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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Impact of a novel protein meal on the gastrointesinal microbiota and host transciptome of larval zebrafish Danio rerio
    Rurangwa, E. ; Sipkema, D. ; Kals, J. ; Veld, M. ter; Forlenza, M. ; Bacanu, G.M. ; Smidt, H. ; Palstra, A.P. - \ 2015
    Frontiers in Physiology 6 (2015). - ISSN 1664-042X - 27 p.
    large gene lists - intestinal microbiota - gut microbiota - digestive physiology - solea-senegalensis - metal uptake - sp-nov - fish - expression - iron
    Larval zebrafish was subjected to a methodological exploration of the gastrointestinal microbiota and transcriptome. Assessed was the impact of two dietary inclusion levels of a novel protein meal (NPM) of animal origin (ragworm Nereis virens) on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Microbial development was assessed over the first 21 days post egg fertilisation (dpf) through 16S rRNA gene-based microbial composition profiling by pyrosequencing. Differentially expressed genes in the GIT were demonstrated at 21 dpf by whole transcriptome sequencing (mRNAseq). Larval zebrafish showed rapid temporal changes in microbial colonization but domination occurred by one to three bacterial species generally belonging to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The high iron content of NPM may have led to an increased relative abundance of bacteria that were related to potential pathogens and bacteria with an increased iron metabolism. Functional classification of the 328 differentially expressed genes indicated that the GIT of larvae fed at higher NPM level was more active in transmembrane ion transport and protein synthesis. mRNAseq analysis did not reveal a major activation of genes involved in the immune response or indicating differences in iron uptake and homeostasis in zebrafish fed at the high inclusion level of NPM
    The Colletotrichum gigasporum species complex
    Liu, F. ; Cai, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. - \ 2014
    Persoonia 33 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 83 - 97.
    sp-nov - primer sets - endophytes - pathogens - china - gloeosporioides - anthracnose - diversity - sequences - acutatum
    In a preliminary analysis, 21 Colletotrichum strains with large conidia preserved in the CBS culture collection clustered with a recently described species, C. gigasporum, forming a clade distinct from other currently known Colletotrichum species complexes. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) as well as each of the single-locus analyses resolved seven distinct species, one of them being C. gigasporum. Colletotrichum gigasporum and its close allies thus constitute a previously unknown species complex with shared morphological features. Five of the seven species accepted in the C. gigasporum species complex are described here as novel species, namely C. arxii, C. magnisporum, C. pseudomajus, C. radicis and C. vietnamense. A species represented by a single sterile strain, namely CBS 159.50, was not described as novel species, and is treated as Colletotrichum sp. CBS 159.50. Furthermore, C. thailandicum is reduced to synonymy with C. gigasporum.
    Pestalotiopsis revisited
    Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Xu, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
    Studies in Mycology 79 (2014). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 121 - 186.
    ribosomal dna-sequences - sp-nov - morphological characters - conidial structure - camellia-sinensis - natural-products - twig blight - primer sets - leaf-spot - disease
    Species of Pestalotiopsis occur commonly as plant pathogens, and represent a fungal group known to produce a wide range of chemically novel, diverse metabolites. In the present study, we investigated 91 Pestalotiopsis isolates from the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS) culture collection. The phylogeny of the Amphisphaeriaceae was constructed based on analysis of 28S nrRNA gene (LSU) sequence data, and taxonomic changes are proposed to reflect more natural groupings. We combined morphological and DNA data, and segregated two novel genera from Pestalotiopsis, namely Neopestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis. The three genera are easily distinguishable on the basis of their conidiogenous cells and colour of their median conidial cells. We coupled morphological and combined sequence data of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial ß-tubulin (TUB) and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene regions, which revealed 30 clades in Neopestalotiopsis and 43 clades in Pestalotiopsis. Based on these data, 11 new species are introduced in Neopestalotiopsis, 24 in Pestalotiopsis, and two in Pseudopestalotiopsis. Several new combinations are proposed to emend monophyly of Neopestalotiopsis, Pestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis.
    Introducing the Consolidated Species Concept to resolve species in the Teratosphaeriaceae
    Quaedvlieg, W. ; Binder, M. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Burgess, T.I. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
    Persoonia 33 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 1 - 40.
    internal transcribed spacer - mycosphaerella-spp. - sp-nov - eucalyptus leaves - gene genealogies - south-africa - leaf spots - phylogenetic reassessment - reproductive isolation - multigene phylogeny
    The Teratosphaeriaceae represents a recently established family that includes numerous saprobic, extremophilic, human opportunistic, and plant pathogenic fungi. Partial DNA sequence data of the 28S rRNA and RPB2 genes strongly support a separation of the Mycosphaerellaceae from the Teratosphaeriaceae, and also provide support for the Extremaceae and Neodevriesiaceae, two novel families including many extremophilic fungi that occur on a diversity of substrates. In addition, a multi-locus DNA sequence dataset was generated (ITS, LSU, Btub, Act, RPB2, EF-1a and Cal) to distinguish taxa in Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria associated with leaf disease of Eucalyptus, leading to the introduction of 23 novel genera, five species and 48 new combinations. Species are distinguished based on a polyphasic approach, combining morphological, ecological and phylogenetic species concepts, named here as the Consolidated Species Concept (CSC). From the DNA sequence data generated, we show that each one of the five coding genes tested, reliably identify most of the species present in this dataset (except species of Pseudocercospora). The ITS gene serves as a primary barcode locus as it is easily generated and has the most extensive dataset available, while either Btub, EF-1a or RPB2 provide a useful secondary barcode locus.
    Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280
    Crous, P.W. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Bank, M. van der; Zhang, Y. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Guarro, J. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Braun, U. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Garcia, D. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Alvarado, P. ; Andrade, J.P. ; Armengol, J. ; Assefa, A. ; Breeÿen, A. den; Camele, I. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Souza, J.T. De; Duong, T.A. ; Esteve-Raventós, F. ; Fournier, J. ; Frisullo, S. ; García-Jiménez, J. ; Gardiennet, A. ; Gené, J. ; Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Hirooka, Y. ; Hospenthal, D.R. ; King, A. ; Lechat, C. ; Lombard, L. ; Mang, S.M. ; Marbach, P.A.S. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Montaño-Mata, N.J. ; Moreno, G. ; Perez, C.A. ; Pérez Sierra, A.M. ; Robertson, J.L. ; Roux, J. ; Rubio, E. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Thompson, E.H. ; Vanderlinde, E. ; Walker, A.K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Wickes, B.L. ; Wong, P.T.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2014
    Persoonia 32 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 184 - 306.
    sp-nov - phylogeny reveals - eucalyptus-microfungi - host-associations - gene phylogeny - sequence data - diaporthales - morphology - gnomoniaceae - conioscypha
    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
    Phylogenetic circumscription of Arthrographis (Eremomycetaceae, Dothideomycetes)
    Giraldo, A. ; Gené, J. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Madrid, H. ; Cano, J. ; Crous, P.W. ; Guarro, J. - \ 2014
    Persoonia 32 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 102 - 114.
    keratinophilic fungi - molecular-data - ribosomal dna - sp-nov - ascomycota - tubeufiaceae - systematics - arthropsis - evolution - revision
    Numerous members of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota produce only poorly differentiated arthroconidial asexual morphs in culture. These arthroconidial fungi are grouped in genera where the asexual-sexual connections and their taxonomic circumscription are poorly known. In the present study we explored the phylogenetic relationships of two of these ascomycetous genera, Arthrographis and Arthropsis. Analysis of D1/D2 sequences of all species of both genera revealed that both are polyphyletic, with species being accommodated in different orders and classes. Because genetic variability was detected among reference strains and fresh isolates resembling the genus Arthrographis, we carried out a detailed phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data of the ITS region, actin and chitin synthase genes. Based on these results, four new species are recognised, namely Arthrographis chlamydospora, A. curvata, A. globosa and A. longispora. Arthrographis chlamydospora is distinguished by its cerebriform colonies, branched conidiophores, cuboid arthroconidia and terminal or intercalary globose to subglobose chlamydospores. Arthrographis curvata produced both sexual and asexual morphs, and is characterised by navicular ascospores and dimorphic conidia, namely cylindrical arthroconidia and curved, cashew-nut-shaped conidia formed laterally on vegetative hyphae. Arthrographis globosa produced membranous colonies, but is mainly characterised by doliiform to globose arthroconidia. Arthrographis longispora also produces membranous colonies, but has poorly differentiated conidiophores and long arthroconidia. Morphological variants are described for A. kalrae and our results also revealed that Eremomyces langeronii and A. kalrae, traditionally considered the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species, are not conspecific.
    Sulfate Reduction at Low Ph To Remediate Acid Mine Drainage
    Sánchez-Andrea, I. ; Sanz, J.L. ; Bijmans, M.F.M. ; Stams, A.J.M. - \ 2014
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 269 (2014). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 98 - 109.
    fluidized-bed reactor - metal-contaminated water - rate-determining step - reducing bacteria - waste-water - microbial community - sp-nov - biological treatment - constructed wetland - passive treatment
    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD. Simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced react with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed
    Species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex associated with anthracnose diseases of Proteaceae
    Liu, F. ; Damm, U. ; Cai, L. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Fungal Diversity 61 (2013)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 89 - 105.
    yunnan provinces - fungal pathogens - primer sets - sp-nov - china - guizhou - hosts
    Anthracnose disease of Proteaceae has in the past chiefly been attributed to infections by C. acutatum, C. boninense and C. gloeosporioides. In the present study, a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis (ACT, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, GS, ITS, TUB2) revealed that strains of the C. gloeosporioides complex associated with Proteaceae belong to at least six species. These include C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. kahawae (subsp. ciggaro), C. siamense, and two new taxa, C. proteae and C. grevilleae. The most economically important pathogen of Proteaceae seems to be C. alienum, and not C. gloeosporioides as previously reported. All taxa associated with Proteaceae are morphologically described on different media in culture, except strains of C. siamense, which proved to be sterile. Furthermore, C. populi is synonymised with C. aenigma.
