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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    ‘Even fish have an ethnicity’: livelihoods and identities of men and women in war-affected coastal Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
    Lokuge, Gayathri Hiroshani Hallinne - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): M. de Alwis; G. Frerks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436182 - 237
    livelihoods - livelihood strategies - fishing communities - fishing - women - gender - conflict - war - sri lanka - south asia - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - vissersgemeenschappen - vis vangen - vrouwen - geslacht (gender) - conflict - oorlog - sri lanka - zuid-azië

    Located within the nexus between identity and livelihoods, this thesis explores how the economic activities of fisher livelihoods are shaped by socio-cultural, political and identity dynamics, and how fisher livelihoods, in turn, shape and reproduce these dynamics in post-war Sri Lanka’s coastal district of Trincomalee. The analysis focuses on the economic sociology of fisheries, the inequalities and marginalities in livelihood spaces that are created through intersecting identities such as gender and ethnicity, and the way fisheries are governed—both formally and informally—in politically volatile contexts. This thesis argues that ethnic identity is mediated by other social identity categories, such as gender, location and type of livelihood activity, in the creation of unequal access to livelihood spaces. However, men and women often attempt to subvert structural discriminatory patterns, with differing degrees of success.

    Since the country became independent in 1948, Sri Lanka’s history has been dominated by conflict centred on competing ethno-political interests, particularly in terms of access to state power. The perceived privileging of the ethnic minority Tamils by the British colonial powers led to a series of political moves by successive governments in post-independence Sri Lanka. This included making Sinhalese the official language of the country and awarding special status to Buddhism in the constitution. Subsequently, unfavourable perceptions about the privileging of the majority ethnic group and their cultural, social and political symbols led to the formation of Tamil militant groups including the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).

    Most discourses on conflict in Sri Lanka have strong ethnic dimensions. However, arguably, ethnic lines are used mainly for mobilising the masses for conflict. The killing of 13 Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) Army soldiers in 1983 in an ambush by the LTTE resulted in widespread anti-Tamil riots in the capital city of Colombo. This event is commonly identified as the trigger point for the protracted war between the Tamil militants and the GoSL. The war continued for three decades, with fluctuating degrees of intensity, until the LTTE faced a military defeat at the hands of the GoSL in 2009. However, the ending of the war does not translate linearly into a post-war condition in Sri Lanka, given the continued presence of the military in the directly war-affected North and East and the social and economic inequalities and tensions that create divisions within the country, undermining meaningful and sustained rebuilding efforts in Sri Lanka.

    The thesis begins with an introductory first chapter that presents the aims of the study, locates the research within the context of post-war Sri Lanka, describes the study areas and presents an overview of the methodological approach and theoretical frameworks used. Located in fish landing sites, markets and religious places, Chapter 2 focuses mostly on the livelihoods aspect of the thesis. It analyses how economic activities, such as fishing livelihoods, are deeply and intricately embedded in the cultural and social fabric of the daily lives of individuals, families, communities and institutions. This chapter provides a detailed analysis of how fishing livelihoods are more than an income-generating activity for men and women, considering the different inter- and intra-group value systems that apply to fisher-folk in their day-to-day practices. At the individual level, given the high risk involved in braving the seas every day, religion takes a central place in a fisher’s life, irrespective of their specific faith. This phenomenon is heightened by war-related insecurities and threats. However, individual and communal struggles over contradictory economic and religious values are an ever-present aspect of the fishermen’s religiosity. We found this process to be marked by rationalising and meaning making, embodied through the daily experiences of these fishermen and women.

    The findings show that people take advantage of the malleable nature of religious doctrine to mix, match and choose from different religions to suit the current need and the occasion. Religious beliefs and ideologies also create and sustain socio-political differences, which are further constructed by macro-level political discourses. At the community level, although there are complex, historical tensions between all of the religious groups in Trincomalee, with heightened tension and violence during the war years, Hindus and Buddhists share considerable religious complementarity. Muslims are increasingly marked as separate—in spaces of religious ritual, such as the Hindu temples, and also in terms of types of fishing livelihoods. Most Muslims also see themselves as separate. Through an analysis of how discourses on religious identity play out in everyday life, Chapter 2 argues that economic rivalries over fishing resources may spill over into—or be reinforced by—religious and ethnic tensions in the post-war context.

