Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    'Meer concurrentie door handelsakkoord'
    Berkum, Siemen van - \ 2014
    trade liberalization - international trade - trade agreements - trade barriers - agricultural trade - european union - usa - exports
    Smallholder Livelihood Adaptation in the Context of Neoliberal Policy Reforms: A Case of Maize Farmers in Southern Veracruz, Mexico.
    Groenewald, S.F. ; Berg, M.M. van den - \ 2012
    Journal of Development Studies 48 (2012)3. - ISSN 0022-0388 - p. 429 - 444.
    trade liberalization - rural livelihoods - expenditure data - united-states - poverty - growth - strategies - vulnerability - inequality - framework
    Governments around the world have embraced trade liberalisation as a means of enhancing efficiency to realise economic growth and alleviate poverty. Likewise, the Mexican government implemented neoliberal policy reforms, the NAFTA in particular, to stimulate sustainable development. Using the Mexican maize sector as illustration, this article describes the adaptation process of smallholders to market changes shaped by these reforms. Going beyond the aggregated level, we have investigated smallholders' livelihood strategies. Contrary to what economic models estimated, our data suggests that farmers intensified the cultivation of maize rather than switch to sectors in which Mexico has a comparative advantage.
    Risicobeheer in het gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid : invulling 'vangnet' na 2013
    Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Meer, R.W. van der - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap ) - ISBN 9789086154906 - 73
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - liberalisering van de handel - ondersteunende maatregelen - internationale handel - risicobeheersing - verstoring - markten - nederland - cap - trade liberalization - support measures - international trade - risk management - disturbance - markets - netherlands
    In het gemeenschappelijk EU-landbouwbeleid (GLB) is sprake van verregaande liberalisering van de landbouwmarkten. Ook binnen het nieuwe GLB is er plaats voor een vangnet dat een bodem in de markt biedt in situaties wanneer de markt ernstig verstoord wordt. Onderzocht is welke publieke en private instrumenten geschikt zijn om invulling te geven aan een vangnet na 1013.
    Bio-economic farm modelling for integrated assessment of agricultural and environmental policies: towards re-usability and improved empirical validity
    Kanellopoulos, A. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum; Paul Berentsen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857020 - 179
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - wiskundige modellen - bedrijfssystemen - landbouwbeleid - milieubeleid - liberalisering van de handel - beoordeling - farm management - mathematical models - farming systems - agricultural policy - environmental policy - trade liberalization - assessment
    Keywords: integrated assessment, environmental policy, agricultural policy, market liberalization, bio-economic model, farming systems, mathematical programming, maximum entropy estimation, data envelopment analysis, agricultural activity, land use, future studies.

    The main objective of this PhD thesis was to develop and evaluate a generic bio-economic farm model that can be used under different biophysical and socio-economic conditions for integrated assessment of a variety of agricultural and environmental policies. The functionality of the generic bio-economic farm model developed in this thesis was illustrated with an analysis of the impacts of the 2003 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in the European Union for arable and livestock farms in a context of market liberalisation.
    In bio-economic studies, estimation of model parameters related to increasing costs because of limited machinery and managerial capacity, decreasing yields because of land heterogeneity and risk aversion is often not possible because of lack of data. Not including or misspecifying such parameters can have negative consequences on the forecasting performance of the model. In this thesis, methodologies based on Positive Mathematical Programming and Maximum Entropy estimation were proposed and implemented to recover unknown parameters underlying the actual decision making of farmers and to improve the forecasting performance of the model. The proposed methods relax a number of arbitrary assumptions of existing calibration methods and enhance representation of the actual decision making. The forecasting capacity of the models calibrated with the proposed methods was tested in ex-post experiments in which the models were calibrated with historical data of a particular base year and used to forecast policies and price changes of the following historical years. Results of these ex-post experiments showed that the proposed calibration methods improve the forecasting capacity of the model.
    For meaningful assessment of future policies using bio-economic models, a comprehensive set of alternative activities must be identified. Combinatorial procedures and filtering rules have been used in the literature to generate a set of activities that can be evaluated in bio-economic models. One very important limitation of combinatorial procedures is that the number of generated activities can easily explode. However, many of these activities are inferior with respect to their input-output relationships and they will never be part of the solution of the bio-economic farm model. In this thesis, a method based on Data Envelopment Analysis was proposed to identify and select alternative agricultural activities, representative for specific policy questions that can be used in bio-economic models. The Data Envelopment Analysis method reduced the number of alternative agricultural activities generated by existing combinatorial procedures by 95%, arriving at a number that can easily be applied in bio-economic farm models. The proposed method was applied to a problem of alternative nutrient management in Flevoland (the Netherlands).

