Assessing the levels of food shortage using the traffic light metaphor by analyzing the gathering and consumption of wild food plants, crop partsand crop residues in Konso, Ethiopia
Lemessa Ocho, D. ; Struik, P.C. ; Price, L.L. ; Kelbessa, E. ; Kolo, K. - \ 2012
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8 (2012). - ISSN 1746-4269 - 16 p.
south-africa - insecurity - famine
Background Humanitarian relief agencies use scales to assess levels of critical food shortage to efficiently target and allocate food to the neediest. These scales are often labor-intensive. A lesser used approach is assessing gathering and consumption of wild food plants. This gathering per se is not a reliable signal of emerging food stress. However, the gathering and consumption of some specific plant species could be considered markers of food shortage, as it indicates that people are compelled to eat very poor or even health-threatening food. Methods We used the traffic light metaphor to indicate normal (green), alarmingly low (amber) and fully depleted (red) food supplies and identified these conditions for Konso (Ethiopia) on the basis of wild food plants (WFPs), crop parts (crop parts not used for human consumption under normal conditions; CPs) and crop residues (CRs) being gathered and consumed. Plant specimens were collected for expert identification and deposition in the National Herbarium. Two hundred twenty individual households free-listed WFPs, CPs, and CRs gathered and consumed during times of food stress. Through focus group discussions, the species list from the free-listing that was further enriched through key informants interviews and own field observations was categorized into species used for green, amber and red conditions. Results The study identified 113 WFPs (120 products/food items) whose gathering and consumption reflect the three traffic light metaphors: red, amber and green. We identified 25 food items for the red, 30 food items for the amber and 65 food items for the green metaphor. We also obtained reliable information on 21 different products/food items (from 17 crops) normally not consumed as food, reflecting the red or amber metaphor and 10 crop residues (from various crops), plus one recycled stuff which are used as emergency foods in the study area clearly indicating the severity of food stress (red metaphor) households are dealing with. Our traffic light metaphor proved useful to identify and closely monitor the types of WFPs, CPs, and CRs collected and consumed and their time of collection by subsistence households in rural settings. Examples of plant material only consumed under severe food stress included WFPs with health-threatening features like Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Juss. ex Poir. and inkutayata, parts of 17 crops with 21 food items conventionally not used as food (for example, maize tassels, husks, empty pods), ten crop residues (for example bran from various crops) and one recycled food item (tata). Conclusions We have complemented the conventional seasonal food security assessment tool used by humanitarian partners by providing an easy, cheap tool to scale food stress encountered by subsistence farmers. In cognizance of environmental, socio-cultural differences in Ethiopia and other parts of the globe, we recommend analogous studies in other parts of Ethiopia and elsewhere in the world where recurrent food stress also occurs and where communities intensively use WFPs, CPs, and CRs to cope with food stress.
Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback disease of mango (Mangifera indica) in Egypt
Ismail, A.M. ; Cirvilleri, G. ; Polizzi, G. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Lombard, L. - \ 2012
Australasian Plant Pathology 41 (2012)6. - ISSN 0815-3191 - p. 649 - 660.
multiple gene genealogies - south-africa - phylogenetic analysis - sp-nov. - botryosphaeria - theobromae - morphology - diplodia - trees - reevaluation
We constructed several multilocus DNA sequence datasets to assess the phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria, especially focusing on those housed at the Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF), and to aid molecular identifications of unknowns via the FUSARIUM-ID and Fusarium MLST online databases and analysis packages. Analyses of a 190-taxon, two-locus dataset, which included 159 isolates from insects, indicated that: (i) insect-associated fusaria were nested within 10 species complexes spanning the phylogenetic breadth of Fusarium, (ii) novel, putatively unnamed insecticolous species were nested within 8/10 species complexes and (iii) Latin binomials could be applied with confidence to only 18/58 phylogenetically distinct fusaria associated with pest insects. Phylogenetic analyses of an 82-taxon, three-locus dataset nearly fully resolved evolutionary relationships among the 10 clades containing insecticolous fusaria. Multilocus typing of isolates within four species complexes identified surprisingly high genetic diversity in that 63/65 of the fusaria typed represented newly discovered haplotypes. The DNA sequence data, together with corrected ABI sequence chromatograms and alignments, have been uploaded to the following websites dedicated to identifying fusaria: FUSARIUM-ID (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org) at Pennsylvania State University’s Department of Plant Pathology and Fusarium MLST (http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/fusarium) at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS-KNAW) Fungal Biodiversity Center.