    Families of Dothideomycetes
    Hyde, K.D. ; Gareth Jones, E.B. ; Liu, J.K. ; Ariyawansa, H. ; Boehm, E. ; Boonmee, S. ; Braun, U. ; Chomnunti, P. ; Crous, P.W. ; Dai, D.Q. ; Diederich, P. ; Dissanayake, A. ; Doilom, M. ; Doveri, F. ; Hongsanan, S. ; Jayawardena, R. ; Lawrey, J.D. ; Li, Y.M. ; Liu, Y.X. ; Lücking, R. ; Monkai, J. ; Muggia, L. ; Nelsen, M.P. ; Pang, K.L. ; Phookamsak, R. ; Senanayake, I.C. ; Shearer, C.A. ; Suetrong, S. ; Tanaka, K. ; Thambugala, K.M. ; Wijayawardene, N.N. ; Wikee, S. ; Wu, H.X. ; Zhang, Y. ; Aguirre-Hudson, B. ; Alias, S.A. ; Aptroot, A. ; Bahkali, A.H. ; Berezza, J.L. ; Bhat, D.J. ; Camporesi, E. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Gueidan, C. ; Hawksworth, D.L. ; Hirayama, K. ; Hoog, S. de; Kang, J.C. ; Knudsen, K. ; Li, W.J. ; Li, X.H. ; Liu, Z.Y. ; Mapook, A. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Miller, A.N. ; Mortimer, P.E. ; Phillips, A.J.L. ; Raja, H.A. ; Scheuer, C. ; Schumm, F. ; Taylor, J.E. ; Tian, Q. ; Tibpromma, S. ; Wanasinghe, D.N. ; Wang, Y. ; Xu, J.C. ; Yacharoen, S. ; Yan, J.Y. ; Zhang, M. - \ 2013
    Fungal Diversity 63 (2013)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 1 - 313.
    ribosomal dna-sequences - morphologically similar genera - foliicolous lichenized fungi - intertidal mangrove wood - leaf-inhabiting fungi - fresh-water habitats - new-zealand fungi - russian far-east - papua-new-guinea - sp-nov
    Dothideomycetes comprise a highly diverse range of fungi characterized mainly by asci with two wall layers (bitunicate asci) and often with fissitunicate dehiscence. Many species are saprobes, with many asexual states comprising important plant pathogens. They are also endophytes, epiphytes, fungicolous, lichenized, or lichenicolous fungi. They occur in terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats in almost every part of the world. We accept 105 families in Dothideomycetes with the new families Anteagloniaceae, Bambusicolaceae, Biatriosporaceae, Lichenoconiaceae, Muyocopronaceae, Paranectriellaceae, Roussoellaceae, Salsugineaceae, Seynesiopeltidaceae and Thyridariaceae introduced in this paper. Each family is provided with a description and notes, including asexual and asexual states, and if more than one genus is included, the type genus is also characterized. Each family is provided with at least one figure-plate, usually illustrating the type genus, a list of accepted genera, including asexual genera, and a key to these genera. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene combined analysis add support for 64 of the families and 22 orders, including the novel orders, Dyfrolomycetales, Lichenoconiales, Lichenotheliales, Monoblastiales, Natipusillales, Phaeotrichales and Strigulales. The paper is expected to provide a working document on Dothideomycetes which can be modified as new data comes to light. It is hoped that by illustrating types we provide stimulation and interest so that more work is carried out in this remarkable group of fungi.
    The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture
    Phillips, A.J.L. ; Alves, A. ; Abdollahzadeh, J. ; Slippers, B. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Studies in Mycology 76 (2013)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 51 - 167.
    native syzygium-cordatum - grapevine trunk diseases - dna-sequence data - castilla-y-leon - new-south-wales - 1st report - sp-nov - neofusicoccum-parvum - sphaeropsis-sapinea - western-australia
    In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. Thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the Botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or DNA sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the species in this family that are known from culture. Such older taxa will have to be disregarded for future use unless they are epitypified. We therefore focus this paper on the 17 genera that can now be recognised phylogenetically, which concentrates on the species that are presently known from culture. Included is a historical overview of the family, the morphological features that define the genera and species and detailed descriptions of the 17 genera and 110 species. Keys to the genera and species are also provided. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera are given in a multi-locus tree based on combined SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-a and ß-tubulin sequences. The morphological descriptions are supplemented by phylogenetic trees (ITS alone or ITS + EF1-a) for the species in each genus.
    Characterisation of Neofusicoccum species causing mango dieback in Italy
    Ismail, A.M. ; Cirvilleri, G. ; Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Polizzi, G. - \ 2013
    Journal of Plant Pathology: rivista di patologia vegetale 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 1125-4653 - p. 549 - 557.
    mangifera-indica - phylogenetic analysis - south-africa - 1st report - sp-nov - botryosphaeria - pathogenicity - lasiodiplodia - morphology - grapevine
    Species of Botryosphaeriaceae are important fungal pathogens of mango worldwide. A survey of 11 mango orchards located in the provinces of Catania, Messina, Palermo and Ragusa (Sicily, southern Italy), resulted in the isolation of a large number (76) of Neofusicoccum isolates associated with decline and dieback symptoms. Isolates were identified based on morphology and DNA sequence data analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nrDNA and partial translation of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Two species of Neofusicoccum were identified, which included N. parvum and N. australe, the former of which was the dominant species. The high incidence in local orchards and the pathogenicity results indicate that N. parvum and N. australe are important pathogens of mango in Sicily where they may significantly limit mango production.
    Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213
    Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Guarro, J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Bank, M. van der; Swart, W.J. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Roux, J. ; Madrid, H. ; Damm, U. ; Wood, A.R. ; Shuttleworth, L.A. ; Hodges, C.S. ; Munster, M. ; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M. de; Zúñiga-Estrada, L. ; Cruywagen, E.M. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Silvera, C. ; Najafzadeh, J. ; Davison, E.M. ; Davison, P.J.N. ; Barrett, M.D. ; Barrett, R.L. ; Manamgoda, D.S. ; Minnis, A.M. ; Kleczewski, N.M. ; Flory, S.L. ; Castlebury, L.A. ; Clay, K. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Maússe-Sitoe, S.N.D. ; Chen, S. ; Lechat, C. ; Hairaud, M. ; Lesage-Meessen, L. ; Pawlowska, J. ; Wilk, M. ; Sliwinska-Wyrzychowska, A. ; Metrak, M. ; Wrzosek, M. ; Pavlic-Zupanc, D. ; Maleme, H.M. ; Slippers, B. ; Mac Cormack, W.P. ; Archuby, D.I. ; Grünwald, N.J. ; Tellería, M.T. ; Dueñas, M. ; Martín, M.P. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Perez, C.A. ; Gené, J. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2013
    Persoonia 31 (2013). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 188 - 296.
    sp-nov - colletotrichum-sansevieriae - anamorph genus - south-africa - 1st report - phytophthora-ipomoeae - leaf-blight - genera - phylogeny - botryosphaeriaceae
    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
    Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum
    Liu, F. ; Cai, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. - \ 2013
    Mycologia 105 (2013)4. - ISSN 0027-5514 - p. 844 - 860.
    molecular diversity - differential cultivars - genetic-variability - sequence-analysis - host-specificity - primer sets - sp-nov - glomerella - resistance - identification
    The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships of these important pathogens, we conducted a multigene analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) of strains previously identified as C. lindemuthianum, C. coccodes and other related species, as well as representative species of the major Colletotrichum species complexes. Strains of C. lindemuthianum belonged to a single clade; we selected an authentic specimen as lectotype, and an appropriate specimen and culture from the CBS collection to serve as epitype. Two clades were resolved within C. coccodes s. lat. One clade included the ex-neotype strain of C. coccodes on Solanum, while an epitype was selected for C. nigrum, which represents the oldest name of the second clade, which occurs on Capsicum, Solanum, as well as several other host plants. Furthermore, we recognized C. lycopersici as a synonym of C. nigrum, and C. biologicum as a synonym of C. coccodes.
