Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Good taste or gut feeling? A new method in rats shows oro-sensory stimulation and gastric distention generate distinct and overlapping brain activation patterns
    Roelofs, Theresia J.M. ; Luijendijk, Mieneke C.M. ; Toorn, Annette van der; Camps, Guido ; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Dijkhuizen, Rick M. ; Adan, Roger A.H. - \ 2020
    International Journal Eating Disorders (2020). - ISSN 0276-3478
    functional magnetic resonance imaging - functional neuroimaging - rats - satiation - stomach - taste

    Satiation is influenced by a variety of signals including gastric distention and oro-sensory stimulation. Here we developed a high-field (9.4 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to test how oro-sensory stimulation and gastric distention, as induced with a block-design paradigm, affect brain activation under different states of energy balance in rats. Repeated tasting of sucrose induced positive and negative fMRI responses in the ventral tegmental area and septum, respectively, and gradual neural activation in the anterior insula and the brain stem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), as revealed using a two-level generalized linear model-based analysis. These unique findings align with comparable human experiments, and are now for the first time identified in rats, thereby allowing for comparison between species. Gastric distention induced more extensive brain activation, involving the insular cortex and NTS. Our findings are largely in line with human studies that have shown that the NTS is involved in processing both visceral information and taste, and anterior insula in processing sweet taste oro-sensory signals. Gastric distention and sucrose tasting induced responses in mesolimbic areas, to our knowledge not previously detected in humans, which may reflect the rewarding effects of a full stomach and sweet taste, thereby giving more insight into the processing of sensory signals leading to satiation. The similarities of these data to human neuroimaging data demonstrate the translational value of the approach and offer a new avenue to deepen our understanding of the process of satiation in healthy people and those with eating disorders.

    Effects of distraction on taste-related neural processing : a cross-sectional fMRI study
    Duif, Iris ; Wegman, Joost ; Mars, Monica M. ; Graaf, Cees De; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Aarts, Esther - \ 2020
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 111 (2020)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 950 - 961.
    attention - consumption - distraction - fMRI - insula - orbitofrontal cortex - taste

    Background: In the current obesogenic environment we often eat while electronic devices, such as smart phones, computers, or the television, distract us. Such "distracted eating"is associated with increased food intake and overweight. However, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of this phenomenon are unknown. Objective: Our aim was to elucidate these mechanisms by investigating whether distraction attenuates processing in the primary and secondary taste cortices, located in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), respectively. Methods: Forty-one healthy, normal-weight participants received fixed amounts of higher-And lower-sweetness isocaloric chocolate milk while performing a high-or low-distracting detection task during fMRI in 2 test sessions. Subsequently, we measured ad libitum food intake. Results: As expected, a primary taste cortex region in the right insula responded more to the sweeter drink (P < 0.001, uncorrected). Distraction did not affect this insular sweetness response across the group, but did weaken sweetness-related connectivity of this region to a secondary taste region in the right OFC (P-family-wise error, cluster, small-volume corrected = 0.020). Moreover, individual differences in distraction-related attenuation of taste activation in the insula predicted increased subsequent ad libitum food intake after distraction (r = 0.36). Conclusions: These results reveal a mechanism explaining how distraction during consumption attenuates neural taste processing. Moreover, our study shows that such distraction-induced decreases in neural taste processing contribute to individual differences in the susceptibility for overeating. Thus, being mindful about the taste of food during consumption could perhaps be part of successful prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity, which should be further tested in these target groups. This study was preregistered at the Open Science Framework as https://bit.ly/31RtDHZ.

    Good practice in food-related neuroimaging
    Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Dagher, Alain ; Hare, Todd A. ; Kullmann, Stephanie ; Laan, Laura N. van der; Poldrack, Russell A. ; Preissl, Hubert ; Small, Dana ; Stice, Eric ; Veldhuizen, Maria G. - \ 2019
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 491 - 503.
    aroma - data sharing - food choice - food viewing - functional magnetic resonance imaging - good practice - neuroimaging - satiation - taste

    The use of neuroimaging tools, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, in nutritional research has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. Neuroimaging is a research tool with great potential impact on the field of nutrition, but to achieve that potential, appropriate use of techniques and interpretation of neuroimaging results is necessary. In this article, we present guidelines for good methodological practice in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies and flag specific limitations in the hope of helping researchers to make the most of neuroimaging tools and avoid potential pitfalls. We highlight specific considerations for food-related studies, such as how to adjust statistically for common confounders, like, for example, hunger state, menstrual phase, and BMI, as well as how to optimally match different types of food stimuli. Finally, we summarize current research needs and future directions, such as the use of prospective designs and more realistic paradigms for studying eating behavior.

    Effect of Taste Enhancement on Consumer Acceptance of Pureed Cucumber and Green Capsicum
    Stokkom, Vera L. van; Graaf, Cees de; Kooten, Olaf van; Stieger, Markus - \ 2018
    Journal of Food Science 83 (2018)10. - ISSN 0022-1147 - p. 2578 - 2585.
    acceptance - capsicum - cucumber - taste - vegetable

    Abstract: Vegetables have low taste intensities, which might contribute to low acceptance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of taste (sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness) and fattiness enhancement on consumer acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees. Three concentrations of sugar, citric acid, caffeine, mono-sodium glutamate, NaCl, and sunflower oil were added to pureed cucumber and green capsicum. Subjects (n = 66, 35.6 ± 17.7 y) rated taste and fattiness intensity. Different subjects (n = 100, 33.2 ± 16.5 years) evaluated acceptance of all pureed vegetables. Taste intensities of vegetable purees were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the three tastant concentrations except for umami in both vegetable purees, sourness in green capsicum puree, and fattiness in cucumber puree. Only enhancement of sweetness significantly (P < 0.05) increased acceptance of both vegetable purees compared to unmodified purees. In cucumber purees, relatively small amounts of added sucrose (2%) increased acceptance already significantly, whereas in green capsicum acceptance increased significantly only with addition of 5% sucrose. Enhancement of other taste modalities did not significantly increase acceptance of both vegetable purees. Enhancing saltiness and bitterness significantly decreased acceptance of both vegetable purees. We conclude that the effect of taste enhancement on acceptance of vegetable purees differs between tastants and depends on tastant concentration and vegetable type. With the exception of sweetness, taste enhancement of taste modalities such as sourness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness was insufficient to increase acceptance of vegetable purees. We suggest that more complex taste, flavor, or texture modifications are required to enhance acceptance of vegetables. Practical Application: Results can be used by cultivators to select and grow vegetable varieties with enhanced taste and flavor. Especially for cucumber, relatively small sweetness enhancement is sufficient to increase acceptance.

    Postharvest Technology in Tomatoes
    Westra, Eelke - \ 2018
    postharvest - tomatoes - quality - colour - taste - prediction - vegetables - transport - logistics - postharvest - tomatoes - quality - taste - colour - prediction - vegetables - transport - logistics
    “Everything tastes different” : The impact of changes in chemosensory perception on food preferences, food intake and quality of life during chemotherapy in cancer patients
    Vries, Yfke Carlijn de - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; H.W.M. van Laarhoven, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; Sanne Boesveldt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436090 - 169
    perception - sensory evaluation - food intake - quality of life - food preferences - neoplasms - taste - macronutrients - drug therapy - breast cancer - perceptie - sensorische evaluatie - voedselopname - kwaliteit van het leven - voedselvoorkeuren - neoplasma - smaak - macronutriënten - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker

    Taste and smell changes are common side effects during chemotherapy in cancer patient and may have an impact on food preferences, food intake and quality of life. However, these relations have hardly been studied systematically in specific cancer populations. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess how the sense of taste and smell change upon treatment with chemotherapy in breast cancer and oesophagogastric cancer patients, and to investigate their consequences in terms of food preferences, food intake and quality of life.

    To measure food preferences for both macronutrients and tastes, the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) was developed. in chapter 2, it was shown that by inducing sensory specific satiety for a standardized sweet and savoury meal, it is possible to detect shifts in preferences for both tastes and macronutrients with the MTPRT, and that these results are reproducible.

    In Chapter 3 we studied objective and subjective taste and smell perception and food preferences in advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. The result showed that only objective taste function decreases during chemotherapy, but other chemosensory measures were unchanged. A lower subjective taste perception was related to a lower preference for high-protein products. Therefore it is important to consider patients’ taste perception, when providing dietary advice to OGC patients

    Chapter 4 describes a study with similar outcome measures as chapter 3, but in breast cancer patients at several time points during and after chemotherapy, and compared to a healthy control group. The study showed that breast cancer patients like high-protein, high-fat, sweet and savoury products less during chemotherapy, thus showing altered preferences for macronutrients, but not for tastes. Furthermore, results showed a temporary decrease in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. These findings show that patients should be informed prior to treatment on chemosensory changes, and that these changes should be monitored during treatment due to the consequences for nutritional intake and quality of life

    In chapter 5 we assessed the dietary intake of breast cancer patients before and during chemotherapy compared to a healthy control group, and associations with experienced symptoms during chemotherapy. It was shown that symptoms induced by chemotherapy were associated with lower total energy, protein and fat intake, which was manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. Therefore, to ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    To better understand the impact of chemosensory changes during chemotherapy on daily life, 13 advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients were interviewed (see chapter 6). Patients described a substantial impact of chemosensory and food-related changes on daily life (by changing daily routines), social life (eating being less sociable) and roles in the household (changing roles in cooking and grocery shopping).

    Finally, in chapter 7, we assessed the association between self-reported taste and smell perception and quality of life in breast cancer patients. A worse taste and smell perception was associated with a worse global quality of life, role, social and emotional functioning shortly after chemotherapy. In patients treated with trastuzumab, a worse taste and smell perception was still associated with quality of life, social and role functioning half a year after chemotherapy had ended.

    From the studies in this thesis we can conclude that chemotherapy mainly affects the sense of taste. The subjective perception of taste was associated with a lower preference for food products and lower energy intake. This indicates that it is not necessarily an actual change in the sense of taste or smell that has an impact on patients, but flavour perception as a whole and potentially a lower enjoyment of food. Moreover, these perceived changes in taste and smell can have a substantial impact on cancer patients’ lives, in a practical way by changing daily patterns of eating, but also socially and in roles in the household. A changed chemosensory perception during chemotherapy may lead to a worsened nutritional status, and could thereby negatively impact the response to chemotherapy. Therefore chemosensory perception should be monitored during chemotherapy. Future studies should further investigate the mechanisms behind chemosensory changes, factors that contribute to subjective taste perception and possible interventions to alleviate chemosensory changes during chemotherapy.

    Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens
    Stadig, Lisanne M. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Reubens, Bert ; Aerts, Johan ; Duquenne, Barbara ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. - \ 2016
    Poultry Science 95 (2016)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2971 - 2978.
    Body weight - fatty acid profile - meat color - short rotation coppice - taste

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P < 0.001). IN chickens were heavier at d70 than AS and SRC chickens (2.79 vs. 2.66 and 2.68 kg, P = 0.005). However, feed intake and conversion did not differ. Breast meat of chickens with free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in free-range use.

    Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices
    Granato, Daniel - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Saskia van Ruth; Vincenzo Fogliano. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579071 - 151
    grape juice - fruit juices - phenolic compounds - antioxidant properties - taste - provenance - chemometrics - mass spectrometry - druivensap - vruchtensappen - fenolverbindingen - antioxidatieve eigenschappen - smaak - herkomst - chemometrie - massaspectrometrie

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices have been the target of a high number of studies, it is still not fully known how geographical origin and production management system, affect the chemical profile, quality traits related to flavor, and in vitro antioxidant of grape juices. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to elucidate the reflectance of origin (botanical, geographical, production system) in the unique compositional traits of juices from different botanical origins, with emphasis on purple grape juices. Subsequently, chemometric methods were used to try to authenticate the origin of grape juice based on the grape juice’s quality traits. Results showed that it was possible to note that the instrumental taste profile, chemical composition related to phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of juices from distinct botanical origins differ considerably. More specifically, pomegranate and elderberry juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, implying that the botanical origin of juices affected remarkably their unique instrumental taste profile and physicochemical parameters, phenolic composition, and in vitro antioxidant activity. The production managements systems, (organic/biodynamic, ORG/BIO, versus conventional, CONV) is influencing the volatile organic composition (VOC) profiles, some phenolic compounds and copper chelating activity. It is not affecting the instrumental taste profile nor the in vitro antioxidant activity results. ORG and BIO purple grape juices can be differentiated by their VOC profiles but not by the other characteristics studied. More specifically, CONV juices had higher mean levels for all ions compared to ORG and BIO juices. More specifically, in fact, BIO juices presented the lowest mean values for almost all ions measured. When European grape juices were studied, no significant difference (p>0.05) between ORG, BIO, and CONV juices was observed for instrumental richness, umami, saltiness, sourness, astringency, bitterness, total phenolic content, total soluble solids, pH, ortho-diphenols, copper chelating activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant activity. For the Brazilian samples, the contents of chlorogenic acid and myricetin were statistically higher in ORG juices, while the in vitro antioxidant activity measured by three assays (DPPH, CUPRAC, and iron chelating ability) were not different between production management systems. For the European juices, some differences were observed: BIO and ORG juices presented higher contents of (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, (+)-catechin, and myricetin compared to the CONV juices. The VOC profile, instrumental taste parameters, phenolic composition, and in vitro antioxidant activity is highly affected between regions, in which Brazilian juices presented higher ion intensities as compared to the European juices. Brazilian juices, regardless of the production management system adopted, presented higher total phenolic content and flavonoids, total anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavanols, except for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. From this work, we can conclude that the geographical and botanical origins affect significantly the VOC profiles, instrumental taste profile, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity of grape juices.

