Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    “Everything tastes different” : The impact of changes in chemosensory perception on food preferences, food intake and quality of life during chemotherapy in cancer patients
    Vries, Yfke Carlijn de - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; H.W.M. van Laarhoven, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; Sanne Boesveldt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436090 - 169
    perception - sensory evaluation - food intake - quality of life - food preferences - neoplasms - taste - macronutrients - drug therapy - breast cancer - perceptie - sensorische evaluatie - voedselopname - kwaliteit van het leven - voedselvoorkeuren - neoplasma - smaak - macronutriënten - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker

    Taste and smell changes are common side effects during chemotherapy in cancer patient and may have an impact on food preferences, food intake and quality of life. However, these relations have hardly been studied systematically in specific cancer populations. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess how the sense of taste and smell change upon treatment with chemotherapy in breast cancer and oesophagogastric cancer patients, and to investigate their consequences in terms of food preferences, food intake and quality of life.

    To measure food preferences for both macronutrients and tastes, the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) was developed. in chapter 2, it was shown that by inducing sensory specific satiety for a standardized sweet and savoury meal, it is possible to detect shifts in preferences for both tastes and macronutrients with the MTPRT, and that these results are reproducible.

    In Chapter 3 we studied objective and subjective taste and smell perception and food preferences in advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. The result showed that only objective taste function decreases during chemotherapy, but other chemosensory measures were unchanged. A lower subjective taste perception was related to a lower preference for high-protein products. Therefore it is important to consider patients’ taste perception, when providing dietary advice to OGC patients

    Chapter 4 describes a study with similar outcome measures as chapter 3, but in breast cancer patients at several time points during and after chemotherapy, and compared to a healthy control group. The study showed that breast cancer patients like high-protein, high-fat, sweet and savoury products less during chemotherapy, thus showing altered preferences for macronutrients, but not for tastes. Furthermore, results showed a temporary decrease in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. These findings show that patients should be informed prior to treatment on chemosensory changes, and that these changes should be monitored during treatment due to the consequences for nutritional intake and quality of life

    In chapter 5 we assessed the dietary intake of breast cancer patients before and during chemotherapy compared to a healthy control group, and associations with experienced symptoms during chemotherapy. It was shown that symptoms induced by chemotherapy were associated with lower total energy, protein and fat intake, which was manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. Therefore, to ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    To better understand the impact of chemosensory changes during chemotherapy on daily life, 13 advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients were interviewed (see chapter 6). Patients described a substantial impact of chemosensory and food-related changes on daily life (by changing daily routines), social life (eating being less sociable) and roles in the household (changing roles in cooking and grocery shopping).

    Finally, in chapter 7, we assessed the association between self-reported taste and smell perception and quality of life in breast cancer patients. A worse taste and smell perception was associated with a worse global quality of life, role, social and emotional functioning shortly after chemotherapy. In patients treated with trastuzumab, a worse taste and smell perception was still associated with quality of life, social and role functioning half a year after chemotherapy had ended.

    From the studies in this thesis we can conclude that chemotherapy mainly affects the sense of taste. The subjective perception of taste was associated with a lower preference for food products and lower energy intake. This indicates that it is not necessarily an actual change in the sense of taste or smell that has an impact on patients, but flavour perception as a whole and potentially a lower enjoyment of food. Moreover, these perceived changes in taste and smell can have a substantial impact on cancer patients’ lives, in a practical way by changing daily patterns of eating, but also socially and in roles in the household. A changed chemosensory perception during chemotherapy may lead to a worsened nutritional status, and could thereby negatively impact the response to chemotherapy. Therefore chemosensory perception should be monitored during chemotherapy. Future studies should further investigate the mechanisms behind chemosensory changes, factors that contribute to subjective taste perception and possible interventions to alleviate chemosensory changes during chemotherapy.

    Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices
    Granato, Daniel - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Saskia van Ruth; Vincenzo Fogliano. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579071 - 151
    grape juice - fruit juices - phenolic compounds - antioxidant properties - taste - provenance - chemometrics - mass spectrometry - druivensap - vruchtensappen - fenolverbindingen - antioxidatieve eigenschappen - smaak - herkomst - chemometrie - massaspectrometrie

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices have been the target of a high number of studies, it is still not fully known how geographical origin and production management system, affect the chemical profile, quality traits related to flavor, and in vitro antioxidant of grape juices. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to elucidate the reflectance of origin (botanical, geographical, production system) in the unique compositional traits of juices from different botanical origins, with emphasis on purple grape juices. Subsequently, chemometric methods were used to try to authenticate the origin of grape juice based on the grape juice’s quality traits. Results showed that it was possible to note that the instrumental taste profile, chemical composition related to phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of juices from distinct botanical origins differ considerably. More specifically, pomegranate and elderberry juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, implying that the botanical origin of juices affected remarkably their unique instrumental taste profile and physicochemical parameters, phenolic composition, and in vitro antioxidant activity. The production managements systems, (organic/biodynamic, ORG/BIO, versus conventional, CONV) is influencing the volatile organic composition (VOC) profiles, some phenolic compounds and copper chelating activity. It is not affecting the instrumental taste profile nor the in vitro antioxidant activity results. ORG and BIO purple grape juices can be differentiated by their VOC profiles but not by the other characteristics studied. More specifically, CONV juices had higher mean levels for all ions compared to ORG and BIO juices. More specifically, in fact, BIO juices presented the lowest mean values for almost all ions measured. When European grape juices were studied, no significant difference (p>0.05) between ORG, BIO, and CONV juices was observed for instrumental richness, umami, saltiness, sourness, astringency, bitterness, total phenolic content, total soluble solids, pH, ortho-diphenols, copper chelating activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant activity. For the Brazilian samples, the contents of chlorogenic acid and myricetin were statistically higher in ORG juices, while the in vitro antioxidant activity measured by three assays (DPPH, CUPRAC, and iron chelating ability) were not different between production management systems. For the European juices, some differences were observed: BIO and ORG juices presented higher contents of (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, (+)-catechin, and myricetin compared to the CONV juices. The VOC profile, instrumental taste parameters, phenolic composition, and in vitro antioxidant activity is highly affected between regions, in which Brazilian juices presented higher ion intensities as compared to the European juices. Brazilian juices, regardless of the production management system adopted, presented higher total phenolic content and flavonoids, total anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavanols, except for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. From this work, we can conclude that the geographical and botanical origins affect significantly the VOC profiles, instrumental taste profile, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity of grape juices.

    Beyond liking : emotional and physiological responses to food stimuli
    He, W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Sanne Boesveldt; Rene de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576506 - 149
    stimuli - food - emotions - autonomic nervous system - odours - taste - beverages - physiological functions - man - human behaviour - expressivity - prikkels - voedsel - emoties - autonome zenuwstelsel - geurstoffen - smaak - dranken - fysiologische functies - mens - menselijk gedrag - expressiviteit

    Background and aim

    Traditional liking ratings are typically seen as an important determinant in eating behavior. However, in order to better understand eating behavior, we need to first better understand (the dynamic and implicit features underlying) liking appraisal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of food stimuli varying in sensory modality (smell and taste), pleasantness and intensity, on emotional and physiological responses leading up to liking appraisal.

    Methods

    Four studies, using healthy participants, were conducted as part of this thesis. In the first study, responses to pleasant versus unpleasant food odors varying in intensity were measured discretely using pleasantness ratings, intensity ratings and non-verbally reported emotions (PrEmo), as well as continuously using facial expressions and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. To further explore how explicit and implicit factors contribute to pleasantness appraisal, the same measures were assessed in response to food odors with a wider range of valence. Next, we focused on facial expressions and ANS responses elicited by single sips of breakfast drinks that were equally liked. In the last study, we investigated changes in pleasantness after consuming semi-liquid meals to (sensory-specific) satiety, combined with measures of facial expressions and ANS responses.