    Diaporthe: a genus of endophytic, saprobic and plant pathogenic fungi
    Gomes, R.R. ; Glienke, C. ; Videira, S.I.R. ; Lombard, L. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
    Persoonia 31 (2013). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 1 - 41.
    internal transcribed spacer - south-africa - species concepts - sp-nov - coelomycete phomopsis - foeniculum-vulgare - multigene analysis - north-america - ribosomal dna - twig dieback
    Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species have often been reported as plant pathogens, non-pathogenic endophytes or saprobes, commonly isolated from a wide range of hosts. The primary aim of the present study was to resolve the taxonomy and phylogeny of a large collection of Diaporthe species occurring on diverse hosts, either as pathogens, saprobes, or as harmless endophytes. In the present study we investigated 243 isolates using multilocus DNA sequence data. Analyses of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) region, and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone H3 (HIS) and calmodulin (CAL) genes resolved 95 clades. Fifteen new species are described, namely Diaporthe arengae, D. brasiliensis, D. endophytica, D. hongkongensis, D. inconspicua, D. infecunda, D. mayteni, D. neoarctii, D. oxe, D. paranensis, D. pseudomangiferae, D. pseudophoenicicola, D. raonikayaporum, D. schini and D. terebinthifolii. A further 14 new combinations are introduced in Diaporthe, and D. anacardii is epitypified. Although species of Diaporthe have in the past chiefly been distinguished based on host association, results of this study confirm several taxa to have wide host ranges, suggesting that they move freely among hosts, frequently co-colonising diseased or dead tissue. In contrast, some plant pathogenic and endophytic taxa appear to be strictly host specific. Given this diverse ecological behaviour among members of Diaporthe, future species descriptions lacking molecular data (at least ITS and HIS or TUB) should be strongly discouraged.
    Glycerol fermentation to hydrogen by Thermotoga maritima: Proposed pathway and bioenergetic considerations
    Maru, B.T. ; Bielen, A.A.M. ; Constanti, M. ; Medina, F. ; Kengen, S.W.M. - \ 2013
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 38 (2013)14. - ISSN 0360-3199 - p. 5563 - 5572.
    biohydrogen production - escherichia-coli - caldicellulosiruptor-saccharolyticus - 3-phosphate dehydrogenase - anaerobic fermentation - nucleotide-sequence - dark fermentation - embden-meyerhof - sp-nov - bacteria
    The production of biohydrogen from glycerol, by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109, was investigated in batch and chemostat systems. T. maritima converted glycerol to mainly acetate, CO2 and H2. Maximal hydrogen yields of 2.84 and 2.41 hydrogen per glycerol were observed for batch and chemostat cultivations, respectively. For batch cultivations: i) hydrogen production rates decreased with increasing initial glycerol concentration, ii) growth and hydrogen production was optimal in the pH range of 7–7.5, and iii) a yeast extract concentration of 2 g/l led to optimal hydrogen production. Stable growth could be maintained in a chemostat, however, when dilution rates exceeded 0.025 h-1 glycerol conversion was incomplete. A detailed overview of the catabolic pathway involved in glycerol fermentation to hydrogen by T. maritima is given. Based on comparative genomics the ability to grow on glycerol can be considered as a general trait of Thermotoga species. The exceptional bioenergetics of hydrogen formation from glycerol is discussed
    Molecular typing of Dutch isolates of Xanthomonas arboricola pathovar pruni isolated from ornamental cherry laurel
    Bergsma-Vlami, M. ; Martin, W. ; Koenraadt, H. ; Teunissen, H. ; Pothier, J.F. ; Duffy, B. ; Doorn, J. van - \ 2012
    Journal of Plant Pathology: rivista di patologia vegetale 94 (2012)Supp.1. - ISSN 1125-4653 - p. S29 - S35.
    pectate lyase secretion - acutatum-sensu-lato - colletotrichum-acutatum - c-gloeosporioides - sp-nov - fruit - diversity - infection - susceptibility - pathogenicity
    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) has been found in several cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) nurseries in the Netherlands, causing leaf spot. As no information is available yet about the epidemiology of this quarantine bacterium in cherry laurel, molecular typing of Xap isolates can considerably improve our understanding of pathogen spread between various cherry laurel production systems in different regions of the Netherlands and pathogen relatedness among different disease outbreaks. In this study, the genotypic diversity within a population of 25 Xap isolates isolated from different cherry laurel cultivars grown in different locations in the Netherlands between 2008-2010, was assessed using Multiple-locus variable-number analysis (MLVA). The identity of these Xap isolates was initially determined based on the EPPO standard PM 7/64. Confirmation of the identity of these Xap isolates was additionally achieved with diverse methodologies, including gyrase subunit B (gyrB) sequence typing, BOXand ERIC-PCR, AFLP, and Xap-specific PCR’s: one based on the previously described Pagani primers (2004) (conventional-PCR and its TaqMan-PCR variant) and one based on the recently described Pothier primers (2011c). Based on the results of the MLVA analysis, the Dutch population of Xap isolates could be divided into two groups; however no correlation with the geographical origin or any other character of these isolates could be established. Additionally, based on colony morphology, a panel of 5 look-a-likes were isolated from symptomatic leaves of P. laurocerasus which reacted in the Xap-specific PCR described by Pagani (2004) but that did not react in the Xap-specific PCR described by Pothier et al. (2011c). Further characterisation of these look-a-like isolates with AFLP, BOXand ERIC-PCR, and gyrB sequencing showed that the Xap-specific PCR described by Pagani does not discriminate between Xap and the look-a-like isolates. Similarly to Pagani PCR, the performance of a pathogenicity test with a pure culture of the isolate was not always discriminative between Xap and the look-a-like isolates, unraveling a complexity in Xanthomonas pathogenicity. Therefore, in routine screening based on the EPPO standard PM 7/64, complementary techniques such as BOX- ERIC-PCR, gyrB sequencing, Xap-specific PCR described by Pothier (2011c), MLVA and AFLP should be used to obtain a reliable diagnosis of Xap and avoid false positive results.
    A multi-locus backbone tree for Pestalotiopsis, with a polyphasic characterization of 14 new species
    Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Guo, L.D. ; Cai, L. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Wu, W.P. ; Sun, X. ; Crous, P.W. ; Bhat, D.J. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Bahkali, A.H. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2012
    Fungal Diversity 56 (2012)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 95 - 129.
    dna-sequence database - rna-polymerase-ii - endophytic fungus - beta-tubulin - antifungal metabolites - primer sets - sp-nov - phylogeny - diversity - plant
    Pestalotiopsis is a taxonomically confused, pathogenic and chemically creative genus requiring a critical re-examination using a multi-gene phylogeny based on ex-type and ex-epitype cultures. In this study 40 isolates of Pestalotiopsis, comprised of 28 strains collected from living and dead plant material of various host plants from China were studied by means of morphology and analysis of ITS, ß–tubulin and tef1 gene sequence data. Based on molecular and morphological data we describe 14 new species (Pestalotiopsis asiatica, P. chinensis, P. chrysea, P. clavata, P. diversiseta, P. ellipsospora, P. inflexa, P. intermedia, P. linearis, P. rosea, P. saprophyta, P. umberspora, P. unicolor and P. verruculosa) and three species are epitypified (P. adusta, P. clavispora and P. foedans). Of the 10 gene regions (ACT, ß-tubulin, CAL, GPDH, GS, ITS, LSU, RPB 1, SSU and tef1) utilized to resolve cryptic Pestalotiopsis species, ITS, ß–tubulin and tef1 proved to be the better markers. The other gene regions were less useful due to poor success in PCR amplification and/or in their ability to resolve species boundaries. As a single gene tef1 met the requirements for an ideal candidate and functions well for species delimitation due to its better species resolution and PCR success. Although ß-tubulin showed fairly good differences among species, a combination of ITS, ß-tubulin and tef1 gene data gave the best resolution as compared to single gene analysis. This work provides a backbone tree for 22 ex-type/epitypified species of Pestalotiopsis and can be used in future studies of the genus.
    The Colletotrichum acutatum complex
    Damm, U. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2012
    Studies in Mycology 73 (2012)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 37 - 113.
    key lime anthracnose - glomerella leaf-spot - f-sp aeschynomene - bitter rot - sp-nov - molecular characterization - olive anthracnose - c-gloeosporioides - endophytic fungi - causal agent
    Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously identified as C. acutatum and other related taxa, including strains from numerous hosts with wide geographic distributions, confirmed the molecular groups previously recognised and identified a series of novel taxa. Thirty-one species are accepted, of which 21 have not previously been recognised. Colletotrichum orchidophilum clusters basal to the C. acutatum species complex. There is a high phenotypic diversity within this complex, and some of the species appear to have preferences to specific hosts or geographical regions. Others appear to be plurivorous and are present in multiple regions. In this study, only C. salicis and C. rhombiforme formed sexual morphs in culture, although sexual morphs have been described from other taxa (especially as laboratory crosses), and there is evidence of hybridisation between different species. One species with similar morphology to C. acutatum but not belonging to this species complex was also described here as new, namely C. pseudoacutatum.
    The Colletotrichum boninense species complex
    Damm, U. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Weir, B.S. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2012
    Studies in Mycology 73 (2012). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 36.
    1st report - glomerella-acutata - primer sets - sp-nov - anthracnose - identification - diversity - teleomorph - gloeosporioides - compatibility
    Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture.
