Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    From innovation to co-innovation? An exploration of African agrifood chains
    Bitzer, V.C. ; Bijman, J. - \ 2015
    British Food Journal 117 (2015)8. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 2182 - 2199.
    global value chains - south-africa - developing-countries - systems-approach - ethiopia - partnerships - insights - creation - farmers - quality
    Purpose – Building on recent advances in innovation research on developing country agriculture, this paper explores the concept of co-innovation, i.e. innovations that combine technological, organisational and institutional changes and that encompass different actors in and around the value chain. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a further conceptualisation of co-innovation and show its usefulness for analysing innovation initiatives in agrifood chains. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines two streams of literature (innovation systems and value chains) and is based on a review of the experiences with innovation in three different value chains in three African countries: potato in Ethiopia, pineapple in Benin and citrus in South Africa. Findings – Co-innovation is the combination of collaborative, complementary and coordinated innovation. “Collaborative” refers to the multi-actor character of the innovation process, where each actor brings in specific knowledge and resources. “Complementary” indicates the smart combination of technological, organisational and institutional innovation. “Coordinated” draws attention to the importance of chain-wide adjustments and changes to make innovation in one stage of the chain a success. Practical implications – The identified dimensions of co-innovation (the triple “co-”) provide a practical guide for the design of effective interventions aimed at promoting innovation in African agrifood chains. Originality/value – The paper is the first to provide a comprehensive conceptualisation of co-innovation. On the basis of both theoretical arguments and evidence from three illustrative case studies it is argued that successful innovation in agrifood chains requires the innovation process to be collaborative, coordinated and complementary.
    Environmental proxies of antigen exposure explain variation in immune investment better than indices of pace of life
    Horrocks, N.P.C. ; Hegemann, A. ; Ostrowski, S. ; Ndithia, H. ; Shobrak, M. ; Williams, J.B. ; Matson, K.D. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2015
    Oecologia 177 (2015)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 281 - 290.
    female pied flycatchers - tropical birds - trade-offs - ecological immunology - microbial diversity - natural antibodies - aridity gradient - south-africa - history - patterns
    Investment in immune defences is predicted to covary with a variety of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant axes, with pace of life and environmental antigen exposure being two examples. These axes may themselves covary directly or inversely, and such relationships can lead to conflicting predictions regarding immune investment. If pace of life shapes immune investment then, following life history theory, slow-living, arid zone and tropical species should invest more in immunity than fast-living temperate species. Alternatively, if antigen exposure drives immune investment, then species in antigen-rich tropical and temperate environments are predicted to exhibit higher immune indices than species from antigen-poor arid locations. To test these contrasting predictions we investigated how variation in pace of life and antigen exposure influence immune investment in related lark species (Alaudidae) with differing life histories and predicted risks of exposure to environmental microbes and parasites. We used clutch size and total number of eggs laid per year as indicators of pace of life, and aridity, and the climatic variables that influence aridity, as correlates of antigen abundance. We quantified immune investment by measuring four indices of innate immunity. Pace of life explained little of the variation in immune investment, and only one immune measure correlated significantly with pace of life, but not in the predicted direction. Conversely, aridity, our proxy for environmental antigen exposure, was predictive of immune investment, and larks in more mesic environments had higher immune indices than those living in arid, low-risk locations. Our study suggests that abiotic environmental variables with strong ties to environmental antigen exposure can be important correlates of immunological variation.
    Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving
    Joordens, J.C.A. ; d’Errico, F. ; Wesselingh, F.P. ; Munro, S. ; Vos, J. de; Wallinga, J. ; Ankjaergaard, C. ; Reimann, T. ; Wijbrans, J.R. ; Kuiper, K.F. ; Mücher, H.J. ; Coqueugniot, H. ; Prié, V. ; Joosten, I. ; Os, B. van; Schulp, A.S. ; Panuel, M. ; Haas, V. van der; Lustenhouwer, W. ; Reijmer, J.J.G. ; Roebroeks, W. - \ 2015
    Nature 518 (2015). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 228 - 231.
    quartz osl ages - luminescence signals - south-africa - indonesia - sediments - reliability - sangiran - record - rates
    The manufacture of geometric engravings is generally interpreted as indicative of modern cognition and behaviour1. Key questions in the debate on the origin of such behaviour are whether this innovation is restricted to Homo sapiens, and whether it has a uniquely African origin1. Here we report on a fossil freshwater shell assemblage from the Hauptknochenschicht (‘main bone layer’) of Trinil (Java, Indonesia), the type locality of Homo erectus discovered by Eugène Dubois in 1891 (refs 2 and 3). In the Dubois collection (in the Naturalis museum, Leiden, The Netherlands) we found evidence for freshwater shellfish consumption by hominins, one unambiguous shell tool, and a shell with a geometric engraving. We dated sediment contained in the shells with 40Ar/39Ar and luminescence dating methods, obtaining a maximum age of 0.54 ± 0.10 million years and a minimum age of 0.43 ± 0.05 million years. This implies that the Trinil Hauptknochenschicht is younger than previously estimated. Together, our data indicate that the engraving was made by Homo erectus, and that it is considerably older than the oldest geometric engravings described so far4, 5. Although it is at present not possible to assess the function or meaning of the engraved shell, this discovery suggests that engraving abstract patterns was in the realm of Asian Homo erectus cognition and neuromotor control.
    Modeling elephant-mediated cascading effects of water point closure
    Hilbers, J.P. ; Langevelde, F. van; Prins, H.H.T. ; Grant, C.C. ; Peel, M. ; Coughenour, M.B. ; Knegt, H.J. de; Slotow, R. ; Smit, I. ; Kiker, G.A. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2015
    Ecological Applications 25 (2015)2. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 402 - 415.
    kruger-national-park - african savanna - south-africa - distribution patterns - wildlife management - sexual segregation - large herbivores - habitat use - landscape - systems
    Wildlife management to reduce the impact of wildlife on their habitat can be done in several ways, among which removing animals (by either culling or translocation) is most often used. There are however alternative ways to control wildlife densities, such as opening or closing water points. The effects of these alternatives are poorly studied. In this paper, we focus on manipulating large herbivores through the closure of water points (WPs). Removal of artificial WPs has been suggested to change the distribution of African elephants, which occur in high densities in national parks in Southern Africa and are thought to have a destructive effect on the vegetation. Here, we modeled the long-term effects of different scenarios of WP closure on the spatial distribution of elephants, and consequential effects on the vegetation and other herbivores in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using a dynamic ecosystem model, SAVANNA, scenarios were evaluated that varied in (1) availability of artificial WPs, (2) levels of natural water, and (3) elephant densities. Our modeling results showed that elephants can indirectly negatively affect the distributions of mesomixed feeders, mesobrowsers and some mesograzers under wet conditions. The closure of artificial WPs hardly had any effect during these natural wet conditions. Only under dry conditions the spatial distribution of both elephant bulls and cows changed when the availability of artificial water was severely reduced in the model. These changes in spatial distribution triggered changes in the spatial availability of woody biomass over the simulation period of 80 years and this led to changes in the rest of the herbivore community, resulting in increased densities of all herbivores, except for giraffe and steenbok, in areas close to rivers. The spatial distributions of elephant bulls and cows showed to be less affected by the closure of WPs than most of the other herbivore species. Our study contributes to ecologically informed decisions in wildlife management. The results from this modeling exercise imply that long-term effects of this intervention strategy should always be investigated at an ecosystem scale.
    Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy
    Zeitoun, M. ; Warner, J.F. ; Mirumachi, N. ; Matthews, N. ; McLaughlin, K. - \ 2014
    Water Policy 16 (2014)S2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 174 - 193.
    global environmental justice - hydro-hegemony - south-africa - nile basin - power - management - allocation - equity - law - hydrosolidarity
    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and diplomacy are grouped under themes of equitability, process/outcomes, and structural concerns. These include shortcomings of analysis and policy based on unfounded assumptions of equality, and options excluded from consideration by the legitimisation of particular concepts of justice over others. As power asymmetry is seen to enable or disable justice claims and conflict resolution efforts, the importance of ensuring equitable outcomes as a pre-condition for cooperation is asserted. Similarly, water conflict resolution is found to be more fair – procedurally – than is conflict management, and may be supported to a limited extent by international water law. A number of analytical tasks are suggested for future research and policy, including a call to scrutinise the source of legitimacy of strands of justice invoked. Given the very many perspectives on justice that exist in the network of relevant actors, potential bias in research and diplomacy could be reduced if all involved openly stated the morals underpinning their understanding of ‘justice’.
