Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Protecting indigenous land from mining : a study of activist representations of indigenous people, in the context of anti-mining movements, with a focus on an Indian case
    Borde, Radhika - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C. Minca, co-promotor(en): M. Duineveld; B. Blueming. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431880 - 113
    mining - indigenous people - land use - protest - relations between people and state - ideology - india - mijnbouw - inheemse volkeren - landgebruik - protest - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - ideologie - india

    Support for indigenous peoples has been increasing over the last few decades. This can be seen internationally, as well as in several domestic contexts. The support for indigenous people has been linked to the increasingly prominent impetus to conserve the Earth’s biodiversity and environment. Indigenous people are being recognized for their role in protecting the places in which they live in and that they value in cultural or spiritual terms. This recognition has partly fuelled the support for indigenous lifestyles and the related management of resources. These traditional lifestyles are also presented by activists from within these communities, as a critique of mainstream development. This is echoed by the many activists and activist organizations involved in supporting indigenous people’s causes across the world.

    A cause that indigenous people have often rallied around is the resistance towards mining on indigenous land. This is a cause that has attracted a significant amount of support, particularly when the land in question had spiritual or cultural value for an indigenous community. Accordingly, there have been several success stories of resistance towards mining on land that indigenous people believed was sacred, in several different continents. This thesis focuses on such narratives in the Indian context. It examines how, why and to what effect, local and international activists got involved in supporting a movement to protect the Niyamgiri Mountain in east-central India from bauxite extraction by Vedanta Resources, a multi-national mining company. The Niyamgiri Mountain was believed to be sacred by the Dongaria Kondh community which lived there and which is generally understood (though not officially recognized) as an indigenous community. The movement, which this thesis refers to as the Niyamgiri Movement, was finally successful – since the mining project was banned by the Indian government. In addition to a focus on this movement, the thesis also compares this movement with the anti-mining movement on the island of Palawan in the Philippines.

    Indigenous peoples constitute minority groups in many of the countries in the Global South. It is also common for governments in the Global South to promote mining as an economic development strategy. This has led to frequent conflicts between indigenous peoples and mining companies. In some of the countries in the Global South, such as the Philippines, indigenous peoples are given official recognition. Whereas in others, such as India, there are affirmative action programs targeting groups claiming indigenous identity, as well as special legislations aimed at protecting their land, although no official recognition of the indigenous identity of these groups exists. Despite this, in contexts such as India there is often a general cultural understanding that groups which claim an indigenous identity are in some way ‘primordial’ – to use a word that translates best from the Indian context, in which the terms Adi Vasi (Original/Primordial Dwellers) or Adim Janajati (Primordial Tribes) are commonly used for such groups.

    Given that there is at least some degree of cultural acceptance (if not an official recognition) of the indigenous identity of some of the groups that are entering into conflicts with mining companies, an important question relates to the reasons why local activists may get involved in supporting indigenous struggles against mining and how they may understand indigeneity in this context. Another important question is related to the laws that are applicable in local contexts and which may be used to support the struggles of groups that claim indigenous identity. The Forest Rights Act in India is such a law and the thesis explores how it was used in the context of the Niyamgiri Movement. Finally, it is important to consider how people who are not indigenous and who may not have an activist orientation, can be made to take a sympathetic view of indigenous struggles against mining. In the context of the Niyamgiri Movement in India, this thesis explores how creative representations by activists translated the nature religiosity of the Dongaria Kondhs into familiar terms that mainstream popular discourse in India could identify with.

    In the thesis, the comparison of the Niyamgiri Movement in India with the anti-mining movement on the island of Palawan in the Philippines examines the way in which social movements in two different nation-state contexts engage with globalized discourses pertaining to the linkages between indigenous issues and conservation discourses. For a deeper examination of the way indigenous people are represented by globalized popular discourses, the thesis examines how images from Hollywood were used to generate sympathy for the Dongaria Kondhs’ cause in the Niyamgiri Movement. An examination of the international activism which supported the Niyamgiri Movement and which has been effective in bringing about the success of the movement i.e. the banning of the mining project on Niyamgiri, is another important focal point of the thesis.

    A commitment towards exploring the activist politics that is relevant to the lives of indigenous peoples has inspired this thesis, which seeks to understand effective activist strategies and identify problematic ones in relation to the protection of land with cultural or spiritual value for indigenous peoples. Keeping this in view, it explores the insights provided by different theories, in order to use these to contribute towards orienting activist practice towards greater effectiveness as well as higher self-reflexivity.

    Stories becoming sticky : how civic initiatives strive for connection to governmental spatial planning agendas
    Stoep, H. van der - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink; Noelle Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738295 - 282
    ruimtelijke ordening - publieke participatie - maatschappelijk middenveld - bestuurskunde - besluitvorming - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - regionale planning - communicatie - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - burgers - participatie - zuid-holland - krimpenerwaard - zuid-limburg - physical planning - public participation - civil society - public administration - decision making - community involvement - regional planning - communication - relations between people and state - citizens - participation - zuid-holland - krimpenerwaard - zuid-limburg

    This thesis aims to understand the phenomenon of self-organizing civic initiatives, how they engage in and connect to planning practices aimed at the improvement of the quality of places and why these connections lead to alteration or transformation of governmental planning agendas or not. By providing greater understanding about these processes the thesis aims to contribute to debates about how planners can improve connections with civil society initiatives and how a more responsive and adaptive attitude towards a dynamically changing society can be achieved.

    Conclusions were drawn from two in-depth case-studies of civic initiatives in two Dutch regions: 1) initiatives of business entrepreneurs and experts to develop New Markets which support the cultural landscape of the region Heuvelland, and 2) initiatives of citizens for the protection and development of landscape values in the urban-rural fringe Gouda-Krimpenerwaard. Building on agenda-setting and framing theory the analysis focused on how initiatives self-organized and connected to other stakeholders and how outcomes of their efforts in terms of their ambitions and government agendas could be understood.

    The research results point to the crucial role of storytelling and the day-to-day interactions in which stories emerge and become ‘sticky’. Sticky stories are strong ‘attractors’ that mobilize attention and support. The stickiness of a story was enhanced through discursive processes in which the story was connected to the self-referential frames of targeted supporters. Thus, sticky stories could not emerge without empathic listening, timing and patience. Three interplaying conditions were critical in the process of a story becoming sticky or fading away: 1) formal and informal ‘catalytic’ conversations as the medium of storytelling; 2) storytelling by people who perform as connectors and enable the travelling of stories through a wider network, and 3) signalling and incorporating focusing events into evolving stories in ways considered meaningful and relevant by targeted supporters. This results in a model that offers a way to understand dynamical change of policy and planning agendas by focusing on the interactive construction, connection, and subtle alteration of stories in day-to-day conversations, by the right people, at the right moments.

