Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    'Wat triggert de kopers van jouw product?' : actualiteitenavond Bovenkarspel
    Gude, Henk - \ 2015
    horticulture - ornamental bulbs - tulips - knowledge transfer - coating - scalding - marketing - turnover
    De actualiteitenavond die op 9 september, op initiatief van KAVB en CNB, plaatsvond in bij CNB in Bovenkarspel stond bol van de waardevolle informatie voor het vak. Zo was er een update over het onderzoek naar de effecten van bolcoating, en ging Flora- Holland in op het nieuwe broeiseizoen en de marketing van tulp. De grote vraag blijft immers: voor wie produceer je nou eigenlijk? En wat verwacht de consument van jouw product?
    Auswirkungen der Erhöhung des Mehrwertsteuersatzes für Zierpflanzenerzeugnisse : Situation im Jahr 2015
    Bunte, F. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25
    ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Effects of increased VAT rates for ornamentals : situation 2015
    Bunte, F. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157174 - 23
    ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Effets de l'augmentation du taux de TVA pour les produits d'horticulture ornementale : situation 2015
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25
    ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Effecten van verhoging btw-tarief voor sierteeltproducten : situatie 2015
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25
    sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland - ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands
    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
    Achtergronddocument Driemeting : Verantwoording van de berekeningen en gemaakte keuzes voor het komen tot de omzet van de multifunctionele landbouw 2013
    Veen, E.J. ; Schoutsen, M.A. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. ; Vijn, M.P. - \ 2015
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO 654) - 52
    multifunctionele landbouw - neveninkomsten - inkomen van landbouwers - zorgboerderijen - agrarisch natuurbeheer - boerderijwinkels - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsvoering - omzet - vakanties op de boerderij - multifunctional agriculture - supplementary income - farmers' income - social care farms - agri-environment schemes - on-farm sales - farm management - management - turnover - farm holidays
    Neveninkomsten op de boerderij door: Agrarisch natuurbeheer, boerderijeducatie, agrarische kinderopvang, zorglandbouw, recreatie of boerderijverkoop
    De Nederlandse visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel : economische analyse van de sector, ontwikkelingen en trends
    Beukers, R. - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report LEI 2014-026) - ISBN 9789086157099 - 87
    visverwerkende industrie - handel - vis - economische analyse - tendensen - werkgelegenheid - omzet - import - export - fish industry - trade - fish - economic analysis - trends - employment - turnover - imports - exports
    Dit onderzoek geeft inzicht in de economische situatie van de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel in Nederland door een analyse van de economische structuur van de sector en de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen. De bedrijven in de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel hadden in 2013 een gezamenlijke omzet van 3.6 miljard euro; een groei van 7% ten opzichte van de omzet in 2009. 70% van de totale omzet van Nederlandse visverwerkende bedrijven en visgroothandels werd behaald uit export; 30% werd gerealiseerd op de binnenlandse markt.
    Kijk op multifunctionele landbouw. Omzet en impact 2007-2013
    Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Jager, J.H. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Schoutsen, M.A. ; Veen, E.J. ; Venema, G.S. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Voskuilen, M.J. ; Weegh, J.B.M. op de - \ 2014
    LEI, WUR / PPO, WUR
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - akkerbouw- en tuinbouwbedrijven - landbouwbedrijven - multifunctionele landbouw - zorgboerderijen - kinderverzorging - boerderijwinkels - boerderijeducatie - recreatie - nevenactiviteiten - omzet - farm management - crop enterprises - farms - multifunctional agriculture - social care farms - child care - on-farm sales - farm education - recreation - ancillary enterprises - turnover
    Op veel land- en tuinbouwbedrijven worden niet alleen dieren gehouden en/of gewassen geteeld. Ongeveer 20% van de agrariërs pakt ook andere activiteiten op zoals zorglandbouw, kinderopvang, boerderijeducatie, streekproducten, natuurbeheer en/of recreatie. Hierdoor krijgt het bedrijf een multifunctioneel karakter. Deze brochure geeft een beknopt overzicht van de omzet en impact van de sectoren van multifunctionele landbouw over de periode 2007-2013.
    A model-based approach to studying changes in compositional heterogeneity
    Baeten, L. ; Warton, D. ; Calster, H. van; Frenne, P. De; Verstraeten, G. ; Bonte, D. ; Bernhardt-Romermann, M. ; Cornelis, R. ; Decocq, G. ; Eriksson, O. ; Hommel, P.W.F.M. - \ 2014
    Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5 (2014)2. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 156 - 164.
    with-standards forest - biotic homogenization - beta-diversity - plant-communities - deciduous forest - vegetation - turnover - dissimilarity - nestedness - dispersion
    1. Non-random species loss and gain in local communities change the compositional heterogeneity between communities over time, which is traditionally quantified with dissimilarity-based approaches. Yet, dissimilarities summarize the multivariate species data into a univariate index and obscure the species-level patterns of change, which are central to understand the causes and consequences of the community changes. 2. Here, we propose a model-based approach that looks for species-level effects of time period and construct a multiple-site metric as a sum across species to test the consistency of the individual species responses. Species fall into different response types, showing how they influence the changes in community heterogeneity. 3. In a comparison with other multiple-sitemetrics, we illustrate the properties of our method and the differences and similarities with other approaches. For instance, ourmetric estimates the total variation in a community data set based on species-level contributions, not the compositional dissimilarities between particular sites. Similar to some other approaches, we can distinguish between heterogeneity derived from turnover or richness differences. 4. Our approach was applied to a set of 23 forest understorey resurvey studies spread across Europe. We show the species gains and lossesmay as well decrease or increase levels of community heterogeneity. Although species occurrences and communities have not changed in a consistent way along continental-scale environmental gradients such as climatic conditions, several species shifted in a similar way across the different data sets. 5. Testing the significance of shifts in species prevalence over time to infer corresponding changes in the compositional heterogeneity among sites provides a very intuitive tool for community resurvey studies. The main strengths of our framework are the explicit consideration of the relative roles of species gains and losses and the straightforward generalization to different sets of hypotheses related to community changes. Key-words: biodiversity, community composition, biotic homogenization, binomial deviance, dissimilarity, beta diversity,multivariate analysis,meta-analysis, forest understorey
    The association between plasma homocysteine levels and bone quality and bone mineral density parameters in older persons
    Enneman, A.W. ; Swart, K.M.A. ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Dijk, S.C. van; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Hofman, A. ; Rivadeneira, F. ; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Lips, P. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Meurs, J.B.J. van; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der - \ 2014
    Bone 63 (2014). - ISSN 8756-3282 - p. 141 - 146.
    band ultrasound attenuation - quantitative ultrasound - postmenopausal women - fracture risk - osteoporotic fracture - elderly-people - vitamin-b-12 - homocystinuria - mortality - turnover
    Introduction High plasma homocysteine levels have been associated with incident osteoporotic fractures, but the mechanisms underlying this association are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that homocysteine might interfere with collagen cross-linking in bone, thereby weakening bone structure. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether plasma homocysteine levels are associated with bone quality parameters, rather than with bone mineral density. Methods Cross-sectional data of the B-PROOF study (n = 1227) and of two cohorts of the Rotterdam Study (RS-I (n = 2850) and RS-II (n = 2023)) were used. Data on bone mineral density of the femoral neck and lumbar spine were obtained in these participants using dual-energy X-ray assessment (DXA). In addition, participants of B-PROOF and RS-I underwent quantitative ultrasound measurement of the calcaneus, as a marker for bone quality. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between natural-log transformed plasma levels of homocysteine and bone mineral density or ultrasound parameters. Results Natural-log transformed homocysteine levels were inversely associated with femoral neck bone mineral density in the two cohorts of the Rotterdam Study (B = - 0.025, p = 0.004 and B = - 0.024, p = 0.024). In B-PROOF, no association was found. Pooled data analysis showed significant associations between homocysteine and bone mineral density at both femoral neck (B = - 0.032, p = 0.010) and lumbar spine (B = - 0.098, p = 0.021). Higher natural-log transformed homocysteine levels associated significantly with lower bone ultrasound attenuation in B-PROOF (B = - 3.7, p = 0.009) and speed of sound in both B-PROOF (B = - 8.9, p = 0.001) and RS-I (B = - 14.5, p = 0.003), indicating lower bone quality. Pooled analysis confirmed the association between homocysteine and SOS (B = - 13.1, p = 0.016). Results from ANCOVA-analysis indicate that differences in SOS and BUA between participants having a plasma homocysteine level above or below median correspond to 0.14 and 0.09 SD, respectively. Discussion In this study, plasma levels of homocysteine were significantly inversely associated with both bone ultrasound parameters and with bone mineral density. However, the size of the associations seems to be of limited clinical relevance and may therefore not explain the previously observed association between plasma homocysteine and osteoporotic fracture incidence.
    Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation
    Braakhekke, M.C. ; Wutzler, T. ; Beer, C. ; Kattge, J. ; Schrumpf, M. ; Ahrens, B. ; Schoning, I. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kruijt, B. ; Kabat, P. ; Reichstein, M. - \ 2013
    Biogeosciences 10 (2013)1. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 399 - 420.
    terrestrial ecosystem model - scots pine forest - carbon dynamics - radioactive isotopes - temperate soils - lead - pb-210 - stabilization - transport - turnover
    The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing due to bioturbation, and organic matter leaching. In this study we quantified the contribution of these three processes using Bayesian parameter estimation for the mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. Based on organic carbon measurements, 13 parameters related to decomposition and transport of organic matter were estimated for two temperate forest soils: an Arenosol with a mor humus form (Loobos, the Netherlands), and a Cambisol with mull-type humus (Hainich, Germany). Furthermore, the use of the radioisotope Pb-210(ex) as tracer for vertical SOM transport was studied. For Loobos, the calibration results demonstrate the importance of organic matter transport with the liquid phase for shaping the vertical SOM profile, while the effects of bioturbation are generally negligible. These results are in good agreement with expectations given in situ conditions. For Hainich, the calibration offered three distinct explanations for the observations (three modes in the posterior distribution). With the addition of Pb-210(ex) data and prior knowledge, as well as additional information about in situ conditions, we were able to identify the most likely explanation, which indicated that root litter input is a dominant process for the SOM profile. For both sites the organic matter appears to comprise mainly adsorbed but potentially leachable material, pointing to the importance of organo-mineral interactions. Furthermore, organic matter in the mineral soil appears to be mainly derived from root litter, supporting previous studies that highlighted the importance of root input for soil carbon sequestration. The Pb-210(ex) measurements added only slight additional constraint on the estimated parameters. However, with sufficient replicate measurements and possibly in combination with other tracers, this isotope may still hold value as tracer for SOM transport.
    Soil organic matter dynamics in Mediterranean A-horizons-The use of analytical pyrolysis to ascertain land-use history
    Schellekens, J. ; Barbera, G.G. ; Buurman, P. ; Perez-Jorda, G. ; Martinez-Cortizas, A. - \ 2013
    Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 104 (2013). - ISSN 0165-2370 - p. 287 - 298.
    chromatography-mass-spectrometry - black carbon - fractionation methods - calcareous soils - nw spain - gc/ms - turnover - biomass - lignin - forest
    In archaeology and nature conservation studies, knowledge about (pre)historical land-use is important. The molecular composition of soil organic matter (SOM) supplies information about its history, as its composition is controlled by input material and decay processes. In this study, the molecular composition of SOM of calcareous A-horizons from SE Spain was studied with pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC/MS). The effect of vegetation type (Pinus halepensis forest and Stipa tenacissima grassland), land-use (cultivation with cereals and olive trees) and wildfire were examined. In addition, former grassland and agricultural soils that had been reforested with P. halepensis (35 yr) were selected. Three locations were sampled for each vegetation type, except for the olive tree (two) and cereal (six) fields, resulting in a total of 26 samples. Each sample was a composite of ten sub-samples taken from a plot of I ha. After removal of weakly or non-decomposed particulate OM, two OM fractions were obtained; (i) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) extractable OM and (ii) the OM that remained after extraction, which was isolated after dissolution of minerals by repeated hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment. The NaOH-extractable fraction is generally used in soil chemistry (i.e. humic acid), but surprisingly little is known about the SOM that remains in the residue (i.e. humin plus minerals). Comparison of the two SOM fractions (by factor analyses applied to 82 quantified pyrolysis products) provided insight into soil OM dynamics. Polyaromatic pyrolysis products were more prominent in the extractable OM, while a relative enrichment of aliphatic compounds was found in the non-extractable OM. Although some pyrolysis products were associated with one vegetation type in both SOM fractions (C-3-naphthalene, dimethylphenanthrene and 2,3,5-trimethylphenanthrene, retene, and monoterpenes for both burnt and unburnt P. halepensis forest: benzene, naphthalene and C-1-naphthalene for burnt and unburnt S. tenacissima grassland), lignin content and composition highly differed between agricultural soils and soils under native vegetation in both SOM fractions. These differences were mainly decay characteristics, reinforced by cultivation. In reforested soils it was still possible to identify their former land-use, decades after the vegetation change. The probability of the sites to be correctly attributed to its present land-use was P > 0.7 for grassland and pine forest, while most of the cultivated sites had a P > 0.5 to be assigned correctly. The results obtained suggest that the molecular composition of SOM has a large potential for reconstructing land-use history, at least at the scale of decades/centuries. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Bivalve nutrient cycling : nutrient turnover by suspended mussel communities in oligotrophic fjords
    Jansen, H.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Aad Smaal, co-promotor(en): Ø. Strand; Marc Verdegem. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732439 - 152
    voedingsstoffen - mossels - aquacultuur - omzet - bivalvia - diervoedering - aquatische gemeenschappen - diervoeding - nutrients - mussels - aquaculture - turnover - bivalvia - animal feeding - aquatic communities - animal nutrition

