Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Een model met een smaakje (Interview met Caroline Labrie)
    Langen, E. ; Labrie, C.W. - \ 2013
    Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie 2013 (2013)4. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 14 - 17.
    paprika - vruchtgroenten - smaak - smaakonderzoek - sensorische evaluatie - capsicum - cultivars - modellen - onderzoek - sweet peppers - fruit vegetables - taste - taste research - sensory evaluation - capsicum - cultivars - models - research
    Over smaak valt niet te twisten. En toch gebeurt dat maar al te vaak. "Er kan oeverloos over de smaak van paprika's worden gepraat en gediscussieerd. Daarom is het belangrijk dat de smaak van paprika's geobjectiveerd wordt", vertelt Caroline Labrie van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw. Dat kan met een smaakmodel voor paprika. De ontwikkeling hiervan is drie jaar geleden gestart. Het model moet uitkomst gaan bieden voor veredelaars, maar ook telers kunnen er hun voordeel mee doen.
    Saliva and sensory perception : interplay between the person and the food stimuli
    Heinzerling, C.I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): J.H.F. Bult. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736505 - 132
    speeksel - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - smaak - textuur - saliva - sensory evaluation - perception - taste - texture

    The perception of food is influenced by various parameters, many of them being different from individual to individual. What we perceive is not the same because each individual is different. Saliva volume and composition vary widely among people and will influence the chemical and structural composition of the food. Thus, the dilution and mixing of the food with saliva determines the extent of food-saliva interactions and connected to that also how the food item is perceived. It is clear from literature that saliva affects our perception and it is also clear that the rate and composition of salivation is dependent on what we perceive. However, it has not been clear to what extent. Since saliva can be measured objectively for each individual and it can be manipulated in a controlled fashion, more can be learned from the relationship between oral processing and perception. And with that various questions can be addressed, such as: Can the individual differences in sensory assessment be accounted for by their individual salivary composition? Is it possible to affect the sensory perception of an individual by modifying their salivary flow and composition? Different tastes stimulate different amounts of saliva but do they also affect the saliva composition? Or are the differences in saliva composition caused by the differences in salivary flow rate? Can different amounts of saliva, and thus also different dilution factors, affect the taste perception? Furthermore, can taste-taste interactions be explained by an increase in salivary flow rate? Is it possible that the increased salivation, induced by the increased thickness, will dilute the tastant and hence decrease the perceived intensity? Or are taste-texture interactions caused by cross-modal interactions? Or is the increased viscosity of the texture decreasing the concentration of taste molecules? The aim of this thesis is to show how and to what extent saliva influences, and is influenced by, taste and texture.

    The addition of amylase inhibitor reduces saliva α-amylase activity and increases perceived thickness and creaminess. However, alpha-amylase activity varies widely among subjects and therefore a decreased oral α-amylase activity will not guarantee an increase in perceived thickness and creaminess of starch-based foods. Comparisons of the different tastants show that the pH of stimulated parotid saliva increases linearly, irrespective of the nature of the tastant. Protein concentration decrease and protein amount increase with increase in flow rate for all tastants. After correcting for the effect of flow rate, the protein amount is affected by the nature of the tastant with the greatest secretion after stimulation by citric acid. Flow rate is largely responsible for pH but tastant appears to play an additional role in affecting protein secretion. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates are observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remain unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect is comparable to that of saltiness, further explanations are still needed.

    Suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures is not affected by the rate of salivation. This is more likely explained by psychophysics. When the taste is separated from the texture, no texture-taste effects are observed. Dilution with saliva did occur and the tastant availability was unaffected in this set-up. The conclusion is therefore that texture-taste interactions are not caused by dilution effects or cross-modal interactions but can best be explained by the release of tastants.

    The work described in this thesis shows how the individual perception can be affected by the salivary flow and composition and how the individual salivary flow and composition can be affected by the sensory stimuli taste and texture.