    Doen : nieuwe vormen van democratie
    Specker, J. ; Hindriks, M. ; Wessel, M.G.J. van - \ 2013
    Den Haag : Hivos - 89
    democratie - burgers - overheid - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - participatie - democracy - citizens - public authorities - relations between people and state - participation
    Dit boek gaat in op vragen over de relatie tussen burgers en overheid en hoe opkomende burgerinitiatieven een rol spelen in representatieve democratie.
    Hoezo luistert de overheid (niet)? Burgerperspectieven op overheidsresponsiviteit
    Wessel, M. van - \ 2011
    Den Haag : MinBZK - Bureau Verkenningen en Onderzoek - 128
    overheidsbeleid - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - burgers - attitudes - participatie - reacties - government policy - relations between people and state - citizens - participation - responses
    Bestaand onderzoek laat zien dat nogal wat Nederlandse burgers zichzelf onvoldoende herkennen in het handelen van de overheid. Zij menen dat de overheid zich inzet voor andere doelen dan die van burgers. Zij menen dat politici zich weinig aantrekken van de meningen van burgers, voelen zich niet gehoord, zeggen zich niet vertegenwoordigd te voelen. Deze klachten hebben betrekking op de responsiviteit van de overheid. Hiermee bedoelen we: overeenstemming tussen het handelen van de overheid en de wensen en belangen van burgers. Responsiviteit verdient aandacht. Het gaat hier om een belangrijk aspect van de kwaliteit van de democratie en de legitimiteit van overheidshandelen. En het is juist responsiviteit waar de Nederlandse discussie over de kwaliteit van de democratie en de legitimiteit van overheidshandelen om draait. Inzicht hierin is belangrijk voor de overheid. Als we meer zicht krijgen op de politieke en bestuurlijke realiteit zoals burgers die beleven, krijgen we meer grip op fundamentele kwesties waar politiek en bestuur, op allerlei niveaus, voor staan. Wat verwachten burgers nu eigenlijk als het gaat om hun relatie met de overheid, en waarom? Hoe kunnen politiek en bestuur omgaan met die verwachtingen? Hoe kunnen zij eraan bijdragen dat burgers zich beter vertegenwoordigd en gehoord voelen? En hoe kunnen burgers zo betrokken worden bij politiek dat hun verwachtingen beter aansluiten bij wat politiek vermag? Dit onderzoek is dan ook gericht op het ontwikkelen van empirisch onderbouwde aanbevelingen hiervoor: welke denkrichtingen en strategieën zijn het meest zinnig, gezien de perspectieven van burgers op de responsiviteit van de overheid, en hun verwachtingen daarvan?
    Petén: ¿la última frontera? : la construcción social de una región
    Hurtado Paz y Paz, K.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853831 - 303
    rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale verandering - ontwikkelingsprojecten - sociale economie - plaatselijke bevolking - sociale klassen - migratie - overheidsbeleid - migranten - guatemala - ontwikkelingslanden - centraal-amerika - sociaal conflict - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - rural sociology - rural development - social change - development projects - socioeconomics - local population - social classes - migration - government policy - migrants - guatemala - developing countries - central america - social conflict - relations between people and state - livelihood strategies
    War veterans in Zimbabwe's land occupations: complexities of a liberation movement in an African post-colonial settler society
    Sadomba, W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): S. Moyo; Kees Jansen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049173 - 257
    veteranen - belangengroepen - politiek - landbouwhervorming - landbouwgrond - grondbeleid - overheidsbeleid - kolonialisme - imperialisme - conflict - boeren - armoede - sociale verandering - platteland - zimbabwe - geschiedenis - bezetting - westerse wereld - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - politieke conflicten - sociaal conflict - nationale politiek - veterans - interest groups - politics - agrarian reform - agricultural land - land policy - government policy - colonialism - imperialism - conflict - farmers - poverty - social change - rural areas - zimbabwe - history - occupation - western world - relations between people and state - political conflicts - social conflict - national politics
    In 2000, Zimbabwe’s century old land movement took a swift turn, rupturing into
    nationwide occupation of mainly White owned commercial farms. The speed with
    which occupations spread, their organisation, the political and economic context, the
    historical origins and interaction of the forces, shaped an unprecedented and
    complex land movement impacting on the region, the continent and beyond.
    Zimbabwe’s land occupations were unique in two ways. First, the leading role of
    War Veterans of the 1970s anti-colonial guerrilla war in the land occupations was
    exceptional. Second, the simultaneous challenge to racial, settler economic
    dominance and neo-colonialism by marginalised peasants, farm workers, war
    veterans, urban youth and the unemployed, was a new experience in post-colonial
    history of Africa’s liberation movements. Zimbabwe’s land occupations were a long
    continuum of land struggles to resolve the colonial legacy of racial resource
    distribution but as they occurred, the role played by the state, the contested terrain of
    the civil society, formidable political opposition and imperialist interventions of
    western powers clouded the identity of the land movement thereby making it
    difficult to distinguish the moving current and the identity of forces from the wider
    political conflicts swirling around it. Who exactly initiated the occupations and for
    what reasons? This thesis attempts to unpack these intricately locked forces in a bid
    to understand their origins, interests, strategies, tactics and above all, the alliances
    between and amongst them, for clearer understanding of the core of the movement.
    This thesis traces the history of Zimbabwe’s liberation movement as foundation to
    understanding political reconfigurations that shaped post independence social
    movements and assesses agrarian technology responses to such a dramatic social
    change of Africa’s post-colonial settler society. The thesis provokes prognostic
    thoughts about the role played by social capital of liberation struggles in future
    economic and cultural emancipation from shackles of neo-colonialism and racial,
    settler capitalism.
    Administering multifunctional agriculture : a comparison between France and the Netherlands
    Daniel, F.J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): D. Perraud. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049166 - 178
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - financieel landbouwbeleid - subsidies - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - innovaties - landbouwsector - frankrijk - nederland - multifunctionele landbouw - landbouwpolitiek - landbouw als bedrijfstak - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - cap - agricultural policy - agricultural financial policy - subsidies - environment - sustainability - innovations - agricultural sector - france - netherlands - multifunctional agriculture - agricultural politics - agriculture as branch of economy - relations between people and state
    Sinds de hervormingen van MacSharry, in 1992, heeft de Gemeenschappelijke Landbouw Beleid (GLB) nog diverse ingrijpende veranderingen (transformaties) ondergaan. Aan boeren wordt gevraagd een brede waaier van maatregelen toe te passen, inclusief die welke betrekking hebben op de verbetering van de milieuefficiency, in ruil voor het ontvangen van publieke ondersteuning. In deze studie worden deze ontwikkelingen benaderd vanuit het perspectief van de politieke sociologie; centraal daarbij staat de vraag in hoeverre deze overeenkomsten de relaties tussen boeren en de staat hebben getransformeerd. Subsidies moeten niet worden gezien als een geschenk dat wordt toegekend aan een bevoordeelde sociale groep maar als de hernieuwing van het wederkerige verband tussen maatschappij en de agrarische beroepsgroep. Deze veranderde oriëntatie van het landbouwbeleid impliceert ook bepaalde veranderingen in agrarische praktijken en normen. De plaats en rol van boeren in de maatschappij worden geherdefinieerd; dit proces wordt weerspiegeld in de normatieve aanpassing van professionele praktijken, hetgeen een van de vereiste condities is voor de hernieuwing van het pact tussen boeren en de staat. De bestudering van de ervaringen in Frankrijk en Nederland leidt, in dit proefschrift, tot het inzicht dat deze hernieuwing sterk variabel is
    Een noodverband tegen hoog water : waterkennis, beleid en politiek rond noodoverloopgebieden
    Roth, D. ; Warner, J.F. ; Winnubst, M. - \ 2006
    2006 : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789081073615 - 159
    waterbeleid - waterbeheer - veiligheid - overheidsbeleid - polders - dijken - milieuwetgeving - nederland - bescherming - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - gelderland - governance - water policy - water management - safety - government policy - polders - protection - dykes - environmental legislation - netherlands - relations between people and state - gelderland - governance
    Bij problemen rond water, ruimtelijke ordening en de relatie tussen overheid en burger liggen de verhoudingen vaak behoorlijk problematisch. Burgers die tot voor kort nog hun huizen en bomen tegen de vlakte zagen gaan om rivierdijken te versterken, win je niet een-twee-drie voor het idee dat water een feest is. Water is een 'ordenend principe' geworden in de ruimtelijke ordening, met ingrijpende gevolgen voor de relatie tussen overheid en burgers. Aangezien het bij hoogwaterproblemen primair om veiligheid gaat, houdt de overheid in dit geval juist graag de regie over ruimtelijke inrichting in handen. Wat betekent dit in concrete gevallen waar de overheid ruimteclaims legt in het kader van haar hoogwaterbeleid? De discussie over noodoverloopgebieden en het maatschappelijke verzet daartegen bieden een goede gelegenheid om dit spanningsveld te analyseren. Een WUR analyse binnen het programma "Boundaries of space"
    Consumentenbeleid dat op de toekomst is voorbereid: bespiegelingen van betrokkenen
    Dagevos, H. ; Kroon, S.M.A. van der; Wijk, E.E.C. van - \ 2006
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789086150465 - 62
    landbouwbeleid - consumenten - overheidsbeleid - participatie - nederland - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - agricultural policy - consumers - government policy - participation - netherlands - relations between people and state
    Deze studie richt zich op een inventarisatie van consumentgerichte praktijkvoorbeelden, binnen en buiten LNV, die gezien mogen worden in het licht van het betrekken van een breed publiek bij beleid. Deze studie is op interviews gebaseerd. Aan de basis ervan liggen de bespiegelingen van 21 beleidsmatig betrokkenen waarmee gesprekken zijn gevoerd. De gespreksgenoten zijn werkzaam bij acht verschillende ministeries. Er is gevraagd welke intenties en ideeën er zijn over het betrekken van burgers-consumenten bij beleid en welke initiatieven en concrete acties worden genomen. This study aims at producing an inventory of consumer-oriented practice examples, both inside and outside LNV, which may be considered in the context of broad public involvement in policy. Interviews formed the basis for the study, which reflects the thoughts of 21 interviewees professionally involved in policy-making. The participants are employed in eight different ministries. They were asked about current intentions and ideas about engaging citizen-consumers in policy and what initiatives and concrete actions are being taken.
    Diversiteitsbeleid: (h)erkennen van meerstemmigheid; Een analyse van mogelijkheden van beleid met een diversiteitsfocus
    Smits, M.J.W. ; Berg, J. van den - \ 2003
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789052428222 - 62
    agrarische economie - overheidsbeleid - diversiteit - sociale gevolgen - nederland - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - agricultural economics - government policy - diversity - social impact - netherlands - relations between people and state
    In dit onderzoek wordt aan de hand van concrete voorbeelden getoond wat de mogelijkheden zijn van diversiteitsbeleid voor LNV. De bevolking is heterogeen en het beleid wordt daarmee geconfronteerd. Bovendien heeft men te maken gekregen met een samenleving die kritisch staat tegenover van boven af opgelegd beleid. Het voeren van diversiteitsbeleid houdt in dat men ervan uitgaat dat inspelen op de diversiteit van de bevolking de effectiviteit van de organisatie kan vergroten. Centraal staat dat niemand onbedoeld buitengesloten wordt. Er zijn twee casestudies uitgevoerd. Het betreft ontwikkelingen rondom een Halalkeurmerk en planvorming rondom het gebied De Venen in het Groene Hart. Bij de analyse van deze casestudies staat de vraag centraal wat er zou veranderen of verbeteren of welke mogelijkheden er zouden ontstaan wanneer binnen deze dossiers beleid met een diversiteitsfocus toegepast zou worden.
    Praten met het publiek; ontwikkelingen op het terrein van publieksraadpleging in het levensmiddelenbeleid
    Folbert, J.P. ; Beekman, V. ; Dagevos, H. - \ 2003
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789052428062 - 67
    overheidsbeleid - wetgeving - openbare mening - public relations - voorlichting - nederland - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - innovaties - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - government policy - legislation - public opinion - public relations - extension - netherlands - food legislation - innovations - relations between people and state
    Dit rapport stelt de vraag op welke wijze het Nederlandse publiek geraadpleegd kan worden in levensmiddelenbeleid en -wetgeving, waarbij voldaan moet worden aan de vereisten van openbaarheid, transparantie en effectiviteit. Het rapport formuleert in die zin aanbevelingen over de mogelijkheden om invulling te geven aan artikel 9 van de General Food Law. Geconcludeerd wordt dat het Ministerie van LNV met een versterking van de bestaande raadplegingsfora in het Regulier Overleg Warenwet en het Consumentenplatform goeddeels aan artikel 9 van de General Food Law zou kunnen voldoen.
    Power, community and the state: the political anthropology of organisation in Mexico
    Nuijten, M.C.M. - \ 2003
    London (etc.) : Pluto Press (Anthropology, culture and society ) - ISBN 9780745319476 - 227
    politiek - organisaties - recht - landhervorming - corruptie - mexico - staat - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - netwerken - politics - organizations - law - land reform - corruption - mexico - state - relations between people and state - networks
    Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia
    Teshome, W. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; Linden Vincent. - Wageningen : Wageningen - ISBN 9789058089458 - 230
    ontwikkelingsstudies - rurale sociologie - overheidsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - agrarische planning - irrigatiesystemen - landbouwhuishoudens - Ethiopië - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - voedselzekerheid - development studies - rural sociology - government policy - agricultural policy - agricultural planning - irrigation systems - agricultural households - Ethiopia - relations between people and state - food security
    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts ofEthiopia, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main concern of this study therefore is to document how irrigation intervention interfaces with the life-worlds of small-scale irrigators.