    Results

    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and between food odors differing in intensity. In addition to discrete emotional responses, odor valence associated best with facial expressions after 1 second of odor exposure. Furthermore, facial expressions and ANS responses measured continuously were found odor-specific in different rates over time. Results of food odors with a wider range of valence showed that non-verbally reported emotions, facial expressions and ANS responses correlated with each other best in different time windows after odor presentation: facial expressions and ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the arousal dimension in the 2nd second of odor presentation, whereas later ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the valence dimension in the 4th second. For food stimuli varying in flavor (breakfast drinks), facial expressions and ANS responses showed strongest associations with liking after 1 second of tasting, as well as with intensity after 2 seconds of tasting. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate that ANS responses, as well as facial expressions of anger and disgust were associated with satiety. Further effects of sensory-specific satiety were also reflected by skin conductance, skin temperature, as well as facial expressions of sadness and anger.

    Conclusions

    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and/or intensity. Explicit and implicit emotional responses, as well as physiological patterns are related to liking appraisals involved in smelling foods. Implicit measures such as facial expressions and ANS responses can provide more multidimensional information for both food odors and tastes than explicit measures and prove to be highly dynamic over time with specific time courses. Early implicit facial and ANS responses primarily reflect emotion arousal, whereas later ANS responses reflect emotion valence, suggesting dynamic unfolding of different appraisals of food stimuli. Furthermore, ANS responses and facial expressions can reflect pleasantness, satiety, and a combination of both: sensory-specific satiety. This suggests that implicit processes play an important role in dynamic liking appraisals with respect to eating behavior.

    Metabolites contributing to taste in Agaricus bisporus
    Baars, J.J.P. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Mumm, R. ; Stijger, I. ; Wehrens, H.R.M.J. - \ 2016
    Plant Research International (PPO/PRI-report 2016-1) - 19
    mushrooms - edible fungi - metabolites - taste - agaricus bisporus - taste panels - postharvest quality - paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - metabolieten - smaak - agaricus bisporus - smaakpanels - kwaliteit na de oogst
    During the last 35 years, hardly any breeding has been done in the button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The fact that no new varieties are generated directed to trends in the food market has caused a slowly decrease in mushroom consumption in the Netherlands and in Europe. The hurdles for generating new varieties are difficulties in breeding and protection of new varieties. These hurdles are now nearly tackled and it is time to generate new varieties. One issue that has never been addressed is taste. The collection of Plant Breeding Wageningen UR contains a large number of strains of the button mushroom with a large genetic variation. In previous research this collection has been genotyped and a small selection of genetically different strains has been made. In 2014 these strains were cultivated along two different methods that were likely to cause differences in taste. Atempts were made to link the results from the taste panel to the metabolite concentrations. Even though it is a relatively small dataset, some correlations can be found for the taste attributes Firmness, Gummi and Boiled Egg and for the metabolites Alanine, Arginine and Proline.
    Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools
    Fries, M.C.E. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576537 - 169
    schools - elementary schools - primary education - dietetic education - taste - education - vegetables - psychosocial aspects - food consumption - scholen - basisscholen - primair onderwijs - voedingsonderwijs - smaak - onderwijs - groenten - psychosociale aspecten - voedselconsumptie

    “Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”

    School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it is hard to identify what intervention components and implementation conditions are most effective. Furthermore, as nutrition education is not mandatory in the Netherlands, it is not clear what effects can be achieved with nutrition education in Dutch primary schools. In this thesis therefore two versions of Taste Lessons were evaluated. Taste Lessons is a practice-driven school-based nutrition education programme on taste development, healthy nutrition, and food quality. The programme was evaluated on its aims to increase children’s interest in food, and their knowledge and skills regarding healthy and conscious eating behaviour. Furthermore, the influence of adding experiential learning activities and implementation factors on effectiveness are addressed.

    The first evaluation showed that partial implementation of the 10-12 lessons of Taste Lessons (first version) by the teachers during one school year resulted in small increases in psychosocial determinants of healthy eating behaviour. The highest increase was observed in children’s knowledge, which still persisted six months after the programme.

    A second evaluation was conducted with the aim to compare effectiveness of the revised and shorter version of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on change in (psychosocial determinants of) vegetable consumption and willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Results from this second study showed that, with almost complete implementation of the five lessons of Taste Lessons by the teachers during a couple of weeks, similar results as the first effect evaluation. Again with knowledge as the strongest intervention effect. Additional experiential learning activities, such as an extended cooking lesson with a dietician and the parents, an excursion to a grower and a supermarket assignment with the parents, showed more and stronger increases in several psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption than Taste Lessons without these additional activities. No significant intervention effects were found on children’s willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables during a taste test, and also not on their daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia.

    Analyses on process indicators in both studies revealed that teachers and children highly liked Taste Lessons and that children most liked the experiential learning activities. Furthermore, children’s programme appreciation and interpersonal communication about the programme activities after the lessons were found to be positively associated with their change in psychosocial determinants.

    In conclusion, evaluation of Taste Lessons showed an increase in children’s knowledge and several other psychosocial determinants of eating behaviour. Implementation of (additional) experiential learning methods in school-based nutrition education is likely to enhance the intervention’s effectiveness, as children mostly liked these activities and children’s enthusiasm was the strongest predictor of effectiveness. No effects were found on children’s vegetable consumption. To achieve behavioural change, school-based nutrition education should be complemented with a consistent set of changes in children’s environment.