A multi-locus phylogenetic evaluation of Diaporthe (Phomopsis)
Udayanga, D. ; Liu, X. ; Crous, P.W. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2012
Fungal Diversity 56 (2012)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 157 - 171.
multiple sequence alignment - plant-pathogenic fungi - species concepts - south-africa - primer sets - genes - phaseolorum - longicolla - pcr - phylogeography
The genus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) includes important plant pathogenic fungi with wide host ranges and geographic distributions. In the present study, phylogenetic species recognition in Diaporthe is re-evaluated using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined data matrix of rDNA ITS, and partial sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a (EF 1-a), ß tubulin (TUB) and calmodulin (CAL) molecular markers. DNA sequences of available ex-type cultures have been included, providing a multi-locus backbone tree for future studies on Diaporthe. Four utilizable loci were analyzed individually and in combination, and ITS, EF 1-a and multi-locus phylogenetic trees are presented. The phylogenetic tree inferred by combined analysis of four loci provided the best resolution for species as compared to single gene analysis. Notes are provided for nine species previously known in Phomopsis that are transferred to Diaporthe in the present study. The unraveling of cryptic species complexes of Diaporthe based on Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) is emphasized.
How important are conidial appendages?
Crous, P.W. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Christensen, M. ; Castañeda-Ruiz, R.F. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 126 - 137.
phylogenetic lineages - south-africa - eucalyptus - spot
The genus The genus Dinemasporium is used as a case study to evaluate the importance of conidial appendages for generic level classification of coelomycetous fungi. Based on morphology and sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU, 28S) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon, the genus Dinemasporium is circumscribed, and an epitype designated for D. strigosum, the type of the genus. A further five species are introduced in Dinemasporium, namely D. pseudostrigosum (isolated from Triticum aestivum, Germany and Stigmaphyllon sagraeanum, Cuba), D. americana (soil, USA), D. polygonum (Polygonum sachalinense, Netherlands), D. pseudoindicum (soil, USA), and D. morbidum (human sputum, Netherlands and hare dung, New Zealand). Brunneodinemasporium, based on B. brasiliense, is introduced to accommodate Dinemasporium-like species with tightly aggregated brown conidiogenous cells, and pale brown conidia. Dendrophoma (= Amphitiarospora) is reinstated as distinct from Dinemasporium, and an epitype designated for D. cytisporoides, characterised by its superficial, stipitate to cupulate conidiomata, and small conidia with two polar, tubular, exogenous appendages. The genus Stauronema is reduced to synonymy under Dinemasporium. Pseudolachnea (1-septate conidia) is supported as distinct from Dinemasporium (aseptate conidia), and P. fraxini introduced as a novel species. Taxa in this generic complex differ by combination of morphological characters of conidiomata, setae, conidia and appendages. Appendage morphology alone is rejected as informative at the generic level.
Fungal Planet description sheets: 107-127
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Burgess, T.I. ; Decock, C.A. ; Dreyer, L.L. ; Granke, L.L. ; Guest, D.I. ; Hardy, G.E.St.J. ; Hausbeck, M.K. ; Hüberli, D. ; Jung, T. ; Koukol, O. ; Lennox, C.L. ; Liew, E.C.Y. ; Lombard, L. ; McTaggart, A.R. ; Pryke, J.S. ; Roets, F. ; Saude, C. ; Shuttleworth, L.A. ; Stukely, M.J.C. ; Vánky, K. ; Webster, B.J. ; Windstam, S.T. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 138 - 182.