    Two theoretical perspectives are combined: asociotechnicalapproach to irrigation and an actor-oriented analysis of the dynamics of state intervention. The former helps to explore irrigation management practices and the social effects of the technology used. Irrigation constitutes an arena of struggle where social actors negotiate and make decisions about technology and water management. The latter perspective focuses on the confrontations and interpretations of intervention as defined by the different actors and their contrasting life-worlds. A case study method is employed to investigateHewaneand Gum Selassa irrigation systems located in the drought-prone region ofTigray. The methodology used is largely ethnographic, that is it is concerned with understanding the social lives of local people and discovering how they construct meanings and livelihood practices in the natural, economic and socio-political settings in which they are located.

    The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first outlines the conceptual and theoretical approaches used and lays out the main research questions that guide the study and its methodological considerations. Chapter 2 provides an account of the context of the research and an overview of agrarian policies and conditions, drought and famine situations, and irrigation development and technology choices. A brief historical account shows that none of the various government policies pursued over the previous thirty years has enabledEthiopiato feed its people adequately. In drought-prone regions likeTigray, food-for-work and labor mobilizations for the construction of infrastructure such as roads and dams have been a regular and essential part of farmers' life-worlds since farm production has often failed to meet family needs. In these circumstances, government and international development bodies have looked to irrigation as a solution to the conditions of drought and famine.

    Chapter 3 describes irrigation management practices and the struggle to preserve irrigated areas threatened by soil erosion inHewane. The management of irrigation schemes under contrasting state regimes inEthiopiahas been the responsibility of government bureaucracies, not irrigators' organizations .It has fallen, that is, to officials of thetabia (local) administration and the Agriculture Department to manage water allocation and resolve any disputes that might arise. The control of access to river water has likewise been administered. In short, water access, allocation and scheduling are dictated by government policies aimed at achieving 'food security' through irrigated agriculture at household level. Classifying plots intohayfoandmesnois the criterion used for allocating water inHewane. Upon the decision of government, all soil and water conservation works were halted for over five years so that local labor could be mobilized for the construction of the newShelenatdams, which eventually aggravated the gully erosion and slumping inHewane. This agro-ecological problem - mediated by political power - threatened the livelihoods of farmers inHewane, compelling them to take actions that were more in keeping with their existing life-worlds. One such important initiative was bee keeping.

