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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    What determines plant species diversity in Central Africa?
    Proosdij, Andreas S.J. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.S.M. Sosef, co-promotor(en): N. Raes; J.J. Wieringa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436618 - 161
    plants - biodiversity - species diversity - species - distribution - biogeography - central africa - biosystematics - tropical rain forests - modeling - planten - biodiversiteit - soortendiversiteit - soorten - distributie - biogeografie - centraal-afrika - biosystematiek - tropische regenbossen - modelleren

    Planet Earth hosts an incredible biological diversity. Estimated numbers of species occurring on Earth range from 5 to 11 million eukaryotic species including 400,000-450,000 species of plants. Much of this biodiversity remains poorly known and many species have not yet been named or even been discovered. This is not surprising, as the majority of species is known to be rare and ecosystems are generally dominated by a limited number of common species.

    Tropical rainforests are the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. The general higher level of species richness is often explained by higher levels of energy near the Equator (latitudinal diversity gradient). However, when comparing tropical rainforest biomes, African rainforests host fewer plant species than either South American or Asian ones. The Central African country of Gabon is situated in the Lower Guinean phytochorical region. It is largely covered by what is considered to be the most species-rich lowland rainforest in Africa while the government supports an active conservation program. As such, Gabon is a perfect study area to address that enigmatic question that has triggered many researchers before: “What determines botanical species richness?”.

    In the past 2.5 million years, tropical rainforests have experienced 21 cycles of global glaciations. They responded to this by contracting during drier and cooler glacials into larger montane and smaller riverine forest refugia and expanding again during warmer and wetter interglacials. The current rapid global climate change coupled with change of land use poses new threats to the survival of many rainforest species. The limited availability of resources for conservation forces governments and NGOs to set priorities. Unfortunately, for many plant species, lack of data on their distribution hampers well-informed decision making in conservation.

    Species distribution models (SDMs) offer opportunities to bridge at least partly this knowledge gap. SDMs are correlative models that infer the spatial distribution of species using only a limited set of known species occurrence records coupled with high resolution environmental data. SDMs are widely applied to study the past, present and future distribution of species, assess the risk of invasive species, infer patterns of species richness and identify hotspots, as well as to assess the impact of climate change. The currently available methods form a pipeline, with which data are selected and cleaned, models selected, parameterized, evaluated and projected to other areas and climatic scenarios, and biodiversity patterns are computed from these SDMs. In this thesis, SDMs of all Gabonese plant species were generated and patterns of species richness and of weighted endemism were computed (chapter 4 & 5).

    Although this pipeline enables the rapid generation of SDMs and inferring of biodiversity patterns, its effective use is limited by several matters of which three are specifically addressed in this thesis. Not knowing the true distribution limits the opportunities to assess the accuracy of models and assess the impact of assumptions and limitations of SDMs. The use of simulated species has been advocated as a method to systematically assess the impact of specific matters of SDMs (virtual ecologist). Following this approach, in chapter 2, I present a novel method to simulate large numbers of species that each have their own unique niche.

    One matter of SDMs that is usually ignored but has been shown to be of great impact on model accuracy is the number of species occurrence records used to train a model. In chapter 2, I quantify the effect of sample size on model accuracy for species of different range size classes. The results show that the minimum number of records required to generate accurate SDMs is not uniform for species of every range size class and that larger sample sizes are required for more widespread species. By applying a uniform minimum number of records, SDMs of narrow-ranged species are incorrectly rejected and SDMs of widespread species are incorrectly accepted. Instead, I recommend to identify and apply the unique minimum numbers of required records for each individual species. The method presented here to identify the minimum number of records for species of particular range size classes is applicable to any species group and study area.

    The range size or prevalence is an important plant feature that is used in IUCN Red List classifications. It is commonly computed as the Extent Of Occurrence (EOO) and Area Of Occupancy (AOO). Currently, these metrics are computed using methods based on the spatial distribution of the known species occurrences. In chapter 3, using simulated species again, I show that methods based on the distribution of species occurrences in environmental parameter space clearly outperform those based on spatial data. In this chapter, I present a novel method that estimates the range size of a species as the fraction of raster cells within the minimum convex hull of the species occurrences, when all cells from the study area are plotted in environmental parameter space. This novel method outperforms all ten other assessed methods. Therefore, the current use of EOO and AOO based on spatial data alone for the purpose of IUCN Red List classification should be reconsidered. I recommend to use the novel method presented here to estimate the AOO and to estimate the EOO from the predicted distribution based on a thresholded SDM.

    In chapter 4, I apply the currently best possible methods to generate accurate SDMs and estimate the range size of species to the large dataset of Gabonese plant species records. All significant SDMs are used here to assess the unique contribution of narrow-ranged, widespread, and randomly selected species to patterns of species richness and weighted endemism. When range sizes of species are defined based on their full range in tropical Africa, random subsets of species best represent the pattern of species richness, followed by narrow-ranged species. Narrow-ranged species best represent the weighted endemism pattern. Moreover, the results show that the applied criterion of widespread and narrow-ranged is crucial. Too often, range sizes of species are computed on their distribution within a study area defined by political borders. I recommend to use the full range size of species instead. Secondly, the use of widespread species, of which often more data are available, as an indicator of diversity patterns should be reconsidered.

    The effect of global climate change on the distribution patterns of Gabonese plant species is assed in chapter 5 using SDMs projected to the year 2085 for two climate change scenarios assuming either full or no dispersal. In Gabon, predicted loss of plant species ranges from 5% assuming full dispersal to 10% assuming no dispersal. However, these numbers are likely to be substantially higher, as for many rare, narrow-ranged species no significant SDMs could be generated. Predicted species turnover is as high as 75% and species-rich areas are predicted to loose many species. The explanatory power of individual future climate anomalies to predicted future species richness patterns is quantified. Species loss is best explained by increased precipitation in the dry season. Species gain and species turnover are correlated with a shift from extreme to average values of annual temperature range.

    In the final chapter, the results are placed in a wider scientific context. First, the results on the methodological aspects of SDMs and their implications of the SDM pipeline are discussed. The method presented in this thesis to simulate large numbers of species offers opportunities to systematically investigate other matters of the pipeline, some of which are discussed here. Secondly, the factors that shape the current and predicted future patterns of plant species richness in Gabon are discussed including the location of centres of species richness and of weighted endemism in relation to the hypothesized location of glacial forest refugia. Factors that may contribute to the lower species richness of African rainforests compared with South American and Asian forests are discussed. I conclude by reflecting on the conservation of the Gabonese rainforest and its plant species as well as on the opportunities SDMs offer for this in the wider socio-economic context of a changing world with growing demand for food and other ecosystem services.

    Prof. Lourens Poorter over het doorgronden van het regenwoud
    Poorter, L. - \ 2014
    tropische regenbossen - duurzaamheid (durability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - klimaatverandering - biodiversiteit - bodemtypen (ecologisch) - ecologie - tropical rain forests - durability - sustainability indicators - climatic change - biodiversity - soil types (ecological) - ecology
    Tropisch regenwoud is te complex om de dynamiek tussen alle afzonderlijke soorten te bepalen. Maar wel kun je aan de hand van planteigenschappen collectieve functies vaststellen, bijvoorbeeld met betrekking tot zonlicht, water en nutriënten. Daarmee ondersteunt het onderzoek van Lourens Poorter duurzaam bosgebruik en realistische klimaatmodellen.
    Functional classification of spatially heterogeneous environments: the Land Cover Mosaic approach in remote sensing
    Obbink, M.H. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Molenaar, co-promotor(en): Jan Clevers. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859956 - 304
    remote sensing - heterogeniteit - tropische regenbossen - ruimtelijke variatie - classificatie - landschapsecologie - besluitvorming - remote sensing - heterogeneity - tropical rain forests - spatial variation - classification - landscape ecology - decision making

    Tropical rainforest areas are difficult to classify in the digital analysis of remote sensing data because of spatial heterogeneity. Often many technical solutions are adopted to reduce the ‘problem’ of spatial heterogeneity. This thesis describes theory and methods that now use this heterogeneity during the digital image classification. With spatial heterogeneity, spatial aggregation levels such as patches,patch-mosaics and landscapes can be distinguished. Consequently, vegetation patterns can be related to functional management units at different decision-levels. The developed theory and methods thus save two birds with one stone: (a) the classification is completely digitally, and (b) the classification provides information on deforestation that meets the needs of decision-makers. This thesis further recommends approaching all land cover classifications from a heterogeneous perspective for understanding and controlling environmental processes on a global level. This can enhance a sustainable development of tropical rainforest areas for the benefit of future generations.