    Fungal Planet description sheets: 107-127
    Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Burgess, T.I. ; Decock, C.A. ; Dreyer, L.L. ; Granke, L.L. ; Guest, D.I. ; Hardy, G.E.St.J. ; Hausbeck, M.K. ; Hüberli, D. ; Jung, T. ; Koukol, O. ; Lennox, C.L. ; Liew, E.C.Y. ; Lombard, L. ; McTaggart, A.R. ; Pryke, J.S. ; Roets, F. ; Saude, C. ; Shuttleworth, L.A. ; Stukely, M.J.C. ; Vánky, K. ; Webster, B.J. ; Windstam, S.T. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
    Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 138 - 182.
    sp-nov - allied genera - south-africa - diaporthales - eucalyptus - genus - cryphonectriaceae - gnomoniaceae - reevaluation - evolutionary
    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Phytophthora amnicola from still water, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sp., Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiae from Corymbia sp., Diaporthe eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus sp., Sporisorium andrewmitchellii from Enneapogon aff. lindleyanus, Myrmecridium banksiae from Banksia, and Pilidiella wangiensis from Eucalyptus sp. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Gondwanamyces wingfieldii from Protea caffra, Montagnula aloes from Aloe sp., Diaporthe canthii from Canthium inerne, Phyllosticta ericarum from Erica gracilis, Coleophoma proteae from Protea caffra, Toxicocladosporium strelitziae from Strelitzia reginae, and Devriesia agapanthi from Agapanthus africanus. Other species include Phytophthora asparagi from Asparagus officinalis (USA), and Diaporthe passiflorae from Passiflora edulis (South America). Furthermore, novel genera of coelomycetes include Chrysocrypta corymbiae from Corymbia sp. (Australia), Trinosporium guianense, isolated as a contaminant (French Guiana), and Xenosonderhenia syzygii, from Syzygium cordatum (South Africa). Pseudopenidiella piceae from Picea abies (Czech Republic), and Phaeocercospora colophospermi from Colophospermum mopane (South Africa) represent novel genera of hyphomycetes. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
    The genus Cladosporium
    Bench, K. ; Braun, U. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2012
    Studies in Mycology 72 (2012)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 401.
    leaf blotch pathogens - allii-cepae - sensu-lato - taxonomic revision - causal organism - lichenicolous fungi - sp-nov - sporotrichum-gougerotii - aromatic-hydrocarbons - molecular diagnostics
    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-a gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors.
    Polyclonal Antibody-based ELISA in combination with specific PCR amplification of ITS 1 regions for the detection and quantitation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of 2 gummosis in cashew nut plants
    Muniz, C.R. ; Freire, F.C.O. ; Viana, F.M.P. ; Cardoso, J.E. ; Correia, D. ; Jalink, H. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Silva, G.F. ; Guedes, M.I.F. - \ 2012
    Annals of Applied Biology 160 (2012)3. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 217 - 224.
    south-africa - sp-nov - botryosphaeriaceae - pathogens - endophytes - pinus - stem
    Members of Botryosphaeriaceae family are associated with serious diseases in different plants 18 across the world. In cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.), the fungus Lasiodiplodia 19 theobromae causes a severe group of symptoms related to gummosis that results in decreased nut 20 production. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent 21 assay (ELISA) with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect the fungus both in vitro and in 22 planta (artificially and naturally infected) and to increase the detection specificity within the 23 fungi group using primers specific for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. A 24 collection of L. theobromae isolates was obtained, and antisera against the fungus were raised in 25 rabbits. Cross-reactivity against Neofusicoccum sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis 26 anacardii and Pestalotiopsis guepinii was examined. Naturally and artificially infected vegetal 27 material was employed in the ELISAs. The fungi ITS sequences were determined, and single 28 nucleotide polymorphisms were identified and used for primer design. For the naturally infected 29 2 plants, there was an approximately 4-fold variation in the absorbance values. Some positive 1 readings for asymptomatic samples were detected. For the artificially infected samples, an 2 ELISA-based weekly time-course analysis was conducted, and the values for samples from 0 and 3 7 days were lower than the threshold value. Beginning on day 14, the infection could be 4 detected, with rates varying from 40% on day 14 to 80% on day 21 and 100% by the end of the 5 experiment. The ITS sequencing revealed few polymorphisms among the L. theobromae isolates, 6 but for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis anacardii, Pestalotiopsis guepinii and 7 Neofusicoccum sp., the sequences were sufficient to permit reliable discrimination. The 8 feasibility of ELISA as an early detection technique to assist in gummosis management was 9 demonstrated. PCR amplification based on ITS regions increases and complements serological 10 specificity
    Zhang, Y. ; Crous, P.W. ; Schoch, C.L. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2012
    Fungal Diversity 53 (2012)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 1 - 221.
    ribosomal dna-sequences - australian fresh-water - intertidal mangrove wood - sp-nov - north-america - marine fungi - molecular phylogeny - trematosphaeria-circinans - shiraia-bambusicola - multigene phylogeny
    One hundred and five generic types of Pleosporales are described and illustrated. A brief introduction and detailed history with short notes on morphology, molecular phylogeny as well as a general conclusion of each genus are provided. For those genera where the type or a representative specimen is unavailable, a brief note is given. Altogether 174 genera of Pleosporales are treated. Phaeotrichaceae as well as Kriegeriella, Zeuctomorpha and Muroia are excluded from Pleosporales. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, the suborder Massarineae is emended to accommodate five families, viz. Lentitheciaceae, Massarinaceae, Montagnulaceae, Morosphaeriaceae and Trematosphaeriaceae.
    Degradation of 4-n-nonylphenol under nitrate reducing conditions
    Weert, J.P.A. de; Vinas, M. ; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Langenhoff, A.A.M. - \ 2011
    Biodegradation 22 (2011)1. - ISSN 0923-9820 - p. 175 - 187.
    anaerobic degradation - desulfobacterium-phenolicum - polychlorinated-biphenyls - nonionic surfactants - sewage-sludge - n-hexadecane - sp-nov - nonylphenol - biodegradation - 4-nonylphenol
    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor present as a pollutant in river sediment. Biodegradation of NP can reduce its toxicological risk. As sediments are mainly anaerobic, degradation of linear (4-n-NP) and branched nonylphenol (tNP) was studied under methanogenic, sulphate reducing and denitrifying conditions in NP polluted river sediment. Anaerobic bioconversion was observed only for linear NP under denitrifying conditions. The microbial population involved herein was further studied by enrichment and molecular characterization. The largest change in diversity was observed between the enrichments of the third and fourth generation, and further enrichment did not affect the diversity. This implies that different microorganisms are involved in the degradation of 4-n-NP in the sediment. The major degrading bacteria were most closely related to denitrifying hexadecane degraders and linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) degraders. The molecular structures of alkanes and LAS are similar to the linear chain of 4-n-NP, this might indicate that the biodegradation of linear NP under denitrifying conditions starts at the nonyl chain. Initiation of anaerobic NP degradation was further tested using phenol as a structure analogue. Phenol was chosen instead of an aliphatic analogue, because phenol is the common structure present in all NP isomers while the structure of the aliphatic chain differs per isomer. Phenol was degraded in all cases, but did not affect the linear NP degradation under denitrifying conditions and did not initiate the degradation of tNP and linear NP under the other tested conditions.
    A molecular, morphological and ecological re-appraisal of Venturiales¿a new order of Dothideomycetes
    Zhang, Y. ; Crous, P.W. ; Schoch, C.L. ; Bahkali, A.H. ; Guo, L.D. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2011
    Fungal Diversity 51 (2011)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 249 - 277.
    phylogenetic trees - bayesian-inference - sequence-data - apple scab - sp-nov - venturiaceae - genera - fungi - herpotrichiellaceae - classification
    The Venturiaceae was traditionally assigned to Pleosporales although its diagnostic characters readily distinguish it from other pleosporalean families. These include a parasitic or saprobic lifestyle, occurring on leaves or stems of dicotyledons; small to medium-sized ascomata, often with setae; deliquescing pseudoparaphyses; 8-spored, broadly cylindrical to obclavate asci; 1-septate, yellowish, greenish or pale brown to brown ascospores; and hyphomycetous anamorphs. Phylogenetically, core genera of Venturiaceae form a monophyletic clade within Dothideomycetes, and represent a separate sister lineage from current orders, thus a new order—Venturiales is introduced. A new family, Sympoventuriaceae, is introduced to accommodate taxa of a well-supported subclade within Venturiales, which contains Sympoventuria, Veronaeopsis simplex and Fusicladium-like species. Based on morphology and DNA sequence analysis, eight genera are included in Venturiaceae, viz. Acantharia, Apiosporina (including Dibotryon), Caproventuria, Coleroa, Pseudoparodiella, Metacoleroa, Tyrannosorus and Venturia. Molecular phylogenetic information is lacking for seven genera previously included in Venturiales, namely Arkoola, Atopospora, Botryostroma, Lasiobotrys, Trichodothella, Trichodothis and Rhizogenee and these are discussed, but their inclusion in Venturiaceae is doubtful. Crotone, Gibbera, Lineostroma, Phaeocryptopus, Phragmogibbera, Platychora, Polyrhizon, Rosenscheldiella, Uleodothis and Xenomeris are excluded from Venturiales, and their ordinal placement needs further investigation. Zeuctomorpha is treated as a synonym of Acantharia.