    This study examined a range of eco-physiological processes (i.e filtration, growth, excretion,

    faeces production) and feedback mechanisms with the aim to investigate the contribution of

    suspended mussel Mytilus edulis communities to nutrient cycling in oligotrophic fjords. Previous

    work has shown that bivalves have the potential to play an important role in coastal nutrient

    cycling. Understanding bivalve nutrient dynamics is particularly essential in oligotrophic

    environments, where bivalve communities potentially have a higher influence as a consequence

    of low background nutrient levels.

    The eco-physiological response of individual mussels to oligotrophic conditions indicated that

    clearance and biodeposition rates were related to food/nutrient availability and were therefore

    respectively higher and lower compared to rates determined for eutrophic conditions. No

    specific responses to oligotrophic conditions were observed for excretion of inorganic

    metabolites or nutrient storage in tissue. However, in situ methods that determined nutrient

    dynamics along suspended communities (ropes) demonstrated that rates under field conditions

    may differ from what can be expected from extrapolation of rates measured in the laboratory for

    individual mussels. Clearance rates were lower for communities while nutrient regeneration was

    higher, specifically during periods with high fouling activity of ascidians. This study thereby

    highlights the need to consider community specific processes while evaluating bivalve-ecosystem

    interactions.

    Biodeposition is an important pathway in bivalve nutrient cycling and represented up to

    47% of ingested nutrients under oligotrophic conditions. Nutrient releases from decomposing

    biodeposits were high for all nutrients (C-N-P-Si), and approximately 24% of carbon and 17% of

    nitrogen in the biodeposits were mineralized with enhanced temperatures resulting in faster

    decomposition (Q10=2-3).

    Combining mussel physiology with physical conditions of the systems showed that the

    fraction of ingested nutrients allocated to either nutrient regeneration (source) or nutrient

    removal (sink) was similar between oligotrophic fjords and eutrophic bays. Nutrient regeneration

    was imbalanced for each of the elements and differed from ratios observed in the ambient water.

    Mussel cultures thereby have the potential to influence phytoplankton community composition.

    However, positive and negative feedback estimates indicated that present mussel aquaculture in

    Norwegian fjord systems has low influence on nutrient cycling due to the low bivalve densities

    and physical characteristics of the fjords.

    This thesis provided insights in the pathways in which mussels interact with nutrient cycling,

    with special reference to oligotrophic conditions. The empirical data collected in this study can

    be applied to optimize models that simulate bivalve-ecosystem interactions, and thereby help to

    understand and predict the exploitation and management of coastal zones.