    Beyond liking : emotional and physiological responses to food stimuli
    He, W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Sanne Boesveldt; Rene de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576506 - 149
    stimuli - food - emotions - autonomic nervous system - odours - taste - beverages - physiological functions - man - human behaviour - expressivity - prikkels - voedsel - emoties - autonome zenuwstelsel - geurstoffen - smaak - dranken - fysiologische functies - mens - menselijk gedrag - expressiviteit

    Background and aim

    Traditional liking ratings are typically seen as an important determinant in eating behavior. However, in order to better understand eating behavior, we need to first better understand (the dynamic and implicit features underlying) liking appraisal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of food stimuli varying in sensory modality (smell and taste), pleasantness and intensity, on emotional and physiological responses leading up to liking appraisal.

    Methods

    Four studies, using healthy participants, were conducted as part of this thesis. In the first study, responses to pleasant versus unpleasant food odors varying in intensity were measured discretely using pleasantness ratings, intensity ratings and non-verbally reported emotions (PrEmo), as well as continuously using facial expressions and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. To further explore how explicit and implicit factors contribute to pleasantness appraisal, the same measures were assessed in response to food odors with a wider range of valence. Next, we focused on facial expressions and ANS responses elicited by single sips of breakfast drinks that were equally liked. In the last study, we investigated changes in pleasantness after consuming semi-liquid meals to (sensory-specific) satiety, combined with measures of facial expressions and ANS responses.

    Results

    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and between food odors differing in intensity. In addition to discrete emotional responses, odor valence associated best with facial expressions after 1 second of odor exposure. Furthermore, facial expressions and ANS responses measured continuously were found odor-specific in different rates over time. Results of food odors with a wider range of valence showed that non-verbally reported emotions, facial expressions and ANS responses correlated with each other best in different time windows after odor presentation: facial expressions and ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the arousal dimension in the 2nd second of odor presentation, whereas later ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the valence dimension in the 4th second. For food stimuli varying in flavor (breakfast drinks), facial expressions and ANS responses showed strongest associations with liking after 1 second of tasting, as well as with intensity after 2 seconds of tasting. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate that ANS responses, as well as facial expressions of anger and disgust were associated with satiety. Further effects of sensory-specific satiety were also reflected by skin conductance, skin temperature, as well as facial expressions of sadness and anger.

    Conclusions

    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and/or intensity. Explicit and implicit emotional responses, as well as physiological patterns are related to liking appraisals involved in smelling foods. Implicit measures such as facial expressions and ANS responses can provide more multidimensional information for both food odors and tastes than explicit measures and prove to be highly dynamic over time with specific time courses. Early implicit facial and ANS responses primarily reflect emotion arousal, whereas later ANS responses reflect emotion valence, suggesting dynamic unfolding of different appraisals of food stimuli. Furthermore, ANS responses and facial expressions can reflect pleasantness, satiety, and a combination of both: sensory-specific satiety. This suggests that implicit processes play an important role in dynamic liking appraisals with respect to eating behavior.

    Metabolites contributing to taste in Agaricus bisporus
    Baars, J.J.P. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Mumm, R. ; Stijger, I. ; Wehrens, H.R.M.J. - \ 2016
    Plant Research International (PPO/PRI-report 2016-1) - 19
    mushrooms - edible fungi - metabolites - taste - agaricus bisporus - taste panels - postharvest quality - paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - metabolieten - smaak - agaricus bisporus - smaakpanels - kwaliteit na de oogst
    During the last 35 years, hardly any breeding has been done in the button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The fact that no new varieties are generated directed to trends in the food market has caused a slowly decrease in mushroom consumption in the Netherlands and in Europe. The hurdles for generating new varieties are difficulties in breeding and protection of new varieties. These hurdles are now nearly tackled and it is time to generate new varieties. One issue that has never been addressed is taste. The collection of Plant Breeding Wageningen UR contains a large number of strains of the button mushroom with a large genetic variation. In previous research this collection has been genotyped and a small selection of genetically different strains has been made. In 2014 these strains were cultivated along two different methods that were likely to cause differences in taste. Atempts were made to link the results from the taste panel to the metabolite concentrations. Even though it is a relatively small dataset, some correlations can be found for the taste attributes Firmness, Gummi and Boiled Egg and for the metabolites Alanine, Arginine and Proline.
    Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools
    Fries, M.C.E. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576537 - 169
    schools - elementary schools - primary education - dietetic education - taste - education - vegetables - psychosocial aspects - food consumption - scholen - basisscholen - primair onderwijs - voedingsonderwijs - smaak - onderwijs - groenten - psychosociale aspecten - voedselconsumptie

    “Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”

    School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it is hard to identify what intervention components and implementation conditions are most effective. Furthermore, as nutrition education is not mandatory in the Netherlands, it is not clear what effects can be achieved with nutrition education in Dutch primary schools. In this thesis therefore two versions of Taste Lessons were evaluated. Taste Lessons is a practice-driven school-based nutrition education programme on taste development, healthy nutrition, and food quality. The programme was evaluated on its aims to increase children’s interest in food, and their knowledge and skills regarding healthy and conscious eating behaviour. Furthermore, the influence of adding experiential learning activities and implementation factors on effectiveness are addressed.

    The first evaluation showed that partial implementation of the 10-12 lessons of Taste Lessons (first version) by the teachers during one school year resulted in small increases in psychosocial determinants of healthy eating behaviour. The highest increase was observed in children’s knowledge, which still persisted six months after the programme.

    A second evaluation was conducted with the aim to compare effectiveness of the revised and shorter version of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on change in (psychosocial determinants of) vegetable consumption and willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Results from this second study showed that, with almost complete implementation of the five lessons of Taste Lessons by the teachers during a couple of weeks, similar results as the first effect evaluation. Again with knowledge as the strongest intervention effect. Additional experiential learning activities, such as an extended cooking lesson with a dietician and the parents, an excursion to a grower and a supermarket assignment with the parents, showed more and stronger increases in several psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption than Taste Lessons without these additional activities. No significant intervention effects were found on children’s willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables during a taste test, and also not on their daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia.

    Analyses on process indicators in both studies revealed that teachers and children highly liked Taste Lessons and that children most liked the experiential learning activities. Furthermore, children’s programme appreciation and interpersonal communication about the programme activities after the lessons were found to be positively associated with their change in psychosocial determinants.

    In conclusion, evaluation of Taste Lessons showed an increase in children’s knowledge and several other psychosocial determinants of eating behaviour. Implementation of (additional) experiential learning methods in school-based nutrition education is likely to enhance the intervention’s effectiveness, as children mostly liked these activities and children’s enthusiasm was the strongest predictor of effectiveness. No effects were found on children’s vegetable consumption. To achieve behavioural change, school-based nutrition education should be complemented with a consistent set of changes in children’s environment.

    De consument wil smaak...maar welke smaak?
    Verkerke, W. ; Labrie, C.W. - \ 2016
    Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie 2016 (2016)01. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 20 - 22.
    tuinbouw - tomaten - paprika's - meloenen - aardbeien - smaak - consumentenpanels - smaakonderzoek - marketing - modellen - horticulture - tomatoes - sweet peppers - melons - strawberries - taste - consumer panels - taste research - marketing - models
    Marktgericht produceren begint bij de smaak. Maar van welke smaak houdt de consument? Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw ontwikkelde een meetmodel voor de smaak van tomaten, paprika's en meloenen en werkt nu aan de aardbei. Bovendien brengt het de smaak van consumententypen in kaart. "Als je de smaakvoorkeur van consumenten kent, dan kun je pas écht produceren voor de markt."
    Lekkere en gezondere aardbeien met extra blad- of vruchtbelichting : 12% meerproductie in het najaar
    Janse, Jan ; Hanenberg, Maike - \ 2015
    horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - cultural methods - agricultural research - illumination - led lamps - crop production - strawberries - all-year-round production - vitamins - varieties - taste - keeping quality

    Bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw in Bleiswijk kijken onderzoekers in het Informatie Demonstratie Centrum (IDC) Smaak hoe ze met blad- en vruchtbelichting jaarrond kasaardbeien lekkerder en gezonder kunnen maken in combinatie met een goede houdbaarheid en hogere productie.