    Impact of severe dry season on net ecosystem exchange in the Neotropical rainforest of French Guiana
    Bonal, D. ; Bosc, A. ; Ponton, S. ; Goret, J. ; Burban, B. ; Gross, P. ; Bonnefonds, J.M. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Longdoz, B. ; Epron, D. ; Guehl, J. ; Granier, A. - \ 2008
    Global Change Biology 14 (2008)8. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1917 - 1933.
    ecosystemen - droog seizoen - tropische regenbossen - eddy-covariantie - netto ecosysteem koolstofbalans - atmosferische grenslaag - droogte - frans-guyana - ecosystems - dry season - tropical rain forests - eddy covariance - net ecosystem carbon balance - atmospheric boundary-layer - drought - french guiana - transitional tropical forest - carbon-dioxide uptake - soil co2 efflux - european forests - amazonian ecosystems - respiration - climate - fluxes
    The lack of information on the ways seasonal drought modifies the CO2 exchange between Neotropical rainforest ecosystems and the atmosphere and the resulting carbon balance hinders our ability to precisely predict how these ecosystems will respond as global environmental changes force them to face increasingly contrasting conditions in the future. To address this issue, seasonal variations in daily net ecosystem productivity (NEPd) and two main components of this productivity, daily total ecosystem respiration (REd) and daily gross ecosystem productivity (GEPd), were estimated over 2 years at a flux tower site in French Guiana, South America (5 °16'54"N, 52 °54'44"W). We compared seasonal variations between wet and dry periods and between dry periods of contrasting levels of intensity (i.e. mild vs. severe) during equivalent 93-day periods. During the wet periods, the ecosystem was almost in balance with the atmosphere (storage of 9.0 g C m¿2). Seasonal dry periods, regardless of their severity, are associated with higher incident radiation and lower REd combined with reduced soil respiration associated with low soil water availability. During the mild dry period, as is normally the case in this region, the amount of carbon stored in the ecosystem was 32.7 g C m¿2. Severe drought conditions resulted in even lower REd, whereas the photosynthetic activity was only moderately reduced and no change in canopy structure was observed. Thus, the severe dry period was characterized by greater carbon storage (64.6 g C m¿2), emphasizing that environmental conditions, such as during a severe drought, modify the CO2 exchange between Neotropical rainforest ecosystems and the atmosphere and potentially the resulting carbon balance
    Spaceborne radar monitoring of forest fires and forest cover change : a case study in Kalimantan
    Sugardiman, R.A. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Reinder Feddes, co-promotor(en): Dirk Hoekman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046042 - 190
    tropische regenbossen - regenbossen - bosbranden - kroondak - remote sensing - radar - monitoring - digitaal terreinmodel - kalimantan - tropical rain forests - rain forests - forest fires - canopy - remote sensing - radar - monitoring - digital elevation model - kalimantan
    The devastation of tropical rain forests has been proven to have a significant effect on global climate change. The sustainability of these forests becomes a major concern for the international community. The Indonesian Ministry of Forestry (MOF) is eager to carry on forest inventory activities and to generate forest resources information.Advanced spaceborne radar techniques are a very promising tool to monitor forests. This technique is complementary with the existing spaceborne optical imagery which suffers too much from cloud cover. Radar provide reliable information on a regular basis and has been applied in various types of applications e.g. forest classification.

    The approach presented in this thesis includes. Firstly, multi-temporal classification of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data using Iterated Conditional Modes which is proposed as a fast step of Maximum Likelihood classification in order to circumvent the slow image segmentation step. Secondly, slope correction dealing with steep slopes that considerable has geometric distortion. Thirdly, textural analysis has been applied to derive additional information layers in multi-temporal classification from fine structures in the radar images.

    The study focuses on three test site areas i.e. Sungai Wain test site area, the Gunung Meratustest site area and the NASA AirSAR PacRim-II test site area.This area experienced long drought periods associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)phenomenon. For this study the severe ENSO event of 1997 - 1998 is of particular interest.Forestfires occur almost every year in this test site area, however,each event is specific in intensity and extent. A longer time series ofradar images takes every event observations into account.

    The results show high accuracy ranging from 85.2% to 98.8% for almost all land cover types. Slope correction has positive effect, but in accuracy does not seem to be very high. It is showed that the induced slope correction is around 1 dB while values up to 10 dB were expected. The resolution of the digital elevation model is an important factor for the correction of relief in spaceborne SAR data. When the resolution is too coarse, i.e. spatial features of slope correction are coarser than the actual structures; the pattern of relief will be flattened out. Utilization of textural features yields a significant improvement of overall classification accuracy, which increases from 36.5% to 48.5%.

    The approach developed for the Gunung Meratus has a wide applicability. This approach seemed to be sufficiently mature to apply it for others areas, for example the Mawas and Sebangau peat swamp forest area. This methodology of radar monitoring system may have the potential to become the core system for 'fast illegal logging response' within the Indonesian MOF.

    The implementation of the SAR monitoring for the Indonesian MOF is speeding up the ongoing decentralization policy. Recommendations are offered here to the Indonesian MOF, particularly for local authorities to enhance their capability in providing fast, accurate, and reliable information on forest condition. This capability will ensure the sustainability of the remaining tropical rain forest in the country.
    Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia
    Gerold, G. ; Fremery, M. ; Guhardja, E. ; Claassen, N. ; Priess, J. ; Rheenen, T. van; Waltert, M. ; Zeller, M. - \ 2004
    Berlin : Springer Science + Business Media (Environmental science ) - ISBN 9783540006039 - 534
    tropische regenbossen - landgebruik - natuurbescherming - ontbossing - bosbestanden - bosbedrijfsvoering - biodiversiteit - zuidoost-azië - tropical rain forests - land use - nature conservation - deforestation - forest resources - forest management - biodiversity - south east asia
    This book contains a selection of contributions presented at an international symposium on "Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia," in Bogor, Indonesia, October 2002. It highlights the critical issue of rainforest preservation from an interdisciplinary perspective, comprising input from scientists in socio-economic, biological, geographical, agrarian and forestry disciplines.
    Plant diversity in a central African rain forest, implications for biodiversity conservation in Cameroon
    Tchouto, M.G.P. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen; A.M. Cleef, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789051130683 - 210
    vegetatie - biodiversiteit - soortendiversiteit - tropische regenbossen - natuurbescherming - bosecologie - kameroen - centraal-afrika - vegetation - biodiversity - species diversity - tropical rain forests - nature conservation - forest ecology - cameroon - central africa
    Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest
    Gemerden, B.S. van - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M. Cleef; Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): H. Olff. - - 199
    tropical rain forests - biodiversity - rehabilitation - plant succession - conservation - forest ecology - logging - shifting cultivation - central africa - human impact - disturbance - tropische regenbossen - biodiversiteit - herstel - plantensuccessie - conservering - bosecologie - houtkap - zwerflandbouw - centraal-afrika - menselijke invloed - verstoring
    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selective logging and shifting cultivation. Assessment of the long-term effects of these land uses on plant species composition will provide elements for the identification of effective conservation measures and sustainable forms of forest use.

    Disturbances are relatively discrete events in time that cause high mortality of biomass and change the structure of populations, communities or ecosystems. Individual plants and species differ in their ability to claim the previously utilised space and resources, and therefore disturbance events may cause (temporary) shifts in species composition and diversity. In large parts of the African rain forest biome, the most important natural disturbance regime is gap-phase dynamics in which relatively small canopy openings are made by falling branches or trees. Larger-scale disturbances such as landslides, volcanic activity and large-scale river dynamics, have been extremely rare during the last millennia. Therefore, the present set of species is likely to be adapted to disturbance regimes characterised by frequent small-scale disturbances. Analogous to gap-phase dynamics, human land use can be considered as a disturbance. However, human induced disturbances are generally larger, more frequent and more severe. As a result, human land use may have long-term impacts on plant species composition and diversity.

    The fieldwork for this thesis was conducted in the main research site of the Tropenbos-Cameroon Programme; an area of 2000 km 2 of forestland in South Cameroon Vegetation was sampled in old growth forest, logging gaps of 5, 14 and 27 years old, and in abandoned shifting cultivation fields of 10-20, 30-40 and 50-60 years old. Within plots, all terrestrial vascular plants (including all growth forms) were recorded. In total 10.1 ha was surveyed allowing the detailed analysis of human impact on full plant species composition. Much effort was devoted to plant identification and in total some 11 000 herbarium vouchers were collected, processed and sent to specialists for identification. Voucher material was stored in theNationaalHerbarium Nederland - WageningenUniversity branch and in the IRAD/TropenbosField Herbarium inKribi. Some 75% of the plants in the survey identified to species level and an additional 20% was systematically categorised asmorphospecies. In total 1264 species were identified to species level. These included 261 species with ranges restricted to Lower Guinea (South Nigeria - Gabon) of which 51 are confined to the rain forest region of Cameroon.

    Tropical rain forests are often regarded as being undisturbed by humans. In Chapter 2, we analyse the disturbance history of 16 ha of structurally complex and species-rich 'old growth' rain forest (data collected by forestry research project of theTropenbos-Cameroon Programme). The recruitment preference of tree species along a disturbance gradient, ranging from shifting cultivation fields, to canopy gaps and old growth forest, was compared to present-day tree species composition. In nine plots out of 16, older (larger) trees preferred shifting cultivation fields for recruitment while younger trees recruited in small canopy gaps and under closed canopy. These results indicate that these plots once experienced a disturbance regime that included larger-scale disturbances. Combined, the pattern of disturbed and undisturbed plots, the high frequency of charcoal in the forest soil and anthropological data strongly suggest that humans caused these disturbances. The estimated date of these disturbances is 300-400 years ago. Surprisingly, species richness at larger scales was found to be lower in historically disturbed sites compared to undisturbed sites. Therefore, present-day species composition and diversity of old growth forests still reflects historical human impacts.