    De consument wil smaak...maar welke smaak?
    Verkerke, W. ; Labrie, C.W. - \ 2016
    Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie 2016 (2016)01. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 20 - 22.
    tuinbouw - tomaten - paprika's - meloenen - aardbeien - smaak - consumentenpanels - smaakonderzoek - marketing - modellen - horticulture - tomatoes - sweet peppers - melons - strawberries - taste - consumer panels - taste research - marketing - models
    Marktgericht produceren begint bij de smaak. Maar van welke smaak houdt de consument? Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw ontwikkelde een meetmodel voor de smaak van tomaten, paprika's en meloenen en werkt nu aan de aardbei. Bovendien brengt het de smaak van consumententypen in kaart. "Als je de smaakvoorkeur van consumenten kent, dan kun je pas écht produceren voor de markt."
    Alleen sterkere smaak verhoogt eetlust niet
    Doets, E.L. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
    ondervoeding - eiwitdepletie - ouderen - voedselvoorkeuren - voedselkwaliteit - productontwikkeling - smaak - voedselverpakking - voeding - voedingsonderzoek - ouderenvoeding - undernutrition - protein depletion - elderly - food preferences - food quality - product development - taste - food packaging - nutrition - nutrition research - elderly nutrition
    Vijf tot tien procent zelfstandige ouderen is ondervoed. Ouderen waarderen voeding waarschijnlijk beter als verschillende aspecten zoals textuur, smaak en uiterlijk tegelijkertijd worden verbeterd. Dit schrijven Esmée Doets en Stefanie Kramer, onderzoekers bij Food & Biobased Research, in een overzichtsstudie in het tijdschrift Food Quality and Preference.
    Microben maken mede de wijn : regionale verschillen in gistpopulaties beïnvloeden het aromaprofiel van wijn
    Maanen, G. van; Vermeulen, T. - \ 2015
    Bionieuws 2015 (2015)15. - ISSN 0924-7734 - p. 1 - 1.
    wijnen - smaak - gisten - microbiologie - fermentatie - wijnbouw - wijngaarden - wines - taste - yeasts - microbiology - fermentation - viticulture - vineyards
    Wijn dankt zijn karakter niet alleen aan lokale omstandigheden in klimaat, bodem en teelt, maar ook aan aanwezige gisten, claimen Nieuw-Zeelandse microbiologen.
    Zoektocht naar fermentatieprocessen voor producten met minder zout
    Smid, E.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    voedselmicrobiologie - fermentatie - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedseltechnologie - zout - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - food microbiology - fermentation - keeping quality - food technology - salt - taste - nutrition and health
    De fermentatie van verse plantaardige of dierlijke producten geeft extra smaak aan voedsel en verlengt de houdbaarheid. Het proces vergt echter vaak veel zout en daarvan krijgt de westerling al veel te veel binnen. In zijn inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van het persoonlijk hoogleraarschap Levensmiddelenmicrobiologie aan Wageningen University gaat prof. Eddy Smid op zoek naar alternatieve, ‘natriumarme’ fermentatieprocessen die de gezondheid ten goede komen.
    Geen extra chips na zoutarm eten
    Janssen, A.M. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 6 - 6.
    voedingsmiddelen - zoutgehalte - smaak - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - reductie - gezondheidsgevaren - gezondheidsbevordering - behoeftenbevrediging - foods - salinity - taste - human nutrition research - reduction - health hazards - health promotion - need gratification
    Minder zout in etenswaren zorgt ervoor dat mensen daadwerkelijk minder zout eten; ze zoeken geen zoutcompensatie op andere momenten van de dag.
    Aromameter onthult smaakverlies groente en fruit
    Woltering, E.J. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 5 - 5.
    groenten - fruit - smaak - bemonsteren - meting - apparatuur - innovaties - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - reductie - aroma - verandering - vegetables - fruit - taste - sampling - measurement - apparatus - innovations - keeping quality - reduction - aroma - change
    Een tomaat in de koelkast verliest al snel onomkeerbaar zijn smaak. Dat blijkt uit metingen met een nieuw apparaat, ontwikkeld door Wageningen UR. Dat kan snel en nauwkeurig veranderingen in het aroma vaststellen.
    Extra smaak door extra led-belichting
    Reinders, U. ; Janse, J. ; Hanenberg, M. - \ 2015
    Kas techniek (2015)1. - p. 30 - 33.
    glastuinbouw - kastechniek - aardbeien - fragaria ananassa - belichting - led lampen - smaak - landbouwkundig onderzoek - teeltsystemen - rassen (planten) - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - strawberries - fragaria ananassa - illumination - led lamps - taste - agricultural research - cropping systems - varieties
    Extra led-belichting maakt aardbeien smaakvoller. Dat blijkt uit een demonstratie bij het Informatie en Demonstratie Centrum (IDC) Smaak in Bleiswijk. Ook bevatten de vruchten meer vitamine C en is de productie hoger. Naast antwoorden roept de demonstratie ook vragen op, zoals welke processen precies aan de goede werking ten grondslag liggen.
    Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)
    Baars, J.J.P. ; Stijger, I. ; Kersten, M. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Plant Breeding (Report / Plant Breeding Wageningen UR 2015-3) - 17
    mushrooms - edible fungi - taste - agaricus bisporus - agaricus - taste research - taste panels - postharvest quality - dry matter - paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - smaak - agaricus bisporus - agaricus - smaakonderzoek - smaakpanels - kwaliteit na de oogst - droge stof
    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to increase osmotic value. The intension was to increase the dry matter content of the mushrooms that might affect the “bite” sensation of mushrooms.
    Een kwestie van smaak - interview met Gerben Messelink en Wouter Verkerke
    Messelink, G.J. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2014
    Buitenstebinnen : halfjaarlijkse uitgave van Naktuinbouw December (2014)3. - p. 18 - 19.
    tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - groenten - fruit - consumentenpanels - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - spaanse pepers - testen - smaakpanels - smaak - smaakonderzoek - voedingsmiddelen - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - fruit - consumer panels - new crops - chillies - testing - taste panels - taste - taste research - foods
    Naast dat consumenten voor groente en fruit kiezen op basis van het uiterlijk, bijvoorbeeld de vorm en de kleur, wordt de smaak van het product steeds belangrijker. Wageningen UR onderzoekt dan ook steeds meer producten (vooral nieuwe rassen) op smaak.
    Smediger kaas door juiste voer
    Hettinga, K.A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
    De zelfkazer 66 (2014)6. - ISSN 0166-4549 - p. 10 - 11.
    kazen - smaak - eiwitgehalte - vetgehalte - voersamenstelling - onverzadigde vetten - vetzuren - melk - melkvet - cheeses - taste - protein content - fat content - feed formulation - unsaturated fats - fatty acids - milk - milk fat
    Veel kaasmakers willen smedige (zachte, smeuïge) kaas maken, want de gemiddelde consument vindt die kaas het lekkerst. Kasper Hettinga en Jan Dijkstra van Wageningen Universiteit vertellen hoe de smedigheid van kaas kan worden beïnvloed door de samenstelling van het veevoer.
    Vetarm en toch lekker romig
    Wolkers, H. ; Quataert, M.C.J. - \ 2014
    WageningenWorld (2014)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 33.
    kazen - smaak - vetgehalte - voeding en gezondheid - smakelijkheid - vetarme producten - productontwikkeling - kaasrijping - cheeses - taste - fat content - nutrition and health - palatability - low fat products - product development - cheese ripening
    Kaasspecialist Zijerveld wilde een smaakvolle geitenkaas met slechts 30 procent vet in het assortiment. Met ambachtelijke technieken lukte dat niet. Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research vond een nieuwe receptuur voor het kaasje. Gezonder en net zo lekker.
    Laat de varkens los : nieuw perspectief voor boer en landschapsbeheer in Overijssel
    Holster, H.C. ; Mul, M.F. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Livestock Research Wageningen UR - 20
    varkens - landschapsbeheer - scharrelhouderij - slachtdieren - overijssel - nederland - dierhouderij - rassen (dieren) - smaak - natuurlandschap - gezondheid - pigs - landscape management - free range husbandry - meat animals - overijssel - netherlands - animal husbandry - breeds - taste - natural landscape - health
    Wat zijn precies de functies die een varken in het landschap kunnen vervullen? Kan dat zomaar, varkens in het wild; waar moet je dan rekening mee houden? Is het wel rendabel om varkens te houden? Dit e-book geeft antwoorden, beelden en richting op deze vragen, specifiek voor de provincie Overijssel.
    Prei: teeltsystemen uit de grond: Onderzoek 2012
    Os, E.A. van; Bruins, M.A. ; Wilms, J.A.M. ; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Weel, P.A. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinouw 1247) - 48
    teeltsystemen - hydrocultuur - preien - bladgroenten - vollegrondsgroenten - plantmateriaal - rassenproeven - smaak - proeven op proefstations - landbouwkundig onderzoek - cropping systems - hydroponics - leeks - leafy vegetables - field vegetables - planting stock - variety trials - taste - station tests - agricultural research
    Het 2012 onderzoek van prei op water, binnen het programma Teelt de Grond Uit, richtte zich op virusverspreiding, sorteren van plantmateriaal, plantleeftijden en rassenvergelijking, de smaak van de geoogste prei en wat te doen met het jaarlijks neerslagoverschot. Water en meststofverbruik per teelt over de afgelopen jaren is geanalyseerd om de besparing te berekenen (50% minder NO3 nodig). Plantdichtheid, buislengte en buisdiameter waren een voortzetting van eerder onderzoek en gaven geen andere uitkomsten. Binnen de rassen zijn grote verschillen, terwijl een oudere plant een hogere opbrengst geeft. Sorteren is een noodzaak voor een uniforme oogst. Het jaarlijks neerslagoverschot moet in eerste instantie via een aangepast systeemontwerp worden afgevoerd, andere opties kosten meer geld.
    Met elkaar in gesprek over voedseltechnologie
    Molder, H.F.M. te; Swierstra, T. ; Sneijder, P.W.J. ; Haen, D. - \ 2013
    [S.l.] : YouTube
    voedseltechnologie - innovaties - consumenten - houding van consumenten - voedselconsumptie - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - food technology - innovations - consumers - consumer attitudes - food consumption - taste - nutrition and health
    Het publieke vertrouwen in voedseltechnologie is fragiel. De maatschappelijke dialoog over voedsel en voedseltechnologie zou een stuk beter kunnen; technologen en consumenten praten nogal vaak langs elkaar heen. In deze video, gebaseerd op onderzoek van de Universiteit Maastricht en Wageningen Universiteit, wordt uitgelegd hoe dat komt.
    A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor
    Eggink, P.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Arnaud Bovy; Chris Maliepaard; J.P.W. Haanstra. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737243 - 159
    capsicum annuum - paprika's - wilde verwanten - genotypen - chemische samenstelling - smaak - geur en smaak - capsicum baccatum - introgressie - plantenveredeling - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers - wild relatives - genotypes - chemical composition - taste - flavour - capsicum baccatum - introgression - plant breeding

    This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have extraordinary flavors. The complete set consisted of 35 genotypes of which 24 genotypes were non-pungent. Volatile and non-volatile compounds as well as some breeding parameters were measured in mature fruits of all genotypes throughout the growing season. In addition, from three harvests the non-pungent genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory panel.