    Lerarenhandleing groep 1 en 2 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 35
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 1 en 2. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 3 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 3. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 4 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 4. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 5 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 5. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 6 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 6. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 7 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - basisonderwijs - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - elementary education - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 7. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleiding groep 8 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 8. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Inleidend katern groep 1 t/m 8 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 19
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Dit inleidend katern is bedoeld voor de groepen 1 t/m 8. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Snel smaakonderzoek is gewild
    Verkerke, W. - \ 2013
    Kennis Online 10 (2013)jan/febr. - p. 11 - 11.
    tomaten - rassen (planten) - smaakonderzoek - kwaliteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - snelle methoden - tests - smaak - tomatoes - varieties - taste research - quality - agricultural research - rapid methods - tests - taste
    De opkomst van lekkere tomaten in de Nederlandse supermarkten is mede te danken aan nieuwe methoden om de smaak snel te meten. Dat zegt Wouter Verkerke, verantwoordelijk voor het smaakonderzoek bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw.
    Eten ontdekken met al je zintuigen!
    Tienstra, M.L. ; Regelink, M.H. ; Top, R. van den; Meester, H.J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen
    smaaklessen - onderwijsprogramma's - voeding en gezondheid - smaak - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - voedselconsumptie - tasting lessons - education programmes - nutrition and health - taste - elementary education - teaching materials - food consumption
    De brochure is ontwikkeld voor basisschoolleerkrachten met informatie over de programma's Smaaklessen, EU-Schoolfruit en SchoolGruiten.
    Kleine deeltjes, grote kansen: nanotechnologie neemt een grote vlucht (Interview met Maarten Jongsma)
    Smit, A. ; Jongsma, M.A. - \ 2012
    WageningenWorld 4 (2012). - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
    nanotechnologie - bionanotechnologie - smaak - moleculen - organische scheikunde - toegepast onderzoek - nanotechnology - bionanotechnology - taste - molecules - organic chemistry - applied research
    Een elektronische tong, zeefjes die binnen een uur ziekmakende bacteriën detecteren, of moleculen die helpen bij het vinden en doden van tumoren. Wageningen UR timmert hard aan de weg met nanotechnologie – en onderzoekt meteen de mogelijke risico’s voor mens en natuur.
    Minder zout in vleeswaren
    Meer, T. van der; Janssen, A.M. - \ 2012
    Eisma Voedingsmiddelenindustrie 2012 (2012)November. - p. 18 - 20.
    natriumchloride - vleeswaren - zout - reductie - zoutgehalte - houding van consumenten - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - sodium chloride - meat products - salt - reduction - salinity - consumer attitudes - taste - nutrition and health
    Het verlagen van zout in vleeswaren is lastig. Dit komt door de enorme variëteit aan producten en de verschillende rollen die zout hierin vervult. Dat bleek tijdens de workshop 'Zoutverlaging in vleeswaren. Het kan!' Minder zout is mogelijk. Nu de retail en de consument nog meekrijgen.
    The role of oral exposure to taste on meal termination
    Bolhuis, D.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; Catriona Lakemond; Rene de Wijk. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733870 - 164
    smaak - voedselopname - eetlust - eetsnelheden - verzadigdheid - mond - overeten - taste - food intake - appetite - eating rates - satiety - mouth - overeating

    Background and aim
    The rise in obesity over the last decades is considered to be related to changes in the food environment. Our current diet exists of foods that facilitate fast intake of energy and minimal oral processing. Various studies showed that higher eating rate leads to higher food intake, and therefore promote energy overconsumption. When consuming at a high eating rate, the food spends less time in the oral cavity, resulting in less sensory exposure per gram food. The exposure to the taste of the food in the oral cavity is potentially important in controlling food intake. The studies in this thesis investigated the principle mechanisms through which orosensory exposure affects satiation. The factors that were studied were taste intensity, oral residence duration and bite size. The impact of these factors and their relative contributions to satiation will provide tools for designing new foods to prevent overconsumption.
    Methods
    We conducted five studies. The subjects that participated in the studies were healthy young normal weight adults. Satiation was measured by ad libitum intake and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness. Tomato soup was used as test product in all studies. We started by investigating the effect of taste intensity on ad libitum intake (n=48). Salt was used to vary the taste intensity in soup. We selected two salt concentrations for low-salt and high-salt soup that were similar in pleasantness on an individual basis. In the next study, salt taste intensity in soup was investigated again, but this time we changed the state of hunger (a preload was offered) and the meal composition (subjects were served a second course after the soup) (n=43). In the third study, the impact of taste intensity versus the duration of orosensory exposure (manipulated by changing the bite size) on satiation was investigated, by using peristaltic pumps to control the bites (n=55). The fourth study focussed on the underlying mechanisms of bite size on food intake (n=56). Therefore, separate effects of oral residence duration per gram food and number of bites per gram food on ad libitum intake were assessed. Finally, we investigated if bite size affects the perceived food intake. Subjects estimated the amount consumed after intake with small or large bites, in both focussed and a distracted states (n=53). In addition, effects of distraction on bite size were investigated.
    Results
    Taste intensity did not affect ad libitum intake when the soup was presented as single lunch-item in a hungry state. However, higher taste intensity reduced ad libitum intake by ~8%, when the soup was presented after a preload or as a starter followed by a second meal. Smaller bite sizes decreased ad libitum intake by ~25% and did not interact with taste intensity. That smaller bites are more satiating than larger bites was confirmed by hunger and fullness ratings. Hunger decreased faster per consumed gram food when consuming with small bites compared to large bites. A similar effect was found for the increase in fullness. Ad libitum intake was separately reduced by longer oral residence duration and higher number of bites per gram food, there was no interaction between the two variables. Time-intensity measurements showed that both higher number of bites and longer oral residence duration increase the total magnitude of orosensory exposure to the taste of the food. Consumption with large bites resulted in underestimations of the amount consumed, whereas consumption with small bites did not. Distraction increased ad libitum intake. Distraction led to a higher number of bites over the meal but did not affect bite size.
    Conclusions
    This thesis demonstrates that consuming foods with smaller bite sizes, longer oral residence durations and higher taste intensities lowers food intake. These effects are possibly explained through their enhancement of the orosensory exposure to the taste of the foods. Consumption with large bites leads to underestimation of the amount that is consumed. An underestimation of the amount consumed is a risk factor for overconsumption. These results could be used by the food industry to enhance the satiating capacity of foods in order to prevent overconsumption and decrease the prevalence of obesity.