    Rhizosphere anode model explains high oxygen levels during operation of a Glyceria maxima PMFC
    Timmers, R.A. ; Strik, D.P.B.T.B. ; Arampatzoglou, C. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2012
    Bioresource Technology 108 (2012). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 60 - 67.
    microbial fuel-cells - triticum-aestivum l - rice plants - electricity production - root exudation - organic-acids - carbon - solubilization - rhizodeposits - turnover
    In this paper, the effect of root oxygen loss on energy recovery of the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is described. In this manner, advanced understanding of competing processes within the rhizosphere-anode interface was provided. A microscopic model was developed on the basis of exudation, oxygen loss, biological oxidation, and biological current generation. The model was successfully validated by comparison to oxygen concentration profiles, volatile fatty acid profiles, and chemical oxygen demand profiles measured in the anode compartment. The model predicted oxic zones around roots in the anode of the plant microbial fuel cell. Results show no direct link between current generation and photosynthesis. This was consistent with the model which predicted that current was generated via hydrolysis of root-derived organic compounds. This result means that to optimize energy recovery of a PMFC, the plant selection should focus on high root biomass production combined with low oxygen loss.
    A step towards underpinning the molecular signalling events regulating muscle protein loss in critically ill patients
    Kouw, I.W. ; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Gorissen, S.H. - \ 2011
    Journal of Physiology 589 (2011)24. - ISSN 0022-3751 - p. 5925 - 5926.
    skeletal-muscle - turnover
    Adaptation of photosystem II to high and low light in wild-type and triazine-resistant Canola plants: analysis by a fluorescence induction algorithm
    Rensen, J.J.S. van; Vredenberg, W.J. - \ 2011
    Photosynthesis Research 108 (2011)2-3. - ISSN 0166-8595 - p. 191 - 200.
    brassica-napus l - chenopodium-album - chloroplasts - photoinhibition - kinetics - photosynthesis - turnover - oxygen - photoinactivation - cyanobacteria
    Plants of wild-type and triazine-resistant Canola (Brassica napus L.) were exposed to very high light intensities and after 1 day placed on a laboratory table at low light to recover, to study the kinetics of variable fluorescence after light, and after dark-adaptation. This cycle was repeated several times. The fast OJIP fluorescence rise curve was measured immediately after light exposure and after recovery during 1 day in laboratory room light. A fluorescence induction algorithm has been used for resolution and analysis of these curves. This algorithm includes photochemical and photo-electrochemical quenching release components and a photo-electrical dependent IP-component. The analysis revealed a substantial suppression of the photo-electrochemical component (even complete in the resistant biotype), a partial suppression of the photochemical component and a decrease in the fluorescence parameter Fo after high light. These effects were recovered after 1 day in the indoor light.
    SOMPROF: A vertically explicit soil organic matter model
    Braakhekke, M.C. ; Beer, M. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kruijt, B. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2011
    Ecological Modelling 222 (2011)10. - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 1712 - 1730.
    temperature sensitivity - carbon dynamics - atmospheric co2 - climate-change - forest soils - elevated co2 - turnover - respiration - transport - decomposition
    Most current soil organic matter (SOM) models represent the soil as a bulk without specification of the vertical distribution of SOM in the soil profile. However, the vertical SOM profile may be of great importance for soil carbon cycling, both on short (hours to years) time scale, due to interactions with the soil temperature and moisture profile, as well as on long (years to centuries) time scale because of depth-specific stabilization mechanisms of organic matter. It is likely that a representation of the SOM profile and surface organic layers in SOM models can improve predictions of the response of land surface fluxes to climate and environmental variability. Although models capable of simulating the vertical SOM profile exist, these were generally not developed for large scale predictive simulations and do not adequately represent surface organic horizons. We present SOMPROF, a vertically explicit SOM model, designed for implementation into large scale ecosystem and land surface models. The model dynamically simulates the vertical SOM profile and organic layer stocks based on mechanistic representations of bioturbation, liquid phase transport of organic matter, and vertical distribution of root litter input. We tested the model based on data from an old growth deciduous forest (Hainich) in Germany, and performed a sensitivity analysis of the transport parameters, and the effects of the vertical SOM distribution on temporal variation of heterotrophic respiration. Model results compare well with measured organic carbon profiles and stocks. SOMPROF is able to simulate a wide range of SOM profiles, using parameter values that are realistic compared to those found in previous studies. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that the vertical SOM distribution strongly affects temporal variation of heterotrophic respiration due to interactions with the soil temperature and moisture profile.
    Het verlaagde btw-tarief voor sierteeltproducten : situatie 2010
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Poel, N. van der - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI (LEI-rapport : Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086154562 - 22
    sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - effecten - economische evaluatie - verandering - omzet - werkgelegenheid - arbeidseconomie - europese unie - ornamental horticulture - value added tax - effects - economic evaluation - change - turnover - employment - labour economics - european union
    Dit rapport evalueert het effect van een mogelijke verhoging van het btw-tarief op sierteeltproducten op de omzet en wergelegenheid in de sierteeltketen. Het lage btw-tarief wordt in 13 EU-lidstaten op bloemen en planten toegepast. Het effect wordt gemeten met behulp van een partieel evenwichtsmodel dat beschikbaar is op het LEI. Het model modelleert vraag en aanbod in de Europese tuinbouw.
    Effect btw-verlaging hoveniersdiensten
    Meer, R.W. van der; Bunte, F.H.J. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap ) - 16
    tuinbouwbedrijven - beroepen - dienstensector - belasting toegevoegde waarde - heffingen - bedrijfsvoering - omzet - werkgelegenheid - hoveniers - bedrijfseconomie - groenbeheer - boomverzorging - market gardens - occupations - services - value added tax - levies - management - turnover - employment - landscape gardeners - business economics - management of urban green areas - tree care
    Onderzoek van LEI, naar de omzet werkgelegeheid in de hoveniersbranche als het btw-tarief van 19% naar 6% wordt verlaagd. De Vereniging van Hoveniers en Groenvoorzieners (VHG) heeft het LEI deze vraag voorgelegd, omdat andere arbeidsintensieve diensten het lage tarief gebruiken. Conclusie is dat ruim 3000 extra fte werkgelegenheid beschikbaar komt en de omzet met maximaal 16% toeneemt.
    Derde kwartaal 2010 sierteelt: omzet groeit
    Jukema, G.D. - \ 2010
    Agri-monitor 2010 (2010)okt. - ISSN 1383-6455
    bloementeelt - sierplanten - potplanten - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - export - prijzen - omzet - floriculture - ornamental plants - pot plants - farm results - exports - prices - turnover
    In het derde kwartaal van 2010 is de omzet op de bloemenveilingen en de exportwaarde opnieuw toegenomen. De omzetstijging op de bloemenveilingen bedroeg een kleine 12% voor de in Nederland geproduceerde producten. Dit is inmiddels het derde achtereenvolgende kwartaal met een hogere omzet dan in dezelfde periode vorig jaar. Ook de exportwaarde groeide in het derde kwartaal, met 8% tot 1,1 miljard euro. Hogere inkoopprijzen, een voorzichtig herstel van het consumentenvertrouwen en gunstigere valutaverhoudingen speelden een rol bij het bereiken van deze hogere exportwaarde.
    Fate of airborne metal pollution in soils as related to agricultural management: 2. Assessing the role of biological activity in micro-scale Zn and Pb distributions in A, B and C horizons
    Fernandez, C. ; Labanowski, J. ; Jongmans, T. ; Bermond, A. ; Cambier, P. ; Lamy, I. ; Oort, F. van - \ 2010
    European Journal of Soil Science 61 (2010)4. - ISSN 1351-0754 - p. 514 - 524.
    organic-matter - earthworm activity - heavy-metals - fractionation - bioavailability - extraction - turnover - tillage - casts - clay
    This work assesses relationships between characteristic aggregate microstructures related to biological activity in soils under different long-term land use and the distribution and extractability of metal pollutants. We selected two neighbouring soils contaminated with comparable metal loads by past atmospheric deposition. Currently, these soils contain similar stocks, but different distributions of zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations with depth. One century of continuous land use as permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable (CA) land, has led to the development of two soils with different macro- and micro-morphological characteristics. We studied distributions of organic matter, characteristic micro-structures and earthworm-worked soil by optical microscopy in thin sections from A, B and C horizons. Concentrations and amounts of total and EDTA-extractable Zn and Pb were determined on bulk samples from soil horizons and on size-fractions obtained by physical fractionation in water. Large amounts of Zn and Pb were found in 2–20-µm fractions, ascribed to stable organo-mineral micro-aggregates influenced by root and microbial activity, present in both soils. Unimodal distribution patterns of Zn, Pb and organic C in size-fractions were found in horizons of the CA soil. In contrast, bimodal patterns were observed in the PP soil, because large amounts of Zn and Pb were also demonstrated in stable larger micro-aggregates (50–100-µm fractions). Such differing distribution patterns characterized all those horizons markedly influenced by earthworm activity. Larger earthworm activity coincided with larger metal EDTA-extractability, particularly of Pb. Hence, land use-related biological activity leads to specific soil microstructures affecting metal distribution and extractability, both in surface and subsurface horizons
    Relative abundance and activity of melanized hyphea in different soil ecosystems
    Wal, A. van der; Bloem, J. ; Mulder, C. ; Boer, W. de - \ 2009
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41 (2009)2. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 417 - 419.
    fungal biomass - decomposition - availability - turnover - litter - lysis
    Here we report on the frequency of melanized fungal hyphae in 323 soils, covering different land use types. The proportion of total hyphae that was melanized averaged 61%. Arable fields with loamy sand, heathlands and city parks on sandy soils had the highest percentage of melanized hyphae. In addition to the frequency determinations, a microcosm study was performed on the role of melanized hyphae in two different ecosystems: an ex-arable field and a forest. Melanized hyphae appeared to be part of the active hyphae in the forest soil but not in the ex-arable soil. In conclusion, our results indicate that (1) melanized hyphae represent a large proportion of the total fungal biomass in soils and that (2) their function might differ between ecosystems.
    Tweede kwartaal sierteelt 2008: negatieve stemming overheerst
    Knijff, A. van der; Jukema, G.D. - \ 2008
    Agri-monitor 2008 / 14 (2008)4. - ISSN 1383-6455 - p. 13 - 14.
    agrarische handel - bloementeelt - veilingen - omzet - prijsvorming - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - opbrengsten - energiekosten - sierteelt - glastuinbouw - agricultural trade - floriculture - auctions - turnover - price formation - farm results - yields - energy expenditure - ornamental horticulture - greenhouse horticulture
    Na een moeizaam eerste kwartaal is ook in het tweede kwartaal van 2008 de afzet en handel in bloemen en planten stroef verlopen. Binnen de sector leidt dit in combinatie met oplopende energieprijzen tot een negatieve stemming
    Algorithm for analysis of OJDIP fluorescence induction curves in terms of photo- and electrochemical events in photosystems of plant cells: Derivation and application
    Vredenberg, W.J. - \ 2008
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology 91 (2008)1. - ISSN 1011-1344 - p. 58 - 65.
    chlorophyll fluorescence - electron-acceptors - i-peak - turnover - kinetics - model - rise - chloroplasts - appearance - transients
    The algorithm for simulation of the OJDIP fluorescence induction curve in chloroplasts under variable conditions is presented. It is derived from analyzes of chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics upon excitation with single- (STF), twin- (TTF) and repetitive STF excitations, and from the rate equations that describe the sequence of transfer steps associated with the reduction of the primary quinone acceptor QA and the release of photochemical fluorescence quenching of photosystem II (PSII) in multi-turnover excitation (MTF). The fluorescence induction algorithm (FIA) considers a photochemical O¿J¿D, a photo-electrochemical J¿I and an I¿P component (phase) which probably is associated with a photo-electric interaction between PSI and PSII. The photochemical phase incorporates the kinetics associated with the double reduction of the acceptor pair [PheQA] in QB¿nonreducing reaction centers (RCs) and the associated doubling of the variable fluorescence, in agreement with the three-state trapping model (TSTM) of PSII. Application of and results with the algorithm are illustrated for MTF-induced OJDIP curves, measured in dark-adapted, in STF pre-excited and in DCMU inhibited thylakoids.
    Evaluatie van de landbouwregeling in de omzetbelasting
    Albregtse, D. ; Venema, G.S. ; Oerlemans, P. ; Veen, H.B. van der; Kavelaars, P. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9789086151905 - 51
    agrarische economie - landbouwsector - recht - omzetbelasting - omzet - evaluatie - nederland - agricultural economics - agricultural sector - law - sales tax - turnover - evaluation - netherlands
    In artikel 27 Wet OB 1968 is de landbouwregeling uitgewerkt. Landbouwers, veehouders, tuinbouwers en bosbouwers zijn over prestaties genoemd in dit artikel geen omzetbelasting verschuldigd, maar hebben ook geen recht op aftrek van voorbelasting. De ondernemer kan opteren om in de heffing van de omzetbelasting te worden betrokken als een normale ondernemer. In deze evaluatie wordt onderzocht of de landbouwregeling op een doeltreffende (effectieve) en doelmatige (efficiënte) manier leidt tot het bereiken van de geformuleerde doelstelling. Daarnaast wordt aandacht besteed aan de neveneffecten van de regeling.
    Reduced VAT rates for flowers and plants
    Bunte, F.H.J. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Report / LEI : Research Area 1, International Policy ) - ISBN 9789086152421 - 11
    sierplanten - bloemen - belasting toegevoegde waarde - omzet - productie - winkelprijzen - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - europa - sierteelt - ornamental plants - flowers - value added tax - turnover - production - retail prices - employment - european union - europe - ornamental horticulture
    Carbon accumulation in European forests
    Ciais, P. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Zaehle, S. ; Piao, S.L. ; Cescatti, A. ; Liski, J. ; Luyssaert, S. ; Le-Maire, G. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Bouriaud, O. ; Freibauer, A. ; Valentini, R. ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2008
    Nature Geoscience 1 (2008). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 425 - 429.
    boreal forests - pinus-cembra - land-use - temperate - dynamics - ecosystems - database - climate - turnover - biomass
    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000 from the EU-15 countries excluding Luxembourg, plus Norway and Switzerland, reveals that there is a tight relationship between increases in forest biomass and forest ecosystem productivity but timber harvests grew more slowly. Encouragingly, the environmental conditions in combination with the type of silviculture that has been developed over the past 50 years can efficiently sequester carbon on timescales of decades, while maintaining forests that meet the demand for wood. However, a return to using wood as biofuel and hence shorter rotations in forestry could cancel out the benefits of carbon storage over the past five decades
    Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. part 1. Kinetics of biological organic matter mineralization and chemical sulfur oxidation
    Vermeulen, J. ; Gool, M.P.M. van; Dorleijn, A.S. ; Joziasse, J. ; Bruning, H. ; Rulkens, W.H. ; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. - \ 2007
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26 (2007)12. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2530 - 2539.
    microbial biomass - marine-sediments - soil - biodegradation - carbon - decomposition - turnover - glucose - litter - growth
    After dredged sediments have settled in a temporary upland disposal site, ripening starts, which turns waterlogged sediment into aerated soil. Aerobic biological mineralization of organic matter (OM) and chemical oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds are the major biochemical ripening processes. Quantitative data describing these processes are scarce. Therefore, aerobic oxidation and mineralization of five previously anaerobic dredged sediments were studied during a 160-d laboratory incubation experiment at 30°C. A double exponential decay model could adequately describe sulfur oxidation and OM mineralization kinetics. During the first 7 d of incubation, 23 to 80% of the total sulfur was oxidized, after which no further sulfur oxidation was observed. Oxygen used for sulfur oxidation amounted up to 95% of the total oxygen uptake in the first 7 d and up to 45% of the oxygen uptake during the entire incubation period. Mineralization rates of the rapidly mineralizable OM fractions that degraded during the first 14 to 28 d of incubation were 102 to 103 times higher than the mineralization rates of the slowly mineralizable OM during the remaining period. First-order mineralization rates of the slowly mineralizable OM were 0.22 × 10¿3 to 0.54 × 10¿3 d¿1 and can be compared with those of terrestrial soils. Yields of biomass on substrate ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 g Cbiomass/g COM and appeared to be higher for rapidly mineralizing OM than for slowly mineralizing OM. The results of this study can be used to optimize conditions during temporary disposal of sediments, to estimate the potential decrease in OM, and for future studies on the possible link between OM mineralization and degradation of hydrophobic organic contaminants.