    The biochemical profiling with use of SPME-GC-MS allowed visualization of between- and within-species volatile compound variation. Principal components analysis (PCA) on the intensity patterns of 391 putative volatile compounds revealed individual grouping of C. chinense, C. baccatum var. pendulum and C. annuum, indicating potentially interesting volatile variation present in the former two groups. A large group of saturated and unsaturated esters were mainly responsible for the individual grouping of the C. chinense accessions. Due to the elevated acid concentrations and aberrant volatile profiles of the C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions PEN45 and PEN79, the two BIL populations derived from these accessions were identified as interesting candidates for further study. Compared to e.g. Mazurka the citrate concentration of the C. baccatum accessions was 2.5-3 times higher and the malate concentrations were even up to 12 times higher (Chapter 2).

    Based on the non-pungent genotypes, we found highly correlated clusters of volatiles and non-volatiles, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors (Chapter 3). Contrasts between genotypes were caused by both qualitative and quantitative differences in these metabolic clusters, with the phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles forming the major determinants. For the description of the non-pungent genotypes the panelists used fourteen attributes to describe the flavor sensation in the mouth/throat, which were the texture attributes crunchiness, stickiness of the skin, toughness and juiciness, the basic taste attributes sweetness and sourness and the retronasal flavor attributes aroma intensity, grassiness, green bean, carrot, fruity/apple, perfume, petrochemical and musty. The variation in flavor could be reduced into two major sensory contrasts, which were a texture related contrast and the basic sweet-sour contrast. The structure of the PCA plots resulting from the analysis with one harvest (Chapter 3) and the analysis with the combined three harvests (Chapter 4) remained almost identical, indicating the stability of these contrasts. To relate the sensory attributes to the metabolite data and to determine the importance of the individual compounds we used Random Forest regression on the individual harvests and on the three harvests together. Several predictors for the attributes aroma, fruity/apple, sourness and sweetness were found in common between harvests, which we proposed as key-metabolites involved in flavor determination of sweet pepper (Chapter 4). This list contains compounds with known relations to attributes, like sweetness and sugars, but also several compounds with new relations. In this respect we have demonstrated for the first time, that the metabolites p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, and 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene are related to fruity/apple taste and/or sweetness of pepper. For sourness the only compound with a consistent significant contribution was an unknown C6H8O2 compound. We postulated therefore the hypothesis that in pepper the effect of sourness related metabolites is masked by other volatile and non-volatile compounds or texture differences (Chapter 3). Subsequently in Chapter 4 we described a clear sweetness-sourness interaction and demonstrated that the masking effect of fructose and other sugars explained why we did not find organic acids contributing to the prediction of sourness. The major sensory attributes were also predicted between harvests. The Random Forest predictions of the texture related attributes (juiciness, toughness, crunchiness and stickiness of the skin) and sweetness were very good. The predictions of the attributes aroma intensity, sourness and fruity/apple were somewhat lower and more variable between harvests, especially in the second harvest. In general, we concluded that prediction of attributes with higher heritabilities works better and is more consistent over harvests (Chapter 4).

    Based on the results of the initial experiments (Chapter 2) the species C. baccatum was chosen for further study. To exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum PEN45 we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population, that was characterized for sensory and biochemical variation (Chapter 5). We developed a population specific genetic linkage map for QTL mapping of characterized traits. Because of the complex structure of our BC2S1 mapping population we encountered several limitations, such as accidental co-segregation, underrepresentation of color linked markers and pre-selection leading to skewness, which might have resulted in false positive or missed QTLs. Despite these limitations, we were still fairly well able to map several biochemical, physical and sensory traits, as demonstrated at first for the (monogenic) control traits red color and pungency in the BC2S1 mapping population and in second instance by validation of genetic effects via an experiment with near-isogenic lines (NILs).This two-step approach turned out to be very powerful, since it led to the identification of the main results from this thesis: (i) Asmall C. baccatum LG3 introgression causing an extraordinary effect on flavor, which resulted in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected, including the well-known pepper compound 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (down) and 6-methyl-4-oxo-5-heptenal (up); (ii) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least fifteen different monoterpenes; (iii) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix (total soluble solids) without negative effects on fruit size (Chapter 5).

    In Chapter 6 some extra sensory results of the pungent genotypes are given and a comparison between the two C. baccatum pendulum BILs (PEN45 and PEN79 derived) is made in light of the overall results. Finally the perspectives for breeding are discussed and presented in the form of a flowchart for flavor improvement.

    Een model met een smaakje (Interview met Caroline Labrie)
    Langen, E. ; Labrie, C.W. - \ 2013
    Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie 2013 (2013)4. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 14 - 17.
    paprika - vruchtgroenten - smaak - smaakonderzoek - sensorische evaluatie - capsicum - cultivars - modellen - onderzoek - sweet peppers - fruit vegetables - taste - taste research - sensory evaluation - capsicum - cultivars - models - research
    Over smaak valt niet te twisten. En toch gebeurt dat maar al te vaak. "Er kan oeverloos over de smaak van paprika's worden gepraat en gediscussieerd. Daarom is het belangrijk dat de smaak van paprika's geobjectiveerd wordt", vertelt Caroline Labrie van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw. Dat kan met een smaakmodel voor paprika. De ontwikkeling hiervan is drie jaar geleden gestart. Het model moet uitkomst gaan bieden voor veredelaars, maar ook telers kunnen er hun voordeel mee doen.
    Saliva and sensory perception : interplay between the person and the food stimuli
    Heinzerling, C.I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): J.H.F. Bult. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736505 - 132
    speeksel - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - smaak - textuur - saliva - sensory evaluation - perception - taste - texture

    The perception of food is influenced by various parameters, many of them being different from individual to individual. What we perceive is not the same because each individual is different. Saliva volume and composition vary widely among people and will influence the chemical and structural composition of the food. Thus, the dilution and mixing of the food with saliva determines the extent of food-saliva interactions and connected to that also how the food item is perceived. It is clear from literature that saliva affects our perception and it is also clear that the rate and composition of salivation is dependent on what we perceive. However, it has not been clear to what extent. Since saliva can be measured objectively for each individual and it can be manipulated in a controlled fashion, more can be learned from the relationship between oral processing and perception. And with that various questions can be addressed, such as: Can the individual differences in sensory assessment be accounted for by their individual salivary composition? Is it possible to affect the sensory perception of an individual by modifying their salivary flow and composition? Different tastes stimulate different amounts of saliva but do they also affect the saliva composition? Or are the differences in saliva composition caused by the differences in salivary flow rate? Can different amounts of saliva, and thus also different dilution factors, affect the taste perception? Furthermore, can taste-taste interactions be explained by an increase in salivary flow rate? Is it possible that the increased salivation, induced by the increased thickness, will dilute the tastant and hence decrease the perceived intensity? Or are taste-texture interactions caused by cross-modal interactions? Or is the increased viscosity of the texture decreasing the concentration of taste molecules? The aim of this thesis is to show how and to what extent saliva influences, and is influenced by, taste and texture.

    The addition of amylase inhibitor reduces saliva α-amylase activity and increases perceived thickness and creaminess. However, alpha-amylase activity varies widely among subjects and therefore a decreased oral α-amylase activity will not guarantee an increase in perceived thickness and creaminess of starch-based foods. Comparisons of the different tastants show that the pH of stimulated parotid saliva increases linearly, irrespective of the nature of the tastant. Protein concentration decrease and protein amount increase with increase in flow rate for all tastants. After correcting for the effect of flow rate, the protein amount is affected by the nature of the tastant with the greatest secretion after stimulation by citric acid. Flow rate is largely responsible for pH but tastant appears to play an additional role in affecting protein secretion. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates are observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remain unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect is comparable to that of saltiness, further explanations are still needed.

    Suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures is not affected by the rate of salivation. This is more likely explained by psychophysics. When the taste is separated from the texture, no texture-taste effects are observed. Dilution with saliva did occur and the tastant availability was unaffected in this set-up. The conclusion is therefore that texture-taste interactions are not caused by dilution effects or cross-modal interactions but can best be explained by the release of tastants.

    The work described in this thesis shows how the individual perception can be affected by the salivary flow and composition and how the individual salivary flow and composition can be affected by the sensory stimuli taste and texture.

    Lerarenhandleing groep 1 en 2 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 35
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 1 en 2. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 3 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 3. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 4 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 4. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 5 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 5. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 6 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 6. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 7 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - basisonderwijs - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - elementary education - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 7. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleiding groep 8 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 8. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Inleidend katern groep 1 t/m 8 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 19
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Dit inleidend katern is bedoeld voor de groepen 1 t/m 8. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Snel smaakonderzoek is gewild
    Verkerke, W. - \ 2013
    Kennis Online 10 (2013)jan/febr. - p. 11 - 11.
    tomaten - rassen (planten) - smaakonderzoek - kwaliteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - snelle methoden - tests - smaak - tomatoes - varieties - taste research - quality - agricultural research - rapid methods - tests - taste
    De opkomst van lekkere tomaten in de Nederlandse supermarkten is mede te danken aan nieuwe methoden om de smaak snel te meten. Dat zegt Wouter Verkerke, verantwoordelijk voor het smaakonderzoek bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw.
    Eten ontdekken met al je zintuigen!
    Tienstra, M.L. ; Regelink, M.H. ; Top, R. van den; Meester, H.J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen
    smaaklessen - onderwijsprogramma's - voeding en gezondheid - smaak - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - voedselconsumptie - tasting lessons - education programmes - nutrition and health - taste - elementary education - teaching materials - food consumption
    De brochure is ontwikkeld voor basisschoolleerkrachten met informatie over de programma's Smaaklessen, EU-Schoolfruit en SchoolGruiten.
    Kleine deeltjes, grote kansen: nanotechnologie neemt een grote vlucht (Interview met Maarten Jongsma)
    Smit, A. ; Jongsma, M.A. - \ 2012
    WageningenWorld 4 (2012). - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
    nanotechnologie - bionanotechnologie - smaak - moleculen - organische scheikunde - toegepast onderzoek - nanotechnology - bionanotechnology - taste - molecules - organic chemistry - applied research
    Een elektronische tong, zeefjes die binnen een uur ziekmakende bacteriën detecteren, of moleculen die helpen bij het vinden en doden van tumoren. Wageningen UR timmert hard aan de weg met nanotechnologie – en onderzoekt meteen de mogelijke risico’s voor mens en natuur.
    Minder zout in vleeswaren
    Meer, T. van der; Janssen, A.M. - \ 2012
    Eisma Voedingsmiddelenindustrie 2012 (2012)November. - p. 18 - 20.
    natriumchloride - vleeswaren - zout - reductie - zoutgehalte - houding van consumenten - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - sodium chloride - meat products - salt - reduction - salinity - consumer attitudes - taste - nutrition and health
    Het verlagen van zout in vleeswaren is lastig. Dit komt door de enorme variëteit aan producten en de verschillende rollen die zout hierin vervult. Dat bleek tijdens de workshop 'Zoutverlaging in vleeswaren. Het kan!' Minder zout is mogelijk. Nu de retail en de consument nog meekrijgen.
    The role of oral exposure to taste on meal termination
    Bolhuis, D.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; Catriona Lakemond; Rene de Wijk. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733870 - 164
    smaak - voedselopname - eetlust - eetsnelheden - verzadigdheid - mond - overeten - taste - food intake - appetite - eating rates - satiety - mouth - overeating

    Background and aim
    The rise in obesity over the last decades is considered to be related to changes in the food environment. Our current diet exists of foods that facilitate fast intake of energy and minimal oral processing. Various studies showed that higher eating rate leads to higher food intake, and therefore promote energy overconsumption. When consuming at a high eating rate, the food spends less time in the oral cavity, resulting in less sensory exposure per gram food. The exposure to the taste of the food in the oral cavity is potentially important in controlling food intake. The studies in this thesis investigated the principle mechanisms through which orosensory exposure affects satiation. The factors that were studied were taste intensity, oral residence duration and bite size. The impact of these factors and their relative contributions to satiation will provide tools for designing new foods to prevent overconsumption.
    Methods
    We conducted five studies. The subjects that participated in the studies were healthy young normal weight adults. Satiation was measured by ad libitum intake and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness. Tomato soup was used as test product in all studies. We started by investigating the effect of taste intensity on ad libitum intake (n=48). Salt was used to vary the taste intensity in soup. We selected two salt concentrations for low-salt and high-salt soup that were similar in pleasantness on an individual basis. In the next study, salt taste intensity in soup was investigated again, but this time we changed the state of hunger (a preload was offered) and the meal composition (subjects were served a second course after the soup) (n=43). In the third study, the impact of taste intensity versus the duration of orosensory exposure (manipulated by changing the bite size) on satiation was investigated, by using peristaltic pumps to control the bites (n=55). The fourth study focussed on the underlying mechanisms of bite size on food intake (n=56). Therefore, separate effects of oral residence duration per gram food and number of bites per gram food on ad libitum intake were assessed. Finally, we investigated if bite size affects the perceived food intake. Subjects estimated the amount consumed after intake with small or large bites, in both focussed and a distracted states (n=53). In addition, effects of distraction on bite size were investigated.
    Results
    Taste intensity did not affect ad libitum intake when the soup was presented as single lunch-item in a hungry state. However, higher taste intensity reduced ad libitum intake by ~8%, when the soup was presented after a preload or as a starter followed by a second meal. Smaller bite sizes decreased ad libitum intake by ~25% and did not interact with taste intensity. That smaller bites are more satiating than larger bites was confirmed by hunger and fullness ratings. Hunger decreased faster per consumed gram food when consuming with small bites compared to large bites. A similar effect was found for the increase in fullness. Ad libitum intake was separately reduced by longer oral residence duration and higher number of bites per gram food, there was no interaction between the two variables. Time-intensity measurements showed that both higher number of bites and longer oral residence duration increase the total magnitude of orosensory exposure to the taste of the food. Consumption with large bites resulted in underestimations of the amount consumed, whereas consumption with small bites did not. Distraction increased ad libitum intake. Distraction led to a higher number of bites over the meal but did not affect bite size.
    Conclusions
    This thesis demonstrates that consuming foods with smaller bite sizes, longer oral residence durations and higher taste intensities lowers food intake. These effects are possibly explained through their enhancement of the orosensory exposure to the taste of the foods. Consumption with large bites leads to underestimation of the amount that is consumed. An underestimation of the amount consumed is a risk factor for overconsumption. These results could be used by the food industry to enhance the satiating capacity of foods in order to prevent overconsumption and decrease the prevalence of obesity.

    Smaaklab is onafhankelijk instituut: Tomatenmodel geeft objectieve maat voor de smaak (interview met Piet Steenbergen)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Steenbergen, P. - \ 2012
    Onder Glas 9 (2012)9. - p. 7 - 9.
    wetenschappelijk onderzoek - consumentenvoorkeuren - smaakpanels - beoordeling - tomaten - smaak - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - modellen - innovaties - groenten - scientific research - consumer preferences - taste panels - assessment - tomatoes - taste - keeping quality - models - innovations - vegetables
    Smaak en houdbaarheid zijn kenmerken, die voor een belangrijk deel het succes van een nieuw ras bepalen. Eén tot meer dagen in de week komen er mensen proeven in het smaaklab van Wageningen UR in Bleiswijk. Zij beoordelen producten op een aantal smaakkenmerken. Om sneller en goedkoper grote aantallen te screenen worden er ook smaakmodellen ontwikkeld, die op basis van een aantal gemeten parameters een smaakcijfer geven.
    Resultaat proeverij tomaatjes RIKILT op de Biovak
    RIKILT, - \ 2012
    tomaten - smaak - smaakonderzoek - biologische voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - tomatoes - taste - taste research - organic foods - nutrition labeling
    Tijdens de Biovak op 18 en 19 januari 2012 heeft RIKILT-Wageningen UR bezoekers uitgenodigd deel te nemen aan een cherry-tomaatjesproeverij. Daarbij werden biologische en reguliere tomaatjes aangeboden. In dit document staan de resultaten van deze proeverij.
    Designing food structures to enhance sensory responses
    Mosca, A.C. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; F. van de Velde. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732477 - 164
    sucrose - vet - sensorische wetenschappen - smaakgevoeligheid - smaak - zintuiglijke waarneming - ruimtelijke verdeling - gels - mechanische eigenschappen - zoetheid - sucrose - fat - sensory sciences - taste sensitivity - taste - organolepsis - spatial distribution - gels - mechanical properties - sweetness