    Smaaklab is onafhankelijk instituut: Tomatenmodel geeft objectieve maat voor de smaak (interview met Piet Steenbergen)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Steenbergen, P. - \ 2012
    Onder Glas 9 (2012)9. - p. 7 - 9.
    wetenschappelijk onderzoek - consumentenvoorkeuren - smaakpanels - beoordeling - tomaten - smaak - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - modellen - innovaties - groenten - scientific research - consumer preferences - taste panels - assessment - tomatoes - taste - keeping quality - models - innovations - vegetables
    Smaak en houdbaarheid zijn kenmerken, die voor een belangrijk deel het succes van een nieuw ras bepalen. Eén tot meer dagen in de week komen er mensen proeven in het smaaklab van Wageningen UR in Bleiswijk. Zij beoordelen producten op een aantal smaakkenmerken. Om sneller en goedkoper grote aantallen te screenen worden er ook smaakmodellen ontwikkeld, die op basis van een aantal gemeten parameters een smaakcijfer geven.
    Resultaat proeverij tomaatjes RIKILT op de Biovak
    RIKILT, - \ 2012
    tomaten - smaak - smaakonderzoek - biologische voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - tomatoes - taste - taste research - organic foods - nutrition labeling
    Tijdens de Biovak op 18 en 19 januari 2012 heeft RIKILT-Wageningen UR bezoekers uitgenodigd deel te nemen aan een cherry-tomaatjesproeverij. Daarbij werden biologische en reguliere tomaatjes aangeboden. In dit document staan de resultaten van deze proeverij.
    Designing food structures to enhance sensory responses
    Mosca, A.C. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; F. van de Velde. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732477 - 164
    sucrose - vet - sensorische wetenschappen - smaakgevoeligheid - smaak - zintuiglijke waarneming - ruimtelijke verdeling - gels - mechanische eigenschappen - zoetheid - sucrose - fat - sensory sciences - taste sensitivity - taste - organolepsis - spatial distribution - gels - mechanical properties - sweetness

    Background and Aim

    The current overconsumption of sugar, salt and fat has been linked to the incidence of health problems. For this reason, it is necessary to decrease the intake of these food components. In the context of reducing the contents of sugar, salt and fat in food products while maintaining sensorial quality, the aim of this thesis was to identify and understand the factors that affect the perception of taste and fat-related sensory attributes in semi-solid foods. To achieve this aim, the relationship between the spatial distribution of sucrose, the mechanical properties of semi-solid gels and the perception of taste was investigated in detail. In addition, the relationship between the spatial distribution of fat and the perception of fat-related sensory attributes was investigated.

    Methods

    Model systems composed of layers of mixed agar-gelatin gels were used to control the spatial distribution of sucrose and fat. Layers varying in concentration of sucrose or oil-in-water emulsion droplets (i.e. fat) were combined to prepare gels with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of sucrose and fat. A series of experiments were carried out using 2-Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC) tests, line scale ratings and time-intensity analysis to investigate the effects of modulation of the spatial distribution of sucrose and modulation of the mechanical properties of gels on sweetness intensity. The relationship between the spatial distribution of tastants and consumer preference was investigated in different types of foods (e.g. semi-solid gels, breads and sausages). Furthermore, a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) panel was carried out to investigate the effect of modulation of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes.