    Economische en politieke ontwikkelingen
    Roza, P. ; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Bakker, E. de - \ 2010
    In: Landbouw-Economisch Bericht 2010 / Berkhout, P., van Bruchem, C., Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Rapport / Onderzoeksveld Internationaal beleid 2010-013) - p. 1 - 20.
    landbouwbeleid - macro-economische analyse - economische ontwikkeling - economische crises - economisch herstel - agrarische handel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - liberalisering van de handel - agricultural policy - macroeconomic analysis - economic development - economic crises - economic recovery - agricultural trade - sustainability - trade liberalization
    Beschrijving van de belangrijkste macro-economische ontwikkelingen, zowel op internationaal als op nationaal niveau.
    EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Roza, P. - \ 2008
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Area 2, Development issues ) - ISBN 9789086152667 - 68
    handel - vrijhandel - internationale handel - handelspolitiek - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - voedselgranen - armoede - toegang - handelsonderhandelingen - wereldmarkten - handelsprotectie - india - europese unie - trade - free trade - international trade - trade policy - trade liberalization - trade relations - food grains - poverty - access - trade negotiations - world markets - trade protection - india - european union
    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of the study is devoted to analysing the impact of tariff slashes under an FTA on merchandise trade between the EU and India. Of particular interest are the implications for agricultural markets, given the tension between agricultural liberalisation and India's policy goals relating to self-sufficiency in food grains and poverty reduction. The analysis employs GTAP, a global general equilibrium model using a recent database which has 2004 as its reference year. The results suggest that India's interests in a regional trade agreement with the EU are downplayed by the fact that India's economy is not well integrated in global markets. Impacts on the EU are minor and further reduced if a Doha agreement is in place when the FTA is implemented. Results indicate the rationale for a strongly asymmetric arrangement: it would be in the interest of both partners if the EU provides large concessions to India for market access, while India maintains the bulk of current border protection. An EU - India FTA delivers little scope for achieving efficiency gains via adjustments to the pattern of international specialisation. An EU - India agreement on merchandise trade is unlikely to embody substantial preferential treatment with regard to market access. Probably, India can find more suitable FTA partners. Agriculture is a key sector for India in the consideration of equity and growth purposes of a FTA with EU.
    Agrarische handel van België met ontwikkelingslanden; Toets op duurzaamheid
    Meijerink, G.W. ; Roza, P. ; Berkum, S. van - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - 137
    agrarische economie - agrarische handel - ontwikkelingslanden - ecologie - sociologie - bananen - cacao - koffie - sojabonen - thee - brazilië - costa rica - ivoorkust - tanzania - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociale economie - belgië - internationale handel - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - economische aspecten - agricultural economics - agricultural trade - developing countries - ecology - sociology - bananas - cocoa - coffee - soyabeans - tea - brazil - costa rica - cote d'ivoire - tanzania - sustainability - socioeconomics - belgium - international trade - trade liberalization - trade relations - economic aspects
    Deze studie voor het Vlaamse ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij belicht de economische, sociale en ecologische gevolgen van agrarische handel van België met ontwikkelingslanden. Het onderzoek spitst zich toe op een vijftal producten (banaan, cacao, koffie, soja en thee) en vier ontwikkelingslanden (Brazilië, Costa Rica, Ivoorkust en Tanzania). Het oordeel over de mate van duurzaamheid wordt gebaseerd op de vier landenstudies, uitgevoerd door lokale onderzoekers, waarbij een beperkt aantal indicatoren is meegenomen. Naar voren komt dat met name de twee Latijns Amerikaanse landen negatieve ecologische gevolgen van handel (in soja en banaan) ondervinden, en dat in de Afrikaanse landen de negatieve sociaal-economische aspecten de meeste aandacht vragen. This study for the Flemish Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries sheds light on the economic, social and ecological effects of Belgium's agricultural trade with developing countries. The study focuses on five products (bananas, cocoa, coffee, soya and tea) and four developing countries (Brazil, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire and Tanzania). The assessment of the level of sustainability is based on the four country studies, conducted by local researchers, and taking into account a limited number of indicators. It emerges that the two Latin American countries experience negative ecological effects of trade (in soya and bananas), and that in the African countries the negative social-economic aspects require most attention.