    Background and Aim

    The current overconsumption of sugar, salt and fat has been linked to the incidence of health problems. For this reason, it is necessary to decrease the intake of these food components. In the context of reducing the contents of sugar, salt and fat in food products while maintaining sensorial quality, the aim of this thesis was to identify and understand the factors that affect the perception of taste and fat-related sensory attributes in semi-solid foods. To achieve this aim, the relationship between the spatial distribution of sucrose, the mechanical properties of semi-solid gels and the perception of taste was investigated in detail. In addition, the relationship between the spatial distribution of fat and the perception of fat-related sensory attributes was investigated.

    Methods

    Model systems composed of layers of mixed agar-gelatin gels were used to control the spatial distribution of sucrose and fat. Layers varying in concentration of sucrose or oil-in-water emulsion droplets (i.e. fat) were combined to prepare gels with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of sucrose and fat. A series of experiments were carried out using 2-Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC) tests, line scale ratings and time-intensity analysis to investigate the effects of modulation of the spatial distribution of sucrose and modulation of the mechanical properties of gels on sweetness intensity. The relationship between the spatial distribution of tastants and consumer preference was investigated in different types of foods (e.g. semi-solid gels, breads and sausages). Furthermore, a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) panel was carried out to investigate the effect of modulation of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes.

    Results

    An inhomogeneous distribution of sucrose at large sucrose concentration differences enhanced sweetness intensity. The frequency of high-intensity discontinuous stimulation of taste receptors, which is related to the presence of tastant concentration differences in the mouth during oral processing, was identified as the driving factor for taste enhancement. The oral breakdown of semi-solid gels, which is affected mainly by fracture strain, and the mixing behavior of gel fragments formed upon breakdownwere shown to influence the frequency of receptor stimulation and, consequently, taste enhancement. Furthermore, the optimum frequency of high-intensity discontinuous stimulation required to maximize taste enhancement was shown to depend on the textural properties of the gel. These findings suggest that the spatial distribution of tastants and the mechanical properties (especially fracture strain) can be modulatedto maximize taste enhancement. Additionally, consumer preference was found to be maintained or increased in products containing tastants heterogeneously distributed in the food matrix.

    Fat-related mouthfeel attributes, such as spreadable and melting, were enhanced by an inhomogeneous distribution of fat at large fat concentration differences. The presence of high-fat zones on the surface of the model system was shown to maximize the enhancement of attributes related to fat. Therefore, the enhancement of fat-related attributes seems to be driven by the presence of high-fat zones preferably on the surface of the product rather than by the presence of fat concentration differences within the product.

    Conclusions

    The combined effects of modulation of the spatial distribution of tastants and fat and modulation of the mechanical properties can be applied in the development of low-sugar, low-salt and low-fat food products with improved taste quality.

    Food characteristics and dietary intake : the role taste, eating rate and energy density
    Viskaal - van Dongen, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; Frans Kok. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732507 - 139
    voedselopname - energieopname - smaak - eetsnelheden - voedingsgedrag - voedselconsumptie - energiegehalte - food intake - energy intake - taste - eating rates - feeding behaviour - food consumption - energy content

    The increases in obesity prevalence coincide with changes in our food environment, such as an increased consumption of processed, energy dense foods. This suggests that the foods we consume are at least partly responsible for the obesity epidemic. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate food characteristics, with the focus on taste, eating rate and energy density, and their relation to dietary intake.

    Taste is studied in two respects. First, the contribution of taste qualities to the diet is investigated, using the Food Consumption Survey 2003. Foods are classified according to their predominant taste (sweet, salty or savoury, sour, bitter or neutral). Energy intake of the foods within taste categories is assessed, showing that the largest part (34%) of the daily energy intake originates from sweet foods. Second, it is investigated whether taste, which is supposed to be a nutrient sensor, can fulfil this function within the current diet. Intensities of the five basic tastes of 50 commonly consumed foods are therefore assessed and associated with the nutrient content. Positive associations are found between sweetness and mono- & disaccharides and between both saltiness and savouriness and sodium and protein. The associations are less pronounced in highly processed foods, which suggests that in these foods the ability to sense nutrient content based on taste is limited. The influences of an incongruence between sensory properties and nutrient content are also investigated, byexamining the effects of fat perceptionon energy intake. We demonstrated that energy intake is almost 10% lower in case of visible fats compared to hidden fats, suggesting that hidden fats may contribute to overconsumption.

    Eating rateseems to be associated with food intake. The contribution of eating rate to the diet is investigated, using the Food Consumption Survey 2003. Foods are classified into one of four eating rate categories, and energy intake of the foods within each category is assessed. Results demonstrate that foods with slow calories (kJ/min) provide 10%, whereas foods with fast calories provide 37% to the daily energy intake. So in the current diet, the consumption of foods with a high eating rate is high. The effects of eating rate on intake are also investigated, showing that eatingrate is positively associated with food and energy intake. People may therefore be at risk of overconsumption, when consuming foods with a high eating rate.

    Consuming energy dense snacks is often blamed for affecting energy balance, but findings are inconclusive. Therefore, effects of snack consumption on body weight are investigated. No changes in body weight are observed after 8 weeks, when energy density of snacks was either low or high. This suggests that consuming snacks does not necessarily contribute to weight gain, at least in normal-weight young adults.

    In conclusion,when taste and other sensory properties do not accurately reflect the nutrient content, which applies particularly to highly processed foods, this may lead to high food intakes. In addition, a large part of the daily energy intake originates from foods with a high eating rate, which stimulates food and energy intake. So the high eating rate of the foods in the current diet may be responsible for overconsumption. These findings may be helpful in following the recommendations of the Nutrition Centre to lose weight. Last, even though we did not find evidence that consuming energy dense snacks results in weight gain, the advice should nevertheless be to limit the intake of energy dense foods, at least until evidence becomes more conclusive.

    The role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences
    Griffioen-Roose, S. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Monica Mars; G. Finlayson. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731210 - 144
    smaak - verzadigdheid - voedselopname - voedingsvoorkeuren - voedselvoorkeuren - taste - satiety - food intake - feeding preferences - food preferences

    Background and aim

    The sensory attributes of food play a key role in the selection and termination of meals and their rewarding properties. The majority of our foods are either sweet or savoury tasting. In addition, within our food range, savoury-tasting foods contain in general higher levels of protein. The effect of specific taste modalities on human food intake, however, requires further clarification. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences. The secondary aim was to provide more insight into the processes of explicit and implicit liking and wanting, to be able to identify underlying reward mechanisms involved in food intake behaviour.

    Methods

    We conducted series of experiments where healthy young adults participated. We started by investigating the difference between a sweet and savoury taste on satiation, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition (n=64). Next, the effect of sweet and savoury taste of a single meal on subsequent satiety and food preferences was investigated (n=61). To further explore the effect of taste in the context of a complete diet on satiety and food preferences, the effect of three 24-h diets that differed only in taste (predominantly sweet tasting, predominantly savoury tasting, or a mixture of sweet and savoury tasting) were compared (n=39). Next, we separated the influence of taste from within-meal protein content on satiety and food preferences, by comparing the effect of sweet and savoury high and low protein single meals (n=60). Finally, the effect of long-term protein status on satiety and food preferences was investigated by comparing the effect of two 14-d diets that differed in protein content (a low protein diet vs. a high protein diet) (n=37).