    Impact of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) adaptation and recovery on the density and diversity of bacteria in the rumen of dairy cows
    Hook, S.E. ; Steele, M.A. ; Northwood, K.S. ; Dijkstra, J. ; France, J. ; Wright, A.G. ; McBride, B.W. - \ 2011
    FEMS microbiology ecology 78 (2011)2. - ISSN 0168-6496 - p. 275 - 284.
    high-grain diet - real-time pcr - sp-nov - gen-nov - sequence - ph - dynamics - communities - population - cattle
    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is characterized by ruminal pH depression and microbial perturbation. The impact of SARA adaptation and recovery on rumen bacterial density and diversity was investigated following high-grain feeding. Four ruminally cannulated dairy cows were fed a hay diet, transitioned to a 65% grain diet for 3 weeks, and returned to the hay diet for 3 weeks. Rumen fluid, rumen solids, and feces were sampled during weeks 0 (hay), 1 and 3 (high grain), and 4 and 6 (hay). SARA was diagnosed during week 1, with a pH below 5.6 for 4.6±1.4 h. Bacterial density was significantly lower in the rumen solids with high grain (P=0.047). Rumen fluid clone libraries from weeks 0, 3, and 6 were assessed at the 98% level and 154 operational taxonomic units were resolved. Week 3 diversity significantly differed from week 0, and community structure differed from weeks 0 and 6 (P
    Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions
    Graaff, M. de; Bijmans, M.F.M. ; Abbas, B. ; Euverink, G.J.W. ; Muyzer, G. ; Janssen, A.J.H. - \ 2011
    Bioresource Technology 102 (2011)15. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 7257 - 7264.
    sulfur-oxidizing bacteria - soda lake - sp-nov - oxidation processes - mono lake - gen. nov. - diversity - sulfide - water - bacteriochlorophyll
    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at 35°C. Sulfide loading rates up to 27 mmol L(-1)day(-1) were successfully applied at a HRT of 3.5 days. Sulfide was completely converted into sulfate by the haloalkaliphilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. Influent benzene concentrations ranged from 100 to 600 µM. At steady state, benzene was removed by 93% due to high stripping efficiencies and biodegradation. Microbial community analysis revealed the presence of haloalkaliphilic heterotrophic bacteria belonging to the genera Marinobacter, Halomonas and Idiomarina which might have been involved in the observed benzene removal. The work shows the potential of halo-alkaliphilic bacteria in mitigating environmental problems caused by alkaline waste.
    Exploring the metabolic network of the epidemic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 via genome-scale reconstruction
    Fang, K. ; Zhao, H. ; Changyue Sun, ; Lam, M.C. ; Chang, S. ; Zhang, K. ; Panda, G. ; Godinho, M. ; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P. ; Wang, J. - \ 2011
    BMC Systems Biology 5 (2011). - ISSN 1752-0509 - 16 p.
    cystic-fibrosis sputum - coenzyme-a carboxylase - survival in-vivo - cepacia complex - pseudomonas-aeruginosa - escherichia-coli - drug targets - sp-nov - antimicrobial peptides - core-oligosaccharide
    BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cenocepacia is a threatening nosocomial epidemic pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or a compromised immune system. Its high level of antibiotic resistance is an increasing concern in treatments against its infection. Strain B. cenocepacia J2315 is the most infectious isolate from CF patients. There is a strong demand to reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic network of B. cenocepacia J2315 to systematically analyze its metabolic capabilities and its virulence traits, and to search for potential clinical therapy targets. RESULTS: We reconstructed the genome-scale metabolic network of B. cenocepacia J2315. An iterative reconstruction process led to the establishment of a robust model, iKF1028, which accounts for 1,028 genes, 859 internal reactions, and 834 metabolites. The model iKF1028 captures important metabolic capabilities of B. cenocepacia J2315 with a particular focus on the biosyntheses of key metabolic virulence factors to assist in understanding the mechanism of disease infection and identifying potential drug targets. The model was tested through BIOLOG assays. Based on the model, the genome annotation of B. cenocepacia J2315 was refined and 24 genes were properly re-annotated. Gene and enzyme essentiality were analyzed to provide further insights into the genome function and architecture. A total of 45 essential enzymes were identified as potential therapeutic targets. CONCLUSIONS: As the first genome-scale metabolic network of B. cenocepacia J2315, iKF1028 allows a systematic study of the metabolic properties of B. cenocepacia and its key metabolic virulence factors affecting the CF community. The model can be used as a discovery tool to design novel drugs against diseases caused by this notorious pathogen
    Microbiota of cocoa powder with particular reference to aerobic thermoresistant spore-formers
    Líma, L.J.R. ; Kamphuis, H.J. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2011
    Food Microbiology 28 (2011)3. - ISSN 0740-0020 - p. 573 - 582.
    bacillus-subtilis - heat-resistance - sp-nov - aflp - heterogeneity - bacteria - sequence - strains - milk - rna
    The microbiological criteria of commercial cocoa powder are defined in guidelines instituted by the cocoa industry. Twenty-five commercial samples were collected with the aim of assessing the compliance with the microbiological quality guidelines and investigating the occurrence and properties of aerobic Thermoresistant Spores (ThrS). Seventeen samples complied with the guidelines, but one was positive for Salmonella, five for Enterobacteriaceae and two had mould levels just exceeding the maximum admissible level. The treatment of the cocoa powder suspensions from 100 °C to 170 °C for 10 min, revealed the presence of ThrS in 36% of the samples. In total 61 ThrS strains were isolated, of which the majority belonged to the Bacillus subtilis complex (65.6%). Strains resporulation and spore crops inactivation at 110 °C for 5 min showed a wide diversity of heat-resistance capacities. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed not only a large intraspecies diversity, but also different clusters of heat-resistant spore-forming strains. The heat-resistance of spores of six B. subtilis complex strains was further examined by determination of their D and z-values. We concluded that B. subtilis complex spores, in particular those from strain M112, were the most heat-resistant and these may survive subsequent preservation treatments, being potentially problematic in food products, such as chocolate milk
    Hydrogenotrophic Sulfate Reduction in a Gas-Lift Bioreactor Operated at 9 degrees C
    Nevatalo, L.M. ; Bijmans, M.F.M. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Kaksonen, A.H. ; Puhakka, J.A. - \ 2010
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20 (2010)3. - ISSN 1017-7825 - p. 615 - 621.
    reducing bacteria - retention time - carbon-dioxide - growth-rate - sp-nov - reactor - temperature - methanogenesis - oxidation - sulfide
    The viability of low-temperature sulfate reduction with hydrogen as electron donor was studied with a bench-scale gas-lift bioreactor (GLB) operated at 9 degrees C. Prior to the GLB experiment, the temperature range of sulfate reduction of the inoculum was assayed. The results of the temperature gradient assay indicated that the inoculum was a psychrotolerant mesophilic enrichment culture that had an optimal temperature for sulfate reduction of 31 degrees C, and minimum and maximum temperatures of 7 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. In the GLB experiment at 9 degrees C, a sulfate reduction rate of 500-600 mg l(-1) d(-1), corresponding to a specific activity of 173 mg SO42- g VSS-1 d(-1), was obtained. The electron flow from the consumed H-2-gas to sulfate reduction varied between 27% and 52%, whereas the electron flow to acetate production decreased steadily from 15% to 5%. No methane was produced. Acetate was produced from CO2 and H-2 by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate supported the growth of some heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The sulfate reduction rate in the GLB was limited by the slow biomass growth rate at 9 degrees C and low biomass retention in the reactor. Nevertheless, this study demonstrated the potential sulfate reduction rate of psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing mesophiles at suboptimal temperature.
    Isolation and Partial Characterization of Bacterial Strains on Low Organic Carbon Medium from Soils Fertilized with Different Organic Amendments
    Senechkin, I.V. ; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L. ; Semenov, A.M. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van; Overbeek, L.S. van - \ 2010
    Microbial Ecology 60 (2010)4. - ISSN 0095-3628 - p. 829 - 839.
    16s ribosomal-rna - oligotrophic bacteria - bradyrhizobium-japonicum - microbial-populations - sp-nov - diversity - community - nitrogen - dynamics - roots
    A total of 720 bacterial strains were isolated from soils with four different organic amendment regimes on a low organic carbon (low-C) agar medium (10 mu g C ml(-1)) traditionally used for isolation of oligotrophs. Organic amendments in combination with field history resulted in differences in dissolved organic carbon contents in these soils. There were negative correlations between total and dissolved organic carbon content and the number of isolates on low-C agar medium, whereas these correlations were absent for bacterial strains isolated from the same soil on high-C agar medium (1,000 mu g C ml(-1)). Repeated transfers (up to ten times) of the isolates from low-C agar medium to fresh low- and high-C agar media were done to test for exclusive growth under oligotrophic conditions. The number of isolates exclusively growing under oligotrophic conditions dropped after each subsequent transfer from 241 after the first to 98 after the third transfer step. Identification on the basis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the 241 isolates (as well as the subset of 98 isolates) belong to widespread genera such as Streptomyces, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Mesorhizobium, and the taxonomic composition of dominant genera changed from the first transfer step to the third. A selected subset of 17 isolates were further identified and characterized for exclusive growth on low-C agar medium. Two isolates continued to grow only on low-C agar medium up to the tenth transfer step and matched most closely with Rhizobium sullae and an uncultured bacterium on the basis of the almost full-length 16S rRNA gene. It was concluded that the vast majority of strains which are isolated on low-C agar media belong to the trophic group of microorganisms adapted to a "broad range" of carbon concentrations, including well-known and widespread bacterial genera. Oligotrophy is a physiological, not a taxonomic property, and can only be identified by cultural means so far. We showed that true oligotrophs that are unable to grow on high carbon media are rare and belong to genera that also contain broad-range and copiotrophic strains.