    Modelling the transformations and sequestration of soil organic matter in two constrasting ecosystems of the Andes
    Pansu, M. ; Sarmiento, L. ; Metselaar, K. ; Hervé, D. ; Bottner, P. - \ 2007
    European Journal of Soil Science 58 (2007)3. - ISSN 1351-0754 - p. 775 - 785.
    differently textured soils - high tropical andes - microbial biomass - nitrogen dynamics - clay content - turnover - carbon - simulation - decomposition - temperature
    The mechanisms linking soil respiration to climate and soil physical properties are important for modelling transformation and sequestration of C and N in the soil. We investigated them by incubating C-14 and N-15 labelled straw in soils of the dry puna (Bolivian altiplano, semi-arid shrubland at 3789 m above sea level) and the humid paramo (Venezuelan tropical alpine vegetation at 3400 m). These two ecosystems of the high Andes are comparable in terms of altitude, mean temperature and land use, but are very different regarding organic matter content, rainfall patterns and soil physical properties. Total C-14 and N-15, microbial-biomass C-14 and N-15, soil moisture and meteorological data were recorded over 2 years. Daily soil moisture was predicted from a water balance model. The data from the paramo site were used to calibrate MOMOS-6, a model of organic matter decomposition based on microbial activity and requiring only kinetic constant parameters to describe: (i) inputs to microbial biomass from plant debris and microbial metabolites, and (ii) losses from the biomass by mortality and respiration (respiration coefficient and microbial metabolic quotient qCO(2)). The simulated qCO(2)-C-14 agrees well with qCO(2)-C-14 and qCO(2) measured at the calibration site and with published data. To apply MOMOS-6 to the puna site, only the respiration coefficient of the biomass was re-estimated. The dynamics of C-14 and N-15 were very different in the two systems. In the puna, the transformation processes stop during the long dry periods, though total annual mineralization is greater than in the paramo. The change in the value of the respiration coefficient enables us to predict that the amount of C and N sequestered in the stable humus is greater in the paramo than in the puna. The data in this paper can be used to estimate values of the respiration coefficient so that MOMOS-6 can be applied to other systems.
    Predicted soil organic carbon stocks and changes in Jordan between 2000 and 2030 made using the GEFSOC modelling system
    Al-Adamat, R. ; Rawajfih, Z. ; Easter, M. ; Paustian, K. ; Coleman, K. ; Milne, E. ; Falloon, P. ; Powlson, D.S. ; Batjes, N.H. - \ 2007
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 122 (2007)1. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 35 - 45.
    regional-scale - land-use - matter - sequestration - management - turnover - dynamics - gis
    Estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and changes under different land use systems can help determine vulnerability to land degradation. Such information is important for countries in arid areas with high susceptibility to desertification. SOC stocks, and predicted changes between 2000 and 2030, were determined at the national scale for Jordan using The Global Environment Facility Soil Organic Carbon (GEFSOC) Modelling System. For the purpose of this study, Jordan was divided into three natural regions (The Jordan Valley, the Uplands and the Badia) and three developmental regions (North, Middle and South). Based on this division, Jordan was divided into five zones (based on the dominant land use): the Jordan Valley, the North Uplands, the Middle Uplands, the South Uplands and the Badia. This information was merged using GIS, along with a map of rainfall isohyets, to produce a map with 498 polygons. Each of these was given a unique ID, a land management unit identifier and was characterized in terms of its dominant soil type. Historical land use data, current land use and future land use change scenarios were also assembled, forming major inputs of the modelling system
    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased respiration and humification in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Vos, J.M. ; Meinders, M.B.J. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2007
    Geoderma 138 (2007)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 204 - 212.
    carbon-dioxide enrichment - elevated co2 - biomass production - forest - rotation - popface - turnover - storage - system
    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies conducted at the whole-tree and ecosystem scale indicate that there is a marked increase in primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and subsequent transfer to soil C pools. However, the impact of elevated CO2 on soil C contents has yielded variable results. The fate and function of this extra C into the soil in response to elevated CO2 are not clear. The POPFACE experiment was initiated early 1999 with the objective to determine the functional responses of a short-rotation poplar plantation to actual and future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. During the first 2 years of the second rotation (2002¿2003), the increase of total soil C% was larger under FACE than under ambient CO2. Chemical fractionation revealed the presence of more labile soil C under FACE, which is in agreement with the larger input of plant litter and root exudates under FACE. In order to gain insight into the fate and function of this extra C into the soil and the dynamics of soil C, we incubated soil samples, measured respiration rates and used a simple soil C model to interpret the results. FACE increased the accumulated 28-day CO2 production and the initial Cslow pool content (metabolizable plant remains and partly decomposed SOM). FACE also increased the decomposition rates of the metabolizable C pools (Cfast + Cslow) in the top soil, while for the subsoil the opposite effect was observed. The modeled formation of humified SOM was also enhanced by FACE. Our results support the terrestrial feedback hypothesis, i.e. an increase of the long-term terrestrial C sink in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations
    Factors controlling decomposition of soil organic matter in fallow systems of the high tropical Andes: A field simulation approach using 14C- and 15N-labelled plant material
    Bottner, P. ; Pansu, M. ; Sarmiento, L. ; Hervé, D. ; Callisaya-Bautista, R. ; Metselaar, K. - \ 2006
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38 (2006)8. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 2162 - 2177.
    fumigation-extraction method - microbial biomass - nitrogen - carbon - turnover - straw - calibration - dynamics - glucose - models
    N-rich (C:N = 27) and N-poor (C:N = 130) wheat straw, labelled with 14 C and 15 N, was incubated for 2 yr in two major ecosystems of the upper elevation belt of cultivation in the high Andes: the moist Paramo (precipitation = 1329 mm, altitude = 3400 m asl, Andes of Merida, Venezuela) and the dry Puna (precipitation = 370 mm, altitude = 3800 m asl, Central Altiplano, Bolivia). The experiment was installed in young (2 yr) and old (7 yr) fallow plots. The following soil analyses were performed at nine sampling occasions: soil moisture, total-C-14 and -N-15, and Microbial Biomass (MB)-C-14 and -N-15. The measured data were fitted by the MOMOS-6 model (a process based model, with five compartments: labile and stable plant material, MB, and labile (HL) and stable humus (HS)) coupled with the SAHEL model (soil moisture prediction) using daily measured and/or predicted meteorological data. The aim was to understand how (1) the climatic conditions, (2) the quality of plant material, (3) the fallow age and (4) the soil properties affect the cycling of C and N within the soil organic matter system. The fallow age (2 and 7 yr) did not affect the measured data or the model predictions, indicating that in these systems the decomposition potential is not affected by fallow length. During the short initial active decomposition phase, the labile plant material was quickly exhausted, enabling a build up of MB and of HL. During the low activity phase, that covered 4/5 of the time of exposure, the MB size decreased slowly and the HL pool was progressively exhausted as it was reused by the MB as substrate. The HL compartment was directly or indirectly the major source for the inorganic N-15 production. If the ON ratio of the added plant material increased, the model predicted (1) a reduction of the decomposition rates of the plant material (essentially the stable plant material) and (2) an increased mortality of the MB which increased the production of HL (microbial cadavers and metabolites). Thus the essential effect of the slower decomposition due to the N-poor plant material was a higher accumulation of C and N in the HL and its slower recycling by the MB during the low activity phase. The labelling experiment allows to understand the higher soil native organic matter content in Paramo soils compared to Puna. The large sequestration of organic matter generally observed in the Paramo soils can be explained by two abiotic factors: the unfavourable soil microstructure and the accumulation of free aluminium linked to the climatic and acid soil conditions, inhibiting the microbial activity physically and chemically. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Potplantensector: ontwikkeling in kaart
    Knijff, A. van der; Splinter, G.M. - \ 2006
    Agri-monitor 2006 (2006)10. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
    potplanten - bloementeelt - tuinbouwbedrijven - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - omzet - export - glastuinbouw - pot plants - floriculture - market gardens - farm results - turnover - exports - greenhouse horticulture
    Binnen de glastuinbouw neemt de pot- en perkplantensector een steeds belangrijker plaats in. Hoewel het aantal pot- en perkplantenbedrijven sinds 2000 is gedaald, zit er wel groei in het areaal, zowel totaal als per bedrijf. Daarnaast vindt er ook een verschuiving in het assortiment plaats, van groene - naar bloeiende planten
    Effects of free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE), N fertilization and poplar genotype on the physical protection of carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation after five years
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Vos, J.M. ; Bakker, E.J. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2006
    Biogeosciences 3 (2006)4. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 479 - 487.
    organic-matter dynamics - elevated co2 - biomass production - cultivated soils - c sequestration - forest - turnover - aggregate - storage - rotation
    Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in aggrading forests and plantations have demonstrated significant increases in net primary production (NPP) and C storage in forest vegetation. The extra C uptake may also be stored in forest floor litter and in forest soil. After five years of FACE treatment at the EuroFACE short rotation poplar plantation, the increase of total soil C% was larger under elevated than under ambient CO2. However, the fate of this additional C allocated belowground remains unclear. The stability of soil organic matter is controlled by the chemical structure of the organic matter and the formation of micro-aggregates (within macro-aggregates) in which organic matter is stabilized and protected. FACE and N-fertilization treatment did not affect the micro- and macro-aggregate weight, C or N fractions obtained by wet sieving. However, Populus euramericana increased the small macro-aggregate and free micro-aggregate weight and C fractions. The obtained macro-aggregates were broken up in order to isolate recently formed micro-aggregates within macro-aggregates (iM-micro-aggregates). FACE increased the iM-micro-aggregate weight and C fractions, although not significantly. This study reveals that FACE did not affect the formation of aggregates. We did, however, observe a trend of increased stabilization and protection of soil C in micro-aggregates formed within macro-aggregates under FACE. Moreover, the largest effect on aggregate formation was due to differences in species, i.e. poplar genotype. P. euramericana increased the formation of free micro-aggregates which means that more newly incorporated soil C was stabilized and protected. The choice of species in a plantation, or the effect of global change on species diversity, may therefore affect the stabilization and protection of C in soils.
    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased labile and total carbon in the mineral soil of a short rotation Poplar plantation
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Li, Y. - \ 2006
    Plant and Soil 281 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 247 - 254.
    elevated co2 - dioxide enrichment - pine forest - nitrogen - popface - turnover - storage - system - trees
    The global net terrestrial carbon sink was estimated to range between 0.5 and 0.7 Pg C y¿1 for the early 1990s. FACE (free atmospheric CO2 enrichment) studies conducted at the whole-tree and community scale indicate that there is a marked increase of primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and subsequent transfer to soil C pools. During the first rotation of the POP/EuroFACE experiment in a short-rotation Poplar plantation, total soil C content increased more under ambient CO2 treatment than under FACE, while under FACE more new C was incorporated than under ambient CO2. These unexpected and opposite effects may have been caused by a priming effect, where priming effect is defined as the stimulation of SOM decomposition caused by the addition of labile substrates. In order to gain insight into these processes affecting SOM decomposition, we obtained the labile, refractory and stable pools of soil C and N by chemical fractionation (acid hydrolysis) and measured rates of N-mineralization. Results of the first 2 years of the second rotation show a larger increase of total soil C% under FACE than under ambient CO2. In contrast to the first rotation, total C% is now increasing faster under FACE than under ambient CO2. Based on these observations we infer that the priming effect ceased during the second rotation. FACE treatment increased the labile C fraction at 0¿10 cm depth, which is in agreement with the larger input of plant litter and root exudates under FACE. N-mineralization rates were not affected by FACE. We infer that the system switched from a state where extra labile C and sufficient N-availability (due to the former agricultural use of the soil) caused a priming effect (first rotation), to a state where extra C input is accumulating due to limited N-availability (second rotation). Our results on N-mineralization (second rotation) are in agreement with observations made at three forest FACE sites (Duke Forest, Oak Ridge, and Rhinelander), but our finding of increasing mineral soil C content contrasted with results at the Duke Forest where no significant increase in C content of the mineral soil occurred. However, the FACE induced increase in total C content occurred within the fraction with the shortest turnover time, i.e. the labile fraction. The refractory and stable fractions were not affected. The question remains whether the currently observed larger increase of total soil C and the increase of labile C under FACE will eventually result in long-term C storage in refractory and stable organic matter fractions.
    Net carbon storage in a popular plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment
    Gielen, B. ; Calfapietra, C. ; Lukac, M. ; Wittig, V.E. ; Angelis, P. de; Janssens, I.A. ; Moscatelli, M.C. ; Grego, S. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Godbold, D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Long, S. ; Miglietta, F. ; Polle, A. ; Bernacchi, C. ; Davey, P.A. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2005
    Tree Physiology 25 (2005)11. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 1399 - 1408.
    temperature response functions - elevated atmospheric co2 - soil organic-matter - limited photosynthesis - dioxide enrichment - microbial biomass - turnover - forest - populus - dynamics
    A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]; 550 µmol mol¿1) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in the second and third years, respectively. Partitioning of extra carbon (C) among C pools of different turnover rates is of critical interest; thus, we calculated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) to determine whether elevated atmospheric [CO2] will enhance net plantation C storage capacity. Free-air CO2 enrichment increased net primary productivity (NPP) of all genotypes by 21% in the second year and by 26% in the third year, mainly because of an increase in the size of C pools with relatively slow turnover rates (i.e., wood). In all genotypes in the FACE treatment, more new soil C was added to the total soil C pool compared with the control treatment. However, more old soil C loss was observed in the FACE treatment compared with the control treatment, possibly due to a priming effect from newly incorporated root litter. FACE did not significantly increase NEP, probably as a result of this priming effect.
    Spatial dynamics of plant species in an agricultural landscape in the Netherlands
    Geertsema, W. - \ 2005
    Plant Ecology 178 (2005)2. - ISSN 1385-0237 - p. 237 - 247.
    seed dispersal - habitat - metapopulation - biodiversity - extinction - turnover - woodland - patterns - banks - wind
    This study examined the changes in distribution patterns of 13 herbaceous plant species from 1998 to 2000 in ditch banks along the edges of arable fields in the Netherlands. The objective was to test if spatial dynamics could be related to spatial isolation and disturbance of habitat and to the dispersal and seed bank characteristics of the species. Knowledge of these relations should be used to increase the effectivity of agri-environmental schemes aiming at an increase of botanical diversity. All species frequently colonized empty patches and populations in occupied patches frequently went extinct. Most colonization events occurred within 50 m of conspecific source patches in the preceding year, but colonization events in patches at distances more than 200 m from conspecific source patches were also observed. The colonization probabilities decreased with isolation distance. For nine species this relation was statistically significant, after correction for year and habitat. The extinction probabilities increased with isolation. For only four species this relation was statistically significant. Both colonization and extinction probabilities were more often statistically significant related to isolation for species with transient seed banks than species with persistent seed banks. Implications for management options aiming at survival of plant species in fragmented landscapes are discussed