    Alleen sterkere smaak verhoogt eetlust niet
    Doets, E.L. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
    ondervoeding - eiwitdepletie - ouderen - voedselvoorkeuren - voedselkwaliteit - productontwikkeling - smaak - voedselverpakking - voeding - voedingsonderzoek - ouderenvoeding - undernutrition - protein depletion - elderly - food preferences - food quality - product development - taste - food packaging - nutrition - nutrition research - elderly nutrition
    Vijf tot tien procent zelfstandige ouderen is ondervoed. Ouderen waarderen voeding waarschijnlijk beter als verschillende aspecten zoals textuur, smaak en uiterlijk tegelijkertijd worden verbeterd. Dit schrijven Esmée Doets en Stefanie Kramer, onderzoekers bij Food & Biobased Research, in een overzichtsstudie in het tijdschrift Food Quality and Preference.
    Microben maken mede de wijn : regionale verschillen in gistpopulaties beïnvloeden het aromaprofiel van wijn
    Maanen, G. van; Vermeulen, T. - \ 2015
    Bionieuws 2015 (2015)15. - ISSN 0924-7734 - p. 1 - 1.
    wijnen - smaak - gisten - microbiologie - fermentatie - wijnbouw - wijngaarden - wines - taste - yeasts - microbiology - fermentation - viticulture - vineyards
    Wijn dankt zijn karakter niet alleen aan lokale omstandigheden in klimaat, bodem en teelt, maar ook aan aanwezige gisten, claimen Nieuw-Zeelandse microbiologen.
    What reported food-evoked emotions may add: A model to predict consumer food choice
    Gutjar, S. ; Dalenberg, J.R. ; Graaf, C. de; Wijk, R.A. de; Palascha, A. ; Renken, Remco J. ; Jager, G. - \ 2015
    Food Quality and Preference 45 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 140 - 148.
    consumption experience - responses - satisfaction - liking - taste - package - questionnaires - behavior - design - impact
    Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers’ emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether emotional responses to these cues combined with liking, predict actual food choice. Participants (n = 103) rated emotional responses to seven products under a blind taste, a package and a package and taste condition using the EsSense Profile™. During the blind taste condition participants also scored liking of the products. Test products were breakfast drinks and desserts. Food choice was measured in two different breakfast sessions reflecting a different choice context. In one choice context, products were presented blind to taste, after which participants chose one out of the seven foods to consume for breakfast. In the other choice context, participants based their choice on the package of the seven foods without tasting them. Results showed that emotions evoked by food products could be organised in a two-dimensional space, representing a valence (pleasantness) and an activation/arousal dimension. Specific emotional profiles generated for products differed across the blind taste, package and the package and taste condition, meaning that intrinsic and extrinsic product properties elicit in part different emotions. Liking and valence together had the strongest predictive value for product choice based on the product’s taste. The combination of liking, valence and arousal had the strongest predictive value for package-based choice. In conclusion, food-evoked emotions add predictive value to solely liking ratings, and may guide consumers’ product choice behaviour.
    Zoektocht naar fermentatieprocessen voor producten met minder zout
    Smid, E.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    voedselmicrobiologie - fermentatie - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedseltechnologie - zout - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - food microbiology - fermentation - keeping quality - food technology - salt - taste - nutrition and health
    De fermentatie van verse plantaardige of dierlijke producten geeft extra smaak aan voedsel en verlengt de houdbaarheid. Het proces vergt echter vaak veel zout en daarvan krijgt de westerling al veel te veel binnen. In zijn inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van het persoonlijk hoogleraarschap Levensmiddelenmicrobiologie aan Wageningen University gaat prof. Eddy Smid op zoek naar alternatieve, ‘natriumarme’ fermentatieprocessen die de gezondheid ten goede komen.
    Geen extra chips na zoutarm eten
    Janssen, A.M. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 6 - 6.
    voedingsmiddelen - zoutgehalte - smaak - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - reductie - gezondheidsgevaren - gezondheidsbevordering - behoeftenbevrediging - foods - salinity - taste - human nutrition research - reduction - health hazards - health promotion - need gratification
    Minder zout in etenswaren zorgt ervoor dat mensen daadwerkelijk minder zout eten; ze zoeken geen zoutcompensatie op andere momenten van de dag.
    Aromameter onthult smaakverlies groente en fruit
    Woltering, E.J. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 5 - 5.
    groenten - fruit - smaak - bemonsteren - meting - apparatuur - innovaties - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - reductie - aroma - verandering - vegetables - fruit - taste - sampling - measurement - apparatus - innovations - keeping quality - reduction - aroma - change
    Een tomaat in de koelkast verliest al snel onomkeerbaar zijn smaak. Dat blijkt uit metingen met een nieuw apparaat, ontwikkeld door Wageningen UR. Dat kan snel en nauwkeurig veranderingen in het aroma vaststellen.
    Extra smaak door extra led-belichting
    Reinders, U. ; Janse, J. ; Hanenberg, M. - \ 2015
    Kas techniek (2015)1. - p. 30 - 33.
    glastuinbouw - kastechniek - aardbeien - fragaria ananassa - belichting - led lampen - smaak - landbouwkundig onderzoek - teeltsystemen - rassen (planten) - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - strawberries - fragaria ananassa - illumination - led lamps - taste - agricultural research - cropping systems - varieties
    Extra led-belichting maakt aardbeien smaakvoller. Dat blijkt uit een demonstratie bij het Informatie en Demonstratie Centrum (IDC) Smaak in Bleiswijk. Ook bevatten de vruchten meer vitamine C en is de productie hoger. Naast antwoorden roept de demonstratie ook vragen op, zoals welke processen precies aan de goede werking ten grondslag liggen.
    Loss of Olfactory Function and Nutritional Status in Vital Older Adults and Geriatric Patients
    Toussaint, N. ; Roon, M. de; Campen, J.P.C.M. van; Kremer, S. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2015
    Chemical Senses 40 (2015)3. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 197 - 203.
    mild cognitive impairment - odor identification - normative data - taste - malnutrition - smell - discrimination - dysfunction - prevalence - validation
    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin’ Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients—once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.
    Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)
    Baars, J.J.P. ; Stijger, I. ; Kersten, M. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Plant Breeding (Report / Plant Breeding Wageningen UR 2015-3) - 17
    mushrooms - edible fungi - taste - agaricus bisporus - agaricus - taste research - taste panels - postharvest quality - dry matter - paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - smaak - agaricus bisporus - agaricus - smaakonderzoek - smaakpanels - kwaliteit na de oogst - droge stof
    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to increase osmotic value. The intension was to increase the dry matter content of the mushrooms that might affect the “bite” sensation of mushrooms.
    Landschapsvarken Bonte Bentheimer, Feestvaken of nieuw model voor verdienen
    Holster, Henri - \ 2014
    breeds - pig breeds - biodiversity - sustainability - taste - nature management - natural landscape - overijssel - landscape - economic viability
    Een kwestie van smaak - interview met Gerben Messelink en Wouter Verkerke
    Messelink, G.J. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2014
    Buitenstebinnen : halfjaarlijkse uitgave van Naktuinbouw December (2014)3. - p. 18 - 19.
    tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - groenten - fruit - consumentenpanels - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - spaanse pepers - testen - smaakpanels - smaak - smaakonderzoek - voedingsmiddelen - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - fruit - consumer panels - new crops - chillies - testing - taste panels - taste - taste research - foods
    Naast dat consumenten voor groente en fruit kiezen op basis van het uiterlijk, bijvoorbeeld de vorm en de kleur, wordt de smaak van het product steeds belangrijker. Wageningen UR onderzoekt dan ook steeds meer producten (vooral nieuwe rassen) op smaak.
    Uitwerking interview workshop Onderscheid in Vers : Gerben Splinter in gesprek met drie deelnemers van het project PPP Paprika
    Splinter, Gerben - \ 2014
    horticulture - sweet peppers - program evaluation - sales promotion - consumer economics - cooperation - taste - merchandise information - knowledge - differentiation - varieties
    Smediger kaas door juiste voer
    Hettinga, K.A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
    De zelfkazer 66 (2014)6. - ISSN 0166-4549 - p. 10 - 11.
    kazen - smaak - eiwitgehalte - vetgehalte - voersamenstelling - onverzadigde vetten - vetzuren - melk - melkvet - cheeses - taste - protein content - fat content - feed formulation - unsaturated fats - fatty acids - milk - milk fat
    Veel kaasmakers willen smedige (zachte, smeuïge) kaas maken, want de gemiddelde consument vindt die kaas het lekkerst. Kasper Hettinga en Jan Dijkstra van Wageningen Universiteit vertellen hoe de smedigheid van kaas kan worden beïnvloed door de samenstelling van het veevoer.
    Olfactory Imagination and Odor Processing: Three Same-Different Experiments
    Koster, E.P. ; Stelt, O. van der; Nixdorf, R.R. ; Linschoten, M.R.I. ; Mojet, J. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2014
    Chemosensory Perception 7 (2014)2. - ISSN 1936-5802 - p. 68 - 84.
    reaction-times - betts questionnaire - imagery vividness - mental mixtures - visual-imagery - shortened form - error rates - food memory - perception - taste
    Do people who claim to have olfactory imagination process odors more efficiently? In three same–different experiments, using all possible combinations of odors and odor names as primes and targets, selected high imagers (n¿=¿12) were faster (±230 ms; P¿
    Vetarm en toch lekker romig
    Wolkers, H. ; Quataert, M.C.J. - \ 2014
    WageningenWorld (2014)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 33.
    kazen - smaak - vetgehalte - voeding en gezondheid - smakelijkheid - vetarme producten - productontwikkeling - kaasrijping - cheeses - taste - fat content - nutrition and health - palatability - low fat products - product development - cheese ripening
    Kaasspecialist Zijerveld wilde een smaakvolle geitenkaas met slechts 30 procent vet in het assortiment. Met ambachtelijke technieken lukte dat niet. Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research vond een nieuwe receptuur voor het kaasje. Gezonder en net zo lekker.
    Salivary lipase and a-amylase activities are higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects: Influences on dietary beharior
    Mennella, I. ; Fogliano, V. ; Vitaglione, P. - \ 2014
    Food Research International 66 (2014). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 463 - 468.
    alpha-amylase - food-consumption - oral-sensitivity - lingual lipase - fat perception - taste - questionnaire - responses - humans - women
    Mounting evidence shows that hedonic eating, leading to overeating just for pleasure, can be driven by oro-sensory factors through the activation of reward processing and learning in the brain. Foods rich in sugars and fats are potent rewards and saliva composition influences oral taste, texture and aroma perception. A role for salivary a-amylase and lipase in the gustatory system and a link between salivary a-amylase activity and dietary habits were recently hypothesized. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship among salivary lipase and a-amylase activities as well as zinc concentration with food preference and choice of people with different body mass indices. Forty-two (23 normal weight and 19 overweight) healthy subjects participated in the study. Data showed that a-amylase and lipase were 1.8 and 2.4 folds higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects, respectively. On the other hand, overweight subjects showed a 33% reduced salivary zinc concentration compared to normal weight subjects. Only lipase activity positively correlated with individual preference for high-fat foods and with fat content of the diets. All in all data suggested that high salivary lipase activity in overweight subjects could be an adaptive response to the low fat-taste perception related to the reduced zinc concentration. It cannot be ruled out that other factors but diet might influence salivary a-amylase activity in overweight subjects.
    Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues1–3
    Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Heuvel, E.M. van den; Boesveldt, S. ; Finlayson, G. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 113 - 122.
    leverage hypothesis - energy-intake - taste - breakfast - appetite - satiety - carbohydrate - mechanisms - receptors - choice
    Background: Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. Objective: We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The food cues varied by taste category (sweet compared with savory) and protein content (low compared with high). In addition, food preferences and intakes were measured. Design: We used a randomized crossover design whereby 23 healthy women [mean SD age: 22 +/- 2 y; mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.5 +/- 1.8] followed two 16-d fully controlled dietary interventions involving consumption of either a low-protein diet (0.6 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 7% of energy derived from protein, approximately half the normal protein intake) or a high-protein diet (2.2 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 25% of energy, approximately twice the normal intake). On the last day of the interventions, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to odor and visual food cues were measured by using fMRI. The 2 interventions were followed by a 1 -d ad libitum phase, during which a large array of food items was available and preference and intake were measured. Results: When exposed to food cues (relative to the control condition), the BOLD response was higher in reward-related areas (orbitofrontal cortex, striatum) in a low-protein state than in a high-protein state. Specifically, BOLD was higher in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex in response to savory food cues. In contrast, the protein content of the food cues did not modulate the BOLD response. A low protein state also increased preferences for savory food cues and increased protein intake in the ad libitum phase as compared with a high-protein state. Conclusions: Protein status modulates brain responses in reward regions to savory food cues. These novel findings suggest that dietary protein status affects taste category preferences, which could play an important role in the regulation of protein intake in humans. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3288 as NTR3288.
    The influence of olfactory impairment in vital, independently living older persons on their eating behaviour and foodliking
    Kremer, S. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2014
    Food Quality and Preference 38 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 30 - 39.
    age-related-changes - flavor amplification - nutritional-status - functional foods - salt reduction - taste - smell - malnutrition - consumption - perception
    These two studies investigated eating behaviour and food liking of independently living Dutch older people with and without olfactory impairment. In the first study, an internet survey was conducted in relation to their olfactory status (n = 512; age 55–91). Hyposmic older people reported eating the same meal more often within a week than their unimpaired peers, and they also differed in some of the types of foods they reported eating as snacks (i.e. fewer cookies and nuts, more candy). In the second study, various strategies to increase food liking among older consumers were investigated, as well as their liking of reformulated foods with an expected reduced palatability. The strategies included (1) combined visual enrichment and flavour enrichment of mashed potatoes, (2) enhancement of taste intensity and thickness of gravy, and (3) flavour enrichment of stews. The reformulation encompassed (1) salt reduction of meatballs and (2) protein enrichment of bread. Thirty-eight young consumers (age 32.3 ± 8.9 y), 41 normosmic older consumers (age 65.1 ± 5.2 y), and 43 hyposmic older consumers (age 68.5 ± 5.9 y) assessed food liking on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Both older groups increased their food liking in response to the changes made in the mashed potatoes and gravies, decreased their food liking in response to the salt reduction in the meatball and increased their product liking once information was given on the reduction. In conclusion, older persons – regardless of their olfactory status – may respond positively to multi-sensory enrichment in warm meal components. At the same time, certain types of foods may still appeal more or less to hyposmic older persons which in turn may lead to the development of different dietary intake patterns.
    The Sum of lts Parts-Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation
    Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
    body-weight regulation - food-intake - feeding-behavior - eating behavior - human amygdala - appetite - humans - satiety - taste - fat
    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural evidence for the importance of sensory stimulation in the process of satiation.
    Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation
    Ramaekers, M.G. ; Luning, P.A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Gort, G. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
    The British journal of nutrition 111 (2014)03. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 554 - 562.
    sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - repeated consumption - flavor retention - release - size - orthonasal - perception - behavior - taste
    The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m2) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9 % lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake
    Laat de varkens los : nieuw perspectief voor boer en landschapsbeheer in Overijssel
    Holster, H.C. ; Mul, M.F. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Livestock Research Wageningen UR - 20
    varkens - landschapsbeheer - scharrelhouderij - slachtdieren - overijssel - nederland - dierhouderij - rassen (dieren) - smaak - natuurlandschap - gezondheid - pigs - landscape management - free range husbandry - meat animals - overijssel - netherlands - animal husbandry - breeds - taste - natural landscape - health
    Wat zijn precies de functies die een varken in het landschap kunnen vervullen? Kan dat zomaar, varkens in het wild; waar moet je dan rekening mee houden? Is het wel rendabel om varkens te houden? Dit e-book geeft antwoorden, beelden en richting op deze vragen, specifiek voor de provincie Overijssel.
    Cooking time but not cooking method affects children's acceptance of Brassica vegetables
    Poelman, A.A.M. ; Delahunty, C.M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
    Food Quality and Preference 28 (2013)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 441 - 448.
    health-promoting compounds - primary-school children - food neophobia - antioxidant capacity - preferences - retention - broccoli - fruit - taste - information
    The home environment potentially presents a simple means to increase acceptance of sensory properties of vegetables by preparation. This research investigated how preparation can effectively impact upon children's acceptance for vegetables. Five- and six-year old children (n = 82, balanced for vegetable consumption) tasted and evaluated two Brassica vegetables, broccoli and cauliflower, each prepared in six different ways via variations in cooking method (boiling versus steaming) and cooking time (3 levels, ranging from 2 to 14 min). Children rated samples for liking and a trained descriptive panel assessed the samples' sensory properties. Across vegetable types, medium cooking times were liked more than short and long cooking times (p <0.0001), and these samples were medium firm and cohesive, with a balance of green and cooked flavour notes. Boiled samples were less intense in flavour and taste than steamed samples, but overall did not differ in acceptance. Significant interactions were found. Cooking method played a role in acceptance of broccoli but not cauliflower, with medium steamed broccoli liked the most. There was no difference in acceptance between low and high vegetable consumers, although high vegetable consumers were more discriminating in acceptance for cauliflower. In conclusion, children's acceptance of Brassica vegetables may be altered by preparation. There may be advantage in promoting steaming of Brassica vegetables to children, as they do not object to the flavour, and steaming is nutritionally preferable to boiling. Very short cooking times lead to an undesirable sensory profile and should be avoided. Recommendations are applicable to children regardless of their vegetable intake. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Improved acceptance of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids after weaning is triggered by in utero exposure but nog consumption of milk
    Hai, P.V. ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Tien, D.V. ; Everts, H. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2013
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 146 (2013). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 66 - 71.
    chromolaena-odorata - feeding-behavior - food preference - amniotic-fluid - maternal diet - tropical weed - pregnant ewes - fetal - sheep - taste
    The aim of the current study was to determine whether the improved post-weaning intake of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids is related to either the in utero period of the goat kids or the subsequent suckling period. It was hypothesized that kids born to dams fed C. odorata during pregnancy and receiving milk from dams not exposed to C. odorata during pregnancy show an improved acceptance to consume this plant. Twenty female goats were successfully synchronized and divided into 4 groups. Two groups (1 and 3) were offered 50 g of dried C. odorata leave meal (COLM) mixed with a basic diet for the last 3 months of pregnancy until 1 week before parturition. At birth the kids from the goats in group 1 and 2 were cross fostered without colostrum or milk from their own mother. While waiting for the delivery of kid from another goat, the kid was fed milk replacer or milk from any goat dam in the same treatment. Kids from groups 3 and 4 remained with their mothers. After weaning (2.5 months old), one kid from each goat dam was selected for COLM intake which was measured for 30 min over a 4 week period. Feeding activities of the individually housed goat kids was monitored with a camera system. Kids born to dams receiving COLM during pregnancy consumed higher amounts of the COLM supplemented test feed during all feeding preference tests compared to kids from the control group, particularly during week 3 and 4 (P <0.001). Shorter latency, longer time spent on each meal and total eating time, chewing time and higher meal size (P <0.05) were different in the kids born from does that ingested COLM during pregnancy. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to C. odorata via maternal ingestion significantly increases the intake of C. odorata by weaned goat kids. This improved intake is due to the in utero learning and not the transfer of (secondary) components via the milk of the mothers fed C. odorata during pregnancy.
    Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure
    Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Rijn, I. van; Bosch, I. van den; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
    body-weight - artificial sweetener - energy density - food-intake - satiety - brain - choice - flavor - adults - taste
    Background: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. Design: We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean +/- SD age of 21 +/- 2 y and BMI of 21.5 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2) consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. Results: Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. Conclusion: Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.
    Prei: teeltsystemen uit de grond: Onderzoek 2012
    Os, E.A. van; Bruins, M.A. ; Wilms, J.A.M. ; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Weel, P.A. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinouw 1247) - 48
    teeltsystemen - hydrocultuur - preien - bladgroenten - vollegrondsgroenten - plantmateriaal - rassenproeven - smaak - proeven op proefstations - landbouwkundig onderzoek - cropping systems - hydroponics - leeks - leafy vegetables - field vegetables - planting stock - variety trials - taste - station tests - agricultural research
    Het 2012 onderzoek van prei op water, binnen het programma Teelt de Grond Uit, richtte zich op virusverspreiding, sorteren van plantmateriaal, plantleeftijden en rassenvergelijking, de smaak van de geoogste prei en wat te doen met het jaarlijks neerslagoverschot. Water en meststofverbruik per teelt over de afgelopen jaren is geanalyseerd om de besparing te berekenen (50% minder NO3 nodig). Plantdichtheid, buislengte en buisdiameter waren een voortzetting van eerder onderzoek en gaven geen andere uitkomsten. Binnen de rassen zijn grote verschillen, terwijl een oudere plant een hogere opbrengst geeft. Sorteren is een noodzaak voor een uniforme oogst. Het jaarlijks neerslagoverschot moet in eerste instantie via een aangepast systeemontwerp worden afgevoerd, andere opties kosten meer geld.
    Met elkaar in gesprek over voedseltechnologie
    Molder, H.F.M. te; Swierstra, T. ; Sneijder, P.W.J. ; Haen, D. - \ 2013
    [S.l.] : YouTube
    voedseltechnologie - innovaties - consumenten - houding van consumenten - voedselconsumptie - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - food technology - innovations - consumers - consumer attitudes - food consumption - taste - nutrition and health
    Het publieke vertrouwen in voedseltechnologie is fragiel. De maatschappelijke dialoog over voedsel en voedseltechnologie zou een stuk beter kunnen; technologen en consumenten praten nogal vaak langs elkaar heen. In deze video, gebaseerd op onderzoek van de Universiteit Maastricht en Wageningen Universiteit, wordt uitgelegd hoe dat komt.
    A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor
    Eggink, P.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Arnaud Bovy; Chris Maliepaard; J.P.W. Haanstra. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737243 - 159
    capsicum annuum - paprika's - wilde verwanten - genotypen - chemische samenstelling - smaak - geur en smaak - capsicum baccatum - introgressie - plantenveredeling - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers - wild relatives - genotypes - chemical composition - taste - flavour - capsicum baccatum - introgression - plant breeding