    Results

    Sweet and savoury taste, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition, did not differ in their effect on satiation and satiety in terms of subsequent ad libitum intake. Sweet and savoury taste did differ in their effect on subsequent food preferences. In general, after eating a food with a certain taste, appetite for foods with a similar taste was lower than for foods with a dissimilar taste, hence, a clear transfer effect of sensory specific satiety was demonstrated. This transfer effect was not equipotent for sweet and savoury taste; after eating a sweet single meal or sweet 24-h diet, preferences for sweet and savoury foods did not differ. Eating a savoury single meal or savoury 24-h diet, however, led to a clear preference for sweet foods. Neither sweet or savoury tasting single meals nor sweet or savoury 24-h diets shifted food preferences towards high or low protein foods. It was shown that protein content of a meal, independent of taste, did not have an effect on satiety and food preference. We did observe, however, an effect of protein status: after a 14-d low protein diet, there was an increase in ad libitum protein intake, compared to after a 14-d high protein diet, while total energy intake was not different. In addition, food preference for savoury high protein foods was increased.

    Regarding the different components of food reward it was demonstrated that in all studies both explicit and implicit measures correlated with several aspects of eating. It appeared that in a controlled setting, i.e. in the sensory booths, explicit processes played a stronger determining role in satiation (meal size) than implicit processes. Food choices appeared to be made on a more unconscious level. In a setting where subjects could behave more naturally (i.e. self-selection and serving of foods in a relaxed environment where subjects could sit and eat together), implicit, unconscious processes seemed to explain food intake behaviour more than explicit processes. When subjects experienced protein shortage, after the 14-d low protein diet, it appeared that implicit processes of wanting played a stronger determining role in decisions about what to eat.

    Conclusion

    Sweet and savoury taste do not differ in their effect on satiation or satiety in terms of subsequent ad libitum intake. The taste of a meal or diet does have a large effect on subsequent food preferences, thereby showing a clear transfer effect which is not equipotent for sweet and savoury taste. Savoury taste exerts a stronger modulating effect on subsequent food preferences than sweet taste. Sweet and savoury taste of a single meal or 24-h diet do not differ in their effect on food preferences for high or low protein foods. In addition, within-meal protein content seems not to influence satiety or food preferences. A low protein status, however, through selective reduction of dietary protein intake, elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences to restore adequate protein status. It appears that both conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) processes are involved in satiation and food choice. The role implicit motivational processes play in driving food choice is not static, but appears to vary. This is especially the case when homeostasis is challenged (by depleting macronutrient stores), where implicit processes of wanting appear to play a stronger determining role in decisions about what to eat.

    Smaaklessen. Een procesevaluatie onder docenten, leerlingen, partners en Regionale steunpunten
    Meester, H.J. ; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2011
    Amsterdam : ResCon, research & consultancy - 90
    smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - smaak - smaken - voedingseducatie - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - taste - tastes - nutrition education - elementary education - teaching materials - eating
    ResCon heeft een procesevaluatie uitgevoerd naar het programma Smaaklessen. Het doel van het onderzoek is om inzicht te verkrijgen in de organisatiestructuur van Smaaklessen en het bereik ervan. Tevens geven de resultaten van het onderzoek een kwalitatieve doorkijk van het (te verwachten) effect van Smaaklessen.
    De leukste en lekkerste 'lessen' voor het basisonderwijs!
    Meester, H.J. ; Regelink, M.H. ; Tienstra, M.L. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen & SchoolGruiten
    smaak - smaken - voedingseducatie - basisonderwijs - eten - lesmaterialen - smaaklessen - taste - tastes - nutrition education - elementary education - eating - teaching materials - tasting lessons
    Folder voor basisschooldocenten met informatie over de programma's Smaaklessen, SchoolGruiten en EU-Schoolfruit.
    Een betere smaak voor biologische tafelaardappelen
    Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2011
    Biokennis
    aardappelen - consumptieaardappelen - smaak - kwaliteit na de oogst - ketenmanagement - akkerbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - potatoes - table potatoes - taste - postharvest quality - supply chain management - arable farming - organic foods
    Smaak is belangrijk voor de verkoop van aardappelen. Om de smaak van biologische aardappelen beter te borgen, kunnen telers en ketenpartijen enkele eenvoudige maatregelen nemen.
    Cross-modal interactions in complex food matrices
    Knoop, J.E. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; J.H.F. Bult. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730367 - 218
    sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - zintuigen - smaak - aroma - appelsap - kazen - zout - caloriearm voedsel - sensory evaluation - perception - senses - taste - aroma - apple juice - cheeses - salt - low calorie foods

    In the light of increasing rates of nutrition related diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke it is necessary to reduce sugar, salt and fat contents of industrial produced food. Reduction of those components generally leads to changes of the sensory properties of the products and rejection by the consumer. Traditional compensation strategies like the use of taste enhancers, artificial sweeteners or fat replacers often lead to off-flavours and consequently to consumer rejection. This thesis describes cross-modal interactions as an alternative strategy to reduce sugar, salt and fat. In the past cross-modal interactions have been describe to influence taste and texture perception, however up to now research focused on simple model systems lacking in perceptual, as well as chemical complexity. This thesis aimed on the application of cross modal interactions involving aroma modification to complex food systems, such as apple juice and cheese. It was investigated whether aromas are able to modify taste perception in complex food matrices and what the driving factors are to which extend aromas can enhance taste perception. Furthermore different cross modal approaches were combined in order to investigate possible additive or synergistic effects on taste enhancement.

    At first, the question whether individual aroma components can be identified that have the capacity to enhance taste perception in a complex beverage was addressed [chapter 2]. Apple juice was choosen to represent a complex matrix where interactions between taste and aroma are a natural product characteristic. Ethylhexanoate was identified to significantly enhance sweetness in apple juice, while three other esters selected on the same basis did not show sweetness enhancement. Ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement appeared to be concentration dependent. Concentrations of 5 ppm were found to be most effective to enhance sweetness in this specific system. However, next to sweetness undesired attributes such as flowery and synthetic were also increased significantly. As a conclusion it has to be noticed that flavour balance in complex food is fragile and has to be carefully altered in order to use odour induced taste enhancement as a tool in sugar, salt and fat reduction. Chapter 3 describes the masking of off-flavours induced by ethylhexanoate as described in chapter 2. It was hypothesised that ethylhexanoate induced off-flavours can be masked by restoring flavour balance by equally adding combinations of all four esters. A combination of ethylhexanoate, ethylbutanoate and ethyl-2-methylbutanoate was found to be most effective to restore flavour quality while maintaining ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement. It was concluded that all components that are naturally part of an aroma are needed to achieve a balanced product.

    Optimisation of odour presentation time in order to achieve maximum taste enhancement was subject to the study described in chapter 4. Swallowing is the key to aroma release during food consumption. It was demonstrated that aroma is most presented most effectively either 1.7 – 2.5 seconds before or 2.6 – 3.6 seconds after the moment of swallow. Aroma presented directly at the moment of swallow was found to be least effective to enhance taste. It is assumed that olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) do not transmit the activation signal to the brain at the exact moment of swallow in order to spare energy and function most effective, as during normal food consumption the aroma is released shortly after swallowing. This hypothesis was further tested in an fMRI study. Preliminary results support this theory, however at the moment of completion of this thesis data evaluation was still in progress.

    In chapter 5 further optimisation of odour/taste interactions was studied, by investigating the influence of temperature on odour induced taste enhancement. Consumption temperatures differ strongly among products. As aroma release strongly depends on the temperature of the food, it was hypothesised that the magnitude of aroma effects on taste perception changes over consumption temperature. Subjects consumed a sweet and a savoury system at four different temperatures (7, 25, 37 and 50°C). Stimuli temperature and odour presentation were fully controlled by temperature optimised gustometry and olfactometry. Both aroma/taste systems were known to have induced taste enhancement in the past (sweet: apple flavoured tea/ethylhexanoate; savoury: broth/sotolon). No significant effect of temperature was found for either of the stimulus pairs. Results indicate that the complexity of the experiment led to confusion by the panelists under fully randomised stimuli delivery conditions. It was therefore concluded, that temperature effects on the magnitude of odour induced taste enhancement need to be studied in a reduced experimental design.