    Outside protected areas, forests are subject to logging and shifting cultivation and secondary forests are therefore becoming important in many Central African landscapes. Chapter 3 examines the potential of secondary vegetation to contribute to biodiversity conservation. The results indicate that vegetation recovery in logging plots and abandoned shifting cultivation fields is relatively quick, and in most aspects surprisingly complete. A notable exception is the poor recovery of endemics in shifting cultivation fields. We found that even after 60 years the proportion of endemic species was still significantly lower than in old growth forest. In light of the fast recovery of all other vegetation characteristics (including species richness and floristic composition), we conclude that secondary vegetation can contribute biodiversity conservation e.g. as buffer zones around protected areas.

    In Chapter 4, we analyse the relative importance of local and regional processes for structuring species composition during succession. Local processes refer to the ability of species to compete successfully with other species and avoid predation and pathogen attack. Regional processes refer to dispersal and colonisation. Both processes have been suggested to explain the typically high species richness in tropical rain forests. Our results indicate that local processes are especially important during the early stages of succession, whereas regional processes are especially important during the later stages. However, large differences were observed between different species groups. Regional processes mainly governed composition of large tree species (maximum height ≥ 15 m). A similar but smaller effect was observed in small tree species (3-15 m) and shrub species. Local processes structured composition of terrestrial herb species. In general, woody and non-woody climbers were widely distributed generalists with a very similar set of species occurring in all landscape mosaics and in all succession stages. The differences between species groups implies that effective conservation management requires insight in the importance of local and regional processes for the recruitment of target species (e.g. endemic species). A blanket conservation treatment for all species is unlikely to address adequately the specific sensitivity of species with high conservation value to habitat quality and habitat fragmentation.

    The general lack of information on biodiversity patterns is a serious problem for conservation planning in most tropical rain forest regions. With ongoing habitat destruction, conservation priorities must be identified quickly. Therefore optimal use should be made of all currently available sources of information. However, direct comparison of results is problematic if assessment methods differ. In Chapter 5, we make a first attempt to reconcile different assessments by taking into account their methodological differences. The key factors affecting the general shape and position of the species-area curve found through partial sampling are (1) the total extent in which observations are made, (2) the spatial distribution of the observations, (3) the proportion of the total extent sampled, (4) the proportion of the individuals in the sampled area that was included in the survey, and (5) the proportion of the included individuals that was successfully identified. Through simulations, the effects of partial sampling of these factors on observed species richness was identified. To test the method, we compared four botanical surveys conducted in the same area of lowland old growth rain forest. The surveys included were (1) reconnaissance scale vegetation survey, (2) detailed botanical assessment (100% individuals), (3) incomplete botanical assessment (10% individuals), and (4) herbarium collections. Correcting for partial sampling and scaling the results to extent greatly increased the comparability between assessments. This first attempt to reconcile methodologically different surveys suggests that species -area relations can be reconstructed from incomplete sample data if the key characteristics of the methods can be statistically described. The study provides an outline for optimising the use of existing datasets in the evaluation of conservation needs in tropical rain forest areas.

    In Chapter 6, I present an overview of the main effects of human land use on plant diversity in Central African forest. Rain forests are highly dynamic on all spatial and temporal scales. Present-day species composition and diversity reflects their cumulativebiogeographicalhistory. Therefore both present-day and historical disturbance regimes should be considered to understand current patterns of diversity and to predict its responses to future disturbances. The biotic andabioticprocesses that influence diversity vary with the scale of organisation of biological and ecological systems (i.e. community, ecosystem, landscape,region). While human land use obviously disrupts local communities, the impact of humans is also evident on much larger scales. As a result of large-scale forest degradation, fragmentation and global climate change, species composition of most Central African rain forests is likely to undergo changes in the near future. Conservation management should aim at increasing the survival chances of endemic species and species with poor dispersal capacity. In light of the present ecological insights and the uncertainty of the upcoming climate changes, it seems wise to invest in large networks of protected areas. Moreover, it is unlikely that areas managed for timber production will be beneficial for the conservation of characteristic plant diversity unless damage control is rigid. The expected increase in seasonality in large parts of Central Africa, combined with forest fragmentation and canopy opening, is likely to increase the abundance of pioneer species while species of concern to conservation are likely to decline. To increase the effectiveness of conservation management, insight is required in the mechanisms that make species and forest systems vulnerable to human induced disturbances, including global climate change.
    The importance of seed mass for early regeneration in tropical forest: a review
    Rose, S.A. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2003
    In: Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: Studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia / ter Steege, H., Wageningen : Tropenbos - p. 19 - 35.
    tropische regenbossen - regeneratievermogen - schaduw - zaden - bosecologie - tropical rain forests - regenerative ability - shade - seeds - forest ecology
    Seed mass is an important component of the shade tolerance of rain forest tree species. Using a metaanalysis this article evaluates till what extent seed mass affects the survival, initial size, and growth of seedlings in light environments that are typical of forest gaps and understory
    Scatterhoarding and tree regeneration : ecology of nut dispersal in a Neotropical rainforest
    Jansen, P.A. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Sip van Wieren. - [S.I.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789058087775
    zaadverspreiding - noten - carapa procera - knaagdieren - natuurlijke verjonging - zaadpredatie - zaadgrootte - natuurlijke selectie - tropische regenbossen - seed dispersal - nuts - carapa procera - rodents - natural regeneration - seed predation - seed size - natural selection - tropical rain forests - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    ENVISAT forest monitoring Indonesia
    Hoekman, D.H. ; Vissers, M.A.M. ; Sugardiman, R.A. ; Vargas, J. - \ 2002
    The RADARSAT International (RSI) RADARSAT-2 e-Newsletter 2 (2002)7. - p. 68 - 68.
    remote sensing - radar - tropische regenbossen - geografische informatiesystemen - landclassificatie - vegetatie - bosbranden - monitoring - kalimantan - indonesië - remote sensing - radar - tropical rain forests - geographical information systems - land classification - vegetation - forest fires - monitoring - kalimantan - indonesia
    To support the introduction of operational radar forest monitoring systems in Indonesian a demonstration is executed at the Tropenbos study area in East-Kalimantan. Interest focuses on fulfilling information needs relating to land cover change, fire risk and fire damage monitoring, with main emphasis on early detection.
    Progress on forest certification in Malaysia
    Diemont, W.H. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 331) - 38
    hout - certificering - maleisië - tropische regenbossen - bossen - wood - certification - malaysia - tropical rain forests - forests
    Nouragues Dynamics and Plant-Animal Interactions in a Neotropical Rainforest
    Bongers, F. ; Charles-Dominique, P. ; Forget, P.M. ; Théry, M. - \ 2001
    Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 9781402001239 - 421
    tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - onderzoeksinstituten - frans-guyana - ecologie - tropen - dieren - planten - interacties - flora - fauna - tropical rain forests - vegetation - research institutes - french guiana - ecology - tropics - animals - plants - interactions
    Observation of Tropical Rain Forest Trees by Airborne High-Resolution Interferometric Radar
    Hoekman, D.H. ; Varekamp, C. - \ 2001
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 39 (2001)3. - ISSN 0196-2892 - p. 584 - 594.
    tropische regenbossen - remote sensing - radar - tropical rain forests - remote sensing - radar
    The Indonesian Radar Experiment (INDREX) Campaign was executed in Indonesia to study the potential of high-resolution interferometric airborne radar in support of sustainable tropical forest management. Severe cloud cover limits the use of aerial photography, which is currently applied on a routine basis to extract information at the tree level. Interferometric radar images may be a viable alternative once radar imaging at the tree level is sufficiently understood. It is shown that interferometric height images can contain large height and displacement errors for individual trees but that this problem can be solved to a large extent using models for the vertical distribution of backscatter intensity and an extension of the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem. The predicted loss of coherence in lay-over regions of emergent trees is shown to be in good agreement with the loss of coherence as observed in the high resolution radar data (Pierson correlation coefficient=0.94). Several correction methods for height and displacement errors are proposed. It is shown that a simple approach already gives a good correction. Semi-empirical correction models, which can be calibrated for forest structure, perform even better
    DGIS-WWF tropical forest portfolio 1996-2001 : midterm evaluation - interregional component
    Hillegers, P.J.M. ; Conradi, M.K. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra - 99
    tropische regenbossen - conservering - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsgemeenschappen - participatie - bosbeleid - hulpbronnenbeheer - opleiding - biodiversiteit - ecologie - natuurbehoud - regenwoud - tropen - Afrika - Azië - Amerika - Ethiopië - Gabon - Filipijnen - Pakistan - Ecuador - Honduras - tropical rain forests - conservation - forest management - sustainability - rural communities - participation - forest policy - resource management - training - Gabon - Pakistan - Ecuador - Honduras
    Biophysical suitability classification of forest land in the Bipindi - Akom II - Lolodorf region, South Cameroon
    Hazeu, G.W. ; Gemerden, B.S. van; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Kekem, A.J. van - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (Tropenbos-Cameroon Doc 4) - 130
    landschapsecologie - tropische regenbossen - landevaluatie - landgebruik - natuurbescherming - bosbouw - landbouw - kameroen - bosproducten anders dan hout - landscape ecology - tropical rain forests - land evaluation - land use - nature conservation - forestry - agriculture - cameroon - non-wood forest products
    The social dimension of rainforest management in Cameroon : Issues for co-management
    Berg, J. van den; Biesbrouck, K. - \ 2000
    Kribi : The Tropenbos-Cameroon Programme - ISBN 9789051130430 - 99
    bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - tropische regenbossen - bedrijfsvoering - regenbossen - gemeenschappen - bosbestanden - bosproducten - wetgeving - participatie - plaatselijke bevolking - kameroen - forest management - forestry - tropical rain forests - management - rain forests - communities - forest resources - forest products - legislation - participation - local population - cameroon
    Leaf function in tropical rain forest canopy trees : the effect of light on leaf morphology and physiology in different-sized trees
    Rijkers, T. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): G.M.J. Mohren; F. Bongers; T.L. Pons. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083142 - 116
    goupia glabra - pourouma - dicorynia guianensis - duguetia - tropische regenbossen - fotosynthese - bladleeftijd - bladeren - plantenmorfologie - bomen - planthoogte - licht - lichtregiem - schaduw - tolerantie - frans-guyana - goupia glabra - pourouma - dicorynia guianensis - duguetia - tropical rain forests - photosynthesis - leaf age - leaves - plant morphology - trees - plant height - light - light regime - shade - tolerance - french guiana

