    Sanders, M.E. ; Blitterswijk, H. van; Huiskes, H.F. ; Wijk, M.N. van; Blankena, A. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Natuurplanbureau (Werkdocument / Planbureau-werk in uitvoering 2003/16) - 66
    natuurbescherming - bedrijfsvoering - overheidsbeleid - evaluatie - programma-evaluatie - particuliere organisaties - samenwerking - nederland - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarisch natuurbeheer - nature conservation - management - government policy - evaluation - program evaluation - private organizations - cooperation - netherlands - farm management - agri-environment schemes
    Protected areas system planning and monitoring
    Vreugdenhil, D. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; A.M. Cleef, co-promotor(en): Sip van Wieren. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789058088499 - 136
    beschermde gebieden - nationale parken - biodiversiteit - milieubescherming - milieubeleid - monitoring - planning - programma-evaluatie - projectimplementatie - biologische monitoring - reserved areas - national parks - biodiversity - environmental protection - environmental policy - monitoring - planning - program evaluation - project implementation - biomonitoring

    The Vth World Parks Congress to be held in Durban, South Africa, September 8-17, 2003 will evaluate progress in protected areas conservation and stipulate strategic policies for the coming decade. Most countries of the world have at least a collection of protected areas, and have signed the Convention on Biological Diversity, while considerable international funding has been established to help developing countries finance their conservation commitment. Yet only few countries have had the opportunity to systematically select biodiversity in such a way that together, their protected areas form a realistic system in which the majority of national biological heritage may find a reasonably secure refuge.

    "Protected Areas System Synthesis and Monitoring" provides scientifically argumented methods and tools for the design of rational protected areas systems, their monitoring and an approximation of their costs. While in the 1970s, conservationists throughout the world were distressed about an apparent destruction of much of the biological wealth and beauty of nature on earth, scientists struggled with defining what needed to be conserved, how much and what needed to be done. The study presents appropriate technology computer programmes and techniques on how to identify and map biodiversity using ecological surrogates to spatially distinguish species assemblages.

    For a long time, ecosystem mapping has been possible from aerial photographs, and this was applied in some parts of Africa, in Belize and in Western Europe on a moderate scale. Interpretation was slow and the photographs were expensive and national sets were often incomplete. As a result, the maps of natural vegetation covered only few parts of the world. It was not until the 1990s that satellite images had become effectively available to a broader gremium of scientists and biologists. Some of the first detailed mapping applications with remotely sensed imagery for the tropics was the pioneering work by Iremonger in 1993, 1994 and 1997. These were important advances as they facilitated much faster and more cost-effective mapping, particularly after the LANDSAT 7 imagery became available for less than US $500 per image in the year 2000. GIS software had also become more broadly available which can now be operated from regular desktop computers.

    The World Bank/Netherlands Government/CCAD financed the production of an ecosystem-mapping, spanning more than 1500 km from Belize to Panama: the "Map of the Ecosystems of Central America". Ecosystems were mapped by more than 20 scientists using the "Tentative Physiognomic-Ecological Classification of Plant Formations of the Earth", developed under the auspices of the UNESCO, complemented with additional aquatic ecosystems and some floristic modifiers. The term ecosystem was used, because it was argued that areas with distinct physiognomic and ecological characteristics would not only have partially distinct sets of floristic elements, but also partially distinct sets of fauna and fungi elements. It was demonstrated that ecosystems derived from such criteria could be identified in considerable detail and a short period, using satellite images and teams of experienced national biologists. This opening the way to worldwide detailed identification and localisation of ecosystems and related species assemblages. It now has become possible to distinguish and map partially distinct assemblages of species rapidly and in considerable detail.