sp-nov - allied genera - south-africa - diaporthales - eucalyptus - genus - cryphonectriaceae - gnomoniaceae - reevaluation - evolutionary
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Phytophthora amnicola from still water, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sp., Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiae from Corymbia sp., Diaporthe eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus sp., Sporisorium andrewmitchellii from Enneapogon aff. lindleyanus, Myrmecridium banksiae from Banksia, and Pilidiella wangiensis from Eucalyptus sp. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Gondwanamyces wingfieldii from Protea caffra, Montagnula aloes from Aloe sp., Diaporthe canthii from Canthium inerne, Phyllosticta ericarum from Erica gracilis, Coleophoma proteae from Protea caffra, Toxicocladosporium strelitziae from Strelitzia reginae, and Devriesia agapanthi from Agapanthus africanus. Other species include Phytophthora asparagi from Asparagus officinalis (USA), and Diaporthe passiflorae from Passiflora edulis (South America). Furthermore, novel genera of coelomycetes include Chrysocrypta corymbiae from Corymbia sp. (Australia), Trinosporium guianense, isolated as a contaminant (French Guiana), and Xenosonderhenia syzygii, from Syzygium cordatum (South Africa). Pseudopenidiella piceae from Picea abies (Czech Republic), and Phaeocercospora colophospermi from Colophospermum mopane (South Africa) represent novel genera of hyphomycetes. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
Genera of diaporthalean coelomycetes associated with leaf spots of tree hosts
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Edwards, J. ; Pascoe, I.G. ; Porter, I.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 66 - 75.
phylogenetic lineages - ribosomal dna - south-africa - primer sets - eucalyptus - phaeoacremonium - grapevines - harknessia - culture - genus
Four different genera of diaporthalean coelomycetous fungi associated with leaf spots of tree hosts are morphologically treated and phylogenetically compared based on the DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA gene (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon. These include two new Australian genera, namely Auratiopycnidiella, proposed for a leaf spotting fungus occurring on Tristaniopsis laurina in New South Wales, and Disculoides, proposed for two species occurring on leaf spots of Eucalyptus leaves in Victoria. Two new species are described in Aurantiosacculus, a hitherto monotypic genus associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus in Australia, namely A. acutatus on E. viminalis, and A. eucalyptorum on E. globulus, both occurring in Tasmania. Lastly, an epitype specimen is designated for Erythrogloeum hymenaeae, the type species of the genus Erythrogloeum, and causal agent of a prominent leaf spot disease on Hymenaea courbaril in South America. All four genera are shown to be allied to Diaporthales, although only Aurantiosacculus (Cryphonectriaceae) could be resolved to family level, the rest being incertae sedis.
Polyclonal Antibody-based ELISA in combination with specific PCR amplification of ITS 1 regions for the detection and quantitation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of 2 gummosis in cashew nut plants
Muniz, C.R. ; Freire, F.C.O. ; Viana, F.M.P. ; Cardoso, J.E. ; Correia, D. ; Jalink, H. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Silva, G.F. ; Guedes, M.I.F. - \ 2012
Annals of Applied Biology 160 (2012)3. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 217 - 224.