    In this thesis the effect of constant and fluctuating light availability on several leaf traits was studied for naturally growing trees of different sizes, i.e . from sapling to adult canopy tree, of five species in a tropical rain forest in French Guiana. Leaf acclimation responses were examined throughout the life time of leaves in order to evaluate whether leaves can profit from these adjustments in terms of carbon gain. The five species, arranged in order from most shade-tolerant to pioneer, were: Duguetia surinamensis , Vouacapoua americana , Dicorynia guianensis , Pourouma bicolor spp. digitata , and Goupia glabra .

    For Duguetia , Vouacapoua , Dicorynia and Goupia , it was shown that tree height and light availability had independent effects on photosynthesis and other features of leaf function. Direction and magnitude of the variation in leaf variables tended to be similar among species. The morphological variable leaf mass per unit area seemed to be a key variable as it determined most of the variation in other leaf variables.

    The time needed to increase the photosynthetic rate (up to 90% of its capacity) to a sudden increase in light was between 7 to 11 min for shade and sun growing saplings of Vouacapoua , Dicorynia and Pourouma . The readiness to exploit the next lightfleck was substantial in these plants as the induction loss was moderate to low, except in gap saplings of Dicorynia . The time needed to reach 75% of the maximum carboxylation efficiency (V cmax ) was used to separate the relative importance of biochemical and stomatal limitation during the time course of photosynthetic induction.

    The mean leaf life span of different-sized trees for Vouacapoua was 61 months (range 27-101) and for Dicorynia 32 months (range 17-54). The variation in traits in response to leaf age was low. Photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen concentration were relatively constant with time; leaf mass per unit area increased during the first 18 months. Simulations of the daily carbon gain with a low- and highlight regime showed differences among both sun- and shade-leaves and trees of different sizes. Leaf construction cost was independent of leaf life span. Leaf payback time was relatively short (4 to 40 days); it was constant during a wide range of irradiance, but increased sharply in a narrow range of low light. The rate of net return on carbon investment was slow in long-lived leaves of Vouacapoua . Leaf mass per area decreased with increased leaf life span, which could be explained by a light- and height-dependent selection pressure for leaf life span and leaf mass per area.

    The integration of the results with those at higher organisation levels, such as branch and tree crown, is briefly discussed, and the applicability in silvicultural systems in which light is manipulated to enhance growth and production of timber species is evaluated.

    Key-words: tropical rain forest, leaf morphology, photosynthesis, leaf age, tree height, shade tolerance, leaf construction costs, leaf payback time, ecophysiology.

    TROPFOMS, a decision support model for sustainabele management of south Cameroon's rainforests
    Eba'a Atyi, R. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Maaren; W.B.J. Jonkers. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081940 - 203
    tropische regenbossen - oerbossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bosbestanden - houtkap - conservering - kameroen - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - tropical rain forests - virgin forests - forest management - sustainability - forest resources - logging - conservation - cameroon - decision support systems

    Natural forests play an important role in the economy of Cameroon, at both the national and local levels. Unfortunately, there is still a general sense that in Cameroon, like in most tropical countries, forests are not managed in a sustainable way. The poor forest management practices, which still prevail in Cameroon, result from both an inadequate institutional context and insufficient scientific and technical knowledge. For the last few decades important research efforts have been made in tropical forestry. However, these efforts concentrate mostly on developing silvicultural systems and more and more on predicting growth and yield of forest stands. Research on supporting decision-making for forest has been negligible in tropical forestry. The research presented here confronts the problem of how to assist decision-making in tropical forest management using the best available scientific information gathered in different disciplines. The specific objectives of the research were:

    1. To design a system for supporting decision-making with respect to the management of tropical forests.
    2. To assess the effects of different management options on the economic returns of the logging enterprise as well as on the structure of the forest at steady state.
    3. To provide insights into the trade off between income generation through sustainable timber harvesting and the use of the forest by the local population on the one hand, and between income generation through sustainable timber production and nature conservation on the other hand.
    4. To derive recommendations for conversion of the current forest at the Tropenbos Cameroon Programme (TCP) research site into a steady state forest.
    5. To suggest and evaluate adaptations of existing strategies aimed at sustainable management of the tropical moist forest in south Cameroon.

    A methodological tool was developed to support decision making with respect to tropical forest management. The system was given the acronym of TROPFOMS (TROPical Forest Management support System). The management items to which TROPFOMS provides support for decision making include:

    The target steady state growing stock characteristics, mainly the structure in terms of number of trees per size class to be found both before and after harvest and the species composition of the stand

    1. The appropriate cutting cycle for timber harvest,
    2. The amount of wood to be harvested at the end of each cutting cycle,
    3. The expected length of the conversion period and the expected levels of harvest during that period
    4. The multiple use of the forest through an analysis of the trade off between alternative land use types
    5. Consequences of changes in management parameters.

    TROPFOMS consists of four modules including a mathematical programming module, a growth and yield module, and economic module and a constraint definition module. TROPFOMS was developed using mostly quantitative techniques and methods such as transition matrices, cluster analysis, logistic regression analysis, mathematical programming and stumpage prices derivation. The outcomes show that the optimal cutting cycle is about 30 years, for a harvest of 13.4 m 3/ha for the species currently commercialized in south Cameroon. In addition it would require about 120 year to convert the current forest of the Tropenbos Cameroon research site to a regulated forest. TROPFOMS has shown a great deal of sensitivity to hypotheses concerning growth and yield and timber value. Research needs for the improvement of the outcomes of TROPFOMS include: Costs and returns of silvicultural operations, relationships between growth and yield and density of forest stands, reproductive maturity of different tree species, logging efficiency, costs and damage, the utilization of the forest by local population, royalties.

    Diversity and dynamics of mycorrhizal associations in tropical rain forests with different disturbance regimes in South Cameroon
    Onguene, N.A. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. Brussaard; T.W. Kuyper. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082930 - 167
    mycorrhizae - mycorrhizaschimmels - ectomycorrhiza - vesiculair-arbusculaire mycorrhizae - symbiose - bosecologie - regenbossen - tropische regenbossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosschade - entstofdichtheid - kameroen - mycorrhizas - mycorrhizal fungi - ectomycorrhizas - vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas - symbiosis - forest ecology - rain forests - tropical rain forests - forest management - forest damage - inoculum density - cameroon

    The present study documents the occurrence of mycorrhizal associations in the rain forests of south Cameroon. All species investigated are mycorrhizal. Most timber species form arbuscular mycorrhiza, but some timber species, which usually occur in clumps, form ectomycorrhiza. Species diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the undisturbed rain forest is substantial, with more than 125 species having been recorded. Inoculum potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi is high in the undisturbed rain forest. The shifting cultivation cycle increases inoculum potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but lowers inoculum potential of ectomycorrhizal fungi to various extent.

    On sites of forestry practices (skid trails, landings) inoculum potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi is very substantially reduced and recovery rates are low. Mycorrhizal colonisation and seedling growth are positively correlated with mycorrhiza inoculum potential. Inoculum potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and performance of seedlings of arbuscular mycorrhizal trees can be boosted after inoculum addition. Both inoculum quantity and inoculum quality are important criteria for inoculation practices. Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential cannot be increased through inoculum addition and management of the intact ectomycorrhizal network is necessary for maintenance of the ectomycorrhizal tree species.