    This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have extraordinary flavors. The complete set consisted of 35 genotypes of which 24 genotypes were non-pungent. Volatile and non-volatile compounds as well as some breeding parameters were measured in mature fruits of all genotypes throughout the growing season. In addition, from three harvests the non-pungent genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory panel.

    The biochemical profiling with use of SPME-GC-MS allowed visualization of between- and within-species volatile compound variation. Principal components analysis (PCA) on the intensity patterns of 391 putative volatile compounds revealed individual grouping of C. chinense, C. baccatum var. pendulum and C. annuum, indicating potentially interesting volatile variation present in the former two groups. A large group of saturated and unsaturated esters were mainly responsible for the individual grouping of the C. chinense accessions. Due to the elevated acid concentrations and aberrant volatile profiles of the C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions PEN45 and PEN79, the two BIL populations derived from these accessions were identified as interesting candidates for further study. Compared to e.g. Mazurka the citrate concentration of the C. baccatum accessions was 2.5-3 times higher and the malate concentrations were even up to 12 times higher (Chapter 2).

    Based on the non-pungent genotypes, we found highly correlated clusters of volatiles and non-volatiles, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors (Chapter 3). Contrasts between genotypes were caused by both qualitative and quantitative differences in these metabolic clusters, with the phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles forming the major determinants. For the description of the non-pungent genotypes the panelists used fourteen attributes to describe the flavor sensation in the mouth/throat, which were the texture attributes crunchiness, stickiness of the skin, toughness and juiciness, the basic taste attributes sweetness and sourness and the retronasal flavor attributes aroma intensity, grassiness, green bean, carrot, fruity/apple, perfume, petrochemical and musty. The variation in flavor could be reduced into two major sensory contrasts, which were a texture related contrast and the basic sweet-sour contrast. The structure of the PCA plots resulting from the analysis with one harvest (Chapter 3) and the analysis with the combined three harvests (Chapter 4) remained almost identical, indicating the stability of these contrasts. To relate the sensory attributes to the metabolite data and to determine the importance of the individual compounds we used Random Forest regression on the individual harvests and on the three harvests together. Several predictors for the attributes aroma, fruity/apple, sourness and sweetness were found in common between harvests, which we proposed as key-metabolites involved in flavor determination of sweet pepper (Chapter 4). This list contains compounds with known relations to attributes, like sweetness and sugars, but also several compounds with new relations. In this respect we have demonstrated for the first time, that the metabolites p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, and 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene are related to fruity/apple taste and/or sweetness of pepper. For sourness the only compound with a consistent significant contribution was an unknown C6H8O2 compound. We postulated therefore the hypothesis that in pepper the effect of sourness related metabolites is masked by other volatile and non-volatile compounds or texture differences (Chapter 3). Subsequently in Chapter 4 we described a clear sweetness-sourness interaction and demonstrated that the masking effect of fructose and other sugars explained why we did not find organic acids contributing to the prediction of sourness. The major sensory attributes were also predicted between harvests. The Random Forest predictions of the texture related attributes (juiciness, toughness, crunchiness and stickiness of the skin) and sweetness were very good. The predictions of the attributes aroma intensity, sourness and fruity/apple were somewhat lower and more variable between harvests, especially in the second harvest. In general, we concluded that prediction of attributes with higher heritabilities works better and is more consistent over harvests (Chapter 4).

    Based on the results of the initial experiments (Chapter 2) the species C. baccatum was chosen for further study. To exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum PEN45 we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population, that was characterized for sensory and biochemical variation (Chapter 5). We developed a population specific genetic linkage map for QTL mapping of characterized traits. Because of the complex structure of our BC2S1 mapping population we encountered several limitations, such as accidental co-segregation, underrepresentation of color linked markers and pre-selection leading to skewness, which might have resulted in false positive or missed QTLs. Despite these limitations, we were still fairly well able to map several biochemical, physical and sensory traits, as demonstrated at first for the (monogenic) control traits red color and pungency in the BC2S1 mapping population and in second instance by validation of genetic effects via an experiment with near-isogenic lines (NILs).This two-step approach turned out to be very powerful, since it led to the identification of the main results from this thesis: (i) Asmall C. baccatum LG3 introgression causing an extraordinary effect on flavor, which resulted in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected, including the well-known pepper compound 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (down) and 6-methyl-4-oxo-5-heptenal (up); (ii) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least fifteen different monoterpenes; (iii) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix (total soluble solids) without negative effects on fruit size (Chapter 5).

    In Chapter 6 some extra sensory results of the pungent genotypes are given and a comparison between the two C. baccatum pendulum BILs (PEN45 and PEN79 derived) is made in light of the overall results. Finally the perspectives for breeding are discussed and presented in the form of a flowchart for flavor improvement.

    Een model met een smaakje (Interview met Caroline Labrie)
    Langen, E. ; Labrie, C.W. - \ 2013
    Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie 2013 (2013)4. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 14 - 17.
    paprika - vruchtgroenten - smaak - smaakonderzoek - sensorische evaluatie - capsicum - cultivars - modellen - onderzoek - sweet peppers - fruit vegetables - taste - taste research - sensory evaluation - capsicum - cultivars - models - research
    Over smaak valt niet te twisten. En toch gebeurt dat maar al te vaak. "Er kan oeverloos over de smaak van paprika's worden gepraat en gediscussieerd. Daarom is het belangrijk dat de smaak van paprika's geobjectiveerd wordt", vertelt Caroline Labrie van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw. Dat kan met een smaakmodel voor paprika. De ontwikkeling hiervan is drie jaar geleden gestart. Het model moet uitkomst gaan bieden voor veredelaars, maar ook telers kunnen er hun voordeel mee doen.
    Saliva and sensory perception : interplay between the person and the food stimuli
    Heinzerling, C.I. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): J.H.F. Bult. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736505 - 132
    speeksel - sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - smaak - textuur - saliva - sensory evaluation - perception - taste - texture

    The perception of food is influenced by various parameters, many of them being different from individual to individual. What we perceive is not the same because each individual is different. Saliva volume and composition vary widely among people and will influence the chemical and structural composition of the food. Thus, the dilution and mixing of the food with saliva determines the extent of food-saliva interactions and connected to that also how the food item is perceived. It is clear from literature that saliva affects our perception and it is also clear that the rate and composition of salivation is dependent on what we perceive. However, it has not been clear to what extent. Since saliva can be measured objectively for each individual and it can be manipulated in a controlled fashion, more can be learned from the relationship between oral processing and perception. And with that various questions can be addressed, such as: Can the individual differences in sensory assessment be accounted for by their individual salivary composition? Is it possible to affect the sensory perception of an individual by modifying their salivary flow and composition? Different tastes stimulate different amounts of saliva but do they also affect the saliva composition? Or are the differences in saliva composition caused by the differences in salivary flow rate? Can different amounts of saliva, and thus also different dilution factors, affect the taste perception? Furthermore, can taste-taste interactions be explained by an increase in salivary flow rate? Is it possible that the increased salivation, induced by the increased thickness, will dilute the tastant and hence decrease the perceived intensity? Or are taste-texture interactions caused by cross-modal interactions? Or is the increased viscosity of the texture decreasing the concentration of taste molecules? The aim of this thesis is to show how and to what extent saliva influences, and is influenced by, taste and texture.

    The addition of amylase inhibitor reduces saliva α-amylase activity and increases perceived thickness and creaminess. However, alpha-amylase activity varies widely among subjects and therefore a decreased oral α-amylase activity will not guarantee an increase in perceived thickness and creaminess of starch-based foods. Comparisons of the different tastants show that the pH of stimulated parotid saliva increases linearly, irrespective of the nature of the tastant. Protein concentration decrease and protein amount increase with increase in flow rate for all tastants. After correcting for the effect of flow rate, the protein amount is affected by the nature of the tastant with the greatest secretion after stimulation by citric acid. Flow rate is largely responsible for pH but tastant appears to play an additional role in affecting protein secretion. Significant decreases in perception with increasing salivary flow rates are observed for citric acid and sodium chloride. This can partially be explained by a dilution effect which is in line with previous studies on detectable concentration differences. However, since the bitterness and sweetness remain unaffected by the salivary flow conditions and the dilution effect is comparable to that of saltiness, further explanations are still needed.

    Suppression of taste intensity in binary mixtures is not affected by the rate of salivation. This is more likely explained by psychophysics. When the taste is separated from the texture, no texture-taste effects are observed. Dilution with saliva did occur and the tastant availability was unaffected in this set-up. The conclusion is therefore that texture-taste interactions are not caused by dilution effects or cross-modal interactions but can best be explained by the release of tastants.

    The work described in this thesis shows how the individual perception can be affected by the salivary flow and composition and how the individual salivary flow and composition can be affected by the sensory stimuli taste and texture.

    Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors
    Elzerman, J.E. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Luning, P.A. - \ 2013
    British Food Journal 115 (2013)5. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 700 - 710.
    food - attributes - taste - soy
    Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the use of meat substitutes in meals. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 46 consumers took part in seven focus group discussions. These discussions consisted of three steps, starting with a general discussion on meat substitutes, followed by a discussion on the appropriateness of the use of meat substitutes as ingredients (minced, in pieces or slices) by using photographs of six different dishes (soup, pasta, rice, wrap, meal salad, and pizza). The discussions were concluded with a taste session of two dishes with meat substitutes. Findings – Consumers in this study regarded health aspects and easy preparation as positive aspects of meat substitutes. Lack of information on the package, and high price were reported as negative. Sensory aspects such as neutral taste or tastiness, crispiness, chicken-like texture, or granular texture were seen as positive attributes. Negative sensory aspects that were mentioned were uniform taste, compactness, dryness and softness. Most consumers found the use of meat substitutes appropriate in the dishes we presented. Originality/value – The paper's findings can, together with quantitative consumer and sensory research, be a start towards consumer-oriented product development of environmentally more sustainable meat substitutes. The central role of meal context and appropriateness is an aspect that has not yet received much attention in food science.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 1 en 2 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 35
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 1 en 2. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 3 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 3. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 4 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 4. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 5 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 23
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 5. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 6 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 6. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleing groep 7 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - basisonderwijs - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - elementary education - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 7. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Lerarenhandleiding groep 8 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 31
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Deze docentenhandleiding is bedoeld voor groep 8. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Inleidend katern groep 1 t/m 8 : lesprogramma over eten en smaak voor het basisonderwijs
    Snoek, C. ; Top-Pullen, R. van den; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen - 19
    voedingseducatie - smaak - smaken - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - voedselconsumptie - smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - natuur- en milieueducatie - nutrition education - taste - tastes - elementary education - teaching materials - eating - food consumption - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - nature and environmental education
    Het programma Smaaklessen is bedoeld voor leerkrachten van het basisonderwijs en hun leerlingen van 4-12 jaar. De leskaternen zijn bedoeld als handleiding voor de leerkracht en bevatten allerlei lessuggesties. Dit inleidend katern is bedoeld voor de groepen 1 t/m 8. Smaaklessen heeft als doel kinderen gevoelig te maken voor een nieuwe beleving van voedsel.
    Snel smaakonderzoek is gewild
    Verkerke, W. - \ 2013
    Kennis Online 10 (2013)jan/febr. - p. 11 - 11.
    tomaten - rassen (planten) - smaakonderzoek - kwaliteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - snelle methoden - tests - smaak - tomatoes - varieties - taste research - quality - agricultural research - rapid methods - tests - taste
    De opkomst van lekkere tomaten in de Nederlandse supermarkten is mede te danken aan nieuwe methoden om de smaak snel te meten. Dat zegt Wouter Verkerke, verantwoordelijk voor het smaakonderzoek bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw.
    Eten ontdekken met al je zintuigen!
    Tienstra, M.L. ; Regelink, M.H. ; Top, R. van den; Meester, H.J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen
    smaaklessen - onderwijsprogramma's - voeding en gezondheid - smaak - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - voedselconsumptie - tasting lessons - education programmes - nutrition and health - taste - elementary education - teaching materials - food consumption
    De brochure is ontwikkeld voor basisschoolleerkrachten met informatie over de programma's Smaaklessen, EU-Schoolfruit en SchoolGruiten.
    Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure
    Kremer, S. ; Shimojo, R. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Köster, E.P. ; Mojet, J. - \ 2013
    Food Quality and Preference 27 (2013)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 179 - 190.
    mere exposure - boredom - pleasantness - complexity - satiation - curiosity - liking - taste
    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at which table salt could be replaced with soy sauce without significantly changing overall taste intensity. Secondly, the same consumers rated their liking for 5 samples with varying table salt and/or soy sauce content to determine the optimal exchange rate (OER), which is the highest concentration of NaCl in products that can be replaced with soy sauce without significant losses in both overall taste intensity and product liking. Finally, a new group of 64 consumers performed rapidly repeated exposure tests with two variants per product type: the non-salt-reduced standard variant (A) and a salt/soy sauce variant (B) based on the OER (NaCl reduction soup: 24.4%; bread & ham: 38.9%). Repeated exposure to the soy sauce variant had a significant to very significant positive effect on the liking for the products in all groups of subjects with the exception of a small group that did not like the soy sauce variant of bread. The influence of the rapidly repeated exposure was interpreted in terms of the optimal arousal theory. The results also demonstrated the importance of determining the ER, the OER and the development of preference over repeated exposure in the developed three-stage procedure.
    Labyrint - Over de datum
    Zwietering, Marcel - \ 2012
    food quality - keeping quality - storage life - taste - food safety - food preservation - food wastage
    Kleine deeltjes, grote kansen: nanotechnologie neemt een grote vlucht (Interview met Maarten Jongsma)
    Smit, A. ; Jongsma, M.A. - \ 2012
    WageningenWorld 4 (2012). - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
    nanotechnologie - bionanotechnologie - smaak - moleculen - organische scheikunde - toegepast onderzoek - nanotechnology - bionanotechnology - taste - molecules - organic chemistry - applied research
    Een elektronische tong, zeefjes die binnen een uur ziekmakende bacteriën detecteren, of moleculen die helpen bij het vinden en doden van tumoren. Wageningen UR timmert hard aan de weg met nanotechnologie – en onderzoekt meteen de mogelijke risico’s voor mens en natuur.
    Iedereen heeft smaak
    Timmermans, Toine - \ 2012
    taste - satiety - appetite - food research - nutrition and health - tastes - keeping quality - food consumption
    Minder zout in vleeswaren
    Meer, T. van der; Janssen, A.M. - \ 2012
    Eisma Voedingsmiddelenindustrie 2012 (2012)November. - p. 18 - 20.
    natriumchloride - vleeswaren - zout - reductie - zoutgehalte - houding van consumenten - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - sodium chloride - meat products - salt - reduction - salinity - consumer attitudes - taste - nutrition and health
    Het verlagen van zout in vleeswaren is lastig. Dit komt door de enorme variëteit aan producten en de verschillende rollen die zout hierin vervult. Dat bleek tijdens de workshop 'Zoutverlaging in vleeswaren. Het kan!' Minder zout is mogelijk. Nu de retail en de consument nog meekrijgen.
    Analyses of pig genomes provide insight to porcine demography and evolution
    Groenen, M.A.M. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Frantz, L.A.F. ; Bosse, M. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Dibbits, B.W. ; Madsen, O. ; Paudel, Y. - \ 2012
    Nature 491 (2012). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 393 - 398.
    sus-scrofa - sequence - gene - receptor - locus - variants - complex - taste
    For 10,000¿years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.
    The role of oral exposure to taste on meal termination
    Bolhuis, D.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; Catriona Lakemond; Rene de Wijk. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733870 - 164
    smaak - voedselopname - eetlust - eetsnelheden - verzadigdheid - mond - overeten - taste - food intake - appetite - eating rates - satiety - mouth - overeating

    Background and aim
    The rise in obesity over the last decades is considered to be related to changes in the food environment. Our current diet exists of foods that facilitate fast intake of energy and minimal oral processing. Various studies showed that higher eating rate leads to higher food intake, and therefore promote energy overconsumption. When consuming at a high eating rate, the food spends less time in the oral cavity, resulting in less sensory exposure per gram food. The exposure to the taste of the food in the oral cavity is potentially important in controlling food intake. The studies in this thesis investigated the principle mechanisms through which orosensory exposure affects satiation. The factors that were studied were taste intensity, oral residence duration and bite size. The impact of these factors and their relative contributions to satiation will provide tools for designing new foods to prevent overconsumption.
    Methods
    We conducted five studies. The subjects that participated in the studies were healthy young normal weight adults. Satiation was measured by ad libitum intake and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness. Tomato soup was used as test product in all studies. We started by investigating the effect of taste intensity on ad libitum intake (n=48). Salt was used to vary the taste intensity in soup. We selected two salt concentrations for low-salt and high-salt soup that were similar in pleasantness on an individual basis. In the next study, salt taste intensity in soup was investigated again, but this time we changed the state of hunger (a preload was offered) and the meal composition (subjects were served a second course after the soup) (n=43). In the third study, the impact of taste intensity versus the duration of orosensory exposure (manipulated by changing the bite size) on satiation was investigated, by using peristaltic pumps to control the bites (n=55). The fourth study focussed on the underlying mechanisms of bite size on food intake (n=56). Therefore, separate effects of oral residence duration per gram food and number of bites per gram food on ad libitum intake were assessed. Finally, we investigated if bite size affects the perceived food intake. Subjects estimated the amount consumed after intake with small or large bites, in both focussed and a distracted states (n=53). In addition, effects of distraction on bite size were investigated.
    Results
    Taste intensity did not affect ad libitum intake when the soup was presented as single lunch-item in a hungry state. However, higher taste intensity reduced ad libitum intake by ~8%, when the soup was presented after a preload or as a starter followed by a second meal. Smaller bite sizes decreased ad libitum intake by ~25% and did not interact with taste intensity. That smaller bites are more satiating than larger bites was confirmed by hunger and fullness ratings. Hunger decreased faster per consumed gram food when consuming with small bites compared to large bites. A similar effect was found for the increase in fullness. Ad libitum intake was separately reduced by longer oral residence duration and higher number of bites per gram food, there was no interaction between the two variables. Time-intensity measurements showed that both higher number of bites and longer oral residence duration increase the total magnitude of orosensory exposure to the taste of the food. Consumption with large bites resulted in underestimations of the amount consumed, whereas consumption with small bites did not. Distraction increased ad libitum intake. Distraction led to a higher number of bites over the meal but did not affect bite size.
    Conclusions
    This thesis demonstrates that consuming foods with smaller bite sizes, longer oral residence durations and higher taste intensities lowers food intake. These effects are possibly explained through their enhancement of the orosensory exposure to the taste of the foods. Consumption with large bites leads to underestimation of the amount that is consumed. An underestimation of the amount consumed is a risk factor for overconsumption. These results could be used by the food industry to enhance the satiating capacity of foods in order to prevent overconsumption and decrease the prevalence of obesity.

    Smaaklab is onafhankelijk instituut: Tomatenmodel geeft objectieve maat voor de smaak (interview met Piet Steenbergen)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Steenbergen, P. - \ 2012
    Onder Glas 9 (2012)9. - p. 7 - 9.
    wetenschappelijk onderzoek - consumentenvoorkeuren - smaakpanels - beoordeling - tomaten - smaak - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - modellen - innovaties - groenten - scientific research - consumer preferences - taste panels - assessment - tomatoes - taste - keeping quality - models - innovations - vegetables
    Smaak en houdbaarheid zijn kenmerken, die voor een belangrijk deel het succes van een nieuw ras bepalen. Eén tot meer dagen in de week komen er mensen proeven in het smaaklab van Wageningen UR in Bleiswijk. Zij beoordelen producten op een aantal smaakkenmerken. Om sneller en goedkoper grote aantallen te screenen worden er ook smaakmodellen ontwikkeld, die op basis van een aantal gemeten parameters een smaakcijfer geven.
    Resultaat proeverij tomaatjes RIKILT op de Biovak
    RIKILT, - \ 2012
    tomaten - smaak - smaakonderzoek - biologische voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - tomatoes - taste - taste research - organic foods - nutrition labeling
    Tijdens de Biovak op 18 en 19 januari 2012 heeft RIKILT-Wageningen UR bezoekers uitgenodigd deel te nemen aan een cherry-tomaatjesproeverij. Daarbij werden biologische en reguliere tomaatjes aangeboden. In dit document staan de resultaten van deze proeverij.
    Designing food structures to enhance sensory responses
    Mosca, A.C. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; F. van de Velde. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732477 - 164
    sucrose - vet - sensorische wetenschappen - smaakgevoeligheid - smaak - zintuiglijke waarneming - ruimtelijke verdeling - gels - mechanische eigenschappen - zoetheid - sucrose - fat - sensory sciences - taste sensitivity - taste - organolepsis - spatial distribution - gels - mechanical properties - sweetness

    Background and Aim

    The current overconsumption of sugar, salt and fat has been linked to the incidence of health problems. For this reason, it is necessary to decrease the intake of these food components. In the context of reducing the contents of sugar, salt and fat in food products while maintaining sensorial quality, the aim of this thesis was to identify and understand the factors that affect the perception of taste and fat-related sensory attributes in semi-solid foods. To achieve this aim, the relationship between the spatial distribution of sucrose, the mechanical properties of semi-solid gels and the perception of taste was investigated in detail. In addition, the relationship between the spatial distribution of fat and the perception of fat-related sensory attributes was investigated.

    Methods

    Model systems composed of layers of mixed agar-gelatin gels were used to control the spatial distribution of sucrose and fat. Layers varying in concentration of sucrose or oil-in-water emulsion droplets (i.e. fat) were combined to prepare gels with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of sucrose and fat. A series of experiments were carried out using 2-Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC) tests, line scale ratings and time-intensity analysis to investigate the effects of modulation of the spatial distribution of sucrose and modulation of the mechanical properties of gels on sweetness intensity. The relationship between the spatial distribution of tastants and consumer preference was investigated in different types of foods (e.g. semi-solid gels, breads and sausages). Furthermore, a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) panel was carried out to investigate the effect of modulation of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes.

    Results

    An inhomogeneous distribution of sucrose at large sucrose concentration differences enhanced sweetness intensity. The frequency of high-intensity discontinuous stimulation of taste receptors, which is related to the presence of tastant concentration differences in the mouth during oral processing, was identified as the driving factor for taste enhancement. The oral breakdown of semi-solid gels, which is affected mainly by fracture strain, and the mixing behavior of gel fragments formed upon breakdownwere shown to influence the frequency of receptor stimulation and, consequently, taste enhancement. Furthermore, the optimum frequency of high-intensity discontinuous stimulation required to maximize taste enhancement was shown to depend on the textural properties of the gel. These findings suggest that the spatial distribution of tastants and the mechanical properties (especially fracture strain) can be modulatedto maximize taste enhancement. Additionally, consumer preference was found to be maintained or increased in products containing tastants heterogeneously distributed in the food matrix.

    Fat-related mouthfeel attributes, such as spreadable and melting, were enhanced by an inhomogeneous distribution of fat at large fat concentration differences. The presence of high-fat zones on the surface of the model system was shown to maximize the enhancement of attributes related to fat. Therefore, the enhancement of fat-related attributes seems to be driven by the presence of high-fat zones preferably on the surface of the product rather than by the presence of fat concentration differences within the product.

    Conclusions

    The combined effects of modulation of the spatial distribution of tastants and fat and modulation of the mechanical properties can be applied in the development of low-sugar, low-salt and low-fat food products with improved taste quality.

    Food characteristics and dietary intake : the role taste, eating rate and energy density
    Viskaal - van Dongen, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; Frans Kok. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732507 - 139
    voedselopname - energieopname - smaak - eetsnelheden - voedingsgedrag - voedselconsumptie - energiegehalte - food intake - energy intake - taste - eating rates - feeding behaviour - food consumption - energy content

    The increases in obesity prevalence coincide with changes in our food environment, such as an increased consumption of processed, energy dense foods. This suggests that the foods we consume are at least partly responsible for the obesity epidemic. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate food characteristics, with the focus on taste, eating rate and energy density, and their relation to dietary intake.

    Taste is studied in two respects. First, the contribution of taste qualities to the diet is investigated, using the Food Consumption Survey 2003. Foods are classified according to their predominant taste (sweet, salty or savoury, sour, bitter or neutral). Energy intake of the foods within taste categories is assessed, showing that the largest part (34%) of the daily energy intake originates from sweet foods. Second, it is investigated whether taste, which is supposed to be a nutrient sensor, can fulfil this function within the current diet. Intensities of the five basic tastes of 50 commonly consumed foods are therefore assessed and associated with the nutrient content. Positive associations are found between sweetness and mono- & disaccharides and between both saltiness and savouriness and sodium and protein. The associations are less pronounced in highly processed foods, which suggests that in these foods the ability to sense nutrient content based on taste is limited. The influences of an incongruence between sensory properties and nutrient content are also investigated, byexamining the effects of fat perceptionon energy intake. We demonstrated that energy intake is almost 10% lower in case of visible fats compared to hidden fats, suggesting that hidden fats may contribute to overconsumption.