    Results

    An inhomogeneous distribution of sucrose at large sucrose concentration differences enhanced sweetness intensity. The frequency of high-intensity discontinuous stimulation of taste receptors, which is related to the presence of tastant concentration differences in the mouth during oral processing, was identified as the driving factor for taste enhancement. The oral breakdown of semi-solid gels, which is affected mainly by fracture strain, and the mixing behavior of gel fragments formed upon breakdownwere shown to influence the frequency of receptor stimulation and, consequently, taste enhancement. Furthermore, the optimum frequency of high-intensity discontinuous stimulation required to maximize taste enhancement was shown to depend on the textural properties of the gel. These findings suggest that the spatial distribution of tastants and the mechanical properties (especially fracture strain) can be modulatedto maximize taste enhancement. Additionally, consumer preference was found to be maintained or increased in products containing tastants heterogeneously distributed in the food matrix.

    Fat-related mouthfeel attributes, such as spreadable and melting, were enhanced by an inhomogeneous distribution of fat at large fat concentration differences. The presence of high-fat zones on the surface of the model system was shown to maximize the enhancement of attributes related to fat. Therefore, the enhancement of fat-related attributes seems to be driven by the presence of high-fat zones preferably on the surface of the product rather than by the presence of fat concentration differences within the product.

    Conclusions

    The combined effects of modulation of the spatial distribution of tastants and fat and modulation of the mechanical properties can be applied in the development of low-sugar, low-salt and low-fat food products with improved taste quality.

    Food characteristics and dietary intake : the role taste, eating rate and energy density
    Viskaal - van Dongen, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; Frans Kok. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732507 - 139
    voedselopname - energieopname - smaak - eetsnelheden - voedingsgedrag - voedselconsumptie - energiegehalte - food intake - energy intake - taste - eating rates - feeding behaviour - food consumption - energy content

    The increases in obesity prevalence coincide with changes in our food environment, such as an increased consumption of processed, energy dense foods. This suggests that the foods we consume are at least partly responsible for the obesity epidemic. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate food characteristics, with the focus on taste, eating rate and energy density, and their relation to dietary intake.

    Taste is studied in two respects. First, the contribution of taste qualities to the diet is investigated, using the Food Consumption Survey 2003. Foods are classified according to their predominant taste (sweet, salty or savoury, sour, bitter or neutral). Energy intake of the foods within taste categories is assessed, showing that the largest part (34%) of the daily energy intake originates from sweet foods. Second, it is investigated whether taste, which is supposed to be a nutrient sensor, can fulfil this function within the current diet. Intensities of the five basic tastes of 50 commonly consumed foods are therefore assessed and associated with the nutrient content. Positive associations are found between sweetness and mono- & disaccharides and between both saltiness and savouriness and sodium and protein. The associations are less pronounced in highly processed foods, which suggests that in these foods the ability to sense nutrient content based on taste is limited. The influences of an incongruence between sensory properties and nutrient content are also investigated, byexamining the effects of fat perceptionon energy intake. We demonstrated that energy intake is almost 10% lower in case of visible fats compared to hidden fats, suggesting that hidden fats may contribute to overconsumption.

    Eating rateseems to be associated with food intake. The contribution of eating rate to the diet is investigated, using the Food Consumption Survey 2003. Foods are classified into one of four eating rate categories, and energy intake of the foods within each category is assessed. Results demonstrate that foods with slow calories (kJ/min) provide 10%, whereas foods with fast calories provide 37% to the daily energy intake. So in the current diet, the consumption of foods with a high eating rate is high. The effects of eating rate on intake are also investigated, showing that eatingrate is positively associated with food and energy intake. People may therefore be at risk of overconsumption, when consuming foods with a high eating rate.

    Consuming energy dense snacks is often blamed for affecting energy balance, but findings are inconclusive. Therefore, effects of snack consumption on body weight are investigated. No changes in body weight are observed after 8 weeks, when energy density of snacks was either low or high. This suggests that consuming snacks does not necessarily contribute to weight gain, at least in normal-weight young adults.