    The Honduran part of that map was used to evaluate the presence and gaps of ecosystem representation in the protected areas system, SINAPH, of Honduras. An MS-Excel based spreadsheet evaluation programme called MICOSYS was used to compare the relative importance of each area and to design alternative models for protected areas system for different scenarios of conservation security and socio-economic benefits. To achieve this, very specific criteria are needed that allow differentiation of size requirements for protected areas depending on a variety of factors such as Minimum Viable Population (MVPs) and Minimum Area requirements (MARs), functionality for both terrestrial and aquatic species of animals, plants and fungi, as well as ecosystem characteristics. Several principles and a few new ideas have been integrated into a holistic approach that allows the synthesis of rational protected areas systems. Particularly, new ideas have been presented on the minimum required sizes of protected areas, in which not merely top predators were considered as limiting factors, but rather ecosystems as a whole. As far as the SLOSS (Single Large Or Several Small reserves) debate is concerned, it is clear that we will need SLASS: Several Large And Several Small reserves, the latter complementing with ecosystems absent in the large areas protected areas. The proposed method not only generates differentiation in importance of the protected areas on the basis of socio-economic and ecological factors, but it also calculates estimates of investment needs and recurrent costs. It was originally developed in 1992 for Costa Rica, but it is country-size independent and may be applied anywhere in the world. The cost calculations are of strategic importance. Governments all over the world have made great progress in institutionalising protected areas. But it was only a first necessary step. Adequate funding has not yet come along to meet the requirements. A realistic idea about costs is necessary to work toward finding solutions to the financing problem.

    One of the by-products of the Map of the Ecosystems of Central America is an MS-Access-based database calledProtected Areas and Ecosystems Monitoring Database, for storage of ecological field information, to support physical, physiognomic and floristic information. The database has been expanded to also store information on fauna as well as essential information on the use of natural resources and visitation within an area, thus creating a tool for protected area or ecosystem monitoring. In Honduras, a monitoring approach was developed and the database had become fully integrated and made user-friendlier, so that it could also be used by park rangers.

    The techniques used in the methodology are all known methods that have been evaluated and tested to be integrated into an "appropriate technology" approach. User-friendly applications were designed in familiar programmes to be accessible to national scientists and rangers anywhere in the world. Each application may be used independently and may be customised to suit national needs. It has not been designed to replace existing monitoring systems, but to be available for countries where a database is not yet available or for individual users and or protected areas.