    Will EU biofuel policies affect global agricultural markets
    Banse, M.A.H. ; Meijl, H. van; Tabeau, A.A. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Working paper / Agricultural Economics Research Institute ) - 37
    brandstoffen - brandstofgewassen - agrarische economie - europese unie - eu regelingen - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - liberalisering van de handel - biomassa productie - wereldmarkten - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - fuels - fuel crops - agricultural economics - european union - eu regulations - cap - trade liberalization - biomass production - world markets - biofuels - biobased economy
    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020
    Agricultural trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions : a simulation study using the GTAP-IMAGE modelling framework
    Verburg, R.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Eickhout, B. ; Stehfest, E. - \ 2008
    The Hague : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 3, Natural resources and the environment ) - ISBN 9789086152049 - 84
    agrarische economie - agrarische handel - liberalisering van de handel - broeikaseffect - opwarming van de aarde - emissie - quota's - productiecontroles - handelsbarrières - kooldioxide - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - klimaatverandering - landbouwbeleid - milieueconomie - agricultural economics - agricultural trade - trade liberalization - greenhouse effect - global warming - emission - quotas - production controls - trade barriers - carbon dioxide - methane - nitrous oxide - climatic change - agricultural policy - environmental economics
    This report explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions and on changing commodity production areas by coupling of the modeling tools GTAP and IMAGE. Four scenarios are explored with developments up tot 2050. The scenarios include a baseline, full liberalisation and two partial liberalisation scenarios for which the latter scenarios include removal of trade barriers or removal of milk quota by 2015 only. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to a further increase in greenhouse gas emissions adding to an already observed increase in emissions observed in the baseline scenario. CO2 emission increase is caused by vegetation clearance due to a rapid expansion of agricultural areas in South America and South East Asia. Increased methane emissions are also calculated in these areas caused by less intensive cattle farming. Global production of the commodities milk, dairy and beef does not change between full liberalisation and the baseline but clear shifts from North America and Europe to South America and South East Asia are expected.
    Maize and biosecurity in Mexico; debate and practice
    Antal, E. ; Baker, L. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam : CEDLA (Cuadernos del Cedla 22) - ISBN 9789070280895 - 96
    ontwikkelingsstudies - biodiversiteit - biotechnologie - voedselzekerheid - liberalisering van de handel - maïs - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleid inzake voedsel - genetische modificatie - mexico - agrobiodiversiteit - development studies - biodiversity - biotechnology - food security - trade liberalization - maize - sustainability - food policy - genetic engineering - mexico - agro-biodiversity
    Mexico committed to liberalizing its trade under the terms set by NAFTA and the WTO, yet it is also obliged to protect its exceptional biodiversity. This is especially delicate as it is closely linked to cultural diversity and the survival of poor campesino and indigenous groups. The unfortunate introduction of GMOS into the country occurred through imported maize, a product that appears to be the apple of discord in the discussion on biotechnology. For Mexicans, non-economic factors make the origin and quality of maize extremely important, even more so than costs and prices. If Mexico is unable to find new strategies of survival that are also environmentally sustainable for the countryside, the guardians of the genetic diversity of maize - the still numerous rural subsistence farmers - will end up as undocumented immigrants in the USA. This study discusses the possibility to have one sole food policy that responds to the interests of the sectors linked to technological knowledge as well as those linked to traditional knowledge. In the complex Mexican context, it is possible to promote efficiently the adoption of biotechnology and at the same time preserve bio-divesity, and who should pay the costs?
    Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries
    Koning, N.B.J. ; Pinstrup-Andersen, P. - \ 2007
    Dordrecht, Netherlands : Springer (Wageningen UR Frontis series vol. 19) - ISBN 9781402060854 - 249
    liberalisering van de handel - agrarische handel - handelsonderhandelingen - ontwikkelingslanden - landbouwbeleid - wereldhandelsorganisatie - ontwikkeling - agrarische economie - trade liberalization - agricultural trade - trade negotiations - developing countries - agricultural policy - world trade organization - development - agricultural economics
    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear how the 50 countries identified by the United Nations as the `Least Developed Countries¿ (LDCs), which have been subject to special consideration in international trade negotiations, would fare. Would they lose their preferential trade access to the OECD markets and, if so, would these losses exceed the potential gains from liberalized trade? Or would low-income countries that currently receive high prices for commodities such as sugar in some OECD-country markets be out-competed by countries such as Brazil in a liberalized market? More generally, would any benefits from liberalized agricultural trade be captured by middle-income countries with good domestic infrastructure and well-functioning markets, leaving few or no economic benefits to the LDCs? How should the LDCs prepare for multilateral reform of agricultural trade, and should they take policy action now in response to the continuation of the trade-distorting agricultural policies pursued by the OECD countries? To what extent do the LDCs and the middle-income developing countries have common interests with respect to the desired outcomes of the trade round? Are the LDCs well represented by the Group of 21, which consists primarily of middle-income countries with strong export potential in agriculture, or should they pursue a different set of goals in future negotiations? In this book, several experts on international trade and development address these and related questions