    Chapter 4 discusses government-initiated irrigation intervention through the construction of the Gum Selassa irrigation system. LikeHewane, the approach adopted was top-down and entailed the pooling and redistribution of farmers' holdings, despite the widespread skepticism about irrigation expressed by local people. Also likeHewane, the local government bureaucracy became embedded in irrigation management. The end result, however, was poor water control methods that have given rise to water scarcity in the irrigation system which now threaten farmers' livelihoods. Over the past six years there has been a serious scarcity of water, with the percentage of the plot holders not receiving water fluctuating between 21 and 85 percent.

    Chapter 5 falls into three sections. The first section is a detailed description of irrigated agriculture in Gum Selassa andHewane. It covers agricultural tasks and seasons and the crops cultivated in the irrigated fields and their yields. In bothHewaneand Gum Selassa irrigation production has increased by taking advantage of modern agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and improved seeds. Although regional government officials highlight these increases in yield under irrigation, yields remain low for cash crops such as tomatoes and onions, and uncertain for maize as the main food crop. The second and third sections focus on household production dynamics and the practice ofWoferit(sharecropping). The government's assumption that the plot holders would cultivate the irrigated plots themselves was not realized. Water users are widely involved in sharecropping: in Gum Selassa, 54 percent of the irrigators and inHewane, 40 percent leased out their plots, with a higher proportion of female than male plot holders doing so. Due to sharecropping, a large majority of plot holders receive only one-fourth or one-third of the harvest reaped from their leased out plots, and between 70 and 80 percent of households consumed all their grain within four to seven months. Indeed a deficit in household food is a serious problem among these plot holders and many are forced to seek work aslabourersfrom outside. Hence, the practice ofwoferit(sharecropping) in both irrigation systems highlights the vulnerabilities of agricultural livelihoods and the differentiated life worlds of different local actors involved in irrigated agriculture.

    Chapter 6 discusses the coping strategies commonly adopted during drought and famine situations at household level inHewaneand Gum Selassa. Such strategies span a combination of four types of strategy: a reductive strategy (i.e. an attempt to reduce expenditure and consumption), a depleting strategy (where the household gradually depletes its resources), a maintaining strategy and a regenerative strategy. At times of severe food shortage, the most important maintaining strategy is that of accessing food relief.The study also shows that rainfed farming has been and still remains the main source of livelihood for many local people.

    Chapter 7 examines the arena of 'coercive persuasion' pertaining to the widespread diffusion of chemical fertiliser use in ruralTigray. Its aggressive promotion by extension workers and local government officials has led not only to a degree of scepticism and resistance among farmers as to its effectiveness, but also to farmers distancing themselves from the direct cultivation of their irrigable plots, in favour of leasing them out under sharecropping agreements. This takes place in the context of the growing vogue for programmes of 'Participatory Demonstration and Training Extension Systems' in theHewaneand Gum Selassa irrigation schemes. These programmes show how government- induced 'participation' has spearheaded coercive strategies in the implementation of public works such as dam construction and soil and water conservation.

    Finally, in chapter 8, I pull together the findings and implications of the research by identifying other measures (besides the development and improvement of irrigation systems) that must be put into place in order to mitigate drought-induced food shortages.

    Política local y formación del estado: Procesos históricos de formación de espacios y sujetós sociales en un municipio rural Mexicano, 1914-1998
    Zendejas Romero, J.S. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089205 - 497
    plattelandssamenleving - plattelandsgemeenschappen - sociale verandering - plaatselijke bevolking - geschiedenis - steden - grondeigendom - politiek - mexico - sociale relaties - staat - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - rural society - rural communities - social change - local population - history - towns - land ownership - politics - mexico - social relations - state - relations between people and state
    This dissertation deals with the participation of different social groups in unending historical processes of formation of a series of spaces of social relations of which they themselves are part —such as their rural villages and corporate landholding organisations. It focuses on the unequal and conflictive participation of diverse local groups in the founding, transformation and conservation of various specific social spaces that have been very important for their livelihoods during most of the twentieth century. In other words, we analyse how different local groups have engaged in historical processes of construction of a part of the specific social conditions of their social action anchored in —but not restricted to— a rural zone in western Mexico.

    This study takes on several analytical challenges that go beyond its ethnographic specificities. It centres on the relationship among the social practices of particular human groups, certain specific spaces of social relations, and the historical processes of formation and redefinition of those groups, practices, spaces and relationships among them —both in economic, political and identity terms. From a supplementary perspective, we propose an analysis of the historical processes of construction and redefinition of the shifting set of particular spaces of social relations ( social field ) with respect to which said groups, practices and institutions they rely upon become intelligible as socially produced and producing —constituent and constituting. Thus, neither the specific social spaces nor the social field are determined a priori .

               What are the implications of this theoretical stance for pervasive notions of the State as an acting entity, agent, actor or organization distinct from other social actors, from "society" or from "civil society"? In order to answer this question, we had to weave an ethnographic study of the conflictive participation of social groups in historical processes of construction of specific social spaces of which they themselves are part with the elaboration of a concept of local politics and clarification of the concept ofMexicanStateformation. The determination of these two concepts had to be congruent with a focus on contentious historical processes of formation of those and other hierarchically interrelated social spaces. It is in terms of these processes that we come to understand how the groups, the social inequalities among them, their collective practices and identities, the institutions upon which they differently and contentiously rely are socially created or built as well as constituting or producing.

    Tegelijkertijd en tussendoor : gender, plattelandsontwikkeling en interactief beleid
    Bock, B.B. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.D. van der Ploeg; J. van Doorne-Huiskes. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085856 - 206
    plattelandsontwikkeling - man-vrouwrelaties - positie van de vrouw - overheidsbeleid - plattelandsvrouwen - besluitvorming - participatie - nederland - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - rural development - gender relations - woman's status - rural women - participation - decision making - government policy - netherlands - relations between people and state

    This study sets out to explain the specific character of women's participation in rural development. Its focuses on the fact that although rural women take an active part in practical initiatives they do not figure in the process of rural policy decision making, neither do they make use of those policy instruments meant to stimulate bottom-up innovative initiatives. The absence of women in the policy process is surprising, as the participation of rural inhabitants is one of the primary objectives of the Dutch government's new, interactive model of policy making.

    A two-fold approach is used to analyse the manner in which women participate. The general framework employed here to analyse and understand rural development is derived from endogenous rural development theory. Emphasis is put on the role rural inhabitants' play in the process of change. Rural development does not just happen to them or emerge as a result of development policy. It is co-produced and defined by rural peoples' activities and initiatives. The specific line of action women follow in this process is studied from a rational choice perspective. The rational choice approach fits in with the endogenous theory of rural development as both approaches presuppose purposeful and goal-oriented behaviour in men and women and their ability to overcome restrictions. As this study assumes, this agency is reflected in the choices women make. Analysing the choice process can explain why women prefer different solutions to men and looks beyond the exclusion of women from the policy process. By analysing the considerations that motivate rural women to follow a specific approach, it is possible to respect the agency of women but to take external factors beyond their control into account as well.

    This approach also provides an opportunity to clarify the meaning of gender within endogenous rural development theory and to explain the interaction between gender and endogenous development. The following questions must, therefore, be answered. First, how can we explain the inequality in the chances open to women and men when it comes to participating in rural development within a theoretical framework that presupposes the goal-oriented behaviour of actors and their ability to overcome restrictions. Given this assumption it would be reasonable to expect that both sexes would be able to take part in the process of change. This first question leads directly to a second. It is often assumed that the endogenous model of development offers women a better chance of active participation than other exogenous development models. Is this assumption correct?

    The objectives of this study include an analysis of how the introduction of the interactive governance model has affected the participation of women. The expectation was that interactive politics (like endogenous development) would provide women with more opportunities for participation. However, this has not been theoretically elaborated or empirically tested.