south-africa - sp-nov - botryosphaeriaceae - pathogens - endophytes - pinus - stem
Members of Botryosphaeriaceae family are associated with serious diseases in different plants 18 across the world. In cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.), the fungus Lasiodiplodia 19 theobromae causes a severe group of symptoms related to gummosis that results in decreased nut 20 production. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent 21 assay (ELISA) with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect the fungus both in vitro and in 22 planta (artificially and naturally infected) and to increase the detection specificity within the 23 fungi group using primers specific for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. A 24 collection of L. theobromae isolates was obtained, and antisera against the fungus were raised in 25 rabbits. Cross-reactivity against Neofusicoccum sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis 26 anacardii and Pestalotiopsis guepinii was examined. Naturally and artificially infected vegetal 27 material was employed in the ELISAs. The fungi ITS sequences were determined, and single 28 nucleotide polymorphisms were identified and used for primer design. For the naturally infected 29 2 plants, there was an approximately 4-fold variation in the absorbance values. Some positive 1 readings for asymptomatic samples were detected. For the artificially infected samples, an 2 ELISA-based weekly time-course analysis was conducted, and the values for samples from 0 and 3 7 days were lower than the threshold value. Beginning on day 14, the infection could be 4 detected, with rates varying from 40% on day 14 to 80% on day 21 and 100% by the end of the 5 experiment. The ITS sequencing revealed few polymorphisms among the L. theobromae isolates, 6 but for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis anacardii, Pestalotiopsis guepinii and 7 Neofusicoccum sp., the sequences were sufficient to permit reliable discrimination. The 8 feasibility of ELISA as an early detection technique to assist in gummosis management was 9 demonstrated. PCR amplification based on ITS regions increases and complements serological 10 specificity
Correlates of Delayed Sexual Intercourse and Condom Use among Adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study
Rijsdijk, L.E. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Lie, R. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Kok, G. - \ 2012
BMC Public Health 12 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 19 p.
sub-saharan africa - planned behavior - south-africa - reproductive health - university-students - multilevel analysis - reasoned action - determinants - youth - risk
Background - Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to use a condom and the intention to delay sexual intercourse among secondary school students (aged 12–20) in Uganda. Methods - A school-based sample was drawn from 48 secondary schools throughout Uganda. Participants (N¿=¿1978) completed a survey in English measuring beliefs regarding pregnancy, STIs and HIV and AIDS, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy towards condom use and abstinence/delay, intention to use a condom and intention to delay sexual intercourse. As secondary sexual abstinence is one of the recommended ways for preventing HIV, STIs and unplanned pregnancies among the sexually experienced, participants with and without previous sexual experience were compared. Results - For adolescents without sexual experience (virgins), self-efficacy, perceived social norms and attitude towards condom use predicted the intention to use condoms. Among those with sexual experience (non-virgins), only perceived social norm was a significant predictor. The intention to delay sexual intercourse was, however, predicted similarly for both groups, with attitudes, perceived social norm and self-efficacy being significant predictors. Conclusions This study has established relevant predictors of intentions of safe sex among young Ugandans and has shown that the intention to use condoms is motivated by different factors depending on previous sexual experience. A segmented approach to intervention development and implementation is thus recommended
Democratizing Water Governance from the Grassroots: The Development of Interjuntas-Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2012
Human Organization 71 (2012)1. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 76 - 86.
river-basin management - indigenous movements - latin-america - south-africa - politics - mexico - democracy - rights - organizations - model
Making water management more democratic through the participation of water users, while crucially including the poor, has often proven elusive in practice. Through an in-depth case study, this article analyzes how the provincial water users federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo was consolidated in the Ecuadorian Andes. The case illustrates the critical role external actors can play in the consolidation of federative organizations through methodological design, facilitation, and financial and logistical support to local societal actors. In turn, such federations can effectively promote social democracy. As a new societal actor, the federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo now struggles for voice, representation, and inclusion of the marginalized water users. They participate in formal state-dominated institutional arrangements of stakeholder participation. Yet, more importantly, they also push their claims by tilting established power relations through other means such as protests, mobilizations, lobbying, and negotiations. The development of this federation brings to the fore important lessons on federative organizations, the role of external actors, and participation in water governance
Natural and human-induced predation on Cape Cormorants at Dyer Island
Voorbergen, A. ; Boer, W.F. de; Underhill, L.G. - \ 2012
Bird Conservation International 22 (2012)1. - ISSN 0959-2709 - p. 82 - 93.