    Decomposition of 14C-labeled roots in a pasture soil exposed to 10 years of elevated CO2
    Groenigen, C.J. van; Gorissen, A. ; Six, J. ; Harris, D. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Groenigen, J.W. van; Kessel, C. van - \ 2005
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37 (2005)3. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 497 - 506.
    atmospheric carbon-dioxide - organic-matter dynamics - trifolium-repens l - microbial biomass - lolium-perenne - forest soils - tallgrass prairie - litter quality - fine roots - turnover
    The net flux of soil C is determined by the balance between soil C input and microbial decomposition, both of which might be altered under prolonged elevated atmospheric CO2. In this study, we determined the effect of elevated CO2 on decomposition of grass root material (Lolium perenne L.). 14C-labeled root material, produced under ambient (35 Pa pCO2) or elevated CO2 (70 Pa pCO2) was incubated in soil for 64 days. The soils were taken from a pasture ecosystem which had been exposed to ambient (35 Pa pCO2) or elevated CO2 (60 Pa pCO2) under FACE-conditions for 10 years and two fertilizer N rates: 140 and 560 kg N ha¿1 year¿1. In soil exposed to elevated CO2, decomposition rates of root material grown at either ambient or elevated CO2 were always lower than in the control soil exposed to ambient CO2, demonstrating a change in microbial activity. In the soil that received the high rate of N fertilizer, decomposition of root material grown at elevated CO2 decreased by approximately 17% after incubation for 64 days compared to root material grown at ambient CO2. The amount of 14CO2 respired per amount of 14C incorporated in the microbial biomass (q14CO2) was significantly lower when roots were grown under high CO2 compared to roots grown under low CO2. We hypothesize that this decrease is the result of a shift in the microbial community, causing an increase in metabolic efficiency. Soils exposed to elevated CO2 tended to respire more native SOC, both with and without the addition of the root material, probably resulting from a higher C supply to the soil during the 10 years of treatment with elevated CO2. The results show the importance of using soils adapted to elevated CO2 in studies of decomposition of roots grown under elevated CO2. Our results further suggest that negative priming effects may obscure CO2 data in incubation experiments with unlabeled substrates. From the results obtained, we conclude that a slower turnover of root material grown in an `elevated-CO2 world¿ may result in a limited net increase in C storage in ryegrass swards.
    Comparison of five soil organic matter decomposition models using data from a 14C and 15N labeling field experiment
    Pansu, M. ; Bottner, P. ; Sarmiento, L. ; Metselaar, K. - \ 2004
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18 (2004). - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 1 - 11.
    fumigation-extraction method - microbial biomass - sensitivity-analysis - agricultural soils - nitrogen dynamics - carbon - turnover - temperature - calibration - straw
    Five alternatives of the previously published MOMOS model (MOMOS-2 to -6) are tested to predict the dynamics of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil during the decomposition of plant necromass. 14C and 15N labeled wheat straw was incubated over 2 years in fallow soils of the high Andean Paramo of Venezuela. The following data were collected: soil moisture, total 14C and 15N and microbial biomass (MB)-14C and -15N, daily rainfall, air temperature and total radiation. Daily soil moisture was predicted using the SAHEL model. MOMOS-2 to -4 (type 1 models) use kinetic constants and flow partitioning parameters. MOMOS-2 can be simplified to MOMOS-3 and further to MOMOS-4, with no significant changes in the prediction accuracy and robustness for total-14C and -15N as well as for MB-14C and -15N. MOMOS-5 (type 2 models) uses only kinetic constants: three MB-inputs (from labile and stable plant material and from humified compounds) and two MB-outputs (mortality and respiration constants). MOMOS-5 did not significantly change the total-14C and -15N predictions but markedly improved the predictive quality and robustness of MB-14C and -15N predictions (with a dynamic different from the predictions by other models). Thus MOMOS-5 is proposed as an accurate and ecologically consistent description of decomposition processes. MOMOS-6 extends MOMOS-5 by including a stable humus compartment for long-term simulations of soil native C and N. The improvement of the predictions is not significant for this 2-year experiment, but MOMOS-6 enables prediction of a sequestration in the stable humus compartment of 2% of the initially added 14C and 5.4% of the added 15N
    Conversion of grassy cerrado into riparian forest and its impacts on soil organic matter dynamics in an Oxisol from southeast Brazil
    Alcantara, F.A. de; Buurman, P. ; Furtini Neto, A.E. ; Curi, N. ; Roscoe, R. - \ 2004
    Geoderma 123 (2004)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 305 - 317.
    particle-size fractions - c-13 natural-abundance - stable carbon isotope - vegetation changes - density fractions - delta-c-13 - ratios - decomposition - turnover - nitrogen
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible changes in soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics after establishing riparian forests on soils previously under Brazilian savannah ("cerrado"). We selected a site with a homogeneous Typic Aerie Red-Yellow Latosol (Anionic Acrustox). Part of this site was maintained under native vegetation (grassy cerrado C-4-dominated), and part was planted with riparian species (C-3) in 1992. Litter and soil samples were collected and analysed (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, delta(13)C isotopic analysis, and SOM density fractionation). Due to the predominance of grasses, carbon input was mainly below ground in cerrado. In such a soil, the decomposition process was more efficient, and much C and N were transferred to the heavy fraction. When forest was planted, there was a change from belowground to aboveground litter input (largely superficial), leading to higher C and N stocks in the light and lower stocks in the heavy fraction (resulting in lower stocks for bulk soil). The introduction of the C-3 vegetation decreased the soil delta(13)C signature. It has occurred particularly in the topsoil (0 - 5 cm) due to the deposition of C-3 litter on the soil surface. At the same time, the presence of cerrado-remaining C below 5 cm maintained higher delta(13)C values in this layer. During the 8 years after forest plantation, the input mode influenced both the delta(13)C distribution with depth, and the C replacement: between 0 and 2.5 cm, nearly 50% of cerrado-derived C was replaced by forest-derived C, while below 5 cm, replacement was around 20%. The relatively rapid C dynamics in this Oxisol (27% replacement in the top 20 cm after 8 years of forest plantation) shows that, under tropical conditions, significant changes may occur in a short period of time. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    The control of feather pecking by serotonin
    Hierden, Y.M. van; Boer, S.F. de; Koolhaas, J.M. ; Korte, S.M. - \ 2004
    Behavioral Neuroscience 118 (2004)3. - ISSN 0735-7044 - p. 575 - 583.
    obsessive-compulsive disorder - laying hens - 5-ht1a autoreceptors - dopaminergic-neurons - (5-ht)(1a) receptors - manual restraint - s 15535 - mice - modulation - turnover
    Feather-pecking behavior in laying hens (Gallus gallus) may be considered a behavioral pathology, comparable to human psychopathological disorders. Scientific knowledge on the causation of such disorders strongly suggests involvement of the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system in feather pecking. Previously, chicks from a high-feather-pecking (HFP) line were found to display lower 5-HT turnover levels than chicks from a low-feather-pecking (LFP) line (in response to acute stress; Y. M. van Hierden et al., 2002). The present study investigated whether low 5-HT neurotransmission modulates feather pecking. First, S-15535, a somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist, was demonstrated to be an excellent tool for reducing 5-HT turnover in the forebrain of LFP and HFP chicks. Second, the most effective dose of S-15535 (4.0 mg/kg body weight) significantly increased severe feather-pecking behavior. The results confirmed the postulation that the performance of feather pecking is triggered by low 5-HT neurotransmission.
    More new carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation under Free Air Carbon Erichment (POPFACE): Cause of increased priming effect?
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lukac, M. ; Dam, D. ; Godbold, D. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Bondi, F.A. ; Peressotti, A. ; Cotrufo, M.F. ; Angelis, P. de; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. - \ 2004
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18 (2004)1. - ISSN 0886-6236 - 7 p.
    elevated atmospheric co2 - organic-matter - terrestrial ecosystems - turnover - forest - storage - system - decomposition - mechanisms - feedbacks
    [1] In order to establish suitability of forest ecosystems for long-term storage of C, it is necessary to characterize the effects of predicted increased atmospheric CO2 levels on the pools and fluxes of C within these systems. Since most C held in terrestrial ecosystems is in the soil, we assessed the influence of Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) treatment on the total soil C content (C-total) and incorporation of litter derived C (C-new) into soil organic matter (SOM) in a fast growing poplar plantation. C-new was estimated by the C3/C4 stable isotope method. C-total contents increased under control and FACE respectively by 12 and 3%, i.e., 484 and 107 gC/m(2), while 704 and 926 gC/m(2) of new carbon was sequestered under control and FACE during the experiment. We conclude that FACE suppressed the increase of C-total and simultaneously increased C-new. We hypothesize that these opposite effects may be caused by a priming effect of the newly incorporated litter, where priming effect is defined as the stimulation of SOM decomposition caused by the addition of labile substrates.
    Conceptual paper for modelling protein and lipid accretion in different body parts of growing and fattening pigs
    Halas, V. ; Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
    Archives of Animal Nutrition 57 (2003)2. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 137 - 150.
    lipogenic enzyme-activities - adipose-tissue - chemical-composition - meishan pigs - energy - metabolism - fat - turnover - growth - level
    The objective of this review is to outline those parts of modelling approaches in pig production which are not highly developed; these are the partitioning of protein and lipid accretion in different anatomical body parts. The authors introduce present models with a critical evaluation and draw some conlusions for further developments. Based on present knowledge this paper demonstrates the process of protein and fat accretion in different body compartments in pigs and influencing factors. A further aim is to assist in the conceptual development of a new pig model, which is more detailed, precise and accurate than currently available models. Exsisting models are generally deficient with regard to the translation of lipid and protein gain into lean and fatty tissue. Only assumed values for this translation have been used so far and the concepts underlying these values are not well understood. Therefore, it may be appropriate to develop a compartimental model to predict protein and fat deposition in growing and fattening pigs. With this new approach the model can supply sufficiently the changing consumer demands regarding to the possibility of meat quality prediction.
    Soil 13C–15N dynamics in an N2-fixing clover system under long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2
    Groenigen, C.J. van; Six, J. ; Harris, D. ; Blum, H. ; Kessel, C. van - \ 2003
    Global Change Biology 9 (2003). - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1751 - 1762.
    symbiotic n-2 fixation - organic-matter dynamics - trifolium-repens l - carbon-dioxide - nitrogen limitation - microbial activity - white clover - grassland - ecosystems - turnover
    Reduced soil N availability under elevated CO2 may limit the plant's capacity to increase photosynthesis and thus the potential for increased soil C input. Plant productivity and soil C input should be less constrained by available soil N in an N2-fixing system. We studied the effects of Trifolium repens (an N2-fixing legume) and Lolium perenne on soil N and C sequestration in response to 9 years of elevated CO2 under FACE conditions. 15N-labeled fertilizer was applied at a rate of 140 and 560 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and the CO2 concentration was increased to 60 Pa pCO2 using 13C-depleted CO2. The total soil C content was unaffected by elevated CO2, species and rate of 15N fertilization. However, under elevated CO2, the total amount of newly sequestered soil C was significantly higher under T. repens than under L. perenne. The fraction of fertilizer-N (fN) of the total soil N pool was significantly lower under T. repens than under L. perenne. The rate of N fertilization, but not elevated CO2, had a significant effect on fN values of the total soil N pool. The fractions of newly sequestered C (fC) differed strongly among intra-aggregate soil organic matter fractions, but were unaffected by plant species and the rate of N fertilization. Under elevated CO2, the ratio of fertilizer-N per unit of new C decreased under T. repens compared with L. perenne. The L. perenne system sequestered more 15N fertilizer than T. repens: 179 vs. 101 kg N ha-1 for the low rate of N fertilization and 393 vs. 319 kg N ha-1 for the high N-fertilization rate. As the loss of fertilizer-15N contributed to the 15N-isotope dilution under T. repens, the input of fixed N into the soil could not be estimated. Although N2 fixation was an important source of N in the T. repens system, there was no significant increase in total soil C compared with a non-N2-fixing L. perenne system. This suggests that N2 fixation and the availability of N are not the main factors controlling soil C sequestration in a T. repens system.
    Mean residence time of soil organic matter associated with kaolinite and smectite
    Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W. ; Buurman, P. ; Plicht, J. van der; Wattel, J.T. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 2003
    European Journal of Soil Science 54 (2003). - ISSN 1351-0754 - p. 269 - 278.
    radiocarbon measurements - carbon - turnover - dynamics - complexes - pools - size - land - age
    To gain insight into the effect of clay mineralogy on the turnover of organic matter, we analysed the C-14 activity of soil organic matter associated with clay in soils dominated by kaolinite and smectite in natural savanna systems in seven countries. Assuming that carbon inputs and outputs are in equilibrium in such soils, we took the C-14 age as mean residence time of the organic matter. We corrected the C-14 activity for the Suess effect, Bomb effect and difference between date of sampling and date of C-14 measurement. Organic matter associated with kaolinite turned over fast (360 years on average). Organic matter associated with smectite turned over relatively slowly, with an average mean residence time for the whole clay-size fraction of 1100 years. Multiple linear regression indicates that clay mineralogy is the main factor explaining differences in the mean residence time of the organic matter extracted.
    Onderzoek naar nieuwe vormen van samenwerking in de agrarische keten
    Man, M. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : IMAG-DLO (Nota / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Milieu- en Agritechniek P 98-26) - 59
    tuinbouw - markten - marketing - marktconcurrentie - aanbodsevenwicht - marketingkanalen - omzet - handel - economie - marketingtechnieken - ruilvoet - organisaties - samenwerking - boerenorganisaties - organisatievormen - horticulture - markets - marketing - market competition - supply balance - marketing channels - turnover - trade - economics - marketing techniques - terms of trade - organizations - cooperation - farmers' associations - forms of organization
    Voorspelling kan winst bepalen : oogsttijdstip belangrijk voor winstbepaling
    Everaarts, A.P. - \ 1998
    PAV-bulletin. Vollegrondsgroenteteelt / Praktijkonderzoek voor de Akkerbouw en de Vollegrondsgroenteteelt 1998 (1998)1. - ISSN 1385-5298 - p. 9 - 11.
    oogsttijdstip - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - vollegrondsteelt - harvesting date - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - outdoor cropping
    Provincies en biologische landbouw : werken aan betrokkenheid
    Arend, S. van der - \ 1998
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 147) - ISBN 9789067545235
    alternatieve landbouw - biologische landbouw - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - overheidsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - agrarisch recht - regionaal bestuur - nederland - provincies - districten - alternative farming - organic farming - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - government policy - agricultural policy - agricultural law - regional government - netherlands - provinces - districts
    Groepshuisvesting zeugen nodig voor afzet van Nederlandse bacon naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk
    Huiskes, J. ; Swinkels, H. ; Backus, G. - \ 1997
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 11 (1997)5. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 17 - 19.
    batterijhuisvesting - zeugen - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - varkensvlees - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - landbouw - productiviteit - landbouwproductie - capaciteit - groot-brittannië - denemarken - nederland - battery husbandry - sows - animal welfare - animal housing - pigmeat - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - agriculture - productivity - agricultural production - capacity - great britain - denmark - netherlands
    Naar aanleiding van de op handen zijnde regelgeving in het Verenigd Koninkrijk (VK) tot het huisvesten van niet-lacterende zeugen in groepen is de relatie onderzocht tussen de export van Nederlandse bacon naar het VK en de hiervoor benodigde productieomvang op varkensbedrijven in het VK, Denemarken en Nederland.
    Horticultural marketing channels in Kenya : structure and development
    Dijkstra, T. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.T.G. Meulenberg; J.C. Hoorweg; A. van Tilburg. - S.l. : Dijkstra - ISBN 9789054857419 - 253
    tuinbouw - marketingkanalen - distributie - productie - markten - marketing - omzet - kenya - productieprocessen - marktstructuur - horticulture - marketing channels - distribution - production - markets - marketing - turnover - kenya - production processes - market structure