    1 Research questions

    The research questions explored draw on the results of several research projects. These studies have examined Dutch rural women 's participation in rural development from different perspectives - the initiatives taken by rural women take themselves, their representation in the policy process and the way they use policy instruments. As a result it is possible to get a thorough picture of women's role in the development process and to understand the interrelation between different facets.

    Initially two hypotheses were formulated. These seek to explain the behaviour of women, first as a reaction to not having the resources necessary to access the policy process, and second as the desire of women to generate extra benefits by choosing a practice-oriented participation mode. The empirical results confirm the relevance of the chosen theoretical approach but also give reason to change and further elaborate the hypotheses.

    Research question 1

    Why do most rural women prefer to participate in rural development by way of practical initiatives?

    The study demonstrates that the approach women choose is characterised by a specific pattern of activities rather than by a clear-cut preference of a certain type of initiatives. Other than might be expected women do not only undertake economic or social initiatives but develop political ones as well. Furthermore, they do not always act as individuals: they take collective action as well. Women do design all their activities in a similar way. Their initiatives are generally small scale and informal in organisation. Their participation in activities is non-committal. This ensures that any activity undertaken will fit into the multi-tasking scheme that typifies a rural woman's responsibilities.

    When it comes to economic business most women prefer to act on their own. By keeping things in their own hands they want to limit financial risk. By performing their tasks ' simultaneously and in between ' they want to prevent the farm and their families from suffering because of their new commitments. Their political initiatives take place in the informal political sphere: outside established political structures and within loosely structured voluntary groups in which they participate as private individuals and not as ' representatives ' .

    These groups often concentrate on practical problems in women's direct environment. However, women co-operate for other reasons as well. In their groups liked-minded women exchange knowledge and experience and offer each other moral support in dealing with the critical attitude of many of their colleagues, relatives and even friends. As a result of their informal and small-scale nature, women's activities and groups often remain unseen by policy makers. These gatekeepers of the policy process do not know of the initiatives being taken by women and women's groups and do not acknowledge their political character. As a result they do not perceive rural women as relevant participants in the policy process.

    As might be expected women choose their course of action because they assess the costs involved to be low and expect that the activities will fit easily in their other responsibilities. In doing so they take the existing gender-specific division of labour in agriculture and rural society as their point of reference, and the traditional norms and values that confirm this division. By starting their new activities cautiously and out of sight, women try to come up to the traditional standards of good behaviour.

    But in the course of time women's behaviour generally changes and begins to bear more resemblance to the way men approach development matters. This is especially true when new economic activities are being considered for the farm. Although women start their activities in a small and cautious way, they prepare themselves for making bigger investments and professionalising their business in the long run. This is a result of the re-evaluation of the costs and benefits experienced. Some of the initially important costs lose importance whereas some of the benefits regain significance. Women learn that their approach may lead to additional problems because working methods are not efficient or result in a huge workload, stress and loss of time. Moreover, the chosen line of action may not be able to guarantee that certain costs can be prevented. Many women have, for example, found that people will criticise their initiatives whatever precautions they may take. However, when backed up by the knowledge that others appreciate their activities and motivated by the satisfaction derived from seeing their ambitions realised, women become capable of detaching themselves from their traditional environment. The supportive attitude of their own partner is of particular importance as is the backing they find in co-operating with other women.

    The cost-reducing character of the way women participate can explain why women have chosen for a specific line of action. At the same time, however, it seems to be a temporary solution and typical of a starters ' model. Although the choice is limited in the beginning and the preference for a cautious start self-evident, the room for manoeuvre expands over time. Women take an active part in this expansion by creating and collecting extra resources, mobilising moral support and by developing a more self-conscious and independent attitude. This is the moment when external and policy-driven support should be offered. But up to now policy makers have not taken the characteristic women's approach with its typical dynamic into account.

    Research question 2

    Why does the introduction of an interactive governance model hardly affect women's involvement in rural development whereas its primary objective is to promote bottom-up participation?

    The study demonstrates that the interactivity of the rural governance process is still very limited. It is mainly the government and the established political organisations that develop and implement rural policy. Economic problems and interests continue to attract the most attention and to determine the selection of political players. Women's access to the policy process remains restricted as many of the structures and rules of the old (neo-corporate) governance-model are still in operation. Consequentially the door continues to be closed to all those who do not possess the relevant political resources. The culture of the governance process has hardly changed. It is still dominated by disagreements and conflicting interests. These residues of traditional governance restrict women's access and hinder the functioning of those few women who do succeed in entering the policy process.

    However, attempts to renew rural policy and governance have not been totally unsuccessful. The policy process is moving in a new direction. This is especially true for policy implementation that is being handled in a more interactive way. The implementation structures have become more informally organised and are therefore more accessible for rural inhabitants. In addition, an important task of the implementation committees is to communicate with rural inhabitants. Rural women participate relatively often in these committees, which confirms the positive relation between interactive policy making and governance on the one hand and the participation of women on the other. Women's influence on the content of policy is still limited, however, because the formulation and implementation of policy remain separate and women seldom succeed in entering the policy formulation process.

    Engagement in the policy process carries high costs for women. There is the material expense of childcare and travel, for example, and rural women's organisations are generally unable to cover these costs sufficiently. Even more important though are the non-material costs that arise as a result of the opposition and resistance rural women and their organisations encounter when they demonstrate their political ambitions. The general disapproval of politically active women within the agricultural sector is an important factor. In addition, the established farm unions are afraid that separate representation of men and women will lead to conflicts of interest. Farm unions want to form a block of common agricultural interests against other interest groups and they put pressure on women to conform to this strategy. For many (farm) women this results in an inner struggle and high and painful costs as they feel they are being pushed to choose between loyalty to farming and loyalty to rural women.

    The expectation that women will have different ideas about rural development than men provides regional governments with an important motive for involving women in the decision-making process. The potential conflict of interests between men and women may thus positively affect women's participation. The government's dominant position in the selection of participants may also work in favour of women's participation. However, here rural women's organisations confront a difficult dilemma. By following their own course of action as far as rural development is concerned, their chances of political participation increase, their political influence is strengthened and governmental support is gained. At the same time, however, they run the risk of loosing the support of the farm union. The alternative is to choose the side of established agricultural organisations and run the risk of putting the justification for women's separate representation on the line and of loosing the chance to defend the specific interests of rural women. Individual women, who succeed in entering the political arena, encounter similar problems. They find it extremely difficult maintaining themselves in this arena because the justification and value of their input is continuously under dispute.

    It cannot be concluded from this study that women do not prefer to participate in formal politics. However, the fact that political participation carries high costs supports the assumption that participation in the policy process is not attractive for most women. Participation in the informal rural development arena involves fewer costs. In addition in the eyes of many women this type of participation carries a greater chance of success because it focuses on finding solutions to concrete problems.

    The high fence between the policy process on the one hand and the initiatives of ordinary rural inhabitants on the other are of importance too. Because of the lack of contact between policy and practice, the policy makers and the policy process remain invisible and unknown to most rural people. The prevalent distrust of politics in general and rural policy in particular play an important role here as well. The decision of women to restrict their involvement in rural development to their own backyard can thus count on more approval in their environment than a decision to get involved in policy making and co-operating with government to formulate governmental rural policy.

    Research question 3

    Why do rural women make hardly any use of the instruments the government installed to promote and support bottom-up initiatives?