arctocephalus-pusillus-pusillus - south-africa - larus-argentatus - seabird predation - human disturbance - fur seals - availability - population - refuse - chicks
To develop conservation strategies for vulnerable seabird species that need attention, it is important to know which factors influence their breeding productivity. Predation of eggs and chicks can have large influences on seabird reproduction, especially when human disturbance facilitates predation. On Dyer Island, Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus prey on Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis eggs and chicks, whereas Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus prey on Cape Cormorant fledglings in the waters surrounding the island. Kelp Gulls were estimated to predate 3.8% of the total number of Cape Cormorant eggs and 2.0% of the chicks on the island. These percentages can be expressed as a loss of 4.8% of Cape Cormorant fledglings, which is low compared to the estimated 24.3% mortality of Cape Cormorant fledglings by Cape fur seal predation. Human disturbance facilitated Kelp Gull egg and chick predation and increased the mobbing of cormorant fledglings by Kelp Gulls. Cormorant egg predation by gulls was more frequently reported in the late afternoon. Seal predation was more abundant at the northern side of the island compared to the southern side, was recorded more frequently in the morning, and increased through the breeding season. The altered abundance and distribution of prey, the availability of suitable breeding habitat and mortality from avian cholera, have also influenced the Cape Cormorant’s population size. Hence, the possibility that Cape Cormorants may be locked in a predator-pit, where seals and gulls prevent the population from increasing in size, needs further attention.
Beliefs Contributing to HIV-related Stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean Communities in the Netherlands
Stutterheim, S.E. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Kesteren, N.M.C. van; Shiripinda, I. ; Pryor, J.B. ; Bruin, M. de; Schaalma, H.P. - \ 2012
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 22 (2012)2. - ISSN 1052-9284 - p. 470 - 484.
aids-related stigma - hiv/aids-related stigma - south-africa - intergroup contact - discrimination - attitudes - people - care - experiences - disclosure
Thirty years after the first diagnosis, people living with HIV (PLWH) around the world continue to report stigmatizing experiences. In this study, beliefs contributing to HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities and their cultural context were explored through semi-structured interviews with HIV-positive (N¿=¿42) and HIV-negative (N¿=¿52) African, Antillean and Surinamese diaspora community members in the Netherlands. Beliefs that HIV is highly contagious, that HIV is a very severe disease, and that PLWH are personally responsible for acquiring their HIV infection were found to contribute to HIV-related stigma, as did the belief that PLWH are HIV-positive because they engaged in norm-violating behaviour such as promiscuity, commercial sex work, and, for Afro-Caribbean diaspora, also homosexuality. These beliefs were found to be exacerbated and perpetuated by cultural taboos on talking about HIV and sexuality. HIV-related stigma reduction interventions should focus on changing these beliefs and breaking cultural taboos on HIV and sexuality in a manner that is participatory and consistent with the current theory and empirical findings
Categorisation of typical vulnerability patterns in global drylands
Sietz, D. ; Lûdeke, M.K.B. ; Walther, C. - \ 2011
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 21 (2011)2. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 431 - 440.
water-use - rangeland degradation - multiple stressors - land degradation - rural poverty - south-africa - livelihoods - desertification - sustainability - mexico
Drylands display specific vulnerability-creating mechanisms which threaten ecosystems and human well-being. The upscaling of successful interventions to reduce vulnerability arises as an important, but challenging aim, since drylands are not homogenous. To support this aim, we present the first attempt to categorise dryland vulnerability at a global scale and sub-national resolution. The categorisation yields typical patterns of dryland vulnerability and their policy implications according to similarities among the socio-ecological systems. Based on a compilation of prevalent vulnerability-creating mechanisms, we quantitatively indicate the most important dimensions including poverty, water stress, soil degradation, natural agro-constraints and isolation. A cluster analysis reveals a set of seven typical vulnerability patterns showing distinct indicator combinations. These results are validated by case studies reflecting the cluster-specific mechanisms and their spatial distribution. Based on these patterns, we deduce thematic and spatial entry points for reducing dryland vulnerability. Our findings could contribute new insights into allocating the limited funds available for dryland development and support related monitoring efforts based on the manageable number of key indicators.