    Sequence data reveals phylogenetic affinities of fungal anamorphs Bahusutrabeeja, Diplococcium, Natarajania, Paliphora, Polyschema, Rattania and Spadicoides
    Shenoy, B.D. ; Jeewon, R. ; Wang, H. ; Amandeep, K. ; Ho, W.H. ; Bhat, D.J. ; Crous, P.W. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2010
    Fungal Diversity 44 (2010)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 161 - 169.
    sp-nov - sensu-lato - molecular systematics - polyphasic approach - submerged wood - western-ghats - allied genera - hong-kong - gen. nov - chaetosphaeria
    Partial 28S rRNA gene sequence-data of the strains of the anamorphic genera Bahusutrabeeja, Diplococcium, Natarajania, Paliphora, Polyschema, Rattania and Spadicoides were analysed to predict their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic placement within the Ascomycota. Results indicate that Diplococcium and morphologically similar genera, i.e. Spadicoides, Paliphora and Polyschema do not share a recent common ancestor. The type species of Diplococcium, D. spicatum is referred to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The placement of Spadicoides bina, the type of the genus, is unresolved but it is shown to be closely associated with Porosphaerella species, which are sister taxa to Coniochaetales (Sordariomycetes). Three Polyschema species analysed in this study represent a monophyletic lineage and are related to Lentithecium fluviatile and Leptosphaeria calvescens in Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes). DNA sequence analysis also suggests that Paliphora intermedia is a member of Chaetosphaeriaceae (Sordariomycetes). The type species of Bahusutrabeeja, B. dwaya, is phylogenetically related to Neodeightonia (=Botryosphaeria) subglobosa in Botryosphaeriales (Dothideomycetes). Monotypic genera Natarajania and Rattania are phylogenetically related to members of Diaporthales and Chaetosphaeriales, respectively. Future studies with extended gene datasets and type strains are required to resolve many novel but morphologically unexplainable phylogenetic scenarios revealed from this study. It is increasingly becoming evident that a fungal
    A case for re-inventory of Australia’s plant pathogens
    Hyde, K.D. ; Chomnunti, P. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Damm, U. ; Ko Ko, T.W. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Tan, Y.P. - \ 2010
    Persoonia 25 (2010). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 50 - 60.
    phenotypic characters differentiate - multiple gene genealogies - sp-nov - western-australia - south-africa - colletotrichum-gloeosporioides - mycosphaerella-spp. - molecular phylogeny - polyphasic approach - cryptic speciation
    Australia has efficient and visible plant quarantine measures, which through various border controls and survey activities attempt to prevent the entry of unwanted pests and diseases. The ability to successfully perform this task relies heavily on determining what pathogens are present and established in Australia as well as those pathogens that are exotic and threatening. There are detailed checklists and databases of fungal plant pathogens in Australia, compiled, in part, from surveys over many years sponsored by Federal and State programmes. These checklists and databases are mostly specimen-based, which enables validation of records with reference herbarium specimens and sometimes associated cultures. Most of the identifications have been based on morphological examination. The use of molecular methods, particularly the analysis of DNA sequence data, has recently shown that several well-known and important plant pathogenic species are actually complexes of cryptic species. We provide examples of this in the important plant pathogenic genera Botryosphaeria and its anamorphs, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phomopsis / Diaporthe and Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. The discovery of these cryptic species indicates that many of the fungal names in checklists need scrutiny. It is difficult, and often impossible, to extract DNA for sequence analysis from herbarium specimens in order to validate identifications that may now be considered suspect. This validation can only be done if specimens are recollected, re-isolated and subjected to DNA analysis. Where possible, herbarium specimens as well as living cultures are needed to support records. Accurate knowledge of the plant pathogens within Australia's borders is an essential prerequisite for the effective discharge of plant quarantine activities that will prevent or delay the arrival of unwanted plant pathogens.
    (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage
    Balk, M. ; Mehboob, F. ; Gelder, A.H. van; Rijpstra, I. ; Sinninghe-Damsté, J.S. ; Stams, A.J.M. - \ 2010
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 88 (2010)2. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 595 - 603.
    sp-nov - homoacetogenic bacterium - strain gr-1 - perchlorate - chlorate - metabolism - water - milk - soil - identification
    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts
    Novel fungal genera and species associated with the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple in China and the USA
    Yang, H.L. ; Sun, G.Y. ; Batzer, J.C. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Gleason, M.L. - \ 2010
    Persoonia (2010)24. - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 29 - 37.
    ribosomal dna - sp-nov - sporidesmium - sequences - disease
    Fungi in the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex cause blemishes on apple and pear fruit that result in economic losses for growers. The SBFS fungi colonise the epicuticular wax layer of pomaceous fruit but do not invade the cuticle. Fungi causing fuliginous and punctate mycelial types on apple are particularly difficult to identify based on morphological criteria because many species in the SBFS complex share the same mycelial phenotypes. We compared the morphology and nuclear ribosomal DNA phylogeny (ITS, LSU) of 11 fungal strains isolated from SBFS blemishes on apple obtained from two provinces in China and five states in the USA. Parsimony analysis, supported by cultural characteristics and morphology in vitro, provided support to delimit the isolates into three novel genera, representing five new species. Phaeothecoidiella, with two species, P. missouriensis and P. illinoisensis, is introduced as a new genus with pigmented endoconidia in the Dothideomycetes. Houjia (Capnodiales) is introduced for H. pomigena and H. yanglingensis. Although morphologically similar to Stanjehughesia (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Houjia is distinct in having solitary conidiogenous cells. Sporidesmajora (Capnodiales), based on S. pennsylvaniensis, is distinguished from Sporidesmium (Sordariomycetes) in having long, multiseptate conidiophores that frequently have a subconical, darkly pigmented apical cell, and very long, multi-euseptate conidia
    Phylogeny and systematics of the genus Calonectria
    Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wingfield, M.J. - \ 2010
    Studies in Mycology 66 (2010)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 31 - 69.
    internal transcribed spacers - sp-nov - cylindrocladium-floridanum - species concepts - dna-sequences - ribosomal dna - beta-tubulin - morphology - polymorphism - spathiphylli
    Species of Calonectria are important plant pathogens, several of which have a worldwide distribution. Contemporary taxonomic studies on these fungi have chiefly relied on DNA sequence comparisons of the ß-tubulin gene region. Despite many new species being described, there has been no phylogenetic synthesis for the group since the last monographic study almost a decade ago. In the present study, the identity of a large collection of Calonectria isolates from various geographic regions was determined using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. This resulted in the discovery of seven new species; Ca. densa, Ca. eucalypti, Ca. humicola, Ca. orientalis, Ca. pini, Ca. pseudoscoparia and Ca. sulawesiensis, bringing the total number of currently accepted Calonectria species to 68. A multigene phylogeny was subsequently constructed for all available Calonectria spp., employing seven gene regions, namely actin, ß-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3, the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA, 28S large subunit RNA gene and translation elongation 1-alpha. Based on these data 13 phylogenetic groups could be distinguished within the genus Calonectria that correlated with morphological features. Dichotomous and synoptic keys to all Calonectria spp. currently recognised are also provided.
    Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera
    Aveskamp, M.M. ; Gruyter, J. de; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2010
    Studies in Mycology 65 (2010)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 60.
    ribosomal dna-sequences - powdery mildew fungi - transcribed spacer sequences - medicaginis var pinodella - maculans species complex - 7 mu-m - leptosphaeria-maculans - sp-nov - genetic diversity - ascochyta-rabiei
    Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the ß-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa.
    Biohydrogen production from untreated and hydrolyzed potato steam peels by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana
    Mars, A.E. ; Veuskens, T. ; Budde, M.A.W. ; Doeveren, P.F.N.M. van; Lips, S.J.J. ; Bakker, R.R. ; Vrije, G.J. de; Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2010
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 35 (2010)15. - ISSN 0360-3199 - p. 7730 - 7737.
    fermentative hydrogen-production - sp-nov - starch - bacterium - waste - microflora - substrate
    Production of hydrogen by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana was studied in serum flasks and in pH-controlled bioreactors with glucose, and hydrolyzed and untreated potato steam peels (PSP) as carbon sources. Two types of PSP hydrolysates were used: one in which the starch in the PSP was liquefied with alpha-amylase, and one in which the liquefied starch was further hydrolyzed to glucose by amyloglucosidase. When the PSP hydrolysates or untreated PSP were added at circa 10–14 g/L of glucose units, both strains grew well and produced hydrogen with reasonable to high molar yields (2.4–3.8 moles H2/mole glucose units), and no significant production of lactate. The hydrogen production rates and yields were similar with untreated PSP, hydrolyzed PSP, and pure glucose, showing that C. saccharolyticus and T. neapolitana are well equipped for the utilization of starch. When the concentrations of the substrates were increased, growth and hydrogen production of both strains were hampered. At substrate concentrations of circa 30–40 g/L of glucose units, the molar hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was severely reduced due to the formation of high amounts of lactate, while T. neapolitana was unable to grow at all. The results showed that PSP and PSP hydrolysates are very suitable substrates for efficient fermentative hydrogen production at moderate substrate loadings.
    Population Dynamics of a Single-Stage Sulfidogenic Bioreactor Treating Synthetic Zinc-Containing Waste Streams
    Dar, S.A. ; Bijmans, M.F.M. ; Dinkla, I.J.T. ; Geurkink, B. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Dopson, M. - \ 2009
    Microbial Ecology 58 (2009)3. - ISSN 0095-3628 - p. 529 - 537.
    sulfate-reducing bacteria - gradient gel-electrophoresis - polymerase-chain-reaction - scatologenes strain sl1 - acid-mine drainage - environmental-samples - microbial diversity - sulfide toxicity - ribosomal-rna - sp-nov
    Waste streams from industrial processes such as metal smelting or mining contain high concentrations of sulfate and metals with low pH. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction carried out by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at low pH can combine sulfate reduction with metal-sulfide precipitation and thus open possibilities for selective metal recovery. This study investigates the microbial diversity and population changes of a single-stage sulfidogenic gas-lift bioreactor treating synthetic zinc-rich waste water at pH 5.5 by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicate the presence of a diverse range of phylogenetic groups with the predominant microbial populations belonging to the Desulfovibrionaceae from delta-Proteobacteria. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans-like populations were the most abundant among the SRB during the three stable phases of varying sulfide and zinc concentrations and increased from 13% to 54% of the total bacterial populations over time. The second largest group was Desulfovibrio marrakechensis-like SRB that increased from 1% to about 10% with decreasing sulfide concentrations. Desulfovibrio aminophilus-like populations were the only SRB to decrease in numbers with decreasing sulfide concentrations. However, their population was <1% of the total bacterial population in the reactor at all analyzed time points. The number of dissimilatory sulfate reductase (DsrA) gene copies per number of SRB cells decreased from 3.5 to 2 DsrA copies when the sulfide concentration was reduced, suggesting that the cells' sulfate-reducing capacity was also lowered. This study has identified the species present in a single-stage sulfidogenic bioreactor treating zinc-rich wastewater at low pH and provides insights into the microbial ecology of this biotechnological process.