    Women make very little use of government subsidies. Moreover, in comparison to men, their proposals have little chance of approval. As expected this is to some extent the result of women's lack of the resources (time, money and contacts) that, de facto, regulate access to government subsidies. More important still is that the subsidy scheme presupposes a line of action and development model that is at odds with the approach preferred by women. As a result, from the start, women's projects have very little chance of being considered sufficiently innovative or worthy of subsidies. The instruments installed by government are, therefore, of little use to women. The same is true for others who may choose a similar approach. As the approach women prefer and the endogenous developmental approach are very similar, it can be concluded that the main Dutch rural development subsidy scheme is unsuitable for the promotion and support of endogenous development.

    Whether the inaccessibility of subsidies motivates women to choose a different course of action right from the start cannot be deduced directly from an analysis of the subsidy scheme. However, it is very likely taking into account the many activities women develop without asking for subsidies. Moreover, women do not consider the rejection of a proposal to be a reason for giving up their activities. Seeing that they cannot access extra finance, women will return to their original, gradual and step-by-step model of innovation. The Dutch government shows little appreciation and support for this kind of innovation and paradoxically, it is just this attitude that continuously reconfirms and reproduces this type of women's approach and action. By refusing access to external resources, the government forces women either to break-off their initiatives or look for alternative solutions. In this way the different behaviour patterns of women and men are sustained and their differences in resources, status and position within the development process reinforced.

    2 The choice of women's approach of rural development

    Within the endogenous theory of rural development is has been impossible to explain why the course of action chosen by women is different to that chosen by men. This is because the endogenous approach presupposes the goal-oriented behaviour of actors but does not elaborate it any further theoretically. In this study it is tried to do this by analysing the behaviour of women from a rational choice perspective and by integrating additional theoretical concepts. In this way the different behaviour of women can be better understood and explained taking the unequal position of women and men into account without loosing sight of women's agency.

    Rural women are just as capable as rural men of acting purposefully and in a goal-oriented way to overcome restrictions. The conditions under which they take decisions and act, however, differ because of the unequal position occupied women in society. Rural women do not only experience different restrictions to men but these restrictions have another significance. Rural women have limited access to economic and political resources and this together with the gender-specific norms governing proper behaviour play a particularly important role. Moreover, gender-specific behavioural rules affect the goals of both men and women and their relative importance. In short, the difference in resources, goals and priority of goals have to been taken into account as does the different and gender-specific distribution of costs, benefits and chances of success associated with specific lines of actions. As a result women and men have different amounts of space in which to manoeuvre. In typical male domains such as politics, women have a very limited amount of room to manoeuvre even if there is no sign of direct exclusion or prohibitions. Rural women may choose to take part in the policy process, but getting access will result in higher costs for women than for men. The alternative, more cautious women's approach invokes less resistance, is less expensive and offers, many women claim, more chance of success. A more even balance of costs and benefits explains why women's prefer such an approach.

    The circumstances under which women make choices change over time and in part as a result of women's behaviour. Women expand their room for manoeuvre by generating extra resources and re-evaluating the importance of costs and benefit. Moreover, they distance themselves from the traditional behavioural code prominent in their environment and become less concerned about criticism from others. As a result different modes of behaviour become possible.

    By making use of the concepts described above it becomes possible to explain why women and men act and participate in rural development in different ways and to understand the reasons for these differences. The application of a rational choice-perspective allows us not only to clarify the gender-specific character of the rural development process but also to identify the other inequalities that determine the chances of participation and the way in which it occurs. From this study it is clear that it is precisely by choosing their own and different solutions that actors express their ability to act despite the presence of restrictions. Acting in a different way can, therefore, be explained as a decision that actors take in favour of a particular participation mode because it is the one that best fits in with their circumstances. How much chance different participation modes have of influencing the development process will depend on its social and political context and the social position of the actors concerned. This also explains why differences in participation mode and chances between (groups of) actors reproduce other (social) differences as well. The agency of actors is limited by the restrictions that control access to all sorts of resources and which reflect status and position in society. The reward and disapproval of others is another important determinant of action.

    3 Gender, endogenous development and interactive governance

    Rural women's approach to rural development resembles the endogenous approach in mechanisms and intrinsic logic. This is especially true where new farm activities are concerned and here the endogenous model seems to be the women's line of development par excellence. Taking this observation as a point of departure policy makers ' recognition and promotion of endogenous development could be expected to entail an approval of women's approach to rural development as well. Moreover, their policy could be expected to offer women good opportunities to participate in the mainstream development process.

    A similar line of argument leads to the expectation that interactive governance and policy making will promote rural women's involvement. The informalisation of political structures, broadening of the political agenda and clearance of traditional restrictions, should render the policy process more accessible for rural women. It should, moreover, attract more women as it gives more room to the more informal political manner of rural women and the political issues that have their specific interest. An interactive policy model is not, however, only of interest to women. Because of the increasing possibilities of co-operation between policy makers and rural people, interactive politics are also considered a prerequisite of successful endogenous development.

    The access the endogenous development model and an interactive policy and governance process grant to rural women results in the first place from the approval and recognition of participation modes previously considered deviant and irrelevant. Secondly, both models foresee a fundamental change in processes and structures, which traditionally hampered the participation of women. In short, the organisational structure and ideological framework from which behaviour is evaluated have changed. And with the entrance of different political actors and rules the distribution of power and influence changes as well. Theoretically, rural women should get not only more appreciation for their involvement in rural development but more voice in the process as well.

    This study, however, demonstrates that in reality this has only been achieved to a very limited degree. In part this is due to the fact that the fundamental renewal of the development and policy process, for which many policy documents have pleaded, has by and large remained rhetoric. In reality many of the traditional obstacles rural women experience have survived, together with old political structures, processes and definitions. Policy instruments offer those submitters who follow the rural women's or endogenous approach, little support as the instruments are build on the assumption of the traditional development model. The policy process has hardly changed and rural women have less access to policy negotiations compared to those men who represent the traditional governmental partners. Other newcomers have difficulty in passing through the traditional gateway too. However, it is rural women who experience the most opposition as they fight against the prejudices that would marginalise them as political irrelevant and ignorant.

    But even if the endogenous development model were followed strictly, the equal participation of rural women would still not be guaranteed. As far as individual women are concerned, the endogenous model offers new opportunities for participation and acknowledgement. It is when the switch is made from the individual to the collective and regional development level envisaged in the endogenous model that it becomes clear that women face more obstacles than men. As this study demonstrates rural women groups do not only operate on a small scale, they remain stuck in the informal arena as well. They rarely meet administrators, policy makers or the well-known carriers of regional development in their own environment. Consequentially they have little chance to take part in formal policy making and to affect the rural development process as a whole. This is particularly so when the renewal of the policy process lags behind and traditional mechanisms and processes continue to function.

    However, even where there has been a successful renewal of governance, rural women still experience many disadvantages and restrictions as a result of their unequal position in (rural) society. The government's responsibility as far as rural women's participation is concerned, therefore, goes beyond the invitation of women (or other new groups) to take part in decision-making and the adaptation of political structures and processes. It is also responsible for creating the preconditions that will allow rural women's participation to be successful and effective. The government should, therefore, offer material support to the representatives of new and not (yet) well-established organisations that still need this kind of support. Furthermore it should make sure that the input of newcomers is respected and taken seriously by all participants.

    Despite these remarks it must be said that the introduction of the endogenous development model and the interactive model of governance and policy making is an important step forward in promoting rural women's participation. Until recently, efforts to advance equal participation generally consisted of little more that extra support that would enable women to behave more like men. This compensation has not only been insufficient in most cases but has merely served to reconfirm the status of women as stay-behind and needy persons. The introduction of a new development and governance model implies the deconstruction of restrictions that are intrinsic to traditional structures and processes. Still more important is that the new model breaks through the traditional images and definitions of relevant participation and participants. Within the new development policy rural women's different behaviour does not necessarily imply less respect and less influence anymore. By considering women's way of participation to be equal to men's and by offering women equal conditions for influencing the development and policy process, the government is supporting the realisation of more equal gender relations in agriculture and rural society as a whole. For lasting development this is an important precondition.