    Water in stadsranden; een internationale zoektocht naar leerervaringen voor het implementeren van blauwe contouren
    Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 719) - 71
    stedelijke planning - wateropslag - meervoudig landgebruik - waterbeheer - stadsontwikkeling - stadsrandgebieden - internationale vergelijkingen - programma-evaluatie - projectimplementatie - urban planning - water storage - multiple land use - water management - urban development - urban hinterland - international comparisons - program evaluation - project implementation
    In de studie `Blauwe Contouren¿, in het kader van het onderzoeksprogramma `Meervoudig ruimtegebruik met waterberging in Noord-Holland¿ is het planningsconcept blauwe contouren uitgewerkt. Een blauwe contour is een onderdeel van het landelijk gebied dat direct grenst aan een stad en, naast voor waterberging voor het stedelijk gebied, tevens gebruikt wordt voor andere functies (wonen, werken, recreatie, natuur, duurzame energie). Doelen van het waterbeleid en de ruimtelijke ordening worden gecombineerd in stadsranden. In de studie `Water in stadsranden¿ is, voornamelijk via een zoektocht op internet, onderzocht wat er met betrekking tot het denken over en de implementatie van blauwe contouren geleerd kan worden van ontwikkelingen in het buitenland. Hiervoor zijn de volgende landen geselecteerd: Verenigde Staten, Canada, Australië, Groot-Brittannië en Japan. Hoewel het voor een poldersysteem ontwikkelde concept niet precies teruggevonden is, zijn er wel veel voorbeelden gevonden van waterberging en waterzuivering in moerassen rond het stedelijk gebied. De beschreven voorbeelden van beleidscontext en concrete voorbeelden van waterrijke stadsranden dienen ter ondersteuning van het realiseren van blauwe contouren in Nederland.
    Ervaringen met een toetsingsmethode in vier proeftuinen voor de kwaliteitsimpuls landschap
    Schotman, A.G.M. ; Geertsema, W. ; Boer, T.A. de; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Koomen, A.J.M. ; Kuipers, H. ; Veen, M. van der - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 826) - 91
    landschap - landschapsbouw - ruimtelijke ordening - methodologie - testprocedure - nederland - programma-evaluatie - projectimplementatie - landscape - landscaping - physical planning - methodology - test procedure - netherlands - program evaluation - project implementation
    Het Rijk wil in 25% van het agrarisch gebied de landschapskwaliteit verhogen door de aanleg van 10% `groenblauwe dooradering' : een multifunctioneel samenhangend netwerk van landschapselementen. Doel van het onderzoek was het ontwikkelen, uitproberen in proeftuinen en evalueren van een ex-ante toetsingsmethode voor uitvoeringsplannen. De methode: een GIS-instrument op basis van de topografische kaart beschrijft het effect van de groenblauwe dooradering op de landschapskwaliteit met meetbare doelen en de `kernkwaliteiten` uit het Structuurschema Groene Ruimte 2. Door vergelijking van de toekomstige, de huidige en de gewenste situatie in een gebied wordt de `doelrealisatie` van een plan berekend. De methode biedt veel ruimte voor interactieve planvorming en evaluatie. Bij gebrek aan toetsbare plannen kwamen methode en instrument niet tot hun recht in de proeftuinen. Groenblauwe dooradering kan een groene dienst voor de samenleving zijn. De overheid kan de ontwikkeling van een markt voor groene diensten bevorderen gebruik van hulpmiddelen zoals een toetsingmethode stimuleren.
    Netherlands Research Assistance Project : Final report : 1988 - 2000
    Anonymous, - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 354) - 93
    zoutgehalte - drainage - zoute gronden - ontginning - programma-evaluatie - ontwikkelingshulp - beoordeling - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - pakistan - nederland - hydrologie - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - waterbeheer - Azië - salinity - drainage - saline soils - reclamation - program evaluation - development aid - assessment - development programmes - pakistan - netherlands
    The Netherlands research assistance project was implemented from 1988 till 2000. The project was a joint undertaking by the International Waterlogging and Salinity Research Institute (IWASRI), Lahore, Pakistan, and the International Institute for LandReclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, the Netherlands. The project focused on drainage technical research during its first years, and on participatory drainage development in the last years.
    Implementatie van de Habitat- en Vogelrichtlijn op de Waddeneilanden : naar een procesmethodiek op maat -tussenrapportage-
    Ligthart, S.S.H. ; Neven, M.G.G. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 30) - 49
    vogels - bescherming - wildbescherming - natuurbescherming - wetgeving - overheidsbeleid - habitats - interacties - nederland - europa - richtlijnen (directives) - programma-evaluatie - projectimplementatie - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - nederlandse waddeneilanden - birds - protection - wildlife conservation - nature conservation - legislation - government policy - habitats - interactions - netherlands - europe - directives - program evaluation - project implementation - habitats directive - birds directive - dutch wadden islands
    Op de Waddeneilanden is de implementatie van de Habitat- en Vogelrichtlijn voortvarend opgepakt. De regionale directie Noord van het ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij, die verantwoordelijk is voor deze implementatie, hecht zowel aan duurzame garanties voor de bescherming van de natuur als aan duurzame relaties met de betrokkenen. Het geven van handreikingen voor de wijze waarop dit implementatieproces kan worden georganiseerd, is doel van dit onderzoek. Uitgangspunt is dat elke specifieke beleidscontext vraagt om een op maat gesneden procesmethodiek. Daarom is met betrokkenen gesproken over hoe zij aankijken tegen de implementatie van de Habitat-en Vogelrichtlijn, tegen de andere betrokkenen en tegen deelname aan dit beleidsproces. De resultaten van deze interviews zijn geanalyseerd met behulp van een procesgerichte benadering van beleid: inhoud-netwerk-proces (INP), die is ontwikkeld met behulp van inzichten uit literatuur over interactieve beleidsvoering en sturing. Op basis hiervan zijn aanbevelingen geformuleerd voor de aansturing van het implementatieproces.
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