    Multi-locus phylogeny of Pleosporales: a taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary re-evaluation
    Zhang, Y. ; Schoch, C.L. ; Fournier, J. ; Crous, P.W. ; Gruyter, J. de; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Hirayama, K. ; Tanaka, K. ; Pointing, S.B. ; Spatafora, J.W. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2009
    Studies in Mycology 64 (2009)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 85 - 102.
    ribosomal dna-sequences - stagonospora-nodorum - molecular phylogeny - leptosphaeria-maculans - phaeosphaeria-nodorum - multigene phylogeny - multiple alignment - endophytic fungi - sp-nov - ascomycota
    Five loci, nucSSU, nucLSU rDNA, TEF1, RPB1 and RPB2, are used for analysing 129 pleosporalean taxa representing 59 genera and 15 families in the current classification of Pleosporales. The suborder Pleosporineae is emended to include four families, viz. Didymellaceae, Leptosphaeriaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae and Pleosporaceae. In addition, two new families are introduced, i.e. Amniculicolaceae and Lentitheciaceae. Pleomassariaceae is treated as a synonym of Melanommataceae, and new circumscriptions of Lophiostomataceae s. str, Massarinaceae and Lophiotrema are proposed. Familial positions of Entodesmium and Setomelanomma in Phaeosphaeriaceae, Neophaeosphaeria in Leptosphaeriaceae, Leptosphaerulina, Macroventuria and Platychora in Didymellaceae, Pleomassaria in Melanommataceae and Bimuria, Didymocrea, Karstenula and Paraphaeosphaeria in Montagnulaceae are clarified. Both ecological and morphological characters show varying degrees of phylogenetic significance. Pleosporales is most likely derived from a saprobic ancestor with fissitunicate asci containing conspicuous ocular chambers and apical rings. Nutritional shifts in Pleosporales likely occured from saprotrophic to hemibiotrophic or biotrophic.
    Colletotrichum - names in current use
    Hyde, K.D. ; Cai, L. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Crouch, J.A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. ; Goodwin, P.H. ; Chen, H. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Jones, E.B.G. ; Liu, Z.Y. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Moriwaki, J. ; Noireung, P. ; Pennycook, S.R. ; Pfenning, L.H. ; Prihastuti, H. ; Sato, T. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Weir, B.S. ; Yang, Y.L. ; Zhang, J.Z. - \ 2009
    Fungal Diversity 39 (2009). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 147 - 182.
    vegetative compatibility groups - iwokrama-forest-reserve - coffea-arabica l. - potato black dot - infection process - molecular characterization - leaf-spot - sp-nov - anthracnose resistance - biological-control
    Filamentous fungi in the genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens that cause disease and crop losses in plants worldwide. Taxonomy and nomenclature in the group is confusing, even to scientists working in the field, and inaccurate diagnosis of species is not uncommon. In this review, we provide a overview of the 66 Colletotrichum names that are in common use, and the 19 recently used names which are regarded as doubtful. This paper represents the first comprehensive overview of the genus in 17 years, and is the first summary treatment of Colletotrichum to incorporate data generated through DNA analysis and phylogenetic systematics. Species are listed alphabetically and annotated with their taxonomic entry, teleomorph, hosts and disease, brief summaries of taxonomic and phylogenetic research, and outstanding issues for the genus that are neccesary to stabilize species names. Sequence data and type culture collection resources are also summarized. The paper serves to provide a new starting point for usage of current names in Colletotrichum and indicates future work needed
    Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts
    Damm, U. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2009
    Fungal Diversity 39 (2009). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 45 - 87.
    spored graminicolous colletotrichum - sequence-analysis - infection process - mulberry leaves - primer sets - lily bulbs - leaf-spot - sp-nov - anthracnose - dematium
    Colletotrichum (Glomerellaceae, Sordariomycetes) species with dark setae and curved conidia are known as anthracnose pathogens of a number of economically important hosts and are often identified as C. dematium. Colletotrichum dematium has been synonymised with many species, including the type of the genus, C. lineola. Since there is no living strain of the original material of either species available, we re-collected C. lineola from the original location to serve as an epitype of that name, and chose an appropriate epitype specimen and associated strain of C. dematium from the CBS collection. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 97 isolates of C. lineola, C. dematium and other Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts resulted in 20 clades, with 12 clades containing strains that had previously been identified as C. dematium. The epitype strains of C. lineola and C. dematium reside in two closely related clades. Other clades represent four previously undescribed species, C. anthrisci, C. liriopes, C. rusci and C. verruculosum, isolated respectively from Anthriscus in the Netherlands, Liriope in Mexico, Ruscus in Italy and Crotalaria in Zimbabwe. The new combinations C. spaethianum and C. tofieldiae are made. Colletotrichum truncatum is epitypified, as well as C. circinans, C. curcumae and C. fructi. Three further unidentified Colletotrichum taxa were detected in the phylogenetic analysis, which may require description after further research. Each species is comprehensively described and illustrated
    Myrtaceae, a cache of fungal biodiversity
    Cheewangkoon, R. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Hyde, K.D. ; To-anun, C. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2009
    Persoonia 23 (2009). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 55 - 85.
    south-africa - eucalyptus leaves - sp-nov - interspecific hybridization - cylindrocladium-floridanum - syzygium-cordatum - host-specificity - ribosomal dna - sequence-data - genera nova
    Twenty-six species of microfungi are treated, the majority of which are associated with leaf spots of Corymbia, Eucalyptus and Syzygium spp. (Myrtaceae). The treated species include three new genera, Bagadiella, Foliocryphia and Pseudoramichloridium, 20 new species and one new combination. Novelties on Eucalyptus include: Antennariella placitae, Bagadiella lunata, Cladoriella rubrigena, C. paleospora, Cyphellophora eucalypti, Elsinoë eucalypticola, Foliocryphia eucalypti, Leptoxyphium madagascariense, Neofabraea eucalypti, Polyscytalum algarvense, Quambalaria simpsonii, Selenophoma australiensis, Sphaceloma tectificae, Strelitziana australiensis and Zeloasperisporium eucalyptorum. Stylaspergillus synanamorphs are reported for two species of Parasympodiella, P. eucalypti sp. nov. and P. elongata, while Blastacervulus eucalypti, Minimedusa obcoronata and Sydowia eucalypti are described from culture. Furthermore, Penidiella corymbia and Pseudoramichloridium henryi are newly described on Corymbia, Pseudocercospora palleobrunnea on Syzygium and Rachicladosporium americanum on leaf litter. To facilitate species identification, as well as determine phylogenetic relationships, DNA sequence data were generated from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8S nrDNA, ITS2) and the 28S nrDNA (LSU) regions of all taxa studied
    Microbial enrichment of a novel growing substrate and its effect on plant growth.
    Trifonova, R.D. ; Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Elsas, J.D. van - \ 2009
    Microbial Ecology 58 (2009)3. - ISSN 0095-3628 - p. 632 - 641.
    torrefied grass fibers - beneficial microorganisms - sp-nov - bacteria - cultures - rhizosphere - amendments - removal
    Abstract The quality of torrefied grass fibers (TGF) as a new potting soil ingredient was tested in a greenhouse experiment. TGF was colonized with previously selected microorganisms. Four colonization treatments were compared: (1) no inoculants, (2) the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15 alone, (3) the fungus followed by inoculation with two selected bacteria, and (4) the fungus with seven selected bacteria. Cultivation-based and DNA-based methods, i.e., PCR-DGGE and BOX-PCR, were applied to assess the bacterial and fungal communities established in the TGF. Although colonization was not performed under sterile conditions, all inoculated strains were recovered from TGF up to 26 days incubation. Stable fungal and bacterial populations of 108 and 109¿CFU/g TGF, respectively, were reached. As a side effect of the torrefaction process that aimed at the chemical stabilization of grass fibers, potentially phytotoxic compounds were generated. These phytotoxic compounds were cold-extracted from the fibers and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Four of 15 target compounds that had previously been found in the extract of TGF were encountered, namely phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, benzopyran-2-one, and tetrahydro-5,6,7,7a-benzofuranone. The concentration of these compounds decreased significantly during incubation. The colonized TGF was mixed with peat (P) in a range of 100%:0%, 50%:50%, 20%:80%, and 0%:100% TGF/P (w/w), respectively, to assess suitability for plant growth. Germination of tomato seeds was assessed three times, i.e., with inoculated TGF that had been incubated for 12, 21, and 26 days. In these tests, 90–100% of the seeds germinated in 50%:50% and 20%:80% TGF/P, whereas on average only 50% of the seeds germinated in pure TGF. Germination was not improved by the microbial inoculants. However, plant fresh weight as well as leaf area of 28-day-old tomato plants were significantly increased in all treatments where C. ligniaria F/TGF15 was inoculated compared to the control treatment without microbial inoculants. Colonization with C. ligniaria also protected the substrate from uncontrolled colonization by other fungi. The excellent colonization of TGF by the selected plant-health promoting bacteria in combination with the fungus C. ligniaria offers the possibility to create disease suppressive substrate, meanwhile replacing 20% to 50% of peat in potting soil by TGF.