    De glazenwassers van het bestuur. Lokale overheid, massamedia, burgers en communicatie. Groningen in landelijk perspectief 1945 - 2001
    Hajema, L.H. - \ 2001
    Assen : Van Gorcum - 447
    plaatselijk bestuur - overheid - bestuur - informatie - communicatie - massamedia - nederland - geschiedenis - regering - groningen - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - local government - government - public authorities - administration - information - communication - mass media - history - netherlands - groningen - relations between people and state
    Communicatie en interactieve beleidsvorming
    Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2000
    Alphen aan den Rijn : Samsom - ISBN 9789014065526 - 138
    overheidsbeleid - besluitvorming - regering - bedrijfsvoering - overheid - overheidsorganisaties - politiek - participatie - nederland - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - government policy - decision making - government - management - public authorities - government organizations - politics - participation - netherlands - relations between people and state
    Vaak gaat het zo: de overheid maakt volgens haar eigen inzicht en deskundigheid een plan en probeert daar via communicatie draagvlak voor te krijgen. In dit boek "Communicatie en interactieve beleidsvorming" legt Van Woerkom uit waarom een dergelijke werkwijze zelden effectief is. Het plan wordt niet geaccepteerd en in de relatie tusse overheid en burger komt (weer) een barst. Sooms laten burgers hun ongenoegen merken. Meestal reageren ze apatisch en onverschillig. Maar ook de overheid is lang niet altijd responsief, al zien we zelden nog een hooghartige reactie van de regent. Gelukkig is in de praktijk menigeen bezig om de relatie te verbeteren. Interactieve beleidsvorming wordt de norm.
    Trekkers naast de trap : een zoektocht naar de dynamiek in de relatie tussen boer en overheid
    Hees, E. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.D. van der Ploeg; J. de Vries. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083234 - 181
    boeren - regering - relaties - landbouwbeleid - belangengroepen - nederland - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - farmers - government - relationships - interest groups - agricultural policy - netherlands - relations between people and state

    This book describes a sociological expedition to the core of the relationship between farmers and government in the Netherlands. It focuses on the concept of mediation of agricultural policies between government and the farming target group. A starting point in this expedition is the rejection of the idea of policy-formation as a rational-synoptical chronology, in which policy is the result of a well-defined rational choice by politicians and administrators from different scenario's. Instead, policy formation in this context is understood as an incremental process: policies as a result of interaction between context induced actors. However, instead of being coincidental the interactions show up patterns of regularity that formed the motivation for this study.

    Policy mediation is defined as:

    the interrelated moments of preparation, formation, implementation and evaluation of policies,which by means of interactive processes, in which various actors (public servants, politicians, citizens, farmers, etc.) participate with their groups and projects (strategically),are geared to one another in such a manner, thatexactly therefore a legitimacy is obtained which otherwise would definitely be absent.

    The target group of agricultural policies is a so-called difuse one. That is, in need of intermediary structures able to mediate policies. The Dutch Agricultural Board (Landbouwschap) played this intermediary structure role between 1954 en 1996, when it promptly disappeared.

    In the meantime, several farmers' cooperative initiatives in one way or another have assumed the role of intermediary organizations. Central government tended to standardize their attitude towards these structures, in order to manage the policy mediation fluently. The objective of this investigation, however, is to analize and maintain the diversity of intermediary organizations. The reason is the assumption that succesful policy mediation depends on the taking account of the specifity of each structure.

    The central questions therefore are:

    in which different arrangements has the mediation of agricultural policies taken place so far,by which means could be obtained more success in terms of dynamic and legitimated policy mediation.

    Chapter 2 provides a theoretical approach of the relation between farmer and government, defining it as a particularisation of the relation between actor and structure. Instead of adhering to dualistic theories, which focus upon the complete determination of the individual by its surrounding structure (determinism) or upon the complete absence of such a determination (voluntarism), this study prefers duality as a key concept. Duality focuses upon the co-existence of contraint and enableness of the individual versus itssurrounding structure. Individuals actively make and remake social structure.

    The relation between citizen and government is subject of a process of legitimation. Public administration and policies are legitimized by:

    the procedure, with given objectives (the instrumental side of legitimation);the objectives of policies (the social contract side); andthe interchange of both.

    The chapter ends up presenting a social scientific tool to capture this legitimation process: policy-mediation.

    In chapter 3 policy mediation is surveyed in the Dutch socio-cultural heritage. In the Netherlands a strong tradition of subsidiarity and functional decentralization was founded in past centuries. The social charter of neo-corporatism is known because of its emphasis on consensus, compromise and consultation.

    Growing claims, policy overload, role distortions between public and private parties and he public opinion have shocked the traditional charter and caused a legitimation problem. Different answers are possible, varying from enforcening the state to enforcening the consensus model. In this report, there is a strong case for investing more in interdependency and participative democracy. The Dutch case shows different examples: coproduction of local policies, convenants between public governement and private parties, the socalled Green Polder Model. Although there is room for doubt because of (a) gaps between frontiers ans crowds, (b) interaction used only for self-interest. That is the risks of pseudo-participation. Therefore, field investigations are urgently needed.

    In chapter 4 an overview is given of the legitimation of agricultural policies in the Netherlands since the 19th century. The co-production tradition of farmers' organizations and central government, founded on a consensus about (a) the type of agricultural development to be nagestreefd, and (b) the need of consultation and compromise, ended up in a policy-community or - more precisely - iron triangle between farmers-leaders, ministry of agriculture and national politicians. From the late 60's, tensions grew between these parties and the iron triangle eroded. A vacuum in policy mediation became clear. Farmers reacted by protest, adaptation, individual initiatives and creating new collectivities, that became seeds of new arrangements. The following chapters describe the investigation of these new arrangements.

    Chapter 5 is a methodological intermezzo. It motivates why the sociological expedition is founded in daily reality, by describing caracteristics of factual initiatives as many and as detailed as necessary to get a sharp distinction between policy arrangements.

    In chapter 6 and 7 an inventory is made of the variation of possible arrangements, making use of 14 real collectivities in the Dutch countryside between 1980 and 1997. By adopting a cluster analysis 6 different arrangements are identified: product cooperative, horzelorganisation, farmers' association, policy cooperative, investigation cooperative and sindical organisation.

    Describing various cases in the Netherlands, in chapter 8 each arrangement is examined on its potential in terms of producing more dynamics in policy mediation. Chapter 9 also examines this potential, but now by evaluating an official policy experiment with 8 socalled environmental cooperatives (milieucoöperaties) from 1995 to 1999.

    In chapter 10, the conclusions of the expedition are summarized. The experiences of farmers' collectivities up to 1997 make clear that the state and its institutions (first of all the ministry of agriculture) are rather confused when defining an attitude against the calls for self-regulation that come from below. The state seems to get paralyzed by pleas for self-regulation on one side and the necessity to maintain principles of Good Governance on the other, one of which is gelijkberechtiging. Tailor-made policy solutions may come in conflict with the tendency to govern unilaterally from a cockpit.

    By way of recommendations, several triggers are derived from the expedition process, triggers that may give impetus to a more dynamic and prosperous relation between government and farmers. First of all, the actual situation should be understood better and more systematically by all of the parties involved. Potentials for succesful policy-mediation often aren't recognized as such.