Sustainable Catchment Managing in a Climate Changing World: New Integrative Modalities for Connecting Policy Makers, Scientists and Other Stakeholders
Ison, R. ; Collins, K. ; Colvin, J. ; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Roggero, P.P. ; Seddaiu, G. ; Steyaert, P. ; Toderi, M. ; Zanolla, C. - \ 2011
Water Resources Management 25 (2011)15. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 3977 - 3992.
water-resources management - south-africa - governance - systems - science - adaptation - uk
This paper characterises some of the main issues confronting water-catchment managing in a climate-changing world and addresses wide-spread concerns about the lack of connectivity between science, policy making and implementation. The paper's arguments are 'framed' within a paradigm of systemic and adaptive governing, regulating, planning and managing understood as a nested systemic hierarchy. It is argued that climate change adaptation is best understood as a coevolutionary dynamic, principally, but not exclusively between human beings and the biophysical world. Two forms of 'knowledge brokerage' based on mode 1 (knowledge) and mode 2 (knowing) are distinguished with practical implications. Drawing on extensive research by the authors, eight modalities for enacting 'knowledge brokerage' are introduced. The conditions for or against success in employing these modalities are described. Consistent with the views of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Report 2007, it is argued that water managing is a paradigmatic domain for making climate change adaptation 'real' and a systemic issue of global concern at the core of sustainable development.
Preliminary assessment of illegal hunting by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe
Gandiwa, E. - \ 2011
Tropical conservation science 4 (2011)4. - ISSN 1940-0829 - p. 445 - 467.
wildlife management - south-africa - western serengeti - large carnivores - bushmeat trade - prey choice - conservation - tanzania - impacts - campfire
Illegal hunting of wildlife is a major issue in today’s society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. In this study, a total of 114 local residents from eight villages located in four wards adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, south-eastern Zimbabwe were interviewed in 2009, using semi-structured questionnaires. The study aimed to answer the following questions: (i) what is the prevalence of illegal hunting and what are commonly used hunting methods? (ii) Which wild animal species are commonly hunted illegally? (iii) What are the main reasons for illegal hunting? (iv) What strategies or mechanisms are currently in place to minimize illegal hunting? Overall, 59% of the respondents reported that they saw bushmeat, meat derived from wild animals, and/or wild animal products being sold at least once every six months, whereas 41% of the respondents reported that they had never seen bushmeat and/or wild animal products being sold in their villages and/or wards. About 18% of the respondents perceived that illegal hunting had increased between 2000 and 2008, whereas 62% of the respondents perceived that illegal hunting had declined, and 20% perceived that it remained the same. Snaring (79%) and hunting with dogs (53%) were reportedly the most common hunting methods. A total of 24 wild animal species were reportedly hunted, with African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (18%), Burchell’s zebra (Equus quagga) (21%), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (25%) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) (27%) amongst the most targeted and preferred animal species. In addition, large carnivores, including spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) (11%), leopard (Panthera pardus) (10%) and African lion (Panthera leo) (8%), were reportedly hunted illegally. The need for bushmeat, for household consumption (68%), and raising money through selling of wild animal products (55%) were reported as being the main reasons for illegal hunting. Strengthening law enforcement, increasing awareness and environmental education, and developing mechanisms to reduce human-wildlife conflicts will assist in further minimizing illegal hunting activities in the Gonarezhou ecosystem.
Why everlastings don’t last
Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2011
Persoonia 26 (2011). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 70 - 84.
fungal diversity - complex davidiellaceae - flyspeck complex - sooty blotch - south-africa - biodiversity - capnodiales - mycosphaerella - teratosphaeria - proteaceae
The Cape Floral Region represents one of the world's biodiversity hot spots, with a high level of plant, animal and insect endemism. The fungi occurring in this region, however, remain poorly studied. It is widely postulated that each plant species should harbour at least five to six unique fungal species, a number that we regard to be a huge underestimate. To test this hypothesis, we decided to study a single senescent flower of Phaenocoma prolifera ('everlasting'; Asteraceae) collected in South Africa, and posed the question as to how many different species of fungi could be isolated and cultivated from 10 leaf bracts. Using a damp chamber technique, numerous microfungi could be induced to sporulate, enabling most of them to be successfully isolated on artificial agar media. Isolates were subsequently subjected to DNA sequencing of the ITS and LSU nrDNA regions. During the course of this study 17 species could be cultivated and identified, of which 11 appeared to be new to science. These in clude Catenulostroma hermanusense, Cladosporium phaenocomae, Devriesia tardicrescens, Exophiala capensis, Penidiella aggregata, P. ellipsoidea, Teratosphaeria karinae, Toxicocladosporium pseudoveloxum spp. nov., and Xenophacidiella pseudocatenata gen. & sp. nov. Further studies are now required to determine if these fungi also occur as endophytes in healthy flowers. If this trend holds true for other plant hosts from southern Africa, it would suggest that there are many more fungi present in the Cape Floral Region than estimated in previous studies.
Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Swart, L. ; Denman, S. ; Taylor, J.E. ; Bezuidenhout, C.M. ; Palm, M.E. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2011
Persoonia 27 (2011). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 20 - 45.
south-africa - primer sets - sp nov. - phylogeny - mycosphaerella - genera - phoma - genus - calonectria - morphology
Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study was to characterise several of these pathogens using morphology, culture characteristics, and DNA sequence data of the rRNA-ITS and LSU genes. In some cases additional genes such as TEF 1-a and CHS were also sequenced. Based on the results of this study, several novel species and genera are described. Brunneosphaerella leaf blight is shown to be caused by three species, namely B. jonkershoekensis on Protea repens, B. nitidae sp. nov. on Protea nitida and B. protearum on a wide host range of Protea spp. (South Africa). Coniothyrium-like species associated with Coniothyrium leaf spot are allocated to other genera, namely Curreya grandicipis on Protea grandiceps, and Microsphaeropsis proteae on P. nitida (South Africa). Diaporthe leucospermi is described on Leucospermum sp. (Australia), and Diplodina microsperma newly reported on Protea sp. (New Zealand). Pyrenophora blight is caused by a novel species, Pyrenophora leucospermi, and not Drechslera biseptata or D. dematoidea as previously reported. Fusicladium proteae is described on Protea sp. (South Africa), Pestalotiopsis protearum on Leucospermum cuneiforme (Zimbabwe), Ramularia vizellae and R. stellenboschensis on Protea spp. (South Africa), and Teratosphaeria capensis on Protea spp. (Portugal, South Africa). Aureobasidium leaf spot is shown to be caused by two species, namelyA.proteaecomb. nov. on Protea spp. (South Africa), and A. leucospermi sp. nov. on Leucospermum spp. (Indonesia, Portugal, South Africa). Novel genera and species elucidated in this study include Gordonomyces mucovaginatus and Pseudopassalora gouriqua (hyphomycetes), and Xenoconiothyrium catenata (coelomycete), all on Protea spp. (South Africa).
A Dark Side of Social Capital? Kinship, Consumption, and Savings
Falco, S. di; Bulte, E.H. - \ 2011
Journal of Development Studies 47 (2011)8. - ISSN 0022-0388 - p. 1128 - 1151.
south-africa - rural-areas - risk - insurance - arrangements - allocation - commitment - economics - networks - poverty
We explore whether traditional sharing norms in kinship networks affect consumption and accumulation decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a proxy for the number of family dependents, our results are consistent with the interpretation that households try to evade their ‘sharing obligations’ by (i) accumulating durables that are non-sharable at the expense of durables that may be shared and (ii) reducing savings in liquid assets. By attenuating accumulation incentives, kinship sharing may come at the expense of income growth – if so, a culturally-induced poverty trap can possibly eventuate. We demonstrate tentative evidence that more extensive kinship networks are associated with lower incomes
Environmental variables, pesticide pollution and meiofaunal community structure in two contrasting temporarily open/closed false bay estuaries
Bollmohr, S. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Wade, P.W. ; Day, J.A. ; Schulz, R. - \ 2011
Water SA 37 (2011). - ISSN 0378-4738 - p. 391 - 400.