    Sex-biased inbreeding effects on reproductive success and home range size of the critically endangered black rhinoceros
    Cain, W.S. ; Wandera, A.B. ; Shawcross, S.G. ; Ouma, B.O. ; Watts, P.C. - \ 2014
    Conservation Biology 28 (2014)2. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 594 - 603.
    heterozygosity-fitness correlations - wide genetic diversity - natural-populations - diceros-bicornis - multilocus heterozygosity - microsatellite markers - wild populations - south-africa - depression - reserve
    A central premise of conservation biology is that small populations suffer reduced viability through loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding. However, there is little evidence that variation in inbreeding impacts individual reproductive success within remnant populations of threatened taxa, largely due to problems associated with obtaining comprehensive pedigree information to estimate inbreeding. In the critically endangered black rhinoceros, a species that experienced severe demographic reductions, we used model selection to identify factors associated with variation in reproductive success (number of offspring). Factors examined as predictors of reproductive success were age, home range size, number of nearby mates, reserve location, and multilocus heterozygosity (a proxy for inbreeding). Multilocus heterozygosity predicted male reproductive success (p<0.001, explained deviance >58%) and correlated with male home range size (p <0.01, r2 > 44%). Such effects were not apparent in females, where reproductive success was determined by age (p <0.01, explained deviance 34%) as females raise calves alone and choose between, rather than compete for, mates. This first report of a 3-way association between an individual male's heterozygosity, reproductive output, and territory size in a large vertebrate is consistent with an asymmetry in the level of intrasexual competition and highlights the relevance of sex-biased inbreeding for the management of many conservation-priority species. Our results contrast with the idea that wild populations of threatened taxa may possess some inherent difference from most nonthreatened populations that necessitates the use of detailed pedigrees to study inbreeding effects. Despite substantial variance in male reproductive success, the increased fitness of more heterozygous males limits the loss of heterozygosity. Understanding how individual differences in genetic diversity mediate the outcome of intrasexual competition will be essential for effective management, particularly in enclosed populations, where individuals have restricted choice about home range location and where the reproductive impact of translocated animals will depend upon the background distribution in individual heterozygosity. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.
    Efficiency of selection for body weight in a cooperative village breeding program of Menz sheep under smallholder farming system
    Gizaw, S. ; Getachew, T. ; Goshme, S. ; Valle-Zárate, A. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Kemp, S. ; Mwai, O. ; Dessie, T. - \ 2014
    Animal 8 (2014)8. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1249 - 1254.
    genetic-parameters - south-africa - improvement - traits - livestock - ethiopia - design
    We evaluated the efficiency of selection for body weight in a cooperative village breeding program for Menz sheep of Ethiopia under smallholder farming system. The design of the program involved organizing villagers in a cooperative breeding group to implement selective breeding of their sheep. The program was jump-started through a one-time provision of elite rams from a central nucleus flock, but subsequent replacement rams were selected from within the village flocks. We also evaluated body weight trends in a village where cooperative breeding was not implemented and individual farmers managed their flocks under traditional breeding practices. Under traditional breeding practices, genetic progress over 8 years either stagnated or declined in all the weights recorded. In the cooperative villages, selection differentials of 2.44 and 2.45 kg were achieved in 2010 and 2011 selection seasons, respectively. Birth weight, 3-month weight and 6-month weight increased, respectively, by 0.49, 2.29 and 2.46 kg in the third-generation lambs over the base generation. Improved rams supplied from the central nucleus flock gave an initial genetic lift of 14.4% in the 6-month weight. This was higher than the gain achieved from selection in the village flocks, which was 5.2%. Our results showed that village-based genetic improvement in body weights under smallholder conditions could be feasible if appropriate designs are adopted and that commencing with elite central nucleus rams help jump-start village-based programs.
    Diaporthe species associated with Vaccinium, with specific reference to Europe
    Lombard, L. ; Leeuwen, G.C.M. van; Guarnaccia, V. ; Polizzi, G. ; Rijswick, P.C.J. van; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M. ; Gabler, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
    Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53 (2014)2. - ISSN 0031-9465 - p. 287 - 299.
    phomopsis-vaccinii - maximum-likelihood - south-africa - stem canker - blueberry - grapevines - cranberry - australafricana - inference - diseases
    Species of the genus Vaccinium are commercially cultivated in Europe for their berries, which are highly valued for dietary and pharmaceutical properties. Cultivation is severely limited due to a range of fungal diseases, especially those caused by species of Diaporthe. A number of Diaporthe isolates have been collected from Vaccinium growing regions in Europe, and initially identified as D. vaccinii based on host association. Using DNA sequence inference of the combined ß-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA, along with morphological characteristics, six species were characterised. Diaporthe eres, D. vaccinii and D. viticola are known species and three novel taxa are described here as D. asheicola, D. baccae and D. sterilis. This study is the first confirmed report of D. vaccinii in Latvia and the Netherlands.
    Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled
    Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Truter, M. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
    Studies in Mycology 79 (2014). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 47.
    south-africa - solani - themes - disease - blight - diagnostics - tomatophila - phylogeny - potatoes - dauci
    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia.
    Botryosphaeriaceae associated with diseases of mango (Mangifera indica)
    Trakunyingcharoen, T. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; To-anun, C. ; Crous, P.W. ; Niekerk, J.M. van; Lombard, L. - \ 2014
    Australasian Plant Pathology 43 (2014)4. - ISSN 0815-3191 - p. 425 - 438.
    1st report - south-africa - neofusicoccum-mediterraneum - phylogenetic inference - gene genealogies - fruit rot - lasiodiplodia - dieback - trees - morphology
    Fungal species of Botryosphaeriaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution and are important pathogens of a wide range of plant hosts. This study aims to use phylogenetic inference to review the geographical distribution of botryosphaeriacous species that have been associated with diseases of mango (Mangifera indica) globally. The phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the combined sequence datasets of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA and a partial region of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-a) gene. The phylogenetic study revealed seven clades with distinct morphological characters from several countries, including Australia, Brazil, Egypt, Iran, Mali, Peru, South Africa, Taiwan and Thailand. Lasiodiplodia theobromae appears to be a dominant species on mango with the largest geographical distribution, whereas L. crassispora and Barriopsis iraniana have only been reported on mango in Brazil and Iran, respectively. These finding indicate that most of the species reported from mango are not restricted to specific geographical regions, although some genera appear to have a limited distribution.
    Introducing the Consolidated Species Concept to resolve species in the Teratosphaeriaceae
    Quaedvlieg, W. ; Binder, M. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Burgess, T.I. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
    Persoonia 33 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 1 - 40.
    internal transcribed spacer - mycosphaerella-spp. - sp-nov - eucalyptus leaves - gene genealogies - south-africa - leaf spots - phylogenetic reassessment - reproductive isolation - multigene phylogeny
    The Teratosphaeriaceae represents a recently established family that includes numerous saprobic, extremophilic, human opportunistic, and plant pathogenic fungi. Partial DNA sequence data of the 28S rRNA and RPB2 genes strongly support a separation of the Mycosphaerellaceae from the Teratosphaeriaceae, and also provide support for the Extremaceae and Neodevriesiaceae, two novel families including many extremophilic fungi that occur on a diversity of substrates. In addition, a multi-locus DNA sequence dataset was generated (ITS, LSU, Btub, Act, RPB2, EF-1a and Cal) to distinguish taxa in Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria associated with leaf disease of Eucalyptus, leading to the introduction of 23 novel genera, five species and 48 new combinations. Species are distinguished based on a polyphasic approach, combining morphological, ecological and phylogenetic species concepts, named here as the Consolidated Species Concept (CSC). From the DNA sequence data generated, we show that each one of the five coding genes tested, reliably identify most of the species present in this dataset (except species of Pseudocercospora). The ITS gene serves as a primary barcode locus as it is easily generated and has the most extensive dataset available, while either Btub, EF-1a or RPB2 provide a useful secondary barcode locus.
    Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
    Kassebaum, N.L. ; Bertozzi-Villa, A. ; Coggeshall, M.S. ; Shackelford, K.A. ; Steiner, C. ; Heuton, K.R. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2014
    The Lancet 384 (2014)9947. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 980 - 1004.
    immunodeficiency virus-1 infection - pregnancy-related mortality - hiv-infection - peripartum cardiomyopathy - health initiatives - adult mortality - child survival - south-africa - women - deaths
    Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100¿000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery. Methods We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine different causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990–2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values. Findings 292¿982 (95% UI 261¿017–327¿792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376¿034 (343¿483–407¿574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was -0·3% (–1·1 to 0·6) from 1990 to 2003, and -2·7% (–3·9 to -1·5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290–2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0·4% (0·2–0·6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the oldest age groups in both 1990 and 2013. In 2013, most deaths occurred intrapartum or postpartum. Causes varied by region and between 1990 and 2013. We recorded substantial variation in the MMR by country in 2013, from 956·8 (685·1–1262·8) in South Sudan to 2·4 (1·6–3·6) in Iceland. Interpretation Global rates of change suggest that only 16 countries will achieve the MDG 5 target by 2015. Accelerated reductions since the Millennium Declaration in 2000 coincide with increased development assistance for maternal, newborn, and child health. Setting of targets and associated interventions for after 2015 will need careful consideration of regions that are making slow progress, such as west and central Africa.
    Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets
    Towns, A.M. ; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K. ; Guinee, L. ; Boer, H. ; Andel, T. van - \ 2014
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155 (2014)2. - ISSN 0378-8741 - p. 1184 - 1193.
    timber forest products - south-africa - eastern-cape - trade - benin - opportunities - province
    Ethnopharmacological relevance - African medicinal plant markets offer insight into commercially important species, salient health concerns in the region, and possible conservation priorities. Still, little quantitative data is available on the trade in herbal medicine in Central Africa. The aim of this study was to identify the species, volume, and value of medicinal plant products sold on the major domestic markets in Gabon, Central Africa. Materials and methods - We surveyed 21 herbal market stalls across 14 of the major herbal medicine markets in Gabon, collected vouchers of medicinal plants and documented uses, vernacular names, prices, weight, vendor information and weekly sales. From these quantitative data, we extrapolated volumes and values for the entire herbal medicine market. Results - We encountered 263 medicinal plant products corresponding with at least 217 species. Thirteen species were encountered on one-third of the surveyed stalls and 18 species made up almost 50% of the total volume of products available daily, including the fruits of Tetrapleura tetraptera and seeds of Monodora myristica. Although bark comprised the majority of the floristic diversity (22%) and the highest percentage of daily stock (30%), the resin of IUCN red-listed species Aucoumea klaineana represented 20% of the estimated daily volume of the entire herbal market. Plants sold at the market were mainly used for ritual purposes (32%), followed by women¿s health (13%), and childcare (10%). The presence of migrant herbal vendors selling imported species, especially from Benin, was a prominent feature of the Gabonese markets. Conclusion - An estimated volume of 27 t of medicinal plant products worth US$ 1.5 million is sold annually on the main Gabonese markets. Aucoumea klaineana and Garcinia kola are highlighted as frequently sold species with conservation priorities. The herbal market in Gabon is slightly higher in species diversity but lower in volume and value than recently surveyed sub-Saharan African markets.
    Food security governance: a systematic literature review
    Candel, J.J.L. - \ 2014
    Food Security 6 (2014)4. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 585 - 601.
    global governance - south-africa - consensus frame - policy - debate - collaboration - insecurity - management - government - health
    The role of governance has been receiving increasing attention from food security scholars in recent years. However, in spite of the recognition that governance matters, current knowledge of food security governance is rather fragmented. To provide some clarity in the debate about the role of governance in addressing food (in)security, this paper reports the results of a systematic review of the literature. The synthesis revolves around seven recurring themes: i) the view of governance as both a challenge and solution to food security; ii) a governability that is characterized by high degrees of complexity; iii) failures of the current institutional architectures; iv) the arrival of new players at the forefront; v) calls for coherency and coordination across multiple scales; vi) variation and conflict of ideas; and vii) calls for the allocation of sufficient resources and the integration of democratic values in food security governance. Two lines of discussion of this synthesis are raised. First, the researcher argues that a large proportion of the food security governance literature is characterized by an optimist governance perspective, i.e., a view of governance as a problem-solving mechanism. Complementing this body of literature with alternative governance perspectives in future research may strengthen current understandings of food security governance. Approaching food security as a ‘wicked problem’ could provide valuable insights in this respect. Second, food security governance as a research field could make headway by engaging in further empirical investigation of current governance arrangements, particularly at sub-national levels. Keywords Food security . governance . Systematic literature review . Food governance .Wicked problem . Agricultural policy
    One health approach to Rift Valley fever vaccine development
    Kortekaas, J.A. - \ 2014
    Antiviral Research 106 (2014)24. - ISSN 0166-3542 - p. 24 - 32.
    lethal virus challenge - saudi-arabia - immune-responses - rhesus macaques - mp-12 vaccine - south-africa - enzootic hepatitis - northeastern kenya - ifnar(-/-) mice - rvfv infection
    Since its discovery in the 1930s, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) spread across the African continent and invaded the Arabian Peninsula and several islands off the coast of Southeast Africa. The virus causes recurrent outbreaks in these regions, and its continued spread is of global concern. Next-generation veterinary vaccines of improved efficacy and safety are being developed that can soon be used for the widespread vaccination of livestock. However, due to regulatory and economic challenges, vaccine manufacturers have been reluctant to develop a human vaccine. Recent innovations in veterinary vaccinology, animal models and licensing strategies can now be used to overcome these hurdles. This paper reviews the historical impact of RVFV on human health and proposes strategies to develop and license a next-generation vaccine for both animals and humans
    Effect of patches of woody vegetation on the role of fire in tropical grasslands and savannas
    Langevelde, F. van; Groot, C. de; Groen, T.A. ; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Gaigher, I. - \ 2014
    International Journal of Wildland Fire 23 (2014)3. - ISSN 1049-8001 - p. 410 - 416.
    south-africa - neotropical savanna - semiarid woodland - national-park - tree cover - ecosystems - intensity - frequency - dynamics - plants
    In tropical grasslands and savannas, fire is used to reduce woody vegetation expansion. Woody vegetation in these biomes is often patchily distributed, and micro-climatic conditions can largely vary locally with unknown consequences for fire effects. We hypothesized that (1) fire has higher temperature and maintains high temperatures for a longer period at the windward side than at the leeward side of wooded patches, (2) this difference increases with patch size, (3) fire has a larger effect on woody vegetation at the windward side than at the leeward side of wooded patches, and (4) this effect increases with patch size. We planted tree seedlings around wooded patches in a grassland and burnt these plots. We found that fire had a lower temperature and had an elevated temperature for a shorter time period at the leeward side of wooded patches than at the windward side. Also, we found smaller effect of fire on the seedlings at the leeward side. We conclude that patches of woody vegetation can have a large effect on the role of fire in tropical grasslands and savannas. This effect suggests a ⿿safe zone� for seedlings at the leeward side, which consequently promotes woody vegetation expansion. This paper contributes to understanding of the effect of patchiness of woody vegetation on the role of fire in tropical grasslands and savannas in reducing woody vegetation expansion.
    Producing Woodfuel for Urban Centers in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Path Out of Poverty for Rural Households?
    Schure, J.M. ; Levang, P. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2014
    World Development 64 (2014)suppl.1. - ISSN 0305-750X - p. S80 - S90.
    timber forest products - tropical forests - south-africa - charcoal - livelihoods - alleviation - conservation - biomass - demand - amazon
    Woodfuel is a renewable energy source with good potential for climate change mitigation. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the sector employs over 300,000 people for the supply of Kinshasa alone, but the benefits to the poor are often unknown. This paper analyzes the contribution of commercial woodfuel production to livelihoods and poverty reduction in the DRC. Woodfuel revenues, especially those of charcoal, contribute substantially to producers’ household income, ranging from 12% for fuelwood producers around Kisangani to 75% for charcoal producers around Kinshasa. It supports basic needs and investments in other livelihood activities (for 82% of charcoal producers and 65% of fuelwood producers), which helps to reduce poverty. The contribution of woodfuel commercialization to poverty reduction should be part of energy and forestry policies.
    Pastoralism, sustainability, and marketing. A review
    Tessema, W.K. ; Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
    Agronomy for Sustainable Development 34 (2014)1. - ISSN 1774-0746 - p. 75 - 92.
    group ranch subdivision - south-africa - northern kenya - land-use - rangeland management - climate-change - resource-use - east-africa - property-rights - communal areas
    Pastoralism is a highly traditional production system for livestock and livestock products. Under the surface of a seeming stability a variety of pressures of the modern time all seem to accumulate to put the sustainability of the pastoralist production system to the test. Population growth and growing demand formeat, put pressure on the natural resources used by pastoralists because the grazing lands that are saved from encroachment or conversion into arable lands, may be overexploited. Changing climatic conditions, such as frequent droughts, put even more pressure on the system.With so many challenges coming together, it is important to analyze whether pastoralism in itself can be considered a sustainable production system that in principle can cope with these challenges and thus deserves support from policy, or whether the pastoralist production system has fundamental misfit with today’s challenges, in the sense that it is detrimental to the world’s scarce resources. The scientific literature on pastoralism provides an important entry point to such fact finding. This article therefore analyzes 125 recent research contributions to the literature on pastoralism on their inferences as to whether pastoralism is a sustainable production system for livestock-based products. The results show substantial consensus that pastoralism is seen as a sustainable production system for livestock and livestock products (78 of the 125 studies contain sustainability inferences, of which 58 infer that the pastoral system is sustainable, while only 2 come to a negative conclusion). A total of 18 studies point however at conditional factors. The main factors that can potentially explain differences in the conclusions on whether pastoralism is sustainable pertain among others to the domain of sustainability, including abiotic and biotic factors representing the planet dimension, mobility, adaptation, indigenous knowledge, institutions and population growth as people-related factors, and economic contribution as a profitrelated factor. Other factors include the ecosystem and land use types, policy instruments, constant/flexible stocking, controlled/mobile grazing, and diversification policies, as well as academic discipline, research methods and geographic focus. A quantitative test shows that consideration of adaptation, institutions and mobility are most strongly related to the sustainability inference. Such studies suggest that pastoralists that can adapt to external conditions, that are supported by effective institutions and that can exercise mobility, are more likely to behave sustainably. We argue that marketing can help to meet these conditions. Because the role of marketing has received scant attention in the context of pastoralists and because it has often been narrowly interpreted as market integration, we further explain the potential role of marketing in sustainable pastoralism. The role of marketing comes down to a strategic competence that enables pastoralists to create value for target buyers with whom they may develop economic and social relationships that can be favorable for both parties. Because it is likely to stabilize prices and generate a long-term perspective on value creation, and therefore on resource use,marketing can contribute to a pastoral systemthat supports people, planet, and profit.