    This study analyses the structure and development of horticultural marketing channels in Kenya. It is based primarily on a farm survey among some 500 farmers in Nyandarua, Kisii and Taita Taveta Districts and a trade survey of about 750 horticultural traders in 18 different market places. The surveys were carried out between 1990 and 1992 as part of the Food and Nutrition Studies Programme.

    The book first describes the producers that bring horticultural commodities into the channels and then the actors and institutions that operate in those channels. Traders selling in the domestic market, agents, facilitating intermediaries, export traders, marketing cooperatives and processors are all reviewed. There is a particular focus on collecting wholesalers. It is shown that they increase the efficiency in the marketing channel to the benefit of both farmers and distributing wholesalers. The development of rural assembly markets, in which the collecting wholesalers sometimes operate, is also examined. It is concluded that such markets evolve in production areas with relatively poor farm accessibility and low supply concentration, because they reduce the transport and/or information costs of suppliers and buyers.

    The central research question of the study is what factors determine vertical differentiation in Kenyan horticultural marketing channels. A model is developed which seeks to explain this process. The first two explanatory factors found significant are the population of the market centre where the surveyed market place is located and population density of the rural hinterland. These are indicators of the consumer population served by the marketing channel. Other factors are transport time of the commodity from producer to consumer, keeping qualities of the commodity, and turnover of the traders.

    The analysis shows that marketing channel theory can be of relevance to the developing world. The vertical differentiation model proposed here can aid in predicting future changes in horticultural marketing systems in emerging African economies. The findings suggest that gravity models may also contribute to a better understanding of the structure of marketing channels in developing countries.