    Eating rateseems to be associated with food intake. The contribution of eating rate to the diet is investigated, using the Food Consumption Survey 2003. Foods are classified into one of four eating rate categories, and energy intake of the foods within each category is assessed. Results demonstrate that foods with slow calories (kJ/min) provide 10%, whereas foods with fast calories provide 37% to the daily energy intake. So in the current diet, the consumption of foods with a high eating rate is high. The effects of eating rate on intake are also investigated, showing that eatingrate is positively associated with food and energy intake. People may therefore be at risk of overconsumption, when consuming foods with a high eating rate.

    Consuming energy dense snacks is often blamed for affecting energy balance, but findings are inconclusive. Therefore, effects of snack consumption on body weight are investigated. No changes in body weight are observed after 8 weeks, when energy density of snacks was either low or high. This suggests that consuming snacks does not necessarily contribute to weight gain, at least in normal-weight young adults.

    In conclusion,when taste and other sensory properties do not accurately reflect the nutrient content, which applies particularly to highly processed foods, this may lead to high food intakes. In addition, a large part of the daily energy intake originates from foods with a high eating rate, which stimulates food and energy intake. So the high eating rate of the foods in the current diet may be responsible for overconsumption. These findings may be helpful in following the recommendations of the Nutrition Centre to lose weight. Last, even though we did not find evidence that consuming energy dense snacks results in weight gain, the advice should nevertheless be to limit the intake of energy dense foods, at least until evidence becomes more conclusive.

    The role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences
    Griffioen-Roose, S. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Monica Mars; G. Finlayson. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731210 - 144
    smaak - verzadigdheid - voedselopname - voedingsvoorkeuren - voedselvoorkeuren - taste - satiety - food intake - feeding preferences - food preferences

    Background and aim

    The sensory attributes of food play a key role in the selection and termination of meals and their rewarding properties. The majority of our foods are either sweet or savoury tasting. In addition, within our food range, savoury-tasting foods contain in general higher levels of protein. The effect of specific taste modalities on human food intake, however, requires further clarification. The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of sweet and savoury taste in food intake and food preferences. The secondary aim was to provide more insight into the processes of explicit and implicit liking and wanting, to be able to identify underlying reward mechanisms involved in food intake behaviour.

    Methods

    We conducted series of experiments where healthy young adults participated. We started by investigating the difference between a sweet and savoury taste on satiation, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition (n=64). Next, the effect of sweet and savoury taste of a single meal on subsequent satiety and food preferences was investigated (n=61). To further explore the effect of taste in the context of a complete diet on satiety and food preferences, the effect of three 24-h diets that differed only in taste (predominantly sweet tasting, predominantly savoury tasting, or a mixture of sweet and savoury tasting) were compared (n=39). Next, we separated the influence of taste from within-meal protein content on satiety and food preferences, by comparing the effect of sweet and savoury high and low protein single meals (n=60). Finally, the effect of long-term protein status on satiety and food preferences was investigated by comparing the effect of two 14-d diets that differed in protein content (a low protein diet vs. a high protein diet) (n=37).

    Results

    Sweet and savoury taste, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition, did not differ in their effect on satiation and satiety in terms of subsequent ad libitum intake. Sweet and savoury taste did differ in their effect on subsequent food preferences. In general, after eating a food with a certain taste, appetite for foods with a similar taste was lower than for foods with a dissimilar taste, hence, a clear transfer effect of sensory specific satiety was demonstrated. This transfer effect was not equipotent for sweet and savoury taste; after eating a sweet single meal or sweet 24-h diet, preferences for sweet and savoury foods did not differ. Eating a savoury single meal or savoury 24-h diet, however, led to a clear preference for sweet foods. Neither sweet or savoury tasting single meals nor sweet or savoury 24-h diets shifted food preferences towards high or low protein foods. It was shown that protein content of a meal, independent of taste, did not have an effect on satiety and food preference. We did observe, however, an effect of protein status: after a 14-d low protein diet, there was an increase in ad libitum protein intake, compared to after a 14-d high protein diet, while total energy intake was not different. In addition, food preference for savoury high protein foods was increased.

    Regarding the different components of food reward it was demonstrated that in all studies both explicit and implicit measures correlated with several aspects of eating. It appeared that in a controlled setting, i.e. in the sensory booths, explicit processes played a stronger determining role in satiation (meal size) than implicit processes. Food choices appeared to be made on a more unconscious level. In a setting where subjects could behave more naturally (i.e. self-selection and serving of foods in a relaxed environment where subjects could sit and eat together), implicit, unconscious processes seemed to explain food intake behaviour more than explicit processes. When subjects experienced protein shortage, after the 14-d low protein diet, it appeared that implicit processes of wanting played a stronger determining role in decisions about what to eat.

    Conclusion

    Sweet and savoury taste do not differ in their effect on satiation or satiety in terms of subsequent ad libitum intake. The taste of a meal or diet does have a large effect on subsequent food preferences, thereby showing a clear transfer effect which is not equipotent for sweet and savoury taste. Savoury taste exerts a stronger modulating effect on subsequent food preferences than sweet taste. Sweet and savoury taste of a single meal or 24-h diet do not differ in their effect on food preferences for high or low protein foods. In addition, within-meal protein content seems not to influence satiety or food preferences. A low protein status, however, through selective reduction of dietary protein intake, elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences to restore adequate protein status. It appears that both conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) processes are involved in satiation and food choice. The role implicit motivational processes play in driving food choice is not static, but appears to vary. This is especially the case when homeostasis is challenged (by depleting macronutrient stores), where implicit processes of wanting appear to play a stronger determining role in decisions about what to eat.

    Expected taste intensity affects response to sweet drinks in primary taste cortex
    Woods, Andrew T. ; Lloyd, Donna M. ; Kuenzel, Johanna ; Poliakoff, Ellen ; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B. ; Thomas, Anna - \ 2011
    NeuroReport 22 (2011)8. - ISSN 0959-4965 - p. 365 - 369.
    Expectation - functional MRI - insula - meta-analysis - sweetness - taste

    Expectations about a food can impact on its taste, but this may represent a perceptual change or a bias in response at the decision-making stage. We hypothesised that expectation of taste intensity should be underpinned by modulation of activity in primary taste cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that expecting a very sweet drink, but receiving a less sweet drink, enhanced the reported sweetness and bolstered activity in taste cortex, relative to a less sweet drink without this expectation. The activation overlapped with primary taste cortex activation found in 11 recent taste studies. Our findings provide evidence that taste expectation modulates activity in an area consistently reported as primary taste cortex, implying that expectation effects do indeed impact on taste perception.

    Smaaklessen. Een procesevaluatie onder docenten, leerlingen, partners en Regionale steunpunten
    Meester, H.J. ; Regelink, M.H. - \ 2011
    Amsterdam : ResCon, research & consultancy - 90
    smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - smaak - smaken - voedingseducatie - basisonderwijs - lesmaterialen - eten - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - taste - tastes - nutrition education - elementary education - teaching materials - eating
    ResCon heeft een procesevaluatie uitgevoerd naar het programma Smaaklessen. Het doel van het onderzoek is om inzicht te verkrijgen in de organisatiestructuur van Smaaklessen en het bereik ervan. Tevens geven de resultaten van het onderzoek een kwalitatieve doorkijk van het (te verwachten) effect van Smaaklessen.
    De leukste en lekkerste 'lessen' voor het basisonderwijs!
    Meester, H.J. ; Regelink, M.H. ; Tienstra, M.L. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Steunpunt Smaaklessen & SchoolGruiten
    smaak - smaken - voedingseducatie - basisonderwijs - eten - lesmaterialen - smaaklessen - taste - tastes - nutrition education - elementary education - eating - teaching materials - tasting lessons
    Folder voor basisschooldocenten met informatie over de programma's Smaaklessen, SchoolGruiten en EU-Schoolfruit.
    Typicality and Geographical Origin Markers of Protected Origin Cheese from The Netherlands Revealed by PTR-MS
    Galle, S.A. ; Koot, A.H. ; Soukoulis, C. ; Cappellin, L. ; Biasioli, F. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2011
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (2011)6. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 2554 - 2563.
    reaction-mass-spectrometry - volatile organic-compounds - flavor compounds - fragmentation patterns - profile - fraction - water - taste
    Volatile fingerprints of 30 cumin cheese samples of artisanal farmers' cheese of Leiden with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and 29 cumin cheese samples of varying commercial Dutch brands without PDO protection were used to develop authentication models. The headspace concentrations of the volatiles, as measured with high sensitivity proton-transfer mass spectrometry, were subsequently subjected to partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Farmers' cheese of Leiden showed a distinct volatile profile with 27 and 9 out of the 60 predominant ions showing respectively significantly higher and lower concentrations in the headspace of the cheese in comparison to the other cumin cheeses. The PLS-DA prediction models developed classified in cross-validation 96% of the samples of PDO protected, artisanal farmers' cheese of Leiden correctly, against 100% of commercial cumin cheese samples. The characteristic volatile compounds were tentatively identified by PTR-time-of-flight-MS. A consumer test indicated differences in appreciation, overall flavor intensity, creaminess, and firmness between the two cheese groups. The consumers' appreciation of the cumin cheese tested was not influenced by the presence of a name label or PDO trademark.
    Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination
    Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Zijlstra, N. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Dijkstra, A. ; Burgering, M.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2011
    The British journal of nutrition 105 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 307 - 315.
    flavor release - swallowing process - food-intake - perception - time - satiation - desserts - texture - mouth - taste
    The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of satiation and decreased food intake. Using real-time atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS, in vivo retro-nasal aroma release was assessed for twenty-one young, healthy and normal-weight subjects consuming dark chocolate-flavoured custard. Subjects were exposed to both free or fixed bite size (5 and 15 g) and durations of oral processing before swallowing (3 and 9 s) in a cross-over design. For a fixed amount of dark chocolate-flavoured custard, consumption in multiple small bite sizes resulted in a significantly higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a smaller amount of large bite sizes. In addition, a longer duration of oral processing tended to result in a higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a short duration of oral processing. An interaction effect of bite size and duration of oral processing was not observed. In conclusion, decreasing bite size or increasing duration of oral processing led to a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation per gram consumed. Hence, adapting bite size or duration of oral processing indicates that meal termination can be accelerated by increasing the extent of retro-nasal aroma release and, subsequently, the satiation.
    Why liquid energy results in overconsumption
    Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 70 (2011)2. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 162 - 170.
    sugar-sweetened beverages - sensory-specific satiety - human hypothalamic responses - libitum food-intake - high dietary-fat - body-weight - oral fat - young-children - appetite - taste
    Liquids have been shown to have a low satiating efficiency. The may be related to the high rate of consumption for liquids which may be higher than 200 g/min. In a number of studies, we showed that the positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake is mediated by oro-sensory exposure time. Longer sensory exposure times are consistently associated with lower food intakes. This observation maybe linked to the role of cephalic phase responses to foods. Cephalic phase responses are a set of physiological responses, which are conceived to prepare the digestive system for the incoming flow of nutrients after ingestion, with the aim of maintaining homeostasis. Results from various studies suggest that cephalic phase responses are much smaller (absent) for liquids compared to solids. It is hypothesised that the absence of cephalic phase responses to liquid foods may be one of the causes why liquid energies enter the body undetected and lead to weak energy intake compensation. This idea fits with the concept of the taste system as a nutrient-sensing system that informs the brain and the gastro-intestinal system about what is coming into our body. With liquids, this system is bypassed. Slower eating may help the human body to associate the sensory signals from food with their metabolic consequences. Foods that are eaten quickly may impair this association, and may therefore lead to overconsumption of energy, and ultimately to weight gain.
    Een betere smaak voor biologische tafelaardappelen
    Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2011
    Biokennis
    aardappelen - consumptieaardappelen - smaak - kwaliteit na de oogst - ketenmanagement - akkerbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - potatoes - table potatoes - taste - postharvest quality - supply chain management - arable farming - organic foods
    Smaak is belangrijk voor de verkoop van aardappelen. Om de smaak van biologische aardappelen beter te borgen, kunnen telers en ketenpartijen enkele eenvoudige maatregelen nemen.
    Cross-modal interactions in complex food matrices
    Knoop, J.E. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; J.H.F. Bult. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730367 - 218
    sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - zintuigen - smaak - aroma - appelsap - kazen - zout - caloriearm voedsel - sensory evaluation - perception - senses - taste - aroma - apple juice - cheeses - salt - low calorie foods

    In the light of increasing rates of nutrition related diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke it is necessary to reduce sugar, salt and fat contents of industrial produced food. Reduction of those components generally leads to changes of the sensory properties of the products and rejection by the consumer. Traditional compensation strategies like the use of taste enhancers, artificial sweeteners or fat replacers often lead to off-flavours and consequently to consumer rejection. This thesis describes cross-modal interactions as an alternative strategy to reduce sugar, salt and fat. In the past cross-modal interactions have been describe to influence taste and texture perception, however up to now research focused on simple model systems lacking in perceptual, as well as chemical complexity. This thesis aimed on the application of cross modal interactions involving aroma modification to complex food systems, such as apple juice and cheese. It was investigated whether aromas are able to modify taste perception in complex food matrices and what the driving factors are to which extend aromas can enhance taste perception. Furthermore different cross modal approaches were combined in order to investigate possible additive or synergistic effects on taste enhancement.

    At first, the question whether individual aroma components can be identified that have the capacity to enhance taste perception in a complex beverage was addressed [chapter 2]. Apple juice was choosen to represent a complex matrix where interactions between taste and aroma are a natural product characteristic. Ethylhexanoate was identified to significantly enhance sweetness in apple juice, while three other esters selected on the same basis did not show sweetness enhancement. Ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement appeared to be concentration dependent. Concentrations of 5 ppm were found to be most effective to enhance sweetness in this specific system. However, next to sweetness undesired attributes such as flowery and synthetic were also increased significantly. As a conclusion it has to be noticed that flavour balance in complex food is fragile and has to be carefully altered in order to use odour induced taste enhancement as a tool in sugar, salt and fat reduction. Chapter 3 describes the masking of off-flavours induced by ethylhexanoate as described in chapter 2. It was hypothesised that ethylhexanoate induced off-flavours can be masked by restoring flavour balance by equally adding combinations of all four esters. A combination of ethylhexanoate, ethylbutanoate and ethyl-2-methylbutanoate was found to be most effective to restore flavour quality while maintaining ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement. It was concluded that all components that are naturally part of an aroma are needed to achieve a balanced product.