    Restoration of natural capital: a key strategy on the path to sustainability
    Blignaut, J.N. ; Aronson, J. ; Groot, R.S. de - \ 2014
    Ecological Engineering 65 (2014). - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 54 - 61.
    climate-change - ecological restoration - ecosystem services - limiting factor - south-africa - economics - biodiversity
    Three intertwining braids or strategies to enable transition towards sustainability can be identified, namely: (i) appropriate sustainable technologies, (ii) revising behaviour including reproduction and consumption patterns, and (iii) investment in the restoration of natural capital (RNC). Less explored than the first two, “RNC-thinking” might be the game-changer. Recent evidence suggests that not only is restoration urgently required from a biophysical perspective, but also that it makes eminently good economic sense to make that investment. The alternative to this triple approach is the prevailing paradigm that treats the world as if it were a “business in liquidation”, as pathfinder economist Herman Daly put it. Not only is the restoration of natural capital both ecologically and economically beneficial, as indicated herein with benefit–cost ratios varying between (on average) 0.4 (for coastal systems) and 110 (for coastal wetlands including mangroves) with the majority of ecosystems recording an average of an BC-ratio of about 10, it also holds an important key to unlock future sustainable growth and development trajectories
    Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems
    Alkemade, R. ; Reid, R.S. ; Berg, M. van den; Leeuw, J. de; Jeuken, M. - \ 2013
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (2013)52. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 20900 - 20905.
    land-use changes - south-africa - diversity - conservation - assemblages - grassland - management - scenarios - responses - savanna
    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss.
    The Global Politics of Water Grabbing
    Franco, J. ; Mehta, L. ; Veldwisch, G.J.A. - \ 2013
    Third World Quarterly 34 (2013)9. - ISSN 0143-6597 - p. 1651 - 1675.
    south-africa - human-rights - land deals - management - representation - mozambique - governance
    The contestation and appropriation of water is not new, but it has been highlighted by recent global debates on land grabbing. Water grabbing takes place in a field that is locally and globally plural-legal. Formal law has been fostering both land and water grabs but formal water and land management have been separated from each otheran institutional void that makes encroachment even easier. Ambiguous processes of global water and land governance have increased local-level uncertainties and complexities that powerful players can navigate, making them into mechanisms of exclusion of poor and marginalised people. As in formal land management corporate influence has grown. For less powerful players resolving ambiguities in conflicting regulatory frameworks may require tipping the balance towards the most congenial. Yet, compared with land governance, global water governance is less contested from an equity and water justice perspective, even though land is fixed, while water is fluid and part of the hydrological cycle; therefore water grabbing potentially affects greater numbers of diverse water users. Water grabbing can be a powerful entry point for the contestation needed to build counterweights to the neoliberal, corporate business-led convergence in global resource governance discourses and processes. Elaborating a human right to water in response to water grabbing is urgently needed.
    Combining analytiacal frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptiation option
    Reed, M.S. ; Podesta, G. ; Fazey, I. ; Geeson, N. ; Hessel, R. ; Hubacek, K. ; Letson, D. ; Nainggolan, D. ; Prell, C. ; Rickenbach, M.G. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Schwilch, G. ; Springer, L.C. ; Thomas, A.D. - \ 2013
    Ecological Economics 94 (2013). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 66 - 77.
    natural-resource management - adaptive capacity - local-communities - rational choice - south-africa - sustainability - agriculture - variability - indicators - challenges
    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.
    The use of woodland products to cope with climate variability in communal areas in Zimbabwe
    Woittiez, L.S. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Giller, K.E. ; Mapfumo, P. - \ 2013
    Ecology and Society 18 (2013)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
    rural livelihoods - south-africa - ecosystem services - savanna resources - fruit-trees - valuation - biodiversity - availability - consumption - households
    Common lands provide smallholder farmers in Africa with firewood, timber, and feed for livestock, and they are used to complement human diets through the collection of edible nontimber forest products (NTFPs). Farmers have developed coping mechanisms, which they deploy at times of climatic shocks. We aimed to analyze the importance of NTFPs in times of drought and to identify options that could increase the capacity to adapt to climate change. We used participatory techniques, livelihood analysis, observations, and measurements to quantify the use of NTFPs. Communities recognized NTFPs as a mechanism to cope with crop failure. We estimated that indigenous fruits contributed to approximately 20% of the energy intake of wealthier farmers and to approximately 40% of the energy intake of poor farmers in years of inadequate rainfall. Farmers needed to invest a considerable share of their time to collect wild fruits from deforested areas. They recognized that the effectiveness of NTFPs as an adaptation option had become threatened by severe deforestation and by illegal harvesting of fruits by urban traders. Farmers indicated the need to plan future land use to (1) intensify crop production, (2) cultivate trees for firewood, (3) keep orchards of indigenous fruit trees, and (4) improve the quality of grazing lands. Farmers were willing to cultivate trees and to organize communal conservation of indigenous fruits trees. Through participatory exercises, farmers elaborated maps, which were used during land use discussions. The process led to prioritization of pressing land use problems and identification of the support needed: fast-growing trees for firewood, inputs for crop production, knowledge on the cultivation of indigenous fruit trees, and clear regulations and compliance with rules for extraction of NTFPs. Important issues that remain to be addressed are best practices for regeneration and conservation, access rules and implementation, and the understanding and management of competing claims on the common lands. Well-managed communal resources can provide a strong tool to maintain and increase the rural communities’ ability to cope with an increasingly variable climate.
    A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Phyllosticta (Botryosphaeriales)
    Wikee, S. ; Lombard, L. ; Nakashima, C. ; Motohashi, K. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Studies in Mycology 76 (2013)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 29.
    citrus black spot - ribosomal dna - south-africa - fungus - banana - identification - eucalyptus - anamorph - vaccinii - nuclear
    Phyllosticta is a geographically widespread genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a diverse host range. This study redefines Phyllosticta, and shows that it clusters sister to the Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes), for which the older family name Phyllostictaceae is resurrected. In moving to a unit nomenclature for fungi, the generic name Phyllosticta was chosen over Guignardia in previous studies, an approach that we support here. We use a multigene DNA dataset of the ITS, LSU, ACT, TEF and GPDH gene regions to investigate 129 isolates of Phyllosticta, representing about 170 species names, many of which are shown to be synonyms of the ubiquitous endophyte P. capitalensis. Based on the data generated here, 12 new species are introduced, while epitype and neotype specimens are designated for a further seven species. One species of interest is P. citrimaxima associated with tan spot of Citrus maxima fruit in Thailand, which adds a fifth species to the citrus black spot complex. Previous morphological studies lumped many taxa under single names that represent complexes. In spite of this Phyllosticta is a species-rich genus, and many of these taxa need to be recollected in order to resolve their phylogeny and taxonomy.
    Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriales: A systematic and evolutionary framework
    Slippers, B. ; Boissin, E. ; Phillips, A.J.L. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Postma, A. ; Burgess, T. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Studies in Mycology 76 (2013)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 31 - 49.
    multiple gene genealogies - ribis species complex - combining data - south-africa - fungi - incongruence - proteaceae - origin - angiosperms - characters
    The order Botryosphaeriales represents several ecologically diverse fungal families that are commonly isolated as endophytes or pathogens from various woody hosts. The taxonomy of members of this order has been strongly influenced by sequence-based phylogenetics, and the abandonment of dual nomenclature. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of the genera known from culture are evaluated based on DNA sequence data for six loci (SSU, LSU, ITS, EF1, BT, mtSSU). The results make it possible to recognise a total of six families. Other than the Botryosphaeriaceae (17 genera), Phyllostictaceae (Phyllosticta) and Planistromellaceae (Kellermania), newly introduced families include Aplosporellaceae (Aplosporella and Bagnisiella), Melanopsaceae (Melanops), and Saccharataceae (Saccharata). Furthermore, the evolution of morphological characters in the Botryosphaeriaceae were investigated via analysis of phylogeny-trait association. None of the traits presented a significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that conidial and ascospore pigmentation, septation and appendages evolved more than once in the family. Molecular clock dating on radiations within the Botryosphaeriales based on estimated mutation rates of the rDNA SSU locus, suggests that the order originated in the Cretaceous period around 103 (45-188) mya, with most of the diversification in the Tertiary period. This coincides with important periods of radiation and spread of the main group of plants that these fungi infect, namely woody Angiosperms. The resulting host-associations and distribution could have influenced the diversification of these fungi.
    Characterisation of Neofusicoccum species causing mango dieback in Italy
    Ismail, A.M. ; Cirvilleri, G. ; Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Polizzi, G. - \ 2013
    Journal of Plant Pathology: rivista di patologia vegetale 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 1125-4653 - p. 549 - 557.
    mangifera-indica - phylogenetic analysis - south-africa - 1st report - sp-nov - botryosphaeria - pathogenicity - lasiodiplodia - morphology - grapevine
    Species of Botryosphaeriaceae are important fungal pathogens of mango worldwide. A survey of 11 mango orchards located in the provinces of Catania, Messina, Palermo and Ragusa (Sicily, southern Italy), resulted in the isolation of a large number (76) of Neofusicoccum isolates associated with decline and dieback symptoms. Isolates were identified based on morphology and DNA sequence data analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nrDNA and partial translation of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Two species of Neofusicoccum were identified, which included N. parvum and N. australe, the former of which was the dominant species. The high incidence in local orchards and the pathogenicity results indicate that N. parvum and N. australe are important pathogens of mango in Sicily where they may significantly limit mango production.
    Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213
    Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Guarro, J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Bank, M. van der; Swart, W.J. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Roux, J. ; Madrid, H. ; Damm, U. ; Wood, A.R. ; Shuttleworth, L.A. ; Hodges, C.S. ; Munster, M. ; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M. de; Zúñiga-Estrada, L. ; Cruywagen, E.M. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Silvera, C. ; Najafzadeh, J. ; Davison, E.M. ; Davison, P.J.N. ; Barrett, M.D. ; Barrett, R.L. ; Manamgoda, D.S. ; Minnis, A.M. ; Kleczewski, N.M. ; Flory, S.L. ; Castlebury, L.A. ; Clay, K. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Maússe-Sitoe, S.N.D. ; Chen, S. ; Lechat, C. ; Hairaud, M. ; Lesage-Meessen, L. ; Pawlowska, J. ; Wilk, M. ; Sliwinska-Wyrzychowska, A. ; Metrak, M. ; Wrzosek, M. ; Pavlic-Zupanc, D. ; Maleme, H.M. ; Slippers, B. ; Mac Cormack, W.P. ; Archuby, D.I. ; Grünwald, N.J. ; Tellería, M.T. ; Dueñas, M. ; Martín, M.P. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Perez, C.A. ; Gené, J. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2013
    Persoonia 31 (2013). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 188 - 296.
    sp-nov - colletotrichum-sansevieriae - anamorph genus - south-africa - 1st report - phytophthora-ipomoeae - leaf-blight - genera - phylogeny - botryosphaeriaceae
    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
    Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences from Cereal-Based Farming in the Central Rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia
    Kassie, B.T. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Rötter, R. ; Kahiluoto, H. ; Asseng, S. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2013
    Environmental Management 52 (2013)5. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 1115 - 1131.
    sub-saharan africa - farmer perceptions - northern ethiopia - coping strategies - south-africa - rainfall - adaptation - agriculture - drought - risk
    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions—the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20–30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977–2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers’ perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new risks outside the range of current experiences. To enable farmers to adapt to these impacts critical technological, institutional, and market-access constraints need to be removed. Inconsistencies between farmers’ perceptions and observed climate trends (e.g., decrease in annual rainfall) could lead to sub-optimal or counterproductive adaptations, and therefore must be removed by better communication and capacity building, for example through Climate Field Schools. Enabling strategies, which are among others targeted at agricultural inputs, credit supply, market access, and strengthening of local knowledge and information services need to become integral part of government policies to assist farmers to adapt to the impacts of current and future climate change.
    Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers
    Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Reeuwijk, M.A.J. van; Rijsdijk, E. ; Nshakira, N. ; Kok, G. - \ 2013
    BMC Public Health 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 15 p.
    intimate-partner violence - sub-saharan africa - hiv prevention - south-africa - health - adolescents - stigma - risk - trends - school
    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in economic and social empowerment interventions. The present study explored the changes resulting from the TMP as well as factors that either enabled or inhibited these changes. Methods Semi-structured interviews (N¿=¿23) were conducted with former teenage mothers , community leaders, and project implementers, and lifeline histories were obtained from former teenage mothers (N¿=¿9). Quantitative monitoring data regarding demographic and social characteristics of teenage mother participants (N¿=¿1036) were analysed. Results The findings suggest that, overall, the TMP seems to have contributed to the well-being of unmarried teenage mothers and to a supportive social environment. It appears that the project contributed to supportive community norms towards teenage mothers’ position and future opportunities, increased agency, improved coping with early motherhood and stigma, continued education, and increased income generation by teenage mothers. The study findings also suggest limited change in disapproving community norms regarding out-of-wedlock sex and pregnancy, late active enrolment of teenage mothers in the project (i.e., ten months after delivery of the child), and differences in the extent to which parents provided support. Conclusions It is concluded that strengths of the community-based TMP seem to be its socio-ecological approach, the participatory planning with community leaders and other stakeholders, counselling of parents and unmarried teenage mothers, and the emphasis on education and income generation. The project can improve by earlier active participation of unmarried pregnant adolescents and increased support for parents.
    Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration
    Groot, R.S. de; Blignaut, J. ; Ploeg, S. van der; Aronson, J. ; Elmqvist, T. ; Farley, J. - \ 2013
    Conservation Biology 27 (2013)6. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1286 - 1293.
    ecological restoration - south-africa - biodiversity - payments - services - opportunities - conservation - metaanalysis - indonesia - working
    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments.
    Sizing up Septoria
    Quaedvlieg, W. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Shin, H.D. ; Barreto, R.W. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Swart, W.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Studies in Mycology 75 (2013). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 307 - 390.
    molecular-data sets - systematic reappraisal - phylogenetic lineages - genus septoria - ribosomal dna - similar fungi - sooty blotch - south-africa - mycosphaerella - genera
    Septoria represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a wide geographic distribution, commonly associated with leaf spots and stem cankers of a broad range of plant hosts. A major aim of this study was to resolve the phylogenetic generic limits of Septoria, Stagonospora, and other related genera such as Sphaerulina, Phaeosphaeria and Phaeoseptoria using sequences of the the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and RPB2 genes of a large set of isolates. Based on these results Septoria is shown to be a distinct genus in the Mycosphaerellaceae, which has mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs. Several septoria-like species are now accommodated in Sphaerulina, a genus previously linked to this complex. Phaeosphaeria (based on P. oryzae) is shown to be congeneric with Phaeoseptoria (based on P. papayae), which is reduced to synonymy under the former. Depazea nodorum (causal agent of nodorum blotch of cereals) and Septoria avenae (causal agent of avenae blotch of barley and rye) are placed in a new genus, Parastagonospora, which is shown to be distinct from Stagonospora (based on S. paludosa) and Phaeosphaeria. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1a, RPB2 and Btub were generated for all of these isolates. A total of 47 clades or genera were resolved, leading to the introduction of 14 new genera, 36 new species, and 19 new combinations
    Diaporthe: a genus of endophytic, saprobic and plant pathogenic fungi
    Gomes, R.R. ; Glienke, C. ; Videira, S.I.R. ; Lombard, L. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Persoonia 31 (2013). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 1 - 41.
    internal transcribed spacer - south-africa - species concepts - sp-nov - coelomycete phomopsis - foeniculum-vulgare - multigene analysis - north-america - ribosomal dna - twig dieback
    Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species have often been reported as plant pathogens, non-pathogenic endophytes or saprobes, commonly isolated from a wide range of hosts. The primary aim of the present study was to resolve the taxonomy and phylogeny of a large collection of Diaporthe species occurring on diverse hosts, either as pathogens, saprobes, or as harmless endophytes. In the present study we investigated 243 isolates using multilocus DNA sequence data. Analyses of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) region, and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone H3 (HIS) and calmodulin (CAL) genes resolved 95 clades. Fifteen new species are described, namely Diaporthe arengae, D. brasiliensis, D. endophytica, D. hongkongensis, D. inconspicua, D. infecunda, D. mayteni, D. neoarctii, D. oxe, D. paranensis, D. pseudomangiferae, D. pseudophoenicicola, D. raonikayaporum, D. schini and D. terebinthifolii. A further 14 new combinations are introduced in Diaporthe, and D. anacardii is epitypified. Although species of Diaporthe have in the past chiefly been distinguished based on host association, results of this study confirm several taxa to have wide host ranges, suggesting that they move freely among hosts, frequently co-colonising diseased or dead tissue. In contrast, some plant pathogenic and endophytic taxa appear to be strictly host specific. Given this diverse ecological behaviour among members of Diaporthe, future species descriptions lacking molecular data (at least ITS and HIS or TUB) should be strongly discouraged.