    De concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse biologische agribusiness
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Meeusen-van Onna, M.J.G. - \ 1996
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Tuinbouw 571) - ISBN 9789052423661 - 102
    alternatieve landbouw - biologische landbouw - landbouwindustrie - industrie - landbouw - markten - marketing - marktconcurrentie - aanbodsevenwicht - marketingkanalen - omzet - export - onderzoek - alternative farming - organic farming - agribusiness - industry - agriculture - markets - marketing - market competition - supply balance - marketing channels - turnover - exports - research
    In the Netherlands the supply of biological foodstuffs is developing more quickly than the demand. The biological sector has directed itself towards export and in doing so has created a sufficient basis for investments and innovations. However, in the export countries too domestic production is growing, and as a result the possibilities for export are subjected to limits. This obliges the biological sector to reflect on the questions: 'How can the Dutch market be expanded for biological foodstuffs' and 'What is the competitive position of the Dutch biological agribusiness abroad?'
    De distributie van vlees, vleeswaren en vleessnacks
    Vlieger, I.J. de; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Jahae, I.A.M.A. - \ 1995
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 526) - ISBN 9789052422893 - 206
    vlees - vleeswaren - snacks - maaltijden - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - distributie - nederland - marktstructuur - meat - meat products - snacks - meals - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - distribution - netherlands - market structure
    Beschrijving van de distributiestructuur van rundvlees, kalfsvlees, varkensvlees, paardevlees, schape- en geitevlees, alsmede van vleeswaren en snacks. In het rapport is een uitgebreide beschrijving opgenomen van de structurele kenmerken van de verschillende bedrijfstypen (slachterijen, vleesgroothandel, verwerkende bedrijven, slagers) die in de distributiekolom voorkomen. Naast aantal en grootte is ingegaan op vervulde functies, verpakkingen, arbeidsbehoefte en transport. Verder is nagegaan via welke afzetkanalen het vlees en de vleesprodukten vanaf de slachterij naar de binnenlandse consumenten, binnenlandse verwerkende bedrijven en naar buitenlandse afnemers gaan. In het rapport wordt ook ingegaan op de onderlinge relaties tussen de verschillende bedrijven in de distributiekolom. Tot slot zijn de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen vergeleken met het in 1986 gehouden distributieonderzoek.
    Vooruitzichten voor de vollegrondsgroenteteelt in het zuidelijk zand- en loessgebied
    Buurma, J.S. ; Wijnen, C.J.M. - \ 1994
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 503) - ISBN 9789052422466 - 149
    groenten - groenteteelt - markten - marketing - marktconcurrentie - aanbodsevenwicht - marketingkanalen - omzet - belgië - nederland - limburg - noord-brabant - vegetables - vegetable growing - markets - marketing - market competition - supply balance - marketing channels - turnover - belgium - netherlands - limburg - noord-brabant
    Het varkenscomplex
    Borgstein, M.H. - \ 1994
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 516) - ISBN 9789052422701 - 31
    varkens - varkensvlees - economische situatie - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - nederland - economische productie - pigs - pigmeat - economic situation - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - netherlands - economic production
    Mogelijkheden tot productie van beertjes
    Scholten, R. ; Huiskes, J. - \ 1994
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 8 (1994)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 11 - 13.
    analyse - dierlijke producten - aroma - beren (varkens) - karkaskwaliteit - controle - geur en smaak - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - biggen - varkensvlees - slacht - smaak - testen - omzet - analysis - animal products - aroma - boars - carcass quality - control - flavour - marketing - marketing channels - markets - piglets - pigmeat - slaughter - taste - testing - turnover
    In opdracht van het Produktschap Vee en Vlees is het project Mogelijkheden tot productie van vleesbeertjes en afzet van vlees en vleesproducten hiervan uitgevoerd. De afzetmogelijkheden voor vlees van beertjes zijn en blijven vooralsnog minimaal
    Een methode voor het bepalen van het aanwezige volume per rondhoutsortiment in een partij hout die op stam verkocht wordt : een studie voor de grove den
    Edelenbosch, N.H. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : IBN (IBN - rapport 019) - 46
    bosbouw - bomen - inkopen - omzet - volumebepaling - hout - houtproducten - marketing - ruilvoet - nederland - pinus sylvestris - boswaardebepaling - bosopstanden - forestry - trees - purchasing - turnover - volume determination - wood - wood products - marketing - terms of trade - netherlands - pinus sylvestris - forest valuation - forest stands
    Strategisch marketingplan voor de afzet van biologische levensmiddelen : werken aan een groeimarkt
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Borgstein, M.H. - \ 1993
    Den Haag : Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 481) - ISBN 9789052422046 - 62
    voedingsmiddelen - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - handel - voedselvoorziening - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - alternatieve landbouw - biologische landbouw - nederland - foods - food products - agricultural products - trade - food supply - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - alternative farming - organic farming - netherlands
    The goal of this strategic marketing plan is to determine and to describe strategies that have to lead in the medium term to a market share for organic products of 5-10% of th Dutch food market. A number of critical factors are mentioned for the whole organic chain.
    Het schapenstapelmodel
    Boer, J.A. de - \ 1993
    Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 6 (1993)4. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 22 - 25.
    diervoedering - dierhouderij - toepassingen - computer software - voedingsrantsoenen - geiten - lammeren - bedrijfsvoering - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - schaapsvlees - productiviteit - rentabiliteit - schapen - schapenvlees - statistische gegevens - omzet - animal feeding - animal husbandry - applications - computer software - feed rations - goats - lambs - management - marketing - marketing channels - markets - mutton - productivity - profitability - sheep - sheepmeat - statistical data - turnover
    Dit model berekent per jaar de opname aan ruwvoer en krachtvoer van een koppel schapen alsmede het aantal afgevoerde schapen en lammeren met de bijbehorende afvoergewichten.
    De internationale concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse appelteelt : bedrijfseconomische en marktkundige evaluatie
    Goedegebure, J. ; Joosse, M.L. ; Merkens, J. - \ 1991
    Den Haag : LEI (Onderzoekverslag / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 75) - ISBN 9789052421087 - 91
    appels - malus - nederland - landbouw - productiviteit - landbouwproductie - capaciteit - landbouwregio's - handel - marktconcurrentie - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - landen van de europese unie - apples - malus - netherlands - agriculture - productivity - agricultural production - capacity - agricultural regions - trade - market competition - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - european union countries
    De afzetperspectieven van Nederlands tamme-eendevlees op middellange termijn
    Zimmermann, K.L. ; Mares, A.M.H.M. ; Riensema, C.J. - \ 1990
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 437) - ISBN 9789052420943 - 149
    kippenvlees - eendenvlees - eenden - europa - export - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - pluimveevlees - omzet - chicken meat - duck meat - ducks - europe - exports - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - poultry meat - turnover
    Melk in de EG : overschot of tekort?
    Rutten, H. ; Zwart, J. ; Post, J.H. - \ 1989
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Algemeen Economisch Onderzoek en Statistiek no. 404) - ISBN 9789052420172 - 43
    landbouwbeleid - groene revolutie - economie - overheidsbeleid - agrarisch recht - landbouw - quota's - productiecontroles - productie - melkproducten - zuivelindustrie - melkvee - melkveehouderij - nederland - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - landen van de europese unie - productiebeperkingen - gebrek - agricultural policy - green revolution - economics - government policy - agricultural law - agriculture - quotas - production controls - production - milk products - dairy industry - dairy cattle - dairy farming - netherlands - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - european union countries - production restrictions - shortage
    De produktiebeheersing in het kader van het EG-zuivelbeleid vergde een aanpassing van de produktiecapaciteit in de melkveehouderij en in de zuivelindustrie. Dat een en ander niet zonder problemen verloopt blijkt uit de huidige discussie over de vraag of er inmiddels - anno 1988 - sprake is van een tekort aan zuivelgrondstoffen, oftewel of de mate van produktiebeperking inmiddels onnodige proporties heeft aangenomen. De achtergronden van deze discussies worden besproken, evenals de positie van de Nederlandse zuivelindustrie op de EG-zuivelmarkt
    De afzetperspectieven van Nederlands konijnevlees op middellange termijn
    Zimmerman, K.L. ; Onna, M.J.G. van; Riensema, C.J. - \ 1989
    Den Haag : Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Structuuronderzoek [en] Afdeling Landbouw no. 417) - ISBN 9789052420509 - 224
    konijnenvlees - konijnen - nederland - landbouw - productiviteit - landbouwproductie - capaciteit - markten - marketing - marktconcurrentie - aanbodsevenwicht - marketingkanalen - omzet - west-europa - rabbit meat - rabbits - netherlands - agriculture - productivity - agricultural production - capacity - markets - marketing - market competition - supply balance - marketing channels - turnover - western europe
    Onderzoek naar de markt voor konijnevlees in Nederland en enkele belangrijke export- en importlanden. Het Nederlandse deel van de studie is gebaseerd op literatuurgegevens en interviews met belanghebbenden uit de gehele sector en op een kwalitatief consumentenonderzoek. Daarnaast zijn de exportlanden (Belgie, Frankrijk, Duitsland, Italie, Spanje en Zwitserland) en de importlanden (Oostbloklanden, Frankrijk en China) beschreven op basis van literatuurstudie
    De distributiestructuur van varkens in Nederland
    Driel, J.A. van - \ 1988
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Structuuronderzoek no. 388) - 54
    distributie - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - varkens - omzet - marktstructuur - distribution - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - pigs - turnover - market structure
    Onderzoek naar de structuur van de afzet van levende varkens en biggen op basis van enquetes onder ruim 1000 varkenshouders en 150 veehandelaren. Het rapport beschrijft de situatie in 1986 en vergelijkt deze met die van 1973
    De distributie van vlees, vleeswaren en vleessnacks
    Klein Kranenberg, H. ; Vlieger, J.J. de - \ 1988
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Structuuronderzoek no. 389) - 148
    distributie - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - vlees - vleeswaren - nederland - omzet - marktstructuur - distribution - marketing - marketing channels - markets - meat - meat products - netherlands - turnover - market structure
    Nagegaan is via welke afzetkanalen de produkten vanaf de slachterij naar de binnenlandse consumenten, de binnenlandse verwerkende bedrijven en naar buitenlandse afnemers gaan. Bij de afzet aan binnenlandse consumenten is onderscheid gemaakt tussen de huishoudelijke en de buitenhuishoudelijke markt. Tevens is bij de slachterijen onderzocht van wie de slachtdieren zijn gekocht
    De distributie van pluimveevlees, -bereidingen en -snacks
    Vlieger, J.J. de; Zimmermann, K.L. - \ 1988
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Structuuronderzoek no. 390) - 116
    kippenvlees - distributie - eendenvlees - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - pluimveevlees - omzet - marktstructuur - chicken meat - distribution - duck meat - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - poultry meat - turnover - market structure
    Nagegaan is via welke afzetkanalen de produkten vanaf de slachterij naar de Nederlandse consument, de verwerkende bedrijven en naar de buitenlandse afnemers gaan. Bij slachterijen is gevraagd bij wie de slachtdieren zijn gekocht
    Perspectieven voor de export van levende varkens en mestbiggen
    Verduyn, J.J. ; Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Blom, J.C. - \ 1988
    Den Haag : LEI (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 392) - 181
    dumping - export - marktconcurrentie - marktonderzoek - marktverkenningen - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - varkens - prijzen - kwaliteit - handel - omzet - landen van de europese unie - dumping - exports - market competition - market research - market surveys - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - pigs - prices - quality - trade - turnover - european union countries
    Onderzoek met het accent op bestaande afzetmarkten: Belgie, Duitsland, Frankrijk, Italie en Spanje. De beschrijving van potentiele nieuwe afzetmarkten heeft een verkennend karakter. Tevens is de concurrentiepositie van importlanden in kaart gebracht en ter inventarisatie van de knelpunten bij de export is er een enquete uitgevoerd onder exporteurs
    De internationale afzet van haring
    Jager, J. de - \ 1987
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Publikatie / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Visserij en Bosbouw no. 5.75) - 76
    internationale handel - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - haringen - international trade - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - herrings
    Canada, Denemarken en Nederland beheersen 65 % van de wereldhandel. Door het overschot aan haring op de Westeuropese markt wordt de concurrentie tussen de landen onderling heviger en daalt het prijsniveau voor de verschillende sortimenten haring. De prijsdruk wordt naar verwachting in de toekomst groter door omvangrijker vangsten. Voor de Nederlandse concurrentiepositie zijn technologische vernieuwingen bij de verwerking van haring aan boord en aan de wal van groot belang
    Afzetperspectieven voor Nederlandse geitekaas op middellange termijn
    Horne, P.L.M. van; Zaalmink, B.W. - \ 1987
    Den Haag : LEI (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 378) - 112
    kazen - geiten - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - omzet - cheeses - goats - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - turnover
    In eerste instantie worden produktie en afzet van geitemelk in Nederland beschreven. Vervolgens worden produktie en afzet van geitekaas beschreven van 11 landen, waarin de geitenhouderij een belangrijke plaats inneemt, met name Frankrijk, Spanje en Griekenland. Aansluitend daarop zijn kansen en bedreigingen, en sterke en zwakke punten voor Nederland geformuleerd. Tenslotte worden aanbevelingen gedaan om op middellange termijn een zekere afzet van geitekaas te bewerkstelligen
    Diffusion of milk as a new food to tropical regions : the example of Indonesia, 1880- 1942
    Hartog, A.P. den - \ 1986
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast, co-promotor(en): A.M. van der Woude. - Wageningen : Den Hartog - 260
    vraag - voedingsmiddelen - geschiedenis - indonesië - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - melk - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - bewerkte producten - omzet - nederlands indië - demand - foods - history - indonesia - marketing - marketing channels - markets - milk - nutrient requirements - processed products - turnover - netherlands east indies
    The problem was analysed of why and how milk and milk products spread from industrialized countries with a dairying tradition to tropical countries with no such tradition. This interdisciplinary study uses the social sciences, nutritional sciences and social history in an approach to the diffusion of food. Early in the colonial period, the Dutch began producing fresh milk on Java for their own needs, but by the 1880's sweetened condensed milk products were being imported. It were these condensed milk products that reached part of the Indonesian population. The study describes how this cane about, in particular for infant feeding, and the importance of the sweetened skim milk question. milk and milk products, once an exotic element, gradually became Indonesianized. In a postcript (1945-1985) reference is made to Indonesian efforts after independance to continue a milk industry based on both imports and locally produced fresh milk.