    Next, cooperative initiatives shouldn't be put in one category too soon. Regionality, local culture and specifity are important factors for succes in policy-mediation along more selfregulation. The recognition and admission of the role local initiatives can play in succesful policy-arrangements should result in more incentives instead of penalties. State institutions should provoke and belonen a more entrepreneurial attitude of farmers. Another factor that may trigger a more dynamic relationship is the maintenance of the face-to-face caracter of policy-mediation. The personal committment of the parties involved, crucial within the agricultural population with so many individual interests and responsabilities, depends on the involvement of face-to-face contacts. This means more emphasis should be laid on local government instead of national.

    The challenge of diversity : indigenous peoples and reform of the state in Latin America
    Assies, W. ; Haar, G. van der; Hoekema, A. - \ 2000
    Amsterdam : Thela Thesis - ISBN 9789055380459 - 315
    politiek - innovaties - latijns-amerika - regering - politieke systemen - etniciteit - staat - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - political systems - politics - government - innovations - ethnicity - latin america - state - relations between people and state
    Re-humanizing the development process : on participation, local organizations and social learning as building blocks of an alternative development view in Algeria
    Malki, M. - \ 1999
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D.B.W.M. van Dusseldorp. - S.l. : Malki - ISBN 9789058080356 - 332
    plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsplanning - participatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - algerije - staat - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - rural development - development planning - participation - sustainability - algeria - state - relations between people and state

    This study concerns agricultural development planning and policy-making in the context of post-independent Algeria, which went unquestioned for more than three decades. Algeria won its independence in 1962 after 132 years of French colonization. A post-independence State was formed, taking over the colonial power, and set a centralized planning for economic and social development.

    In the agricultural sector, the effects of this planning model were far-reaching and turned a potential agricultural country par excellence into one of the most net importers of food in the developing world.

    The onset of this study sterns from the questioning of whether planning, as a fundamental item of the development process, and in addition of being inspired by de-humanizing philosophy and methods, can still be seen as a mere technical discipline. The response of this study is that development planning and policymaking is not only a technical discipline but certainly a political process. By deduction, the development process was and could never be apolitical.

    The study tries to describe how the influence of different political actors, in particular, and the political system, in general, shape the outcomes of the development process. To achieve this, the study compares two sets of development actions (policies, programmes and projects) planned and implemented under two different political perspectives: the first set represents the authoritarian regime era (1962-1988), based on the one-party system and an arrogant interventionist bureaucracy; the second introduces some development actions conducted during the transitory process of democratization (1988-1998). The study describes in parallel the changes introduced by the process of democratization and how these influenced the conventional development vision adopted by the state in postindependent Algeria.

    In more a detailed explanation, the study starts first by describing the shortcomings of the conventional development thinking and the different influences that the Algerian development planning system underwent since the independence time. Then, it develops the research hypotheses which will orient the comparison of the two set of development actions presented in this book. Finally, it reflects on the advantages offered by an alternative development view, based on participation, local organizations and social learning, and their effects on the issue of sustainability. In this study, the conceptualization of sustainability refers to the "critical triangle of sustainability" (Oram et al , 1998:1).

    The basic assumption of this study is that the main condition for a development action to secure some substantial and sustainable outcome resides in the fulfillment of the four following prerequisites formulated by van Dusseldorp (1992:12):

    1. The possibility of formulating a consistent, realistic and durable set of objectives , which is acceptable to all, or at least to a large majority of the people who will be involved in/or and affected by the planned development;
    2. The availability of knowledge of all the relevant processes and their interrelationships which have to be influenced to change the present situation in such a way that the objectives will be realized;
    3. The availability of the means and power to influence these processes;
    4. The political will to use the available means and power , to influence the relevant processes in order to realize the desired objectives.

    In most development actions designed for and implemented in Third World countries, these prerequisites were never completely fulfilled, especially in people-centered development actions. More clearly put, in some development actions, sorne prerequisites might have been fulfilled to some extent, but others have never been fulfilled, even to a very small extent. In fact, in the general case, objectives were ill-defined and top-down decided; knowledge was mobilized in a very reductionist way - most of time supposedly rational/scientific - with a complete denial of people's knowledge; means and power were never sufficiently made available, and when available, were not fairly distributed among the needy ones; and finally, the political will was never concretized unless the development action in concern aimed to incorporate, encapsulate and increase control over rural populations, or at sustaining an actual status quo in benefit of the powerful actors.

    In this context, the study suggests that integration of some features, such as participation , either directly (individually) or indirectly (through local organizations ), on the one hand; and social learning , (either as a flexibility in the project design and implementation and/or as a monitoring & evaluation mechanism), on the one hand, increases the probability of fulfillment of the aforementioned prerequisites.

    At the level of operationalization of the basic concepts on which the study bases the present work, it faced a dilemma with the concept 'sustainable development'. To which actor or group of actors should development be sustainable in the context of this study? As the implicit and explicit assumptions of this study may suggest, the sustainability of the outcomes of a given development action is posited here to be in line with the interests of the 'hitherto excluded', the disadvantaged segments of the population. Hence, in the context of this study, the pre-requisites and conditions of sustainability rely to a large extent on the centrality of the beneficiaries' knowledge, and the importance of participation of these beneficiaries in their (self-)development. In this order, up till now and for not less than three decades, development actions in Algeria were designed without consultation of their supposed beneficiaries, and yielded a huge gap between the priviligentsia and the disadvantaged. It was thus important that the study focuses more on the impact of beneficiaries' participation and knowledge in steering a given development action towards their needs of development.

    However, although the study considers that beneficiaries' participation and knowledge is a necessary condition for sustainable development, it is not a sufficient condition per se . This is true given that the so-called beneficiaries are still strongly interacting with other actors that hold a great power of decision, and are extremely self-referent and self-impressed by the rationality and 'scientificality' of their knowledge, such as planners, researchers, development staff, etc. It is, thus, important that the availability of the beneficiaries' knowledge must be acknowledged by these latter actors. Moreover, all this must be supported by a real social learning process whose importance for sustainable development is acknowledged and supported by all social actors who have some interest at stake in a given development action.

    Consequently, the study aims at answering the following general research and
    sub-research question:

    GQ. How can (direct and indirect) participation of the beneficiaries and the social learning ability of diverse actors acting in the development theater secure sustainable achievements of a people-centered planned development action ?

    Ql. To which extent and when is participation of the beneficiaries required in order to steer development actions towards their (self-) development?
    Q2. Which role(s) can local organizations play in the beneficiaries' steering of development actions
    Q3. Which mechanisms are required to make monitoring and evaluation play the role of a learning process in steering development actions?
    Q4. Can the design of a practical methodology be proposed according to the advocated issues in this study, such as participation, local organizations and social learning?
    Q5. What might be the shortcomings of this methodology and what political, institutional, and sociocultural pre-requisites are needed for such a methodology to work?

    The results of the study shows that:

    • Participation since the first step of the development action cycle (problems identification and objectives determination) improved the design and the implementation of development actions. Participation helped the beneficiaries not only to develop a sense of ownership of the development process, but to mobilize their own resources when needed, in addition to public ones.
    • Creation of farmers' organizations independently from State-led organizations helped the 'excluded' to improve their access to public resources they were hitherto excluded from. lt sustained participation of the beneficiaries towards a more democratized development and tumed it into a means of sustainable development.
    • Embedding the implementation phase of development actions into a learning process, that is a regular, permanent and efficient monitoring and evaluation process, gives a certain flexibility to development. Corrective measures were devised upon knowledge generated by the leaming process and applied in true time, saving time and reducing the waste of resources.
    • The 'building blocks' of an alternative development view for Algeria were defined and a methodology needs to be designed its application.
    • A process of democratization of social and political life, on the hand, and a reform of the mentality and procedures of the development planning and policy-making system, on the other, are necessary conditions for the application of the alternative development view.

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