    Key words : Arbuscular mycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza, disturbance, rain forest, diversity, inoculum potential, Cameroon, forestry practices

    Use of integrated modelling for experimental design; final report
    Kabat, P. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Ashby, M. ; Gash, J.C. ; Wright, I. ; Culf, A. ; Calvet, J.C. ; Delire, C. ; Noilhan, J. ; Jochum, A. ; Silva Dias, M.A. ; Fisch, G.A. ; Santos Alvala, R.C. ; Nobre, C.A. ; Prince, S.D. ; Steininger, M. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centre - 210
    tropische regenbossen - microklimaat - vegetatie - atmosfeer - evaporatie - modellen - amazonas - brazilië - tropical rain forests - microclimate - vegetation - atmosphere - evaporation - models - amazonas - brazil
    Remote sensing monitoring system for sustainable forest management and land cover change in Indonesia
    Hoekman, D.H. ; Varekamp, C. ; Jong, J.J. de; Valkengoed, E.H. van; Vissers, M.A.M. ; Wooding, M.G. - \ 1999
    Delft : Netherlands Remote Sensing Board (BCRS) - ISBN 9789054112730 - 77
    tropische regenbossen - landgebruik - monitoring - remote sensing - indonesië - tropical rain forests - land use - monitoring - remote sensing - indonesia
    Radar for rain forest : a monitoring system for land cover change in the Colombian Amazon
    Bijker, W. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; W. van Wijngaarden; D.H. Hoekman. - Enschede : ITC - ISBN 9789061641391 - 192
    remote sensing - radar - technieken - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - bosbouw - luchtkarteringen - toepassingen - colombia - remote sensing - radar - techniques - tropical rain forests - vegetation - forestry - aerial surveys - applications - colombia
    Radar remote sensing to support tropical forest management
    Sanden, J.J. van der - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; R.A.A. Oldeman; D.H. Hoekman. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789054857785 - 330
    bosbouw - remote sensing - luchtkarteringen - tropen - bosbedrijfsvoering - planning - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - toepassingen - forestry - remote sensing - aerial surveys - tropics - forest management - planning - tropical rain forests - vegetation - applications

    This text describes an investigation into the potential of radar remote sensing for application to tropical forest management. The information content of various radar images is compared and assessed with regard to the information requirements of parties involved in tropical forest management at the global, national and local spatial levels. The study distinguishes between the use of radar remote sensing for application to forest resource assessment and forest resource monitoring. Both assessment and monitoring are essential components of procedures for sustainable forest management. The radar data studied are of tropical forest areas near the township of Mabura Hill in Guyana and the city of San José del Guaviare in Colombia. Mabura Hill is comprised of differing intact, primary forest types and forests that have been subjected to industrial selective logging. San José del Guaviare, on the other hand, is characterised by the presence of secondary forests and a variety of non-forest cover types. The available radar data set includes high resolution airborne radar images with differing wavelengths (i.e. X-, C-, L- and P-band) and polarizations, time-series images acquired by the first European remote sensing satellite ERS-1 and a collection of low altitude, nadir-looking, X-band scatterometer measurements.

    The study makes use of three fundamentally different information sources from the radar return signal: its strength or backscatter, polarization and phase, and spatial variability or texture. Results show that backscatter values computed from L- and P-band radar data and textural attributes computed from high resolution X- and C-band radar data make modest to good and complementary bases for region-based classification of tropical land cover at the level of primary forest types. Textural attributes and backscatter values computed per region from mono-temporal ERS-1 images make modest bases for classifying at the levels of primary forest, logged-over forest, secondary forest and non- forest and poor bases for classifying at the level of primary forest types. Roads are usually the most easily observable indicators of foregoing and/or forthcoming (selective) logging and other human activities in ERS-1 images. Detection of change in road networks by means of ERS-1 images would make a good first step in forest resource monitoring at the national spatial level, in particular. Textural attributes enable the ranking of forest types according to the degree of canopy roughness. Specific textural attributes also allow for quantification of canopy architectural properties. Despite differences in measurement scale, the canopy roughness of the land cover types studied was found to appear similarly in the texture of the available spaceborne and short wavelength airborne radar images.

    Trees and light : tree development and morphology in relation to light availability in a tropical rain forest in French Guiana
    Sterck, F.J. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; F.J.J.M. Bongers. - S.l. : Sterck - ISBN 9789054856733 - 122
    bosbouw - habitus - levensvorm - plantenontwikkeling - plantenecologie - licht - plantenmorfologie - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - tropen - frans-guyana - natuurlijke opstanden - forestry - habit - life form - plant development - plant ecology - light - plant morphology - tropical rain forests - vegetation - tropics - french guiana - natural stands

    Tropical rain forest trees spend their life in a heterogeneous light environment. During their life history, they may change their growth in relation to different levels of light availability. Some of their physiological processes (e.g. photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and meristern activity) change with light availability, and tune their development and morphology to the ambient light levels. The underlying physiological processes are not investigated in the present study. The focus is on the development and morphology of trees of canopy species in relation to the light availability in tropical rain forest. The possible consequences for survival, growth, and reproduction of trees are not assessed directly, but are discussed on a speculative basis.

    The relationships between the light environment, tree development, and morphology are investigated for trees of different size, ranging from small saplings to trees of adult stage. Trees of increasing size are compared in order to explore the changes in tree development and morphology, and their relation to the light environment, with ontogeny. Ontogeny is referred to as the overall growth and development pattern during tree life, both for individual trees and (in more general) for a given tree species.

    The field work for this thesis was carried out in French Guiana. This country in the north-east of South America has an area of 83.000 km 2and is covered by evergreen tropical rain forest. The field work was conducted at two biological stations. 'The Piste St. Elie' station is located 30 km from the coast, south of the town of Sinnamary, and the biological station 'Les Nouragues' is located 100 km from the coast, south of Cayenne. Two canopy tree species were selected for this study: Dicorynia guianensis Amshoff. (Caesalpiniaceae) and Vouacapoua americana Aubl. (Caesalpiniaceae). Both are common species in the forests of French Guiana, and are considered late successionals or shadetolerant species (Schulz 1960). In some chapters, these species are compared with an early successional (light demanding) species, Goupia glabra Aubl. (Celastraceae). Trees of these three species are harvested for their timber in French Guiana and its surrounding countries.

    The trees that were shorter than 20 rn had not yet reached the open upper canopy. These trees usually occur at relatively low light levels. Although these trees may differ in height (from 0 to 20 m), they usually show the same type of growth response to ambient light levels. They produced more growth units and more leaves at higher light availability. They thus increased their total leaf area and leaf area index (LAI, a measure for the number of leaf layers in the crown) as a response to higher light levels. Under persisting high light levels, the increase in total leaf area may enable these trees to fix more carbohydrates (i.e. carbon) for successful growth and survival in the future. Trees with a high LAI at higher light availability, in combination with more columnar shaped crowns, achieve net photosynthesis (more carbon intake than consumption by leaves) at the least possible cost for leaf area support. In contrast, trees with more planar crowns and lower LAI at lower light availability may avoid self-shading of leaves, but risk higher costs for leaf area support.

    Trees also produced shorter growth units at lower light availability, and thus spaced their leaves at shorter distances than trees at higher light availability. In more closely spaced leaves, the investments for the support of one leaf are lower. As leaf size did not change in relation to light availability, trees displayed their leaf area more economically (at lower carbon costs) at lower light availability. In this way, they increased light interception per unit of fixed carbon, and they may thus be better able to survive the shade.

    Dicorynia and Vouacapoua trees also grew faster in height with increasing light availability. In general, trees may reduce their height growth because low light levels simply limit growth. At low light levels, trees are shaded by taller neighbouring trees which intercept the majority of light above them, but they may survive for some time by producing their leaf area slowly and efficiently. When light levels increase because one (or more) of the taller neighbours falls down, trees start to increase their height growth, and may compete with their neighbours for newly available light and space. For both species studied, it was shown that height growth further increased at very high light levels in large gaps through preferential growth of the leader (axis which supports the uppermost apical meristern of the crown) over the other axes in the crown. At lower light levels, individuals did not show preferential growth of the leader. Thus, height growth increased not only because the higher light levels are less growth limiting, but also because of preferential growth of the leader.

    These growth responses to light refer to trees (up to 20 m tall) that were still heading for the canopy. The taller trees (heights of sampled trees range between 26 and 37 m) at higher light availability in the upper canopy had a larger total leaf area and total branch length than the trees shorter than 20 m. These taller trees also produced larger and more planar shaped crowns, did not further increase their LAI, and decreased their leader growth and the space between leaves, as compared with the smaller individuals. The shift to a wider crown is probably caused by increasing light (and space) availability, and may constrain a further increase in the LAI (the leaves occurred over a much larger horizontal area). The lower leader growth and the production of leaves at shorter distances indicate that these taller trees changed from investments in vertical expansion to investments in the replacement of leaves (and flowers).