    Temporal contrast as a strategy to enhance salty taste was studied in the experiments described in chapter 6. Salty solutions of different NaCl concentrations were presented in alternating sequence by a gustometer, creating a sensory contrast of low-in salt and high-in salt pulses. It was demonstrated that the sensory contrast induced by the pulsed delivery led to significant taste enhancement. It was shown that high concentrations of NaCl delivered in short pulses were most effective to enhance salty taste. It was concluded that pulsed stimulus delivery can be an additional tool to reduce salt and sugar concentrations in industrial produced food. Chapter 7 combines both cross-modal strategies to enhance taste in this thesis so far, odour induced taste enhancement and temporal contrast of stimulus delivery. Subjects were presented with taste and aroma pulses timed via a gustometer. The aroma was either presented in-phase or out-of-phase with the taste stimulus. A cumulative effect of aroma/taste interactions and temporal contrast of tastant delivery was found, resulting in higher taste enhancement than each of the strategies alone. Overall highest sweetness enhancement was observed when aroma and taste pulses were presented out-of-phase.

    Texture modification is a third cross-modal strategy to enhance taste perception. Combinatory effects of texture modification and odour induced taste enhancement are subject to the study reported in chapter 8. Apple juice containing gels were engineered differing in textural properties, aroma and sugar concentration. In contrast to the results presented in chapter 7, only an additive but no synergistic effect was found for those strategies. Texture modification was found to be more effective than aroma modification.

    Chapter 9 studies effects of aroma on the taste and the texture of cheese and dairy model gels. In the first study subjects consumed different types of cheese with and without a nose-clip. This way the contribution of the aroma phase on the flavour and texture perception of cheese was studied. Saltiness was influenced significantly by the aroma. It was concluded that the aroma of cheese strongly contributes to a cheeses salty taste. Furthermore it was observed that a decrease in cheese firmness strongly correlated with an increase in buttery aroma notes. This was further studied in fully controlled dairy model gels. For gels tasting of cream cheese a significant decrease in firmness was found upon increasing aroma concentration. No effect of butter aroma on firmness was found for yoghurt-like gels. This once more demonstrates the importance of congruency between stimuli. Only congruent sensory impressions can influence each other. In addition, an increase in creaminess was observed with increasing aroma concentration. The results described in chapter 9 clearly show that aromas cannot only modify taste perception, but also are a valid tool for texture modification.

    This thesis demonstrates for the first time, that flavour and texture modification and subsequently the reduction of sugar, salt and (possibly also) fat can be achieved by using cross modal interactions in complex food matrices. New methods have been developed and existing methods have been combined to study aroma/taste interactions in fully controlled settings. Its multidisciplinary approach combines chemical, physical and psychological knowledge in order to discuss and explain results. It furthermore shows that combinations of different strategies are most effective in order to achieve healthier products reduced in sugar, salt and fat.

    Grondsmaak in kweekvis deel 2
    Schram, E. ; Eekert, M.H.A. van; Schuman, E. ; Swinkels, W. - \ 2011
    Aquacultuur 26 (2011)3. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 29 - 36.
    gekweekte producten - visproducten - visteelt - aquacultuur - smaak - visconsumptie - cultured products - fish products - fish culture - aquaculture - taste - fish consumption
    Grondsmaak is wereldwijd een van de belangrijkste beperkende factoren voor de afzet van kweekvis afkomstig uit vijvers en recirculatiesystemen. Dit wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de lage waardering van consumenten voor kweekvis met grondsmaak. Marktprijs en marktvolume komen daardoor onder druk te staan. Daarnaast brengt de bestrijding van grondsmaak extra kosten met zich mee voor de producent. Ook in Nederlandse kweekvis komt grondsmaak voor. In Nederland wordt op verschillende fronten gewerkt aan het voorkomen en bestrijden van grondsmaak. In het eerste deel van deze serie over grondsmaak (Aquacultuur 2011, nr. 2) werd vooral ingegaan op de achtergronden en gevolgen van grondsmaak. In dit tweede deel wordt dieper ingegaan op de diverse aspecten van het bestrijden van grondsmaak in kweekvis.
    De smaak en eetlust van ouderen
    Kremer, S. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)okt. - p. 8 - 8.
    voedselconsumptie - ouderen - smaak - eetlust - smaakpanels - food consumption - elderly - taste - appetite - taste panels
    Onderzoekers van Food and Biobased Research zijn deze zomer gestart met een langlopend smaakonderzoek onder zevenhonderd ouderen. 'We weten nog onvoldoende hoe we de eetlust kunnen stimuleren en wat 55-plussers aanspreekt', zegt onderzoeker Stefanie Kremer. De voedingsindustrie kijkt belangstellend mee.
    Smaakvol Pluimvee. Waar liggen de mogelijkheden voor Pluimvee met Smaak?
    Wersch, G. van; Levie, S. ; Livestock Research, - \ 2011
    Amsterdam : The Green Peas
    pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - dierenwelzijn - kippenvlees - smaak - rendement - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - poultry farming - broilers - animal welfare - chicken meat - taste - returns - sustainability
    In het project Pluimvee met Smaak van Wageningen UR Livestock Research wordt in 2010 en 2011 gewerkt aan een nieuw houderijsysteem voor vleeskippen, dat op meerdere fronten een sprong in duurzaamheid moet betekenen: veel beter dierenwelzijn voor de vleeskuikens en de ouderdieren, een kleiner milieubeslag, een grotere transparantie naar de omgeving en economisch rendement. Op grond van de huidige kennis gaat men er vanuit dat hiervoor in ieder geval een trager groeiend vleeskuiken nodig is. Een kuiken dat bijvoorbeeld in 8 weken volgroeid is i.p.v. de huidige 5 weken. Een belangrijke uitdaging bij een dergelijk systeem is het realiseren van voldoende marktpotentieel.
    Slow Food moet niet anti-technologisch worden
    Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2011
    Slow Food Magazine 2011 (2011)3. - ISSN 1878-4682 - p. 10 - 13.
    voedseltechnologie - gemaksvoedsel - voedselveiligheid - smaak - voedselindustrie - consumenten - food technology - convenience foods - food safety - taste - food industry - consumers
    Veel gemaksvoedsel in de supermarkt staat op gespannen voet met de beginselen van 'lekker, puur en eerlijk'. Maar, zegt hoogleraar voedseltechnologie Tiny van Boekel, dat neemt niet weg dat de voedselindustrie een revolutionaire bijdrage heeft geleverd aan de beschikbaarheid van voldoende, kwalitatief hoogstaand én betaalbaar voedsel voor iedereen. En wat de smaak betreft: 'Ik ben er van overtuigd dat een fabriekskaas net zo lekker kan zijn als een biologische boerenkaas'. Een interview.
    Grondsmaak in kweekvis deel 1
    Schram, E. ; Eekert, M. ; Schuman, E. - \ 2011
    Aquacultuur 26 (2011)2. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 9 - 14.
    gekweekte producten - visteelt - smaak - aquacultuur - visconsumptie - cultured products - fish culture - taste - aquaculture - fish consumption
    Grondsmaak is wereldwijd een van de belangrijkste beperkende factoren voor de afzet van kweekvis afkomstig uit vijvers en recirculatiesystemen. Dit wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de lage waardering van consumenten voor kweekvis met grondsmaak. Marktprijs en marktvolume komen daardoor onder druk te staan. Daarnaast brengt de bestrijding van grondsmaak extra kosten met zich mee voor de producent. Ook in Nederlandse kweekvis komt grondsmaak voor. In Nederland wordt op verschillende fronten gewerkt aan het voorkomen en bestrijden van grondsmaak. In dit artikel (dat uit twee delen bestaat) wordt het grondsmaakprobleem en het daaraan gekoppelde onderzoek beschreven. In dit eerste deel wordt vooral ingegaan op de achtergronden en gevolgen van grondsmaak.
    Betere smaak biologische tafelaardappelen
    Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2011
    biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - aardappelen - akkerbouw - smaak - organic farming - organic foods - potatoes - arable farming - taste
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie over de verbetering van de smaak van biologische aardappelen.
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