    Chapter 3 focuses more on the identity aspect of the thesis, with research based in the lagoons and shallow seas of Trincomalee. Using intersectionality theory, this chapter examines how the intersection of the social categories of gender, race, ethnicity and location creates structural inequality. Drawing upon narratives of Muslim, Tamil, Sinhalese and indigenous/Veder women catching and marketing fish in coastal Trincomalee, this chapter analyses how historical factors, such as population movements and war, have shaped the current realities and positions of women. Further, the chapter illustrates that, although a clear case can be made that certain groups of women are particularly disadvantaged at the intersection of ethnicity, caste and livelihood location, similarities in cultural gender norms across ethnic lines mean that the inequalities facing women may overshadow other identities.

    Although multiple inequalities affect these women’s daily lives and participation in activities, they are not passive victims; they use their own agency to negotiate for access to livelihoods. Nevertheless, the women engaged in various fishing-related activities who participated in this study appear to be completely invisible to the government fisheries management bodies. The resulting lack of institutional representation disadvantages these women in negotiations for space to engage in their livelihood activities. Registration of these women in coastal livelihoods would provide them with a first measure of recognition and empowerment, strengthening their chances of negotiating access to livelihood resources.

    With the ending of the three-decade-long civil war, changes have taken place in the main wholesale fish market in the conflict-affected coastal district of Trincomalee. These changes are reflected in the market structure and governance, as well as in the number and kinds of people inside the market. A marketplace that was formerly multi-ethnic and mixed gender has become dominated by male traders from the Sinhalese Buddhist ethnic majority group, excluding women and ethnic minority men. By focusing on the multiple masculinities of male wholesale dealers and their interactions with fishermen suppliers, Chapter 4 a) provides a nuanced analysis of the historical and contextual factors that shaped the political and economic hegemonising processes of the wholesale fish market; b) attempts to understand how, within this hegemonising process, the dealers embody and negotiate between overlapping ethno-nationalist, enterprising and patron–provider masculinities; and c) analyses how these diverse masculinities ultimately may contribute to the collapse of the gendered ethnic dominance at the market. This chapter adds nuance to the ethnicised discourse on war and livelihoods in Sri Lanka and globally. Further, the chapter also brings a masculinities approach to the study of contemporary maritime anthropology.

    Chapter 4 thus continues the focus on identities and attempts to understand ethnicity as socially constructed and as mediated by other forms of identity, such as gender, or, more specifically, through masculinities. Focusing on masculinities and the different subject positionalities of men at the wholesale market—a dimension that has been largely missing in Sri Lankan discourses on post-war livelihoods and identity—this chapter provides a nuanced analysis of how a unidimensional focus on ethnicity or gender is insufficient to explain the post-war power dynamics. It analyses how the embodiment and practice of masculinities, such as risk-taking entrepreneurs and dare-devil border guards, show both complicity with and resistance to political and economic domination or hegemony at a given point, and how this changes over time.

    The findings indicate that hierarchies of social and political power are dynamic. More specifically, the understanding of masculinity as plural, dynamic and negotiated, combined with the display of agentive power by subordinated or marginalised groups, results in hegemonies or structures of dominance that are continually shaped and reshaped at the everyday level. There are masculinities, rather than one way of doing masculinity. These different ways of doing masculinity challenge the dominant power structures and hierarchies.

    Chapter 5 focuses on a particular illegal fishing practice (disco net fishing) and examines how governance processes mitigate or exacerbate social tensions. The chapter centres on the interaction between formal and informal fisheries stakeholders and fishers, arguing that perceptions about the legitimacy of formal state actors in regulating fisheries strongly influence compliance behaviour. This chapter demonstrates that the perceived lack of legitimacy of the state in fisheries regulation was profoundly influenced by context and timing. The active interest taken by the state, aided by the military, in tightening fisheries regulation and enforcement measures after the end of the war violence was seen by the disco net fishermen as a strongly negative factor in their daily lives and livelihoods. When shared war-related violence forms the backdrop for state, non-state and citizen interactions and normative frameworks, negotiations regarding access to resources and regulatory efforts become not just a livelihood and resource management effort, but a broader and more sensitive political issue.

    Faced with the perceived failure of the state as a legitimate actor to regulate fisheries, Chapter 5 found that the disco net fishermen turn towards other forms of everyday politics, power dynamics and local legitimacies. However, these local legitimacies vary in how they manifest and draw power. Therefore, the contestations reported in this chapter are not simply about forum shopping between the formal state and informal community institutions and norms; rather, they are also about navigating within the formal and the informal rules of the game. The case of illegal fishing in this chapter clearly illustrates the need to understand fisheries governance issues as a manifestation of a larger problem at the level of state–society interaction, specifically regarding the legitimacy of the actors involved in governing fisheries in Trincomalee. Therefore, this chapter concludes that there is a need to understand and address fisheries governance issues as ‘wicked problems’ and as processes that need to go beyond conventional planning approaches.