    The increasing stature with ontogeny has to be balanced by mechanical strength (thickness). This strength is needed to carry the increasing tree weight and to resist wind stress. The mechanical design expresses the balance between overall tree stature (in terms of weight or wind force experienced by the tree) and tree (mechanical) strength. The changes in mechanical design with ontogeny were investigated for Goupia, Dicorynia, and Vouacapoua using two models. (1) The elastic-stability model emphasises the mechanical strength against its own weight. Using this model, it was shown that trees of the study species decreased their 'safety margins' (strength) early in ontogeny, but increased their margins of safety later. Trees had their lowest margins at a stem diameter of 15 to 25 em. These margins were close to the theoretical minimum, i.e. trees would buckle under their own weight if they were slightly more slenderly built (taller at a given diameter). In comparison with some temperate tree species, the trees of the present study appeared to have lower safety margins because they were more slender. Slenderness (height/diameter ratio), however, is only one of the factors determining the strength of a tree. The denser and stiffer wood of tropical trees may increase the mechanical strength of tropical trees in comparison with temperate trees. Another explanation for the lower safety margins of tropical trees is that they are exposed to lower external stress forms than temperate trees. Temperate trees experience heavy storms and snow loads during their life, whereas the trees of the present study do not experience such forms of stress. (2) The constant-stress model emphasises the mechanical strength over wind stress on the tree. For the species of study, it was shown that the safety margins against wind stress increased with ontogeny. This was in line with the expectations, because wind stress is likely to increase with increasing tree stature. Finally, the influence of light availability on mechanical tree design could not be investigated. The trees studied had long life-histories under unknown light conditions, and therefore did not show a significant response within the 2-3 years of investigation.

    The ecological knowledge on commercial tree species presented in this work is thought to be useful for the fine tuning and improvement of forest management systems. In these systems, canopy gaps of different size are created, and they may affect the growth of trees. The results of this thesis indicate that manipulations of light availability (either by killing dominant trees thus inducing light level increase, or by shading) in forests may increase the timber production in trees. Besides this, the follow-up to this study may provi de morphological traits that can be used to indicate the growth potential of trees in relation to the light environment. It is suggested that there is a need for knowledge on the growth response of trees (both in terms of timber production, morphology and development) to the whole range of light availability. Manipulations of the light environment may then be tuned to individual trees of commercial species in order to approach the light conditions that provoke the desired growth response. In general, fundamental research on tree growth in a natural habitat, extended by research on tree growth at higher light levels outside the natural habitat, may provide valuable insights for the improvement of forest management systems.

    Radar remote sensing of tropical rain forests: the AIRSAR-93 campaign in Guyana and Colombia.
    Hoekman, D.H. ; Sanden, J.J. van der; Bijker, W. - \ 1996
    Delft : BCRS - ISBN 9789054111870 - 59
    bosbouw - remote sensing - luchtkarteringen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - toepassingen - guyana - colombia - forestry - remote sensing - aerial surveys - tropical rain forests - vegetation - applications - guyana - colombia
    Radar remote sensing of tropical rain forests: ERS-1 studies in Guyana and Colombia. Final Report.
    Sanden, J.J. van der; Hoekman, D.H. ; Bijker, W. - \ 1996
    Delft : BCRS - ISBN 9789054111962 - 43
    bosbouw - remote sensing - luchtkarteringen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - toepassingen - guyana - colombia - forestry - remote sensing - aerial surveys - tropical rain forests - vegetation - applications - guyana - colombia
    Radar remote sensing of tropical rain forests: the SAREX-92 campaign in Guyana and Colombia.
    Hoekman, D.H. ; Sanden, J.J. van der; Bijker, W. - \ 1994
    Delft : BCRS - ISBN 9789054111160 - 68
    bosbouw - remote sensing - luchtkarteringen - toepassingen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - guyana - colombia - forestry - remote sensing - aerial surveys - applications - tropical rain forests - vegetation - guyana - colombia
    Sistema CELOS de manejo. Manual preliminar.
    Bodegom, A.J. van; Graaf, N.R. de - \ 1994
    In: Werkdocument IKC natuurbeheer nr. 65. IKC/NBLF (1994) 58 pp
    kroondak - kroon - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - handleidingen - natuurlijke verjonging - planning - bomen - tropische regenbossen - tropen - vegetatie - oerbossen - werkplannen - oude bossen - canopy - crown - forest management - forestry - guide books - natural regeneration - planning - trees - tropical rain forests - tropics - vegetation - virgin forests - working plans - old-growth forests
    Modeling nutrient and moisture cycling in tropical forests.
    Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Janssen, B.H. ; Wesselink, L.G. ; Grinsven, J.J.M. van - \ 1993
    Wageningen : Tropenbos Foundation (Tropenbos series 4) - ISBN 9789051130164 - 195
    bosbouw - oerbossen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - tropen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemchemie - anorganische verbindingen - mineralen - boekhouding - bodemwater - permeabiliteit - absorptie - hygroscopiciteit - modellen - onderzoek - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - oude bossen - forestry - virgin forests - tropical rain forests - vegetation - tropics - soil fertility - soil chemistry - inorganic compounds - minerals - accounting - soil water - permeability - absorption - hygroscopicity - models - research - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - old-growth forests
    Gross inputs and outputs of nutrients in undisurbed forest, Tai Area, Cote d'Ivoire.
    Stoorvogel, J.J. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : Tropenbos Foundation (Tropenbos series 5) - ISBN 9789051130171 - 148
    ivoorkust - bosbouw - landschap - landschapsbescherming - nationale parken - bescherming - bodemchemie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemwater - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - oerbossen - oude bossen - cote d'ivoire - forestry - landscape - landscape conservation - national parks - protection - soil chemistry - soil fertility - soil water - tropical rain forests - vegetation - virgin forests - old-growth forests
    Forest gradients in West Africa : a spatial gradient analysis
    Rompaey, R.S.A.R. van - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman. - S.l. : Van Rompaey - ISBN 9789054851202 - 142
    bosbouw - oerbossen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - tropen - west-afrika - plantenecologie - liberia - ivoorkust - oude bossen - forestry - virgin forests - tropical rain forests - vegetation - tropics - west africa - plant ecology - liberia - cote d'ivoire - old-growth forests
    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and ultimately to the Sahara desert.

    This Upper Guinea forest block used to cover most of Liberia and parts of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. Here, deforestation rates are among the fastest in the world. Humans have reduced the forest cover by some 80 %. Most of the forest has been converted to agricultural land. Fire and heavy timber mining have left the remaining forest in a poor state. Sustainable forest management has not yet been attained. A key prerequisite for achieving such management is more and better knowledge of the ecology of these complex and highly diverse ecosystems and of their species.

    Gradients are gradual changes in space e.g. of species composition in the ecosystems. In this book forest gradients are studied at two levels of scale: the regional forest gradient from the coast to the forest- savanna boundary, and local gradients along slopes in the landscape. The species composition of the large forest trees with a diameter exceeding 70 cm was studied; this entailed adapting the existing methods used in vegetation science to cope with these huge subjects. In West African forest exploitation 70 cm diameter is a common limit for selective cutting of trees.

    At the regional scale, the spatial gradient analysis consisted of a three-step approach: 1. ordination of forest areas and species; 2. spatial interpolation of the ordination scores of the forest areas; 3. relating spatial trends in species composition to trends in rainfall and patterns in lithology and relief.

    Tree species composition in a forest area was determined by using forest inventory data from the pre- logging era in SE Liberia and SW Côte d'lvoire. These data were ordinated together with data from three sample plots of 20 ha each established in Taï National Park. The old and new sample plots together covered 21 640 ha. Of the largest tree species, 53 were retained for the ordination.

    The forest gradient was mapped by interpolating lines of equal ordination scores and plotting these on the map. The ordination table allowed these ordination scores to be translated into the corresponding species composition. Each tree species has an individual position along the gradient, given by its ordination score. The ecological range of the species is indicated by the range of sample scores in which it occurred. The gradient map with isoscore lines provides a valid alternative to mapping by types or classes and overcomes the problem of transitional types.

    Over 400 km a pronounced regional forest gradient was found from the Liberian coast towards the forest- savanna boundary in Côte d'Ivoire. This gradient correlated well with the SW-oriented rainfall gradient. On part of the map the forest gradient showed an anomaly. The forests on a band of sericite-chlorite schist from Taï National Park towards the NE were ranked 'wetter' than expected from their position on the rainfall gradient. Apparently, the rainfall effect was compensated by the greater moisture content of the soils derived from sericite-chlorite schist. Furthermore, the rain shadow of Putu range (753 m above sea level) was reflected in the forest gradient by a zone of fast compositional change. These results are comparable with those of other studies on the regional forest gradients in Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia.

    Forest gradients along slopes spanning a 20 to 40 m elevation interval were studied in Taï National Park in sample plots at three locations: near Zagné in the drier north-west (plot size 23 ha), near Taï in the middle (25 ha) and near Para in the wetter south-west of the Park (22 ha).
    All trees in these plots with a diameter larger than 70 cm were recorded and mapped. Swamp areas were excluded from these plots. A digital terrain model and a physiographic soil map were prepared for each site.

    The approach used for the analysis of the slope gradient contained the same elements as for the regional gradient, but in reverse order: 1. the soil survey revealed that the spatial trend in environmental variation was related to local elevation; 2. thus, contour samples of trees growing within an elevation interval were composed. A series of 11 or 12 consecutive intervals was calculated at each site in such a way that each sample covered 2 ha. 3. Tree species composition was determined per sample and all samples of the three sites were ordinated together using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The sample scores on the first ordination axis were plotted against elevation to check the hypothesis of elevational gradients. Tree density, species richness, basal area and stem biomass per contour sample were analysed in a similar way for elevational trends.