    Abundance, distribution and population trends of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe
    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P. ; Gandiwa, E. ; Jakarasi, J. ; Westhuizen, H. van der; Muvengwi, J. - \ 2013
    Water SA 39 (2013)1. - ISSN 0378-4738 - p. 165 - 170.
    south-africa - olifants river - communities adjacent - okavango delta - conservation - botswana - impact - water
    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using a Super Cub aircraft, along 3 major rivers, namely, Save, Runde and Mwenezi, between 2008 and 2011. Our results show that Runde River was characterised by a significant increase in Nile crocodile abundance whereas both Save and Mwenezi rivers were characterised by non-significant increases in Nile crocodile abundance. Overall, we recorded a significant increase in total Nile crocodile population in the three major rivers of the GNP. The non-significant increase in Nile crocodiles in the Mwenezi and Save rivers was likely due to habitat loss, through siltation of large pools, and conflicts with humans, among other factors. We suggest that GNP management should consider halting crocodile egg collection in rivers with low crocodile populations and continuously monitor the crocodile population in the park
    Non-linear partial least square regression increases the estimation accuracy of grass nitrogen and phosphorus using in situ hyperspectral and environmental data
    Ramoelo, A. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Cho, M.A. ; Mathieu, R. ; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Dudeni-Tlhone, N. ; Schlerf, M. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2013
    ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 82 (2013). - ISSN 0924-2716 - p. 27 - 40.
    kruger-national-park - multiple linear-regression - band-depth analysis - vegetation indexes - south-africa - chlorophyll estimation - imaging spectroscopy - absorption features - biochemical content - mineral-nutrition
    Grass nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations are direct indicators of rangeland quality and provide imperative information for sound management of wildlife and livestock. It is challenging to estimate grass N and P concentrations using remote sensing in the savanna ecosystems. These areas are diverse and heterogeneous in soil and plant moisture, soil nutrients, grazing pressures, and human activities. The objective of the study is to test the performance of non-linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) for predicting grass N and P concentrations through integrating in situ hyperspectral remote sensing and environmental variables (climatic, edaphic and topographic). Data were collected along a land use gradient in the greater Kruger National Park region. The data consisted of: (i) in situ-measured hyperspectral spectra, (ii) environmental variables and measured grass N and P concentrations. The hyperspectral variables included published starch, N and protein spectral absorption features, red edge position, narrow-band indices such as simple ratio (SR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The results of the non-linear PLSR were compared to those of conventional linear PLSR. Using non-linear PLSR, integrating in situ hyperspectral and environmental variables yielded the highest grass N and P estimation accuracy (R2 = 0.81, root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.08, and R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.03, respectively) as compared to using remote sensing variables only, and conventional PLSR. The study demonstrates the importance of an integrated modeling approach for estimating grass quality which is a crucial effort towards effective management and planning of protected and communal savanna ecosystems.
    Phyllosticta species on citrus: Risk estimation of resistance to QoI fungicides and identification of species with cytochrome b gene sequences
    Stammler, G. ; Schutte, G.C. ; Speakman, J. ; Miessner, S. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Crop Protection 48 (2013). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 6 - 12.
    guignardia-citricarpa - black spot - botrytis-cinerea - south-africa - mitochondrial-dna - pyrenophora-teres - valencia oranges - f129l mutation - causal agent - mangiferae
    Isolates of three fungal species associated with citrus, Phyllosticta citricarpa, Phyllosticta citriasiana and Phyllosticta capitalensis, collected from different citrus growing countries of the world, were investigated for their sensitivities to the QoI fungicides pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin. Isolates were highly sensitive in microtiter tests and EC50 values were in narrow ranges, which indicate no acquired adaptation to QoIs. The resistance risk of P. citricarpa to QoIs is considered low since an intron was found immediately after codon 143 in the cytochrome b gene. The presence of an intron is known to reduce the risk of the G143A mutation, the mutation which causes QoI resistance with high resistance factors. The other two species had no intron and therefore are considered having a higher resistance risk. Impact of these two species is rather low, since P. citriasiana is restricted in its regional and host distribution and P. capitalensis is non-pathogenic. Furthermore, the development of a rapid and reliable assay for species detection and identification was made possible based on an analysis of the cytochrome b gene.
    Illegal hunting and law enforcement during a period of economic decline in Zimbabwe: A case study of northern Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas
    Gandiwa, E. ; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2013
    Journal for Nature Conservation 21 (2013)3. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 133 - 142.
    protected areas - communities adjacent - central-africa - wildlife consumption - equatorial-guinea - western serengeti - nature-reserves - luangwa valley - local people - south-africa
    Illegal hunting of wildlife, or top-down harvesting, is a major issue in today's society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. There has been widespread concern about increasing illegal hunting of wildlife in most conservation areas in Zimbabwe following the political instability and economic decline the country faced since 2000. In this study, we focused on the northern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), a large and unfenced protected area, and adjacent communal areas in southern Zimbabwe. We hypothesised that illegal hunting activities would (1) be perceived to have increased due to economic collapse and (2) vary with law enforcement efforts. A total of 236 local residents from eight villages adjacent to the northern GNP were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires from December 2010 to May 2011, and law enforcement data for northern GNP between 2000 and 2010 were retrieved from the park law enforcement database. A total of 26 animal species were reportedly hunted. Bushmeat consumption and the need for local trade to raise income were reported as the main reasons behind illegal hunting. Contrary to the first hypothesis, the majority of respondents (n = 156, 66%) reported that illegal hunting activities had declined between 2000 and 2010 largely due to increased park protection as also supported by law enforcement data. A total of 22 animal species were recorded as having been illegally hunted in northern GNP. The number of illegal hunters arrested declined with increased law enforcement efforts although the number of wire snares recovered and hunting dogs shot appeared to increase following increased law enforcement efforts. These results partly support the second hypothesis that illegal hunting activities would vary with law enforcement efforts
    Optimization of wildlife management in a large game reserve through waterpoints manipulation: a bio-economic analysis
    Mwakiwa, E. ; Boer, W.F. de; Hearne, J.W. ; Slotow, R. ; Langevelde, F. van; Peel, M. ; Grant, C.C. ; Pretorius, Y. ; Stigter, J.D. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Knegt, H.J. de; Kohi, E. ; Knox, N. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2013
    Journal of Environmental Management 114 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 352 - 361.
    kruger-national-park - surface-water availability - south-africa - herbaceous vegetation - elephants - provision - impact - conservation - biodiversity - systems
    Surface water is one of the constraining resources for herbivore populations in semi-arid regions. Artificial waterpoints are constructed by wildlife managers to supplement natural water supplies, to support herbivore populations. The aim of this paper is to analyse how a landowner may realize his ecological and economic goals by manipulating waterpoints for the management of an elephant population, a water-dependent species in the presence of water-independent species. We develop a theoretical bio-economic framework to analyse the optimization of wildlife management objectives (in this case revenue generation from both consumptive and non-consumptive use and biodiversity conservation), using waterpoint construction as a control variable. The model provides a bio-economic framework for analysing optimization problems where a control has direct effects on one herbivore species but indirect effects on the other. A landowner may be interested only in maximization of profits either from elephant offtake and/or tourism revenue, ignoring the negative effects that could be brought about by elephants to biodiversity. If the landowner does not take the indirect effects of waterpoints into consideration, then the game reserve management, as the authority entrusted with the sustainable management of the game reserve, might use economic instruments such as subsidies or taxes to the landowners to enforce sound waterpoint management.
    Manage or convert Boswellia woodlands? Can frankincense production payoff?
    Dejene, T. ; Lemenih, M. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2013
    Journal of Arid Environments 89 (2013). - ISSN 0140-1963 - p. 77 - 83.
    forest products - south-africa - dry forests - papyrifera - ethiopia - environment - zimbabwe - trade
    African dry forests provide non-timber forest products (NTFPs) of high commercial value, such as frankincense and gum arabic. Nonetheless, their deforestation and conversion to croplands is intensifying. Expected higher financial return from crop production is a main driver of conversion, but research supporting this underlying claim is scarce. We compared the financial returns for two crop production options (sesame and cotton) and forest use, in a dry forest area known for its frankincense production in northern Ethiopia. Net revenue was highest for sesame and lowest for cotton agricultural use. The forest based revenue was intermediate. The revenues from the crop production options were more sensitive to a range of uncertainties than the forest land use. Our results show that forest land use that includes commercial NTFPs is financially competitive to some commercial crop options and offers returns of better reliability. The hypothesis that forest based revenues are lower than crop based ones is not supported by our results. Therefore, the continued deforestation of dry forests cannot be explained by lower returns alone, but other factors such as awareness, market access, property right and institutional issues may also play a role to drive deforestation and conversion of dry forests to croplands.
    The Meaning of Adherence When Behavioral Risk Patterns Vary: Obscured Use- and Method-Effectiveness in HIV-Prevention Trials
    Bruin, M. de; Viechtbauer, W. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
    sexual-behavior - south-africa - male circumcision - infection - metaanalysis - women - men - prevalence - challenges - efficacy
    Background Recently promising trials of innovative biomedical approaches to prevent HIV transmission have been reported. Participants' non-adherence to the prevention methods complicates the analyses and interpretation of trial results. The influence of variable sexual behaviors within and between participants of trials further obscures matters. Current methodological and statistical approaches in HIV-prevention studies, as well as ongoing debates on contradictory trial results, may fail to accurately address these topics. Methodology/Principal Findings Through developing a cumulative probability model of infection within HIV prevention trials, we demonstrate how adherence and sexual behavior patterns impact the overall estimate of effectiveness, the effectiveness of prevention methods as a function of adherence, and conclusions about methods' true effectiveness. Applying the model to summary-level data from the CAPRISA trial, we observe markedly different values for the true method effectiveness of the microbicide, and show that if the gel would have been tested among women with slightly different sexual behavior patterns, conclusions might well have been that the gel is not effective. Conclusions/Significance Relative risk and adherence analyses in HIV prevention trials overlook the complex interplay between adherence and sexual behavior patterns. Consequently, they may not provide accurate estimates of use- and method-effectiveness. Moreover, trial conclusions are contingent upon the predominant sexual behavior pattern of participants and cannot be directly generalized to other contexts. We recommend researchers to (re)examine their data and use the cumulative probability model to estimate the true method effectiveness, which might contribute to resolving current questions about contradictory trial results. Moreover, we suggest taking into account the issues raised in the design of future trials and in population models estimating the impact of large-scale dissemination of prevention methods. Comprehension of the topics described will help readers to better interpret (apparently contradictory) trial outcomes.