    Afzetperspectieven voor Nederlands varkensvlees, kalfsvlees en vleeswaren in Spanje
    Spitters, P.J.A. - \ 1985
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut No. 322) - 104
    markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - export - rundvlees - kalfsvlees - varkensvlees - vlees - vleeswaren - spanje - nederland - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - exports - beef - veal - pigmeat - meat - meat products - spain - netherlands
    In het kader van de toetreding van Spanje tot de EG wordt aandacht besteed aan de Nederlandse afzetperspectieven op de Spaanse markt voor diverse vleeswaren. Het onderzoek bestaat grotendeels uit een literatuuronderzoek
    Onderzoek naar knelpunten tijdens de afzet van potplanten
    Hoogerwerf, A. ; Sterling, E.P. - \ 1985
    Wageningen : Sprenger Instituut (Rapport / Sprenger Instituut no. 2296) - 27
    marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - potplanten - omzet - binnen kweken (van planten) - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - pot plants - turnover - indoor culture
    Onderzoek naar de distributie van potplanten. Doel van het onderzoek was een beeld te krijgen van de distributiestructuur en de daarin optredende knelpunten. Ook moest de met de knelpunten samenhangende schade zo mogelijk gekwantificeerd worden. Het onderzoek bestaat uit een literatuuronderzoek en een praktijkonderzoek. Dit laatste in de vorm van gesprekken met overkoepelende organisaties en bedrijven, die zich met de distributie van potplanten bezighouden
    De afzetperspectieven van gekweekte Afrikaanse meerval
    Davidse, W.P. ; Smit, J.G.P. - \ 1985
    Den Haag : L.E.I. (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut ) - 63
    markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - visteelt - silurus - clarias - ictalurus - nederland - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - fish culture - silurus - clarias - ictalurus - netherlands
    Gegevens over de eigenschappen van de Afrikaanse meerval (Clarias gariepinus) als consumptievis en over de afzetmogelijkheden die er vermoedelijk zullen zijn voor dit produkt
    Van wonen tot marketing : een sociaal-filosofische analyse van het moderne behoefte-georienteerd handelen
    Toledo, K. van - \ 1985
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): H. van Leeuwen; B. Wierenga; H. Koningsveld. - Wageningen : Van Toledo - 207
    huizen - menselijk gedrag - kennis - marktconcurrentie - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - mens - motivatie - psychologie - psychosociale aspecten - sociaal gedrag - sociologie - aanbodsevenwicht - handel - omzet - invloeden - logica - kennistheorie - homes - human behaviour - knowledge - market competition - marketing - marketing channels - markets - man - motivation - psychology - psychosocial aspects - social behaviour - sociology - supply balance - trade - turnover - influences - logic - theory of knowledge
    In modern western society the broadened concept of marketing covers a considerable part of the field of action. An example is the overlap of marketing with the domain of living. Here we find a development of society into a system, appearing as a multi-coloured totality of relations between organizations and consumers.

    From this point of view I have tried to reconstruct the social philosophical foundations of modern marketing by means of concepts derived from Jürgen Habermas's theory of human action, in particular the concept of reproduction of personal identity. This has lead to the thesis, that any model of a marketingoriented society, in its broadest sense, has a relatively weak capacity as regards problemsolving, when compared with the model of a society, in which the marketing-function is bounded to the economic sub-system and controlled through a 'public domain'.

    Afzetbeleid in Nederland
    Meulenberg, M.T.G. - \ 1985
    In: Afzetfondsen en actiever afzetbeleid groente en fruit / van Abeele, P., Leuven : Katholieke Universiteit (CLEO schriften 41)
    belgië - fruitgewassen - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - omzet - groenten - belgium - fruit crops - marketing - marketing channels - markets - turnover - vegetables
    Zeeuwse produktstromen : een verkenning van de wegen die de Zeeuwse land- en tuinbouwprodukten gaan : discussienota
    Boer, M. de; Kuperus, H.M. ; Lamain, J.I. - \ 1984
    Middelburg etc. : Economisch Technologisch Instituut [etc.] - 55
    landbouw - economische sectoren - markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - zeeland - agriculture - economic sectors - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy - zeeland
    De afzetperspectieven voor zalmforel
    Davidse, W.P. ; Smit, J.G.P. - \ 1984
    Den Haag : LEI (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut no. 303) - 31
    marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - salmonidae - omzet - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - salmonidae - turnover
    In het kader van de werkgroep MARIOS (maricultures in de monding van de Oosterschelde) is een globale marktorientatie uitgevoerd met betrekking tot zalmforel. Deze vis, die wordt gekweekt, is in de meeste gevallen een regenboogforel met een gewicht tussen 1 en 2,5 kg. De eerste ervaringen met het op de markt brengen van in Nederland gekweekte zalmforel zijn redelijk gunstig. Er kunnen nog meer mogelijkheden ontstaan wanneer grotere formaten worden gekweekt (plus minus 2,5 kg). In dat geval ontstaan er gunstige perspectieven om te kunnen concurreren met de Noorse zalmforel, die nu reeds wordt ingevoerd. Het is hierbij een voorwaarde dat de vis van uitstekende kwaliteit moet zijn. De grote formaten zalmforel zijn meer geschikt voor verwerking tot gerookte produkten
    Afzetstructuur van varkens in Nederland : onderzoek naar de toestand in 1968
    Graaff, G.C. de - \ 1972
    Den Haag : [s.n.] (Algemeen economisch onderzoek / L.E.I. Afd. 1, no. 9) - 79
    economische situatie - marketing - marketingkanalen - markten - nederland - varkens - handel - omzet - economische productie - economic situation - marketing - marketing channels - markets - netherlands - pigs - trade - turnover - economic production
    Supermarkten en landbouw
    Anonymous, - \ 1970
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3242)
    handel - omzet - supermarkten - winkels - landbouw - bibliografieën - zelfbediening - trade - turnover - supermarkets - shops - agriculture - bibliographies - self service
    Tuincentra - zelfbediening in de tuinbouw - Roadside marketing
    Anonymous, - \ 1966
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 2719)
    bibliografieën - direct marketing - tuinbouw - handel - omzet - zelfbediening - bibliographies - direct marketing - horticulture - trade - turnover - self service
    Koeling bij zelfbedieningsverkoop van groente en fruit
    Greidanus, P. - \ 1964
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Bulletin / Instituut voor bewaring en verwerking van tuinbouwproducten no. 7) - 1
    fruitgewassen - plantaardige producten - handel - behandeling - omzet - groenten - zelfbediening - fruit crops - plant products - trade - treatment - turnover - vegetables - self service
    De afzet van landbouwprodukten in het licht van moderne distributiemethoden en consumptiegewoonten. Voordrachten van P. Wiertsema en C.M. Hupkes voor de Vereniging voor Hoger landbouwonderwijs te Groningen
    Nijenhuis, W.A. - \ 1962
    Wageningen : Unknown Publisher (Mededeling / Proefstation voor de akker- en weidebouw, Wageningen no. 68) - 28
    markten - marketing - marketingkanalen - omzet - economie - voorraden - buffervoorraden - aanbod - consumptie - landbouw - nederland - markets - marketing - marketing channels - turnover - economics - stocks - buffer stocks - supply - consumption - agriculture - netherlands
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