    Liberalisering: van gereguleerd naar vrije markt : inspiratie voor de Nederlandse melkveehouderij vanuit Nieuw Zeeland en Australië
    Ham, A. van den; Smit, C.T. ; Prins, B. ; Beldman, A.C.G. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI - 63
    landbouw - landbouwbeleid - landbouwsituatie - agrarische structuur - zuivelindustrie - subsidies - ondernemerschap - liberalisering van de handel - australië - nieuw-zeeland - agriculture - agricultural policy - agricultural situation - agricultural structure - dairy industry - subsidies - entrepreneurship - trade liberalization - australia - new zealand
    De landbouw in zowel Nieuw-Zeeland als Australië was in de vorige eeuw sterk gereguleerd. Omdat deze situatie in beide landen niet langer houdbaar was is er gekozen voor liberalisering van onder andere de zuivelsector. In West-Europa zitten we nu in hetzelfde proces van liberalisering, binnen de melkveehouderij is de hervorming van het Gemeenschappelijk Landbouw Beleid (GLB) hier een concreet voorbeeld van. In Oceanië is de liberalisering echter verschillend aangepakt: in Nieuw-Zeeland in één keer, terwijl Australië de weg der geleidelijkheid heeft gekozen. Het is interessant om te kijken wat er gebeurde in deze landen, wat gebeurde er sowieso met de ondernemers en de landbouwsectoren in het algemeen in de melkveehouderij in het bijzonder en wat waren of zijn de gevolgen van de gekozen aanpakken. Het rapport geeft een overzicht van de landen voor en na de liberalisering, aangevuld met een aantal ervaringen van ondernemers. Het documenteert indrukken die mogelijk relevant zijn voor de Nederlandse melkveehouderij. Het doel van het rapport is mensen op weg te helpen hun eigen situatie in een breder kader te plaatsen
    Agricultural market access proposals in the Doha round : Dutch agro-food interests
    Kuiper, M.H. ; Banse, M.A.H. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9789086151547 - 87
    landbouwbeleid - handelsonderhandelingen - liberalisering van de handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - internationale handel - toegang - markten - wereldmarkten - tarieven - handelsbarrières - landbouwproducten - nederland - agricultural policy - trade negotiations - trade liberalization - world trade organization - international trade - access - markets - world markets - tariffs - trade barriers - agricultural products - netherlands
    This report analyses the impact of market access proposals tabled in the current WTO Doha round. The first part of the study assesses the 'bite' of tariff reductions by comparing border prices of Dutch products with those of imports before and after implementing tariff reductions. The second part of the study analyses the impact of proposals for sensitive products in terms of tariff rate quota (TRQ) expansion and highlights complexities surrounding the implementation of the proposals.
    Diversity of impact : agricultural trade liberalisation, poverty and development
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Roza, P. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9789086151219 - 66
    landbouwbeleid - agrarische economie - liberalisering van de handel - agrarische handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - economische groei - armoede - ontwikkelingslanden - agricultural policy - agricultural economics - trade liberalization - agricultural trade - world trade organization - economic growth - poverty - developing countries
    There appears to be a consensus that the interests of developing countries lie mostly liberalisation of trade in manufactures and services. Despite this insight, the WTO negotiations on agriculture have been a stumbling bloc for the developing countries. This reviews the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on economic growth and poverty alleviation. A recurring theme is the wide diversity of effects across regions, economic activities, groups in society (urban consumers, rural producers), and households.
    Innovatie in de bietensector: motor voor systeemdoorbraken in de akkerbouw
    Struik, P.C. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2005
    Spil 213/214 (2005)3. - ISSN 0165-6252 - p. 9 - 12.
    suikerbieten - beta vulgaris - suikerindustrie - liberalisering van de handel - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - innovaties - nederland - europese unie - quota's - sugarbeet - sugar industry - quotas - trade liberalization - agricultural situation - economic situation - innovations - netherlands - european union
    Vergaande hervormingsvoorstellen, die in Brussel ter tafel liggen, zullen ingrijpende gevolgen hebben voor de bietenteelt en de daarop gebaseerde suikerindustrie. Systeemdoorbraken, technologische innovaties, bedrijfsinnovaties en economische innovaties worden hier voorgesteld om op de nieuwe situatie in te spelen ter overleving van de bieten- en suikersector in Nederland
    Indonesian interests in the agricultural negotiations under the Doha Development Agenda
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Hutaburat, B. ; Syafa'at, N. ; Tongeren, F.W. van - \ 2005
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789052429762 - 55
    landbouwbeleid - economische ontwikkeling - liberalisering van de handel - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - handelspolitiek - export - suiker - zelfvoorziening - indonesië - ontwikkelingslanden - agricultural policy - economic development - trade liberalization - farm income - trade policy - exports - sugar - self sufficiency - indonesia - developing countries
    Starting from the 'July 2004 package', this study assesses the Indonesian interests in the agricultural negotiations under the WTO Doha Development Agenda. It applies a large-scale economic model of trade and production (GTAP). For Indonesian agriculture, global liberalisation bears positive prospects for vegetable oils and for animal products, and small adverse impacts on the protected rice and sugar sectors. The paper explores several policy instruments, including 'special products' for developing countries, in relation to policy objectives such as self-sufficiency in sugar, and the stabilisation of farm income.
    Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues
    Kuiper, M.H. ; dell' Aquila, C. - \ 2004
    Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9789052429267 - 38
    agrarische economie - landbouwbeleid - handel - vrijhandel - liberalisering van de handel - middellandse-zeegebied - europese unie - handelsakkoorden - agricultural economics - agricultural policy - trade - free trade - trade liberalization - mediterranean region - european union - trade agreements
    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral reduction of trade barriers for manufactured products by the Mediterranean Partner Countries. Next to the limited scope of the current liberalisation achieved by the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, structural features of the MPCs limit the impact of the trade liberalisation on their economic growth. To promote stability and economic growth at the Southern borders of the EU, coherence of EU trade and foreign policy is called for.
    The CAP Mid Term Review and the WTO Doha Round; Analyses for the Netherlands, EU and accession countries
    Lips, M. - \ 2004
    onbekend : LEI (Report / LEI : Domain 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9789052428819 - 42
    landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - wereldhandelsorganisatie - agrarische economie - handelspolitiek - internationale handel - liberalisering van de handel - europese unie - nederland - agricultural policy - cap - world trade organization - agricultural economics - trade policy - international trade - trade liberalization - european union - netherlands
    This report analyses the potential impact of the EU CAP reforms that follow the Mid Term Review and the Harbinson Proposal for negotiation modalities in the WTO Doha Round on the Netherlands, EU14 and the accession countries. In welfare terms, the MTR has a rela-tively small impact on the Netherlands, the other member countries of the EU as well as the accession countries, while agricultural income decreases add up to around 2, 3 and 5 percent respectively. Under the Harbinson Proposal the Netherlands and the other EU member countries face losses of their agricultural incomes of 8 and 10 percent respec-tively, mainly due to reduced outputs in the cereals, oilseeds, and cattle sectors. The agricultural income in the accession countries is also decreasing. As a conclusion, the MTR does not make the European Agriculture compatible for the WTO Doha Round. The border protection measures, which are hardly affected in the MTR, still play a mayor role. Assumptions about the effects of decoupling and the difference between applied and bound tariff rates influence model results.
    Mediterrane Associatieverdragen en Europese veiligheid
    Kuiper, M.H. ; Tongeren, F.W. van - \ 2004
    ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 89 (2004)4431. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 182 - 183.
    liberalisering van de handel - internationale handel - europese unie - veiligheid - internationale verdragen - handelsbarrières - trade liberalization - international trade - european union - safety - international agreements - trade barriers
    Handelsliberatie kan een krachtig instrument zijn om de welvaart en stabiliteit aan de zuidgrenzen van de EU te verhogen. De timing van liberalisering is hierbij van belang
    Trade liberalisation under the Doha Development Agenda: Options and consequences for Africa
    Achterbosch, T.J. ; Hammouda, H.B. ; Osakwe, P.N. ; Tongeren, F.W. van - \ 2004
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789052429182 - 93
    agrarische economie - economische ontwikkeling - wereldhandelsorganisatie - handelspolitiek - liberalisering van de handel - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - afrika - agricultural economics - economic development - world trade organization - trade policy - trade liberalization - development programmes - africa
    This study provides a quantitative estimate of the potential economic consequences of multilateral trade reform under the WTO for Africa using a framework that explicitly incorporates issues of concern to the region, such as preference erosion, loss of tariff revenue, and trade facilitation. It also examines the impact of OECD agricultural support programmes on economic welfare and specialisation in Africa. In the static version of the GTAP model, the study finds that full liberalisation of trade would increase global welfare (income) by 0.3 per cent, but would add 0.7 per cent annually to income in the African region. Sub-Saharan Africa and, to a lesser extent, Southern Africa, are vulnerable to partial trade reforms as they incur losses from partial reform while all other regions derive positive gains from a liberalisation of minor scope
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