    Optimisation of odour presentation time in order to achieve maximum taste enhancement was subject to the study described in chapter 4. Swallowing is the key to aroma release during food consumption. It was demonstrated that aroma is most presented most effectively either 1.7 – 2.5 seconds before or 2.6 – 3.6 seconds after the moment of swallow. Aroma presented directly at the moment of swallow was found to be least effective to enhance taste. It is assumed that olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) do not transmit the activation signal to the brain at the exact moment of swallow in order to spare energy and function most effective, as during normal food consumption the aroma is released shortly after swallowing. This hypothesis was further tested in an fMRI study. Preliminary results support this theory, however at the moment of completion of this thesis data evaluation was still in progress.

    In chapter 5 further optimisation of odour/taste interactions was studied, by investigating the influence of temperature on odour induced taste enhancement. Consumption temperatures differ strongly among products. As aroma release strongly depends on the temperature of the food, it was hypothesised that the magnitude of aroma effects on taste perception changes over consumption temperature. Subjects consumed a sweet and a savoury system at four different temperatures (7, 25, 37 and 50°C). Stimuli temperature and odour presentation were fully controlled by temperature optimised gustometry and olfactometry. Both aroma/taste systems were known to have induced taste enhancement in the past (sweet: apple flavoured tea/ethylhexanoate; savoury: broth/sotolon). No significant effect of temperature was found for either of the stimulus pairs. Results indicate that the complexity of the experiment led to confusion by the panelists under fully randomised stimuli delivery conditions. It was therefore concluded, that temperature effects on the magnitude of odour induced taste enhancement need to be studied in a reduced experimental design.

    Temporal contrast as a strategy to enhance salty taste was studied in the experiments described in chapter 6. Salty solutions of different NaCl concentrations were presented in alternating sequence by a gustometer, creating a sensory contrast of low-in salt and high-in salt pulses. It was demonstrated that the sensory contrast induced by the pulsed delivery led to significant taste enhancement. It was shown that high concentrations of NaCl delivered in short pulses were most effective to enhance salty taste. It was concluded that pulsed stimulus delivery can be an additional tool to reduce salt and sugar concentrations in industrial produced food. Chapter 7 combines both cross-modal strategies to enhance taste in this thesis so far, odour induced taste enhancement and temporal contrast of stimulus delivery. Subjects were presented with taste and aroma pulses timed via a gustometer. The aroma was either presented in-phase or out-of-phase with the taste stimulus. A cumulative effect of aroma/taste interactions and temporal contrast of tastant delivery was found, resulting in higher taste enhancement than each of the strategies alone. Overall highest sweetness enhancement was observed when aroma and taste pulses were presented out-of-phase.

    Texture modification is a third cross-modal strategy to enhance taste perception. Combinatory effects of texture modification and odour induced taste enhancement are subject to the study reported in chapter 8. Apple juice containing gels were engineered differing in textural properties, aroma and sugar concentration. In contrast to the results presented in chapter 7, only an additive but no synergistic effect was found for those strategies. Texture modification was found to be more effective than aroma modification.

    Chapter 9 studies effects of aroma on the taste and the texture of cheese and dairy model gels. In the first study subjects consumed different types of cheese with and without a nose-clip. This way the contribution of the aroma phase on the flavour and texture perception of cheese was studied. Saltiness was influenced significantly by the aroma. It was concluded that the aroma of cheese strongly contributes to a cheeses salty taste. Furthermore it was observed that a decrease in cheese firmness strongly correlated with an increase in buttery aroma notes. This was further studied in fully controlled dairy model gels. For gels tasting of cream cheese a significant decrease in firmness was found upon increasing aroma concentration. No effect of butter aroma on firmness was found for yoghurt-like gels. This once more demonstrates the importance of congruency between stimuli. Only congruent sensory impressions can influence each other. In addition, an increase in creaminess was observed with increasing aroma concentration. The results described in chapter 9 clearly show that aromas cannot only modify taste perception, but also are a valid tool for texture modification.

    This thesis demonstrates for the first time, that flavour and texture modification and subsequently the reduction of sugar, salt and (possibly also) fat can be achieved by using cross modal interactions in complex food matrices. New methods have been developed and existing methods have been combined to study aroma/taste interactions in fully controlled settings. Its multidisciplinary approach combines chemical, physical and psychological knowledge in order to discuss and explain results. It furthermore shows that combinations of different strategies are most effective in order to achieve healthier products reduced in sugar, salt and fat.