    In conclusion,when taste and other sensory properties do not accurately reflect the nutrient content, which applies particularly to highly processed foods, this may lead to high food intakes. In addition, a large part of the daily energy intake originates from foods with a high eating rate, which stimulates food and energy intake. So the high eating rate of the foods in the current diet may be responsible for overconsumption. These findings may be helpful in following the recommendations of the Nutrition Centre to lose weight. Last, even though we did not find evidence that consuming energy dense snacks results in weight gain, the advice should nevertheless be to limit the intake of energy dense foods, at least until evidence becomes more conclusive.

    The role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences
    Griffioen-Roose, S. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Monica Mars; G. Finlayson. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731210 - 144
    smaak - verzadigdheid - voedselopname - voedingsvoorkeuren - voedselvoorkeuren - taste - satiety - food intake - feeding preferences - food preferences

    Background and aim

    The sensory attributes of food play a key role in the selection and termination of meals and their rewarding properties. The majority of our foods are either sweet or savoury tasting. In addition, within our food range, savoury-tasting foods contain in general higher levels of protein. The effect of specific taste modalities on human food intake, however, requires further clarification. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences. The secondary aim was to provide more insight into the processes of explicit and implicit liking and wanting, to be able to identify underlying reward mechanisms involved in food intake behaviour.

    Methods

    We conducted series of experiments where healthy young adults participated. We started by investigating the difference between a sweet and savoury taste on satiation, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition (n=64). Next, the effect of sweet and savoury taste of a single meal on subsequent satiety and food preferences was investigated (n=61). To further explore the effect of taste in the context of a complete diet on satiety and food preferences, the effect of three 24-h diets that differed only in taste (predominantly sweet tasting, predominantly savoury tasting, or a mixture of sweet and savoury tasting) were compared (n=39). Next, we separated the influence of taste from within-meal protein content on satiety and food preferences, by comparing the effect of sweet and savoury high and low protein single meals (n=60). Finally, the effect of long-term protein status on satiety and food preferences was investigated by comparing the effect of two 14-d diets that differed in protein content (a low protein diet vs. a high protein diet) (n=37).

    Results

    Sweet and savoury taste, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition, did not differ in their effect on satiation and satiety in terms of subsequent ad libitum intake. Sweet and savoury taste did differ in their effect on subsequent food preferences. In general, after eating a food with a certain taste, appetite for foods with a similar taste was lower than for foods with a dissimilar taste, hence, a clear transfer effect of sensory specific satiety was demonstrated. This transfer effect was not equipotent for sweet and savoury taste; after eating a sweet single meal or sweet 24-h diet, preferences for sweet and savoury foods did not differ. Eating a savoury single meal or savoury 24-h diet, however, led to a clear preference for sweet foods. Neither sweet or savoury tasting single meals nor sweet or savoury 24-h diets shifted food preferences towards high or low protein foods. It was shown that protein content of a meal, independent of taste, did not have an effect on satiety and food preference. We did observe, however, an effect of protein status: after a 14-d low protein diet, there was an increase in ad libitum protein intake, compared to after a 14-d high protein diet, while total energy intake was not different. In addition, food preference for savoury high protein foods was increased.

    Regarding the different components of food reward it was demonstrated that in all studies both explicit and implicit measures correlated with several aspects of eating. It appeared that in a controlled setting, i.e. in the sensory booths, explicit processes played a stronger determining role in satiation (meal size) than implicit processes. Food choices appeared to be made on a more unconscious level. In a setting where subjects could behave more naturally (i.e. self-selection and serving of foods in a relaxed environment where subjects could sit and eat together), implicit, unconscious processes seemed to explain food intake behaviour more than explicit processes. When subjects experienced protein shortage, after the 14-d low protein diet, it appeared that implicit processes of wanting played a stronger determining role in decisions about what to eat.

    Conclusion

    Sweet and savoury taste do not differ in their effect on satiation or satiety in terms of subsequent ad libitum intake. The taste of a meal or diet does have a large effect on subsequent food preferences, thereby showing a clear transfer effect which is not equipotent for sweet and savoury taste. Savoury taste exerts a stronger modulating effect on subsequent food preferences than sweet taste. Sweet and savoury taste of a single meal or 24-h diet do not differ in their effect on food preferences for high or low protein foods. In addition, within-meal protein content seems not to influence satiety or food preferences. A low protein status, however, through selective reduction of dietary protein intake, elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences to restore adequate protein status. It appears that both conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) processes are involved in satiation and food choice. The role implicit motivational processes play in driving food choice is not static, but appears to vary. This is especially the case when homeostasis is challenged (by depleting macronutrient stores), where implicit processes of wanting appear to play a stronger determining role in decisions about what to eat.

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