    DNA phylogeny reveals polyphyly of Phoma section Peyronellaea and multiple taxonomic novelties
    Aveskamp, M.M. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Gruyter, J. de; Murace, M.A. ; Perelló, A. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2009
    Mycologia 101 (2009)3. - ISSN 0027-5514 - p. 363 - 382.
    genus phoma - sp-nov - monograph - plenodomus - inference - trees - taxa
    Species of the anamorph genus Phoma are commonly isolated from a wide range of ecological niches. They are notoriously difficult to identify due to the paucity of morphological features and the plasticity of these when cultivated on agar media. Species linked to Phoma section Peyronellaea are typified by the production of dictyochlamydospores and thus have additional characters to use in taxon delineation. However, the taxonomy of this section is still not fully understood. Furthermore the production of such chlamydospores also is known in some other sections of Phoma. DNA sequences were generated from three loci, namely ITS, actin, and ß-tubulin, to clarify the phylogeny of Phoma taxa that produce dictyochlamydospores. Results were unable to support section Peyronellaea as a taxonomic entity. Dictyochlamydospore formation appears to be a feature that developed, or was lost, many times during the evolution of Phoma. Furthermore, based on the multigene analyses, five new Phoma species could be delineated while a further five required taxonomic revision to be consistent with the genetic variation observed
    Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana
    Vrije, G.J. de; Bakker, R.R. ; Budde, M.A.W. ; Lai, M.H. ; Mars, A.E. ; Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2009
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 2 (2009). - ISSN 1754-6834 - 15 p.
    biohydrogen production - dark fermentation - corn stover - sp-nov - biomass - pretreatment - degradation - wastes - xylose - microorganisms
    The production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentation is one of the routes that can contribute to a future sustainable hydrogen economy. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock because of its abundance, low production costs and high polysaccharide content. Batch cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana produced hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid as the main products from soluble saccharides in Miscanthus hydrolysate. The presence of fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural and 5-hydroxylmethyl furfural, in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate was avoided by the mild alkaline-pretreatment conditions at a low temperature of 75°C. Both microorganisms simultaneously and completely utilized all pentoses, hexoses and oligomeric saccharides up to a total concentration of 17 g l-1 in pH-controlled batch cultures. T. neapolitana showed a preference for glucose over xylose, which are the main sugars in the hydrolysate. Hydrogen yields of 2.9 to 3.4 mol H2 per mol of hexose, corresponding to 74 to 85% of the theoretical yield, were obtained in these batch fermentations. The yields were higher with cultures of C. saccharolyticus compared to T. neapolitana. In contrast, the rate of substrate consumption and hydrogen production was higher with T. neapolitana. At substrate concentrations exceeding 30 g l-1, sugar consumption was incomplete, and lower hydrogen yields of 2.0 to 2.4 mol per mol of consumed hexose were obtained. Efficient hydrogen production in combination with simultaneous and complete utilization of all saccharides has been obtained during the growth of thermophilic bacteria on hydrolysate of the lignocellulosic feedstock Miscanthus. The use of thermophilic bacteria will therefore significantly contribute to the energy efficiency of a bioprocess for hydrogen production from biomass
    Fungal Radiation in the Cape Floristic Region: an analysis based on Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma
    Roets, F. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Crous, P.W. ; Dreyer, L.L. - \ 2009
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51 (2009)1. - ISSN 1055-7903 - p. 111 - 119.
    protea-infructescences - south-africa - sp-nov - phylogenetic inference - pollination systems - evolution - flora - ceratocystiopsis - beetles - genus
    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) displays high levels of plant diversity and endemism, and has received focused botanical systematic attention. In contrast, fungal diversity patterns and co-evolutionary processes in this region have barely been investigated. Here we reconstruct molecular phylogenies using the ITS and ß-tubulin gene regions of the ophiostomatoid fungi Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma associated with southern African Protea species. Results indicate that they evolved in close association with Protea. In contrast to Protea, Ophiostoma species migrated to the CFR from tropical and subtropical Africa, where they underwent subsequent radiation. In both Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma vector arthropods probably facilitated long-distance migration and shorter-distance dispersal. Although ecological parameters shaped most associations between ophiostomatoid fungi and Protea, there is congruence between fungal¿host-associations and the systematic classification of Protea. These results confirm that the entire biotic environment must be considered in order to understand diversity and evolution in the CFR as a whole.
    Effect of tungsten and molybdenum on growth of a syntrophic coculture of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and Methanospirillum hungatei
    Plugge, C.M. ; Jiang, B. ; Bok, F.A.M. de; Tsai, C. ; Stams, A.J.M. - \ 2009
    Archives of Microbiology 191 (2009)1. - ISSN 0302-8933 - p. 55 - 61.
    interspecies electron-transfer - formate dehydrogenases - anaerobic-digestion - methanobacterium-thermoautotrophicum - formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase - methanococcus-vannielii - methanogenic bacteria - microbial communities - hydrogen-transfer - sp-nov
    The effect of tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) on the growth of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and Methanospirillum hungatei was studied in syntrophic cultures and the pure cultures of both the organisms. Cells that were grown syntropically were separated by Percoll density centrifugation. Measurement of hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase levels in cell extracts of syntrophically grown cells correlated with the methane formation rates in the co-cultures. The effect of W and Mo on the activity of formate dehydrogenase was considerable in both the organisms, whereas hydrogenase activity remained relatively constant. Depletion of tungsten and/or molybdenum, however, did not affect the growth of the pure culture of S. fumaroxidans on propionate plus fumarate significantly, although the specific activities of hydrogenase and especially formate dehydrogenase were influenced by the absence of Mo and W. This indicates that the organism has a low W or Mo requirement under these conditions. Growth of M. hungatei on either formate or H(2)/CO(2) required tungsten, and molybdenum could replace tungsten to some extent. Our results suggest a more prominent role for H(2) as electron carrier in the syntrophic conversion of propionate, when the essential trace metals W and Mo for the functioning of formate dehydrogenase are depleted
    Sulfate Reduction at pH 4 During the Thermophilic (55 degrees C) Acidification of Sucrose in UASB Reactors
    Lopes, S.I.C. ; Capela, M.I. ; Dar, S.A. ; Muyzer, G. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2008
    Biotechnology Progress 24 (2008)6. - ISSN 8756-7938 - p. 1278 - 1289.
    acid-mine drainage - gradient gel-electrophoresis - anaerobic granular sludge - in-situ hybridization - mill waste-water - sp-nov - reducing bacterium - metal fractionation - bioreactor - sulfur
    Continuous sulfate reduction at pH 4.0 was demonstrated in a pH controlled thermophilic (55 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor fed with sucrose at a COD/SO42- ratio of 0.9 and an organic loading rate of 0.8 and 1.9 gCOD (l(reactor) d)(-1) for a period of 78 days. A near v complete sulfate reduction efficiency was achieved throughout the reactor run, corresponding to sulfate removal rates of 0.91 and 1.92 g (l(reactor) d)(-1) at sulfate loading rates of 0.94 and 2 g (l(reactor) d)(-1), respectively, by keeping the sulfide concentration below 20 mg l(-1) due to stripping with nitrogen gas. Acidification was always complete and acetate was the only, degradation intermediate left in the effluent, which did not exceed 180 mgCOD l(-1) in pseudo-stationary states. The sludge was well retained ill the reactor and kept its granular form. A, Cu, Se, and Mo accumulated in the sludge, whereas Co, Ni, Fe, and Mn leached from the sludge, despite their continuous supply to the reactor via the influent. The bacterial diversity in the reactor sludge at the end of the reactor run was low and the culture was dominated by one acidifying species, resembling Thermoanaerobacterium sp., and one sulfate reducing species, resembling Desulfotomaculum sp.
    Species of Botryosphaeriaceae occurring on Proteaceae
    Marincowitz, S. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2008
    Persoonia 21 (2008). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 111 - 118.
    south-africa - western-cape - sp-nov - pathogens - fungi - endophytes - morphology - speciation - australia - canker
    The Botryosphaeriaceae includes several species that are serious canker and leaf pathogens of Proteaceae. In the present study, sequence data for the ITS nrDNA region were used in conjunction with morphological observations to resolve the taxonomy of species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Proteaceae. Neofusicoccum luteum was confirmed from Buckinghamia and Banksia in Australia, and on Protea cynaroides in South Africa. A major pathogen of Banksia coccinea in Australia was shown to be N. australe and not N. luteum as previously reported. Neofusicoccum protearum was previously reported on Proteaceae from Australia, Madeira, Portugal and South Africa, and is shown here to also occur in Hawaii and Tenerife (Canary Islands). Furthermore, several previous records of N. ribis on Proteaceae were shown to be N. parvum. Saccharata capensis is described as a new species that is morphologically similar to S. proteae. There is no information currently available regarding its potential importance as plant pathogen and pathogenicity tests should be conducted with it in the future.
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