    Grondsmaak in kweekvis deel 2
    Schram, E. ; Eekert, M.H.A. van; Schuman, E. ; Swinkels, W. - \ 2011
    Aquacultuur 26 (2011)3. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 29 - 36.
    gekweekte producten - visproducten - visteelt - aquacultuur - smaak - visconsumptie - cultured products - fish products - fish culture - aquaculture - taste - fish consumption
    Grondsmaak is wereldwijd een van de belangrijkste beperkende factoren voor de afzet van kweekvis afkomstig uit vijvers en recirculatiesystemen. Dit wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de lage waardering van consumenten voor kweekvis met grondsmaak. Marktprijs en marktvolume komen daardoor onder druk te staan. Daarnaast brengt de bestrijding van grondsmaak extra kosten met zich mee voor de producent. Ook in Nederlandse kweekvis komt grondsmaak voor. In Nederland wordt op verschillende fronten gewerkt aan het voorkomen en bestrijden van grondsmaak. In het eerste deel van deze serie over grondsmaak (Aquacultuur 2011, nr. 2) werd vooral ingegaan op de achtergronden en gevolgen van grondsmaak. In dit tweede deel wordt dieper ingegaan op de diverse aspecten van het bestrijden van grondsmaak in kweekvis.
    De smaak en eetlust van ouderen
    Kremer, S. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)okt. - p. 8 - 8.
    voedselconsumptie - ouderen - smaak - eetlust - smaakpanels - food consumption - elderly - taste - appetite - taste panels
    Onderzoekers van Food and Biobased Research zijn deze zomer gestart met een langlopend smaakonderzoek onder zevenhonderd ouderen. 'We weten nog onvoldoende hoe we de eetlust kunnen stimuleren en wat 55-plussers aanspreekt', zegt onderzoeker Stefanie Kremer. De voedingsindustrie kijkt belangstellend mee.
    Smaakvol Pluimvee. Waar liggen de mogelijkheden voor Pluimvee met Smaak?
    Wersch, G. van; Levie, S. ; Livestock Research, - \ 2011
    Amsterdam : The Green Peas
    pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - dierenwelzijn - kippenvlees - smaak - rendement - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - poultry farming - broilers - animal welfare - chicken meat - taste - returns - sustainability
    In het project Pluimvee met Smaak van Wageningen UR Livestock Research wordt in 2010 en 2011 gewerkt aan een nieuw houderijsysteem voor vleeskippen, dat op meerdere fronten een sprong in duurzaamheid moet betekenen: veel beter dierenwelzijn voor de vleeskuikens en de ouderdieren, een kleiner milieubeslag, een grotere transparantie naar de omgeving en economisch rendement. Op grond van de huidige kennis gaat men er vanuit dat hiervoor in ieder geval een trager groeiend vleeskuiken nodig is. Een kuiken dat bijvoorbeeld in 8 weken volgroeid is i.p.v. de huidige 5 weken. Een belangrijke uitdaging bij een dergelijk systeem is het realiseren van voldoende marktpotentieel.
    Applying chemical stimuli on feathers to reduce feather pecking in laying hens
    Harlander Matauschek, A. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2011
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 132 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 146 - 151.
    production systems - domestic chicks - taste - starlings - behavior - poultry - welfare - odor
    Recent studies have shown that spraying a distasteful substance (quinine) on a bird's feather cover reduced short-term feather pecking. The present experiment evaluated if other substances offer similar or better protection against feather pecking. One hundred and twenty birds were divided into 12 groups of 10 birds each. Over a period of 10 days the birds’ response to 10 feathers coated with one of the 11 distasteful substances was observed and recorded. Feathers were soaked in a 1% garlic solution, 1% almond oil, 1% clove oil, 1% clove solution, quinine sulphate solution in four concentrations (0.1%, 1%, 2%, 4%), 0.6mol magnesium chloride solution, anti-peck spray or an angostura solution. The control group received uncoated feathers. The number of feathers plucked, rejected or eaten was counted 60min after presenting the feathers. All substances reduced feather plucking (p
    Slow Food moet niet anti-technologisch worden
    Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2011
    Slow Food Magazine 2011 (2011)3. - ISSN 1878-4682 - p. 10 - 13.
    voedseltechnologie - gemaksvoedsel - voedselveiligheid - smaak - voedselindustrie - consumenten - food technology - convenience foods - food safety - taste - food industry - consumers
    Veel gemaksvoedsel in de supermarkt staat op gespannen voet met de beginselen van 'lekker, puur en eerlijk'. Maar, zegt hoogleraar voedseltechnologie Tiny van Boekel, dat neemt niet weg dat de voedselindustrie een revolutionaire bijdrage heeft geleverd aan de beschikbaarheid van voldoende, kwalitatief hoogstaand én betaalbaar voedsel voor iedereen. En wat de smaak betreft: 'Ik ben er van overtuigd dat een fabriekskaas net zo lekker kan zijn als een biologische boerenkaas'. Een interview.
    Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction in older adults: a national probability study
    Boesveldt, S. ; Lindau, S.T. ; McClintock, M.K. ; Hummel, T. ; Lundstrom, J.N. - \ 2011
    Rhinology 49 (2011)3. - ISSN 0300-0729 - p. 324 - 330.
    odor identification - depressive symptoms - anorexia-nervosa - smell perception - united-states - taste - prevalence - disease - population - impairment
    BACKGROUND: Olfactory and gustatory functions have not been well characterized in older adults in the US. Consequently, their relationships to sociodemographic characteristics, as well as physical and mental health, were studied in a large national probability sample using brief validated tests of chemosensory function. METHODS: A five-odour identification test and taste-impregnated strips of filter paper (sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) assessed the ability to identify chemosensory stimuli. RESULTS: Severe gustatory dysfunction was more prevalent than severe olfactory dysfunction. Age, education and sex were independently associated with performance on both the olfactory and gustatory identification tasks. Higher scores were associated with female sex, higher level of education, and lower age. Odour identification scores exhibited a positive, albeit weak, correlation with BMI, and food-related odours were better identified than non-food odours. In addition, odour identification performance was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate a high prevalence of severe gustatory and, to a somewhat lesser extent, olfactory dysfunction in a population-based sample and demonstrate that even brief tests are capable of detecting correlations between both chemical senses and relevant health measures outside a clinical setting.
    Consumer acceptance and appropriateness of meat substitutes in a meal context
    Elzerman, J.E. ; Hoek, A.C. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Luning, P.A. - \ 2011
    Food Quality and Preference 22 (2011)3. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 233 - 240.
    food acceptability - flavor principles - product - environment - willingness - taste
    The replacement of meat by meat substitutes could help to reduce the environmental burden of our food production systems. However, the acceptance of most meat substitutes is still low. This study investigated the role of meal context on the acceptance of meat substitutes. In a central location test involving 93 participants, meals with meat substitutes were rated on overall liking, product liking (liking of the meat substitute in the meal), appropriateness and intention-to-use, whereas individual meat substitutes were rated on overall liking. Meat substitutes with similar flavor and texture, but with different shape (pieces and mince), were rated differently in four meals (rice, spaghetti, soup, and salad) on product liking, appropriateness and intention-to-use, but not differently on overall liking of the meals. Meat substitutes with similar shape, but different flavor and texture rated differently on overall liking when tasted separately, but did not always differ in product liking when tasted in a rice meal. Appropriateness seemed to be influenced by the appearance of the meat substitute-meal combination, and less by flavor and texture. For the development of new foods (e.g. meat substitutes), more emphasis is needed on consumer evaluation of meal combinations instead of on the sensory properties of the individual product
    Grondsmaak in kweekvis deel 1
    Schram, E. ; Eekert, M. ; Schuman, E. - \ 2011
    Aquacultuur 26 (2011)2. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 9 - 14.
    gekweekte producten - visteelt - smaak - aquacultuur - visconsumptie - cultured products - fish culture - taste - aquaculture - fish consumption
    Grondsmaak is wereldwijd een van de belangrijkste beperkende factoren voor de afzet van kweekvis afkomstig uit vijvers en recirculatiesystemen. Dit wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de lage waardering van consumenten voor kweekvis met grondsmaak. Marktprijs en marktvolume komen daardoor onder druk te staan. Daarnaast brengt de bestrijding van grondsmaak extra kosten met zich mee voor de producent. Ook in Nederlandse kweekvis komt grondsmaak voor. In Nederland wordt op verschillende fronten gewerkt aan het voorkomen en bestrijden van grondsmaak. In dit artikel (dat uit twee delen bestaat) wordt het grondsmaakprobleem en het daaraan gekoppelde onderzoek beschreven. In dit eerste deel wordt vooral ingegaan op de achtergronden en gevolgen van grondsmaak.
    Betere smaak biologische tafelaardappelen
    Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2011
    biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - aardappelen - akkerbouw - smaak - organic farming - organic foods - potatoes - arable farming - taste
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie over de verbetering van de smaak van biologische aardappelen.
    Routinematige meting smaak tomaat
    Verkerke, W. - \ 2011
    sensorische wetenschappen - sensorische evaluatie - smaak - tomaten - kennismodellering - meetinstrumenten - sensory sciences - sensory evaluation - taste - tomatoes - knowledge modeling - indicating instruments
    Informatieposter over routinematige meting van de smaak van tomaat
    Investigation of interactions between texture and ortho- and retronasal olfactory stimuli using psychophysical and electrophysiological approaches
    Roudnitzky, N. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Reden, J. ; Schuster, B. ; Hummel, T. - \ 2011
    Behavioural Brain Research 216 (2011)1. - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 109 - 115.
    flavor perception - response alternatives - odor identification - swallowing process - release - mouth - taste - discrimination - integration - potentials
    Flavor is a result of the complex combination of olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal sensations perceived during oral processing of foods, including thermal, painful, tactile and/or kinesthetic effects. Aim of this study was to better understand interactions between synchronous tactile (texture) and olfactory (odor) sensations, using a psychophysical and an electrophysiological approach. Texture stimuli were aliquots of lean milk and thickened lean milk. A butter aroma was presented either orthonasally or retronasally after oral processing and before swallowing the oral stimulus or in the absence of an oral stimulus. Eighteen subjects (11 women, 7 men, mean age 24 years), naïve to the expected effects, rated both odor and texture intensity of each stimulus. Event-related potentials (ERP) were obtained from five recording positions. For the psychophysical data, the presence of an oral stimulus increased odor intensity, irrespective of odor presentation route. For the electrophysiological data, both early and late chemosensory ERPs were affected by odor conditions, texture conditions, and their respective interaction. In conclusion: (1) perceptual interactions occurred between food texture and odor, with cross-modal interactions being found for both orthonasal and retronasal odor administration, and (2) these interactions between texture and odor occur at both primary-sensory and cognitive evaluative levels of stimulus processing. The temporal dimension plays then a critical role in the investigation of odor–texture interactions.
    Consumer insight and user-producer interaction : tussenrapportage
    Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Gorselink, M. ; Broekstra, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1153) - 16
    voedselconsumptie - voeding en gezondheid - consumenten - smaak - belevingswaarde - perceptie - consumentengedrag - food consumption - nutrition and health - consumers - taste - experiential value - perception - consumer behaviour
    Binnen de groep Consumer Science van Food & Biobased Research doet men onderzoek aan het ontwikkelen van productconcepten en interventieconcepten om de keuze en inname van gezond en duurzaam geproduceerd voedsel te stimuleren. Bij dit onderzoek wordt gekozen voor een consumentgedreven benadering. De informatie uit dergelijke projecten – het zogenaamde consumer insight – is voor producenten zeer interessant. Daarnaast bieden de onderzoeksfaciliteiten (zoals het sensorisch lab en het Restaurant van de Toekomst) en de onderzoeksmethoden (zoals stage-gate procedures en motives and barriers studies) producenten de mogelijkheid om snel een productie-test-cylcus te doorlopen. Dergelijke user-producer interactie leidt tot een efficiënte productontwikkeling. In dit project richten we ons op het gestructureerd inventariseren en ontsluiten van de opgedane kennis en conclusies.
    De functionele eigenschappen van suiker : de rol van suiker
    Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2010
    Voeding en Visie 2010 (2010)1. - ISSN 0924-3267 - p. 3 - 4.
    suiker - toevoegingen - voedseladditieven - smaak - zoetstoffen - sugar - additives - food additives - taste - sweeteners
    Suiker kan om veel verschillende redenen aan voeding worden toegevoegd. Om de zoete smaak natuurlijk, maar er is meer. Professor Tiny van Boekel van Wageningen Universiteit legt uit waarom suiker zo uniek is.
    Parental child-feeding strategies in relation to Dutch children's fruit and vegetable intake
    Zeinstra, G.G. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Kok, F.J. ; Laan, N. van der; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
    Public Health Nutrition 13 (2010)6. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 787 - 796.
    food preferences - consumption - context - family - taste - questionnaire - willingness - information - validity - beliefs
    Objective: To identify parental child-feeding strategies that may increase children's fruit or vegetable intake, since the relationship between these strategies and children's intake has never been investigated for fruit and vegetables as two separate food groups. Design: A survey study, where parents provided information about their practices in relation to feeding their children and about their own and their children's fruit and vegetable intake. Children completed a preference questionnaire about fruit and vegetables. To find underlying parental child-feeding strategies, factor analysis was applied to parents' practices in relation to fruit and vegetables separately. Regression analysis was used to predict the effect of these strategies on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The impact of the strategies was further analysed by estimating children's intake based on the frequency of use of specific strategies. Setting: The study was conducted at three primary schools in The Netherlands. Subjects: A total of 259 children between 4 and 12 years old and their parents (n242). Results: Parents used different strategies for fruit as compared with vegetables. The vegetable-eating context was more negative than the fruit-eating context. Parental intake and presenting the children with choice were positive predictors of children's intake of both fruit and vegetables. The intake difference based on frequency of use of the strategy 'Choice' was 40 g/d for vegetables and 72 g/d for fruit (P
    De Gereedschapskist Smaak
    Verkerke, W. - \ 2010
    smaakpanels - glasgroenten - teelt onder bescherming - smaak - testen - smaakonderzoek - tomaten - taste panels - greenhouse vegetables - protected cultivation - taste - testing - taste research - tomatoes
    Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw in Bleiswijk heeft diverse praktische tools ontwikkeld om de smaak van glastuinbouwproducten snel en objectief te kunnen vaststellen. Met een overzicht van de verschillende smaakpanels. Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw heeft speciaal voor de tuinbouw ook een modelmatige smaakmeting voor tomaat ontwikkeld. Dit model kan aan de hand van laboratoriummetingen de uitslag van het consumentenpanel voorspellen. Zo kan snel en goedkoop worden nagegaan welk smaakniveau een tomaat ongeveer heeft. Dit model is bijzonder geschikt om grote aantallen monsters op smaak te screenen.
    Vingerafdruk Boeren-Leidse
    Galle, S. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2010
    De zelfkazer 62 (2010)6. - ISSN 0166-4549 - p. 13 - 13.
    kazen - smaak - geur en smaak - kaaskwaliteit - cheeses - taste - flavour - cheese quality
    Boeren-Leidse kaas met sleutels is een komijnekaas voor liefhebbers van een stevige textuur en een unieke smaak/aroma. De vluchtige (aroma)stoffen van de kaas zijn zo karakteristiek dat ze als een vingerafdruk van de kaas gebruikt kunnen worden om de ‘echte’ Boeren-Leidse met sleutels te onderscheiden van andere komijnekazen. Dat blijkt uit metingen van het RIKILT.
    Smaakvolle producten voor een betere afzet
    Verkerke, W. - \ 2010
    Biokennis
    biologische voedingsmiddelen - smaak - marketing - voedselkwaliteit - smaakonderzoek - organic foods - taste - marketing - food quality - taste research
    De biologische sector wil gezonde en lekkere producten leveren die op duurzame wijze zijn geproduceerd. Wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar smaak kan de biologische keten helpen om dit doel te bereiken. Welke mogelijkheden zijn er om de smaak van biologische producten te verbeteren? Hoe scheid je het kaf van het koren? En hoe is die betere smaak vervolgens te vermarkten? In 20 jaar onderzoek is veel ervaring opgedaan.
    Biologische tafelaardappels : eet smakelijk?
    Janmaat, L. ; Brinks, H. - \ 2010
    Ekoland 30 (2010)12. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 10 - 11.
    biologische landbouw - aardappelen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - kwaliteit - smaak - akkerbouw - ketenmanagement - organic farming - potatoes - organic foods - quality - taste - arable farming - supply chain management
    De kassaomzet van biologische tafelaardappelen stagneert. Klanten van supermarkten vinden het prijsverschil tussen biologisch en regulier groot, en verwachten daarvoor een hoog kwaliteitsniveau. Het project Biolmpuls probeert met alle ketenpartijen hieraan te werken. De deelnemers gingen samen op pad en bezochten enkele verpakkers van tafelaardappelen.
    Als het maar op vlees lijkt : vleesvervangers bedienen groeiend aantal vleesminderaars
    Knol, Jeroen - \ 2010
    food industry - meat alternates - meat analogues - taste - consumer behaviour - consumer preferences - food marketing
    Een betere smaak voor biologische tafelaardappelen
    Wijk, C.A.P. van; Leeuwen, M.A.E. van - \ 2010
    BioKennis bericht Akkerbouw & vollegrondsgroenten 2010 (2010)31. - 4
    biologische landbouw - aardappelen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - smaak - cultuurmethoden - kwaliteit - ketenmanagement - organic farming - potatoes - organic foods - taste - cultural methods - quality - supply chain management
    Smaak is belangrijk voor de verkoop van aardappelen. Om de smaak van biologische aardappelen beter te borgen, kunnen telers en ketenpartijen enkele eenvoudige maatregelen nemen. Aardappelen moeten goed uitgegroeid zijn en voldoende onderwatergewicht hebben. Ook de raskeuze is belangrijk; slechter smakende rassen moeten gemeden worden. Telen op klei geeft gemiddeld een grotere kans op een betere smaak, maar in sommige jaren worden zandaardappelen juist beter gewaardeerd. Bewaring tot februari bij 6 ˚C doet gemiddeldgeen afbreuk aan de smaak. Dit BioKennisbericht geeft conclusies uit eerder onderzoek, achtergrondinformatie en suggesties voor een ketenaanpak.
    Rassenproef zwarte bessen in 2010
    Oosten, A.A. van; Balkhoven-Baart, J.M.T. ; Maas, F.M. - \ 2010
    Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit (PPo-rapporten 2010-22) - 41
    ribes nigrum - zwarte bessen - rassen (planten) - cultivars - rassen (taxonomisch) - gevoeligheid van variëteiten - smaak - rassenproeven - ribes nigrum - black currants - varieties - cultivars - races - varietal susceptibility - taste - variety trials
    Doel van dit onderzoek is (nieuwe) rassen zwarte bes vinden die een verbetering kunnen zijn van de huidige rassen, ook wat betreft de gevoeligheid voor ziekten en plagen. In de proef worden zwarte bessenrassen beoordeeld op bruikbaarheid voor de teelt in Nederland, met 10 of 12 planten per ras. In dit rapport worden de resultaten van proefjaar 2010 beschreven.
    Groot onderzoek naar herformulering : nieuwe receptuur : nu nog gezonder
    Raaij, J.M.A. van; Hendriksen, M. ; Janssen, A.M. ; Noort, M. ; Temme, E.H.M. - \ 2010
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 43 (2010)24. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 10 - 11.
    voedingsmiddelen - zout - vetconsumptie - reductie - smaak - sensorische evaluatie - volksgezondheid - bescherming van de consument - houding van consumenten - voeding en gezondheid - foods - salt - fat consumption - reduction - taste - sensory evaluation - public health - consumer protection - consumer attitudes - nutrition and health
    Hoe maak je een voedingsmiddel dan minder zout, suiker of vet bevat, maar nog net zo lekker smaakt als het origineel? Wageningen UR, het RIVM en TNO zoeken gezamenlijk naar mogelijkheden om bestaande voedselproducten te herformuleren. Voor de industrie een uitdaging, voor de consument een goede keuze en voor de volksgezondheid winst.
    Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption
    Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
    Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 789 - 799.
    sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dietary-sodium - bite size - ingestive behavior - energy density - liquid food - taste - satiation
    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption
    Biologische consumptie-aardappelrassen : smaaktoetsing van gekookt product : meerjarige toetsing op smaakeigenschappen
    Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2010
    Lelystad : PPO AGV - 76
    aardappelen - akkerbouw - rassen (planten) - rasverschillen - smaak - proeven - kwaliteit - droge stof - bodemtypen - kookkwaliteit - biologische voedingsmiddelen - smaakonderzoek - potatoes - arable farming - varieties - breed differences - taste - trials - quality - dry matter - soil types - cooking quality - organic foods - taste research
    In 2007 is daarom vanuit Bioconnect Innovatiegroep Productkwaliteit een project gestart ter verbetering van de productkwaliteit bij een aantal grotere biologische gewassen. Het doel van het project was: 1. Verhoging van de productkwaliteit van het biologische product door ontwikkeling van nieuwe kennis en synthese van bestaande kennis tot toepasbare teelt- en ketenstrategieën. 2. Verhogen van betrokkenheid voor kwaliteit biologisch product bij biologische telers en ketenpartijen. De mogelijkheden van de technische verbeteringen van smaak en productkwaliteit bij biologische geteelde aardappel zijn getoetst binnen dit project. Daarvoor is nauw samengewerkt met aardappel ketenpartijen binnen de biologische sector.
    Robot proeft in smaaklab
    Verkerke, W. - \ 2010
    Plant life nieuwsbrief 2010 (2010)juni.
    smaak - smaakpanels - robots - vochtgehalte - tomaten - rassenproeven - plantenveredeling - selectie - glastuinbouw - taste - taste panels - robots - moisture content - tomatoes - variety trials - plant breeding - selection - greenhouse horticulture
    In het smaaklab voor de glastuinbouw in Bleiswijk testen panels van consumenten en fijnproevers de verschillende rassen en lijnen van groenten. Maar niet álle groenten. Robots doen de eerste selectie, vertelt dr. Wouter Verkerke van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw. "Niemand proeft honderd tomaten op één ochtend."
    Kinderen beproeven eigen smaakbeleving - Kidspanel van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw van start
    Stijger, C.C.M.M. - \ 2010
    Groenten en Fruit Magazine 2010 (2010)4. - ISSN 1879-7318 - p. 36 - 37.
    smaakpanels - basisonderwijs - kinderen - kwaliteitscontroles - smaak - groenten - fruit - zintuiglijke waarneming - smaakonderzoek - taste panels - elementary education - children - quality controls - taste - vegetables - fruit - organolepsis - taste research
    Recent is het Kidspanel van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw van start gegaan. Deze panels geven hun mening over de smaak van groente en fruit. Het kidspanel wordt gevormd door kinderen van groep 7 en 8 van de basisschool.
    Smaakvolle Bio-aardappel
    Wijk, Kees van - \ 2010
    potatoes - organic foods - organic farming - taste - varieties - solanum tuberosum - food marketing - taste research
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