principal response curves - south-africa - lourens river - western-cape - spatial patterns - warm-temperate - sediment - disturbance - exposure - water
Environmental variables (including natural and anthropogenic stressors) and meiobenthic communities were sampled in a ‘natural’ (Rooiels) and a ‘disturbed’ (Lourens) estuary in the Western Cape, South Africa, bimonthly for 20 months. A primary aim of the study was to assess if the meiobenthic community structure is driven by different variables when comparing ‘natural’ versus ‘disturbed’ system. Due to the much smaller catchment of the Rooiels Estuary, many environmental variables were significantly different (p<0.001) from the variables in the Lourens Estuary, e.g. salinity, temperature, pH, total suspended solids, nitrate and depth. No pesticide concentrations were expected in the Rooiels Estuary due to the absence of agricultural development in the catchment. However, chlorpyrifos (8.9 µg/kg), prothiofos (22.0 µg/kg) and cypermethrin concentrations (0.42 µg/kg) were detected frequently, with the highest concentrations recorded during the summer months. Principal response curve analysis showed that temporal variability between sampling dates explained 42% of the variance in environmental variables and pesticide concentrations and spatial variability between the 2 estuaries explained 58%. Variables contributing most to the differences were higher concentrations of endosulfan, p,p-DDE and nitrate concentrations in the Lourens Estuary and larger grain size and higher salinity at the bottom in the Rooiels Estuary. In general the meiofaunal community in the Rooiels Estuary showed a significantly higher number of taxa (p<0.001), a significantly higher Shannon Wiener Diversity Index (p
The significance of gathering wild orchid tubers for orphan household livelihoods in a context of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania
Challe, J.F.X. ; Niehof, A. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2011
African Journal of AIDS Research 10 (2011)3. - ISSN 1608-5906 - p. 207 - 218.
coping strategies - south-africa - diversification - products - trade - aids
We investigated the role of gathering and selling the edible tubers of wild orchids by children orphaned by AIDS as one of their livelihood strategies, through a household survey administered to 152 households in three villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania during 2006 and 2007. Additionally, several household heads were selected as case studies and subjected to an in-depth life-history interview. Overall, most households in the study villages were very poor. We made comparisons within a total sample of 57 households headed by children orphaned by AIDS, 43 adult female-headed AIDS-affected households, and 52 adult male-headed non-AIDS-affected households in terms of food security and wealth outcomes after engaging in orchid tuber-gathering activities. The findings reveal that the majority of the orphan heads of households regarded the gathering and selling of wild orchid tubers as the best option for satisfying their basic needs. This category of households gathered more orchid tubers than the male-headed non-AIDS-affected households but not more than the female-headed AIDS-affected households. Children in these households spent more time on tuber-gathering activities than did members of the other households but had fewer household assets. Almost all the orphan-headed households depended on the cash obtained from selling orchid tubers to purchase food throughout the year. However, we surmise that gathering and selling wild orchid tubers fails to pull these children out of poverty and functions merely as a survival strategy.
Quantitative mapping of global land degradation using Earth observations
Jong, R. de; Bruin, S. de; Schaepman, M.E. ; Dent, D. - \ 2011
International Journal of Remote Sensing 32 (2011)21. - ISSN 0143-1161 - p. 6823 - 6853.
net primary production - time-series analysis - terrestrial primary production - difference vegetation index - noaa-avhrr data - spot-vegetation - ndvi data - interannual variability - growing-season - south-africa
Land degradation is a global issue on par with climate change and loss of biodiversity, but its extent and severity are only roughly known and there is little detail on the immediate processes – let alone the drivers. Earth-observation methods enable monitoring of land degradation in a consistent, physical way and on a global scale by making use of vegetation productivity and/or loss as proxies. Most recent studies indicate a general greening trend, but improved data sets and analysis also show a combination of greening and browning trends. Statistically based linear trends average out these effects. Improved understanding may be expected from data-driven and process-modelling approaches: new models, model integration, enhanced statistical analysis and modern sensor imagery at medium spatial resolution should substantially improve the assessment of global land degradation