    Rural Poverty Dynamics in Kenya: Structural Declines and Stochastic Escapes
    Radeny, M.A.O. ; Berg, M.M. van den; Schipper, R.A. - \ 2012
    World Development 40 (2012)8. - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 1577 - 1593.
    south-africa - household poverty - 36 villages - poor - countries - growth - uganda - traps - india - time
    We use panel survey data and household event-histories to explore patterns of rural poverty dynamics in Kenya over the period 2000–2009. We find substantial mobility across poverty categories using economic transition matrices. Drawing on asset-based approaches, we distinguish stochastic from structural poverty transitions. Few households successfully escaped poverty through asset accumulation (up to 35% of the upwardly mobile), while a large proportion of households (up to 66%) declining into poverty experienced structural transitions. Using household event-histories, we find significant differences across structural poverty transition classes in livelihood strategies, household-level shocks, and other factors.
    Assessing the levels of food shortage using the traffic light metaphor by analyzing the gathering and consumption of wild food plants, crop partsand crop residues in Konso, Ethiopia
    Lemessa Ocho, D. ; Struik, P.C. ; Price, L.L. ; Kelbessa, E. ; Kolo, K. - \ 2012
    Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8 (2012). - ISSN 1746-4269 - 16 p.
    south-africa - insecurity - famine
    Background Humanitarian relief agencies use scales to assess levels of critical food shortage to efficiently target and allocate food to the neediest. These scales are often labor-intensive. A lesser used approach is assessing gathering and consumption of wild food plants. This gathering per se is not a reliable signal of emerging food stress. However, the gathering and consumption of some specific plant species could be considered markers of food shortage, as it indicates that people are compelled to eat very poor or even health-threatening food. Methods We used the traffic light metaphor to indicate normal (green), alarmingly low (amber) and fully depleted (red) food supplies and identified these conditions for Konso (Ethiopia) on the basis of wild food plants (WFPs), crop parts (crop parts not used for human consumption under normal conditions; CPs) and crop residues (CRs) being gathered and consumed. Plant specimens were collected for expert identification and deposition in the National Herbarium. Two hundred twenty individual households free-listed WFPs, CPs, and CRs gathered and consumed during times of food stress. Through focus group discussions, the species list from the free-listing that was further enriched through key informants interviews and own field observations was categorized into species used for green, amber and red conditions. Results The study identified 113 WFPs (120 products/food items) whose gathering and consumption reflect the three traffic light metaphors: red, amber and green. We identified 25 food items for the red, 30 food items for the amber and 65 food items for the green metaphor. We also obtained reliable information on 21 different products/food items (from 17 crops) normally not consumed as food, reflecting the red or amber metaphor and 10 crop residues (from various crops), plus one recycled stuff which are used as emergency foods in the study area clearly indicating the severity of food stress (red metaphor) households are dealing with. Our traffic light metaphor proved useful to identify and closely monitor the types of WFPs, CPs, and CRs collected and consumed and their time of collection by subsistence households in rural settings. Examples of plant material only consumed under severe food stress included WFPs with health-threatening features like Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Juss. ex Poir. and inkutayata, parts of 17 crops with 21 food items conventionally not used as food (for example, maize tassels, husks, empty pods), ten crop residues (for example bran from various crops) and one recycled food item (tata). Conclusions We have complemented the conventional seasonal food security assessment tool used by humanitarian partners by providing an easy, cheap tool to scale food stress encountered by subsistence farmers. In cognizance of environmental, socio-cultural differences in Ethiopia and other parts of the globe, we recommend analogous studies in other parts of Ethiopia and elsewhere in the world where recurrent food stress also occurs and where communities intensively use WFPs, CPs, and CRs to cope with food stress.
    Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback disease of mango (Mangifera indica) in Egypt
    Ismail, A.M. ; Cirvilleri, G. ; Polizzi, G. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Lombard, L. - \ 2012
    Australasian Plant Pathology 41 (2012)6. - ISSN 0815-3191 - p. 649 - 660.
    multiple gene genealogies - south-africa - phylogenetic analysis - sp-nov. - botryosphaeria - theobromae - morphology - diplodia - trees - reevaluation
    We constructed several multilocus DNA sequence datasets to assess the phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria, especially focusing on those housed at the Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF), and to aid molecular identifications of unknowns via the FUSARIUM-ID and Fusarium MLST online databases and analysis packages. Analyses of a 190-taxon, two-locus dataset, which included 159 isolates from insects, indicated that: (i) insect-associated fusaria were nested within 10 species complexes spanning the phylogenetic breadth of Fusarium, (ii) novel, putatively unnamed insecticolous species were nested within 8/10 species complexes and (iii) Latin binomials could be applied with confidence to only 18/58 phylogenetically distinct fusaria associated with pest insects. Phylogenetic analyses of an 82-taxon, three-locus dataset nearly fully resolved evolutionary relationships among the 10 clades containing insecticolous fusaria. Multilocus typing of isolates within four species complexes identified surprisingly high genetic diversity in that 63/65 of the fusaria typed represented newly discovered haplotypes. The DNA sequence data, together with corrected ABI sequence chromatograms and alignments, have been uploaded to the following websites dedicated to identifying fusaria: FUSARIUM-ID (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org) at Pennsylvania State University’s Department of Plant Pathology and Fusarium MLST (http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/fusarium) at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS-KNAW) Fungal Biodiversity Center.
    A multi-locus phylogenetic evaluation of Diaporthe (Phomopsis)
    Udayanga, D. ; Liu, X. ; Crous, P.W. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2012
    Fungal Diversity 56 (2012)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 157 - 171.
    multiple sequence alignment - plant-pathogenic fungi - species concepts - south-africa - primer sets - genes - phaseolorum - longicolla - pcr - phylogeography
    The genus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) includes important plant pathogenic fungi with wide host ranges and geographic distributions. In the present study, phylogenetic species recognition in Diaporthe is re-evaluated using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined data matrix of rDNA ITS, and partial sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a (EF 1-a), ß tubulin (TUB) and calmodulin (CAL) molecular markers. DNA sequences of available ex-type cultures have been included, providing a multi-locus backbone tree for future studies on Diaporthe. Four utilizable loci were analyzed individually and in combination, and ITS, EF 1-a and multi-locus phylogenetic trees are presented. The phylogenetic tree inferred by combined analysis of four loci provided the best resolution for species as compared to single gene analysis. Notes are provided for nine species previously known in Phomopsis that are transferred to Diaporthe in the present study. The unraveling of cryptic species complexes of Diaporthe based on Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) is emphasized.
    How important are conidial appendages?
    Crous, P.W. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Christensen, M. ; Castañeda-Ruiz, R.F. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
    Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 126 - 137.
    phylogenetic lineages - south-africa - eucalyptus - spot
    The genus The genus Dinemasporium is used as a case study to evaluate the importance of conidial appendages for generic level classification of coelomycetous fungi. Based on morphology and sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU, 28S) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon, the genus Dinemasporium is circumscribed, and an epitype designated for D. strigosum, the type of the genus. A further five species are introduced in Dinemasporium, namely D. pseudostrigosum (isolated from Triticum aestivum, Germany and Stigmaphyllon sagraeanum, Cuba), D. americana (soil, USA), D. polygonum (Polygonum sachalinense, Netherlands), D. pseudoindicum (soil, USA), and D. morbidum (human sputum, Netherlands and hare dung, New Zealand). Brunneodinemasporium, based on B. brasiliense, is introduced to accommodate Dinemasporium-like species with tightly aggregated brown conidiogenous cells, and pale brown conidia. Dendrophoma (= Amphitiarospora) is reinstated as distinct from Dinemasporium, and an epitype designated for D. cytisporoides, characterised by its superficial, stipitate to cupulate conidiomata, and small conidia with two polar, tubular, exogenous appendages. The genus Stauronema is reduced to synonymy under Dinemasporium. Pseudolachnea (1-septate conidia) is supported as distinct from Dinemasporium (aseptate conidia), and P. fraxini introduced as a novel species. Taxa in this generic complex differ by combination of morphological characters of conidiomata, setae, conidia and appendages. Appendage morphology alone is rejected as informative at the generic level.