    The contour sampling technique proved to be appropriate for the analysis of floristic slope gradients in large trees. The spatial autocorrelation of the contiguous samples is assumed to counterbalance the small number of trees per sample. The species order resulting from this ordination was similar to the one obtained in the regional gradient and hence, could be interpreted as a wet-dry axis. On the three sites species composition changed from "drier" species upsIope to "wetter" downslope. The lower slope on a drier site was similar in species composition to the upper slopes of its wetter neighbour. Thus, slope gradients are sliding gradients on the regional forest gradient. The regional gradient was related to rainfall and lithology. These factors are largely expressed in soil moisture availability. Hence, gradients in moisture availability probably explain the forest gradients along slopes.

    Tree density and species richness of the large trees decreased towards the wet end of the gradient, both between sites, e.g. from Zagné to Para, and within the Taï site, from upper slope to lower slope. This trend in species richness of the large trees contradicts one of the tenets of the Pleistocene forest refugia theory, namely that species richness increases towards the core area of a refugium. A Pleistocene refugium is hypothesized to have existed in the Grabo hills to the southwest of Taï National Park.

    Basal area curves showed a peak in middle slope positions and declined towards both the upper and lower end of the catena. A general trend of increasing wood density of the large tree species was found towards the wet end of the gradient.

    Some implications of the continuous variability model are evaluated as a scientific basis for forest management and conservation of biodiversity. At the regional scale, forest management should be adapted to the individual position of each forest area along the gradient. The tree species chosen and the forest land evaluation should both reflect this position. Catena plots are suggested as more appropriate for forest inventory than random sampling in areas with pronounced slope gradients.

    Any conceivable strategy for conservation of biodiversity in West Africa must aim at protecting forests along the entire gradient, because at any point along the gradient different species attain their optimum. A "Green Sickle" is advocated which, if adopted and implemented, would link National Parks and forest reserves from the savanna down to the Atlantic coast.

    In western Côte d'lvoire. there are two promising areas where conservation efforts could still produce worthwhile results: 1. the hills of Grabo, a hypothetical Pleistocene forest refugium with a high degree of endemism in Côte d'Ivoire, which merits the status of national park; 2. the semi- deciduous forests, which contain many species not found in wetter forests.

    Regional and local gradients result in a great diversity of forests in West Africa. The satellite image on the front cover confirms this broad variation. Forests are not just hectares, trees not just cubic metres. Management of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth is a challenge for present and future generations. It will need international support and the efforts of all those fascinated by this pearl of our blue planet.

    Compte Rendu Séminaire sur l'aménagement intégré des forêts denses humides et des zones agricoles périphériques.
    Vooren, A.P. ; Schork, W. ; Blokhuis, W.A. ; Spijkerman, A.J.C. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : La Fondation Tropenbos (Tropenbos Series 1) - ISBN 9789051130126 - 307
    bosbouw - oerbossen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - agroforestry - agrosilviculturele systemen - landgebruik - tropen - bosbedrijfsvoering - planning - weiden - bossen - landbouwgrond - relaties - ontbossing - bebossing - ivoorkust - oude bossen - forestry - virgin forests - tropical rain forests - vegetation - agroforestry - agrosilvicultural systems - land use - tropics - forest management - planning - pastures - forests - agricultural land - relationships - deforestation - afforestation - cote d'ivoire - old-growth forests
    The Celos management system: a provisional manual.
    Graaf, N.R. de; Bodegom, A.J. van - \ 1991
    Wageningen : IKC/NBLF/LNV en Sticht. Bosbouw Ontwikkelingssamenwerking BOS - 43
    kroondak - kroon - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - handleidingen - natuurlijke verjonging - planning - suriname - bomen - tropische regenbossen - tropen - vegetatie - oerbossen - werkplannen - oude bossen - canopy - crown - forest management - forestry - guide books - natural regeneration - planning - suriname - trees - tropical rain forests - tropics - vegetation - virgin forests - working plans - old-growth forests
    Diagnosis of Northern Queensland rain forests: the impact of selection silviculture. An independent study, contracted by the Department of Forestry, Queensland, Australia.
    Oldeman, R.A.A. ; Meer, P.J. van der - \ 1988
    Wageningen : LU - 70
    australië - bosbouw - houtteelt - tropische regenbossen - tropen - vegetatie - natuurlijke opstanden - australia - forestry - silviculture - tropical rain forests - tropics - vegetation - natural stands
    Vegetation structure, logging damage and silviculture in a tropical rain forest in Suriname
    Jonkers, W.B.J. - \ 1987
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; J.H.A. Boerboom. - S.l. : Jonkers - 172
    bosbouw - oerbossen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - tropen - bossen - bosproducten - lagenstructuur - biomassa - bosschade - bosbouwkundige handelingen - velling - uitsleep - bebossing - verjonging - suriname - oude bossen - forestry - virgin forests - tropical rain forests - vegetation - tropics - forests - forest products - layer structure - biomass - forest damage - forestry practices - felling - skidding - afforestation - regeneration - suriname - old-growth forests

    In the first publication in this series, a polycyclic forest management system was formulated, in which three silvicultural treatments (refinements) were scheduled in a cutting cycle of twenty years. This system, which is referred to as the Celos Silvicultural System, is developed further in this study.

    Selective logging is the first action of forest management. Felling limits for most species need to be raised from 35 cm to 50 cm dbh to secure future harvests. If carried out properly, logging does not cause unacceptable damage to the stand. The forest responds to logging with a slow recovery process and a refinement is scheduled one to two years after felling to release commercial species. This treatment consists of cutting lianas and poison-girdling trees without commercial value, which are either larger than 40 cm dbh or 20 - 40 cm dbh and within 10 m of a commercial tree. A second treatment is necessary ten years after the initial harvest and the third one is scheduled a few years before the second cut. These follow-up treatments differ from the first one in the selection of trees to be poison-girdled.

    A silvicultural system for natural regeneration of tropical rain forest in Suriname
    Graaf, N.R. de - \ 1986
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; J.H.A. Boerboom. - Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool - ISBN 9789090012391 - 250
    kroondak - kroon - bosbouweconomie - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - bossen - natuurlijke verjonging - suriname - tropische regenbossen - tropen - vegetatie - canopy - crown - forest economics - forest management - forestry - forests - natural regeneration - suriname - tropical rain forests - tropics - vegetation

    A polycyclic system is proposed and discussed for the economically accessible mesophytic (evergreen seasonal) forests in Suriname. In this system, known as Celos Silvicultural System, a restricted amount of about 20 m 3quality timber is taken once about every 20 years in a well controlled selection felling operation. This seemed to be the best compromise between economic demands and ecologic constraints in the highly mixed forest growing on chemically very poor soils. It was found that selection felling had to be followed by refinement using arboricides, three times during the cycle, to release commercial species, and provide economically sufficient increment. The system was tested experimentally over more than a decade. Main principles were maintenance of a high level of biomass to prevent leaching of nutrients from the ecosystem, and minimum interference, assuming the original forest is best adapted to ecological conditions.

    The results of four big field experiments are given in many tables, graphs and stereophotographs.

    Towards sustained timber production from tropical rain forests in Suriname, Special Paper IX World Forestry Congr. Mexico, 1985
    Boxman, O. ; Graaf, N.R. de; Hendrison, J. ; Jonkers, W.B.J. ; Poels, R.L.H. ; Schmidt, P. ; Tjon Lim Sang, R. - \ 1985
    Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 33 (1985). - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 125 - 132.
    ecosystemen - bosbouw - bosbouwkundige handelingen - bossen - houtkap - planten - houtteelt - transport - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - suriname - ecosystems - forestry - forestry practices - forests - logging - plants - silviculture - transport - tropical rain forests - vegetation - suriname
    Patterns in tree and branch-fall in a West-African rain forest
    Vooren, A.P. van - \ 1985
    Wageningen : LH - 34
    vertakking - dode bomen - dood - ecologie - bosbouw - gebruiksduur - natuurlijke takafstoting - tropische regenbossen - tropen - vegetatie - west-afrika - branching - dead trees - death - ecology - forestry - longevity - natural pruning - tropical rain forests - tropics - vegetation - west africa
    Voortgangsrapport 1978 - 1982 van het project LH/UvS 01 (MAB-project 949) "Antropogene ingrepen in het ecosysteem tropisch regenwoud"
    Schmidt, P. - \ 1983
    Paramaribo : Universiteit van Suriname (CELOS rapporten no. 136) - 24
    schoonmaken - bosbouw - subtropen - suriname - bomen - tropische regenbossen - tropen - vegetatie - oerbossen - oude bossen - bosopstanden - cleaning - forestry - subtropics - suriname - trees - tropical rain forests - tropics - vegetation - virgin forests - old-growth forests - forest stands
    Human impact on tropical moist forest
    Boerboom, J.H.A. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 1983
    In: Man's impact on vegetation / Holzner, W., Werger, M.J.A., Ikusima, I., - p. 83 - 106.
    tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - bosbouw - mens - recreatie - planten - interacties - milieu - nadelige gevolgen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - tropical rain forests - vegetation - forestry - man - recreation - plants - interactions - environment - adverse effects - environmental impact - human activity
    La foret du Banco
    Koning, J. de - \ 1983
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): H.C.D. de Wit. - Wageningen : De Koning
    tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - bosbouw - bomen - planten - identificatie - ivoorkust - tropen - subtropen - spermatophyta - tropical rain forests - vegetation - forestry - trees - plants - identification - cote d'ivoire - tropics - subtropics - spermatophyta

    Deze publicatie over het Nationaal Park 'La Forêt du Banco' nabij Abidjan, Ivoorkust, verschijnt als resultaat van vier jaar veldwerk (1972-1976) in dat land.