    Fungal Planet description sheets: 107-127
    Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Burgess, T.I. ; Decock, C.A. ; Dreyer, L.L. ; Granke, L.L. ; Guest, D.I. ; Hardy, G.E.St.J. ; Hausbeck, M.K. ; Hüberli, D. ; Jung, T. ; Koukol, O. ; Lennox, C.L. ; Liew, E.C.Y. ; Lombard, L. ; McTaggart, A.R. ; Pryke, J.S. ; Roets, F. ; Saude, C. ; Shuttleworth, L.A. ; Stukely, M.J.C. ; Vánky, K. ; Webster, B.J. ; Windstam, S.T. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
    Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 138 - 182.
    sp-nov - allied genera - south-africa - diaporthales - eucalyptus - genus - cryphonectriaceae - gnomoniaceae - reevaluation - evolutionary
    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Phytophthora amnicola from still water, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sp., Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiae from Corymbia sp., Diaporthe eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus sp., Sporisorium andrewmitchellii from Enneapogon aff. lindleyanus, Myrmecridium banksiae from Banksia, and Pilidiella wangiensis from Eucalyptus sp. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Gondwanamyces wingfieldii from Protea caffra, Montagnula aloes from Aloe sp., Diaporthe canthii from Canthium inerne, Phyllosticta ericarum from Erica gracilis, Coleophoma proteae from Protea caffra, Toxicocladosporium strelitziae from Strelitzia reginae, and Devriesia agapanthi from Agapanthus africanus. Other species include Phytophthora asparagi from Asparagus officinalis (USA), and Diaporthe passiflorae from Passiflora edulis (South America). Furthermore, novel genera of coelomycetes include Chrysocrypta corymbiae from Corymbia sp. (Australia), Trinosporium guianense, isolated as a contaminant (French Guiana), and Xenosonderhenia syzygii, from Syzygium cordatum (South Africa). Pseudopenidiella piceae from Picea abies (Czech Republic), and Phaeocercospora colophospermi from Colophospermum mopane (South Africa) represent novel genera of hyphomycetes. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
    Genera of diaporthalean coelomycetes associated with leaf spots of tree hosts
    Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Edwards, J. ; Pascoe, I.G. ; Porter, I.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
    Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 66 - 75.
    phylogenetic lineages - ribosomal dna - south-africa - primer sets - eucalyptus - phaeoacremonium - grapevines - harknessia - culture - genus
    Four different genera of diaporthalean coelomycetous fungi associated with leaf spots of tree hosts are morphologically treated and phylogenetically compared based on the DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA gene (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon. These include two new Australian genera, namely Auratiopycnidiella, proposed for a leaf spotting fungus occurring on Tristaniopsis laurina in New South Wales, and Disculoides, proposed for two species occurring on leaf spots of Eucalyptus leaves in Victoria. Two new species are described in Aurantiosacculus, a hitherto monotypic genus associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus in Australia, namely A. acutatus on E. viminalis, and A. eucalyptorum on E. globulus, both occurring in Tasmania. Lastly, an epitype specimen is designated for Erythrogloeum hymenaeae, the type species of the genus Erythrogloeum, and causal agent of a prominent leaf spot disease on Hymenaea courbaril in South America. All four genera are shown to be allied to Diaporthales, although only Aurantiosacculus (Cryphonectriaceae) could be resolved to family level, the rest being incertae sedis.
    Polyclonal Antibody-based ELISA in combination with specific PCR amplification of ITS 1 regions for the detection and quantitation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of 2 gummosis in cashew nut plants
    Muniz, C.R. ; Freire, F.C.O. ; Viana, F.M.P. ; Cardoso, J.E. ; Correia, D. ; Jalink, H. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Silva, G.F. ; Guedes, M.I.F. - \ 2012
    Annals of Applied Biology 160 (2012)3. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 217 - 224.
    south-africa - sp-nov - botryosphaeriaceae - pathogens - endophytes - pinus - stem
    Members of Botryosphaeriaceae family are associated with serious diseases in different plants 18 across the world. In cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.), the fungus Lasiodiplodia 19 theobromae causes a severe group of symptoms related to gummosis that results in decreased nut 20 production. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent 21 assay (ELISA) with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect the fungus both in vitro and in 22 planta (artificially and naturally infected) and to increase the detection specificity within the 23 fungi group using primers specific for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. A 24 collection of L. theobromae isolates was obtained, and antisera against the fungus were raised in 25 rabbits. Cross-reactivity against Neofusicoccum sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis 26 anacardii and Pestalotiopsis guepinii was examined. Naturally and artificially infected vegetal 27 material was employed in the ELISAs. The fungi ITS sequences were determined, and single 28 nucleotide polymorphisms were identified and used for primer design. For the naturally infected 29 2 plants, there was an approximately 4-fold variation in the absorbance values. Some positive 1 readings for asymptomatic samples were detected. For the artificially infected samples, an 2 ELISA-based weekly time-course analysis was conducted, and the values for samples from 0 and 3 7 days were lower than the threshold value. Beginning on day 14, the infection could be 4 detected, with rates varying from 40% on day 14 to 80% on day 21 and 100% by the end of the 5 experiment. The ITS sequencing revealed few polymorphisms among the L. theobromae isolates, 6 but for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis anacardii, Pestalotiopsis guepinii and 7 Neofusicoccum sp., the sequences were sufficient to permit reliable discrimination. The 8 feasibility of ELISA as an early detection technique to assist in gummosis management was 9 demonstrated. PCR amplification based on ITS regions increases and complements serological 10 specificity
    Correlates of Delayed Sexual Intercourse and Condom Use among Adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study
    Rijsdijk, L.E. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Lie, R. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Kok, G. - \ 2012
    BMC Public Health 12 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 19 p.
    sub-saharan africa - planned behavior - south-africa - reproductive health - university-students - multilevel analysis - reasoned action - determinants - youth - risk
    Background - Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to use a condom and the intention to delay sexual intercourse among secondary school students (aged 12–20) in Uganda. Methods - A school-based sample was drawn from 48 secondary schools throughout Uganda. Participants (N¿=¿1978) completed a survey in English measuring beliefs regarding pregnancy, STIs and HIV and AIDS, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy towards condom use and abstinence/delay, intention to use a condom and intention to delay sexual intercourse. As secondary sexual abstinence is one of the recommended ways for preventing HIV, STIs and unplanned pregnancies among the sexually experienced, participants with and without previous sexual experience were compared. Results - For adolescents without sexual experience (virgins), self-efficacy, perceived social norms and attitude towards condom use predicted the intention to use condoms. Among those with sexual experience (non-virgins), only perceived social norm was a significant predictor. The intention to delay sexual intercourse was, however, predicted similarly for both groups, with attitudes, perceived social norm and self-efficacy being significant predictors. Conclusions This study has established relevant predictors of intentions of safe sex among young Ugandans and has shown that the intention to use condoms is motivated by different factors depending on previous sexual experience. A segmented approach to intervention development and implementation is thus recommended
    Democratizing Water Governance from the Grassroots: The Development of Interjuntas-Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes
    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2012
    Human Organization 71 (2012)1. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 76 - 86.
    river-basin management - indigenous movements - latin-america - south-africa - politics - mexico - democracy - rights - organizations - model
    Making water management more democratic through the participation of water users, while crucially including the poor, has often proven elusive in practice. Through an in-depth case study, this article analyzes how the provincial water users federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo was consolidated in the Ecuadorian Andes. The case illustrates the critical role external actors can play in the consolidation of federative organizations through methodological design, facilitation, and financial and logistical support to local societal actors. In turn, such federations can effectively promote social democracy. As a new societal actor, the federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo now struggles for voice, representation, and inclusion of the marginalized water users. They participate in formal state-dominated institutional arrangements of stakeholder participation. Yet, more importantly, they also push their claims by tilting established power relations through other means such as protests, mobilizations, lobbying, and negotiations. The development of this federation brings to the fore important lessons on federative organizations, the role of external actors, and participation in water governance
    Natural and human-induced predation on Cape Cormorants at Dyer Island
    Voorbergen, A. ; Boer, W.F. de; Underhill, L.G. - \ 2012
    Bird Conservation International 22 (2012)1. - ISSN 0959-2709 - p. 82 - 93.
    arctocephalus-pusillus-pusillus - south-africa - larus-argentatus - seabird predation - human disturbance - fur seals - availability - population - refuse - chicks
    To develop conservation strategies for vulnerable seabird species that need attention, it is important to know which factors influence their breeding productivity. Predation of eggs and chicks can have large influences on seabird reproduction, especially when human disturbance facilitates predation. On Dyer Island, Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus prey on Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis eggs and chicks, whereas Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus prey on Cape Cormorant fledglings in the waters surrounding the island. Kelp Gulls were estimated to predate 3.8% of the total number of Cape Cormorant eggs and 2.0% of the chicks on the island. These percentages can be expressed as a loss of 4.8% of Cape Cormorant fledglings, which is low compared to the estimated 24.3% mortality of Cape Cormorant fledglings by Cape fur seal predation. Human disturbance facilitated Kelp Gull egg and chick predation and increased the mobbing of cormorant fledglings by Kelp Gulls. Cormorant egg predation by gulls was more frequently reported in the late afternoon. Seal predation was more abundant at the northern side of the island compared to the southern side, was recorded more frequently in the morning, and increased through the breeding season. The altered abundance and distribution of prey, the availability of suitable breeding habitat and mortality from avian cholera, have also influenced the Cape Cormorant’s population size. Hence, the possibility that Cape Cormorants may be locked in a predator-pit, where seals and gulls prevent the population from increasing in size, needs further attention.
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