    Het Centre Néerlandais, onderzoeks- en stageverblijf van de Landbouwhogeschool, was basis en de faciliteiten verleend door het Franse ORSTOM-instituut maakten botanische studie mogelift.

    Het Banco-bos was, al van de eerste decennia dezer eeuw, onderwerp van studie uit vele disciplines geweest. De vele publicaties die hieruit resulteerden waren aanzet tot de huidige studie van vegetatie en flora, waarbij speciale aandacht werd besteed aan de zaailingen der in het bos aangetroffen soorten. Hiertoe werden op het ORSTOM-proefterrein te Adiopodoumé, Ivoorkust, zaden uitgezaaid waarvan het moedermateriaal uit het Banco-bos in alcohol of als herbariummateriaal wordt bewaard.

    In 1977 kreeg de auteur van de Landbouwhogeschool gelegenheid in het Laboratorium voor Plantensystematiek en -geografle een gedeelte van de gegevens uit te werken. Later, al elders werkzaam, werd dit gecompleteerd en werden diverse herbaria bezocht.

    De studie bestaat uit een algemeen en een flora-gedeelte.

    In het algemene gedeelte ('La Forêt ') wordt allereerst de botanische geschiedenis van Ivoorkust behandeld, gecentreerd orn de figuur van AUGUSTE JEAN BAPTISTE CHEVALIER. Publicaties, collecties en botanische reizen worden genoernd.

    In de geschiedenis van het Banco-bos wordt eerst ingegaan op keuze en inrichting van het bos en op een aantal wettelifte regelingen orntrent gebiedsgrootte en status. De botanische collecties worden genoernd, waarna een overzicht volgt van het pionierswerk in tropisch bosbouwonderzoek zoals in het Banco-bos is uitgevoerd.

    Geografle, topografle, bodem en klimaat worden vervolgens behandeld, waarbij extra aandacht is besteed aan studies over het microklimaat.

    Het vegetatiehoofdstuk beschrijft de samenstelling van het bos in verschillende fasen, zijn structuur en ontwikkeling.

    In de conclusies wordt ingegaan op het wetenschappelijk, historisch en economisch belang van dit bos.

    Het algemene deel eindigt met een introductie op de flora waarin de gevolgde werkwijze wordt besproken en een uitgebreide collectie foto's van in het bos voorkornende plantesoorten. Een technische vernieuwing van praktische betekenis is, dat een begin werd gemaakt het bosbodernoppervIak te fotograferen, zodat de afgevallen vruchten, bladeren, bloemen, soms half vergaan, afgebeeld werden. Met behulp hiervan is een inventarisatie sneller en beter mogelift, orndat geen botanisch materiaal uit hoge boornkruinen gehaald behoeft te worden. Een determinatietabel van de families, geldig voor het onderhavige bos en vele omliggende bosgebieden, is mede een gewichtig hulpmiddel.

    In het tweede gedeelte ('La Flore') zijn de 86 Angiospermae -families alfabetisch gerangschikt.
    Elke familie wordt als volgt behandeld:
    - opgave van het aantal in de Banco aan te treffen genera en soorten
    - beschrijving van de familie, waarbij, toegespitst op Westafrikaanse vertegenwoordigers, aan de orde komen: habitus, blad, bloeiwijze, bloem, vrucht, zaad, wailing; uitzonderingen birmen de familie en speciale kenmerken; verspreiding, habitat, bekende nuttige planten, totaal aantal genera en soorten
    - determinatietabel van de genera en soorten uit het Banco-bos
    - beschrijving der alfabetisch gerangschikte soorten, inhoudend:
    - auteur, oorspronkelijke publicatie en typificatie van de soort
    - basioniem, zo bestaand, en een enkel, belangrijk synoniem
    - literatuurverwijzing naar Flora of West Tropical Africa (FWTA) en eventueel La Flore Forestière de la Côte d'lvoire (AUBR)
    - biologische beschrijving van de soort, toegespitst op de vertegenwoordigers in het Banco-bos, inhoudende: habitus, blad, bloeiwijze, bloem, vrucht, zaad, wailing; speciale kenmerken; habitat, fenologie; bestudeerd herbariummateriaal.

    Het flora-gedeelte wordt besloten met een index van de wetenschappelijke namen.

    Bosbouw en tropisch regenwoud in Suriname
    Graaf, N.R. de - \ 1983
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 55 (1983)5. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 199 - 211.
    bosproducten - bosbouw - bossen - suriname - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - forest products - forestry - forests - suriname - tropical rain forests - vegetation
    Strooiselafbraak in vier verschillende bosopstanden
    Steege, J.G. van der - \ 1983
    Centrum voor Landbouwkundig Onderzoek in Suriname - 31
    bosstrooisel - strooisel - degradatie - bladeren - hout - decompositie - tropische regenbossen - suriname - bosopstanden - forest litter - litter (plant) - degradation - leaves - wood - decomposition - tropical rain forests - suriname - forest stands
    Bladproductie en bladfytomassa van een aantal palmsoorten van het tropisch regenbos in Suriname
    Steege, J.G. van der - \ 1983
    CELOS - 33
    arecaceae - biomassa - groei - bladeren - planten - suriname - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - arecaceae - biomass - growth - leaves - plants - suriname - tropical rain forests - vegetation
    Verslag van het bezoek aan het 'Colloque ECEREX' (4-8 maart 1983) te Cayenne
    Schmidt, P. ; Tjon Lim Sang, R. - \ 1983
    Wageningen : Jonkers [etc.] - 20
    kunstmatige verjonging - geïntroduceerde soorten - proefvelden - bosbouw - frans-guyana - natuurlijke verjonging - soortenproeven - subtropen - tropische regenbossen - tropen - vegetatie - oerbossen - oude bossen - artificial regeneration - introduced species - experimental plots - forestry - french guiana - natural regeneration - species trials - subtropics - tropical rain forests - tropics - vegetation - virgin forests - old-growth forests
    The international symposium on Amazonia : report on a study tour to Belem, Brazil
    Jonkers, W.B.J. ; Schmidt, P. - \ 1982
    Paramaribo : CELOS - 38
    degraded forests - forest management - forestry - latin america - natural regeneration - grondvoorbereiding - suriname - treatment - tropical rain forests - vegetation - planning - silviculture - site preparation - gedegradeerde bossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - latijns-amerika - natuurlijke verjonging - planning - houtteelt - grondvoorbereiding - suriname - behandeling - tropische regen - bossenvegetatie - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie
    Sustained timber production in the tropical rainforest of Suriname
    Graaf, N.R. de - \ 1982
    In: Proceedings of the joint workshop on management of low fertility acid soils of the American humid tropics, Paramaribo, Suriname, 23 - 26 November, 1981 / Wienk, J.F., de Wit, H.A., - p. 175 - 189.
    biomassa - bosbouw - bosbouwtechniek - bosbouwkundige handelingen - houtaanwas - houtkap - opstandsontwikkeling - opstandsstructuur - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - arbeidskunde - suriname - biomass - forestry - forestry engineering - forestry practices - increment - logging - stand development - stand structure - tropical rain forests - vegetation - work study - suriname
    Oorzaken en gevolgen van het verdwijnen van het tropisch oerwoud in het Amazonegebied
    Anonymous, - \ 1979
    Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 4239)
    milieu - verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - bosbouw - opstandsstructuur - opstandsontwikkeling - plantenecologie - bomen - autecologie - bosschade - verzamelen - oerbossen - bossen - brazilië - tropen - subtropen - bibliografieën - bosproducten anders dan hout - environment - pollutants - pollution - adverse effects - tropical rain forests - vegetation - forestry - stand structure - stand development - plant ecology - trees - autecology - forest damage - collection - virgin forests - forests - brazil - tropics - subtropics - bibliographies - non-wood forest products
    Successie op ontbost terrein : de opnamen in 1974 en 1975 van de permanente proefperken nabij Sarwadriesprong; Successie op ontbost terrein : opnamen proefperk Blakawatra
    Visser, P.A. - \ 1976
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Celos rapporten no. 113) - 25
    bosbouw - mens - plantengemeenschappen - plantensuccessie - suriname - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - verstoring - forestry - man - plant communities - plant succession - suriname - tropical rain forests - vegetation - disturbance
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