    The concluding chapter of the thesis highlights five specific conclusions based on the findings presented in the previous chapters. First, the embedded nature of economic activities, such as those in fisheries, means that they are dynamic, time- and space-bound, and mediated by how men and women chose to embody and disembody morality, religiosity and competing or complementary value systems. These dynamisms in morality contribute to the social re/construction of fisheries as work. Second, in contexts such as Sri Lanka, where society is violently divided along different identity lines, especially that of ethnicity, inclusive and sustainable post-war rebuilding and meaningful community cohesion will require understanding that a) ethnic identity is socially constructed and mediated by the enactment of other identity categories; b) men and women use agentive power in accessing livelihoods, shaping and reshaping identity discourses through their livelihood activities; and c) hierarchies of power are dynamic in nature. Third, local-level legitimacies are as important as the electorally won, constitutionally accorded legitimacy of the state in resource governance. Consequently, discourses on state-building in post-war contexts need to pay careful attention to these legitimising processes, to how local-level legitimacies are shaped and reshaped, and to the influence of local-level legitimacies in strengthening or weakening state legitimacy. Fourth, continued legacies of war shape the lives of men and women. Fifth, the findings of this thesis add a granularity to the ongoing debate within post-war Sri Lanka on the different ways that social identities of men and women are (re)shaped through their access to livelihood opportunities and resources. Expanding the argument that economic institutions reshape gender at the individual, interactional and institutional levels, this thesis shows that economic institutions and activities shape the intersecting identities of men and women in complex ways, both in terms of how they see themselves and in the way they organise their social and political lives in the wider society.

    An Exploration of Memory-making in the Digital Era: Remembering the FEPOW Story Online
    Muzaini, H.B. ; Yeoh, B.Y. - \ 2015
    Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 106 (2015)1. - ISSN 0040-747X - p. 53 - 64.
    web - remembrance - singapore - war
    Symptomatic of the digital era, web-memorials and web-communities have become highly prevalent as a means of commemorating the past. Drawing on the analysis of fepow-community.org.uk, an online network devoted to honouring the stories of Allied soldiers interned by the Japanese during the Second World War (also known as FEPOWs), and an online survey of its members, this paper examines the extent that such platforms facilitate more inclusionary allowances for doing so vis-à-vis physical sites of memory. Specifically, while web-memorials do remedy some of the shortcomings linked to the latter, they too are plagued by criticisms limiting them as a more democratic way of remembering. It also highlights how physical sites of memory provide certain affective resonances virtual memorials do not. Consequently, both genres of memory are often capitalised upon complementarily (rather than in a mutually exclusive way) as each feeds into the other, both salient to memory work.
    I Am Not a Camera: On Visual Politics and Method. A Response to Roy Germano
    Yanow, D. - \ 2014
    Perspectives on Politics 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1537-5927 - p. 680 - 683.
    war
    No observational method is "point and shoot." Even bracketing interpretive methodologies and their attendant philosophies, a researcher-including an experimentalist-always frames observation in terms of the topic of interest. I cannot ever be "just a camera lens," not as researcher and not as photographer. Framing research " shots," an observer always includes some features of the research question terrain while excluding others-of necessity, given human limitations and the partiality, always, of what we can know and the knowledge we can claim. With "shutters" open, we are never passive, always thinking, always world-making. While attention to videography and other visual research methods is welcome, researchers doing " visual politics" need to ask "political" questions: who has created the image being analyzed, for what purpose(s), what imagined viewer(s), and what unintended viewer(s), as well as consider the ethical issues that these methods entail.
    "The bullets sound like music to my ears" : socialization of child soldiers within African rebel groups
    Vermeij, L. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): S.G. Gates; Gemma van der Haar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737700 - 292
    socialisatie - identiteit - kinderen - soldaten - strijdkrachten - opstand - groepen - sociale integratie - oorlog - conflict - revolutie - afrika - socialization - identity - children - soldiers - armed forces - rebellion - groups - social integration - war - conflict - revolution - africa
    Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.
    Interactive research and the construction of knowledge in conflict-affected settings
    Haar, G. van der; Heijmans, E.P.M. ; Hilhorst, D.J.M. - \ 2013
    Disasters 37 (2013)s1. - ISSN 0361-3666 - p. S20 - S35.
    war
    This paper contributes to ongoing debates about the possibilities/impossibilities and particular challenges related to conducting field research in conflict settings by addressing a particular topic of concern: collaboration between researchers, organisations, respondents, and other actors present in the field. Whereas collaboration with local actors has been common for reasons of access and security, there seems to be a lack of recognition of the manner in which collaboration in the field shapes the generation of knowledge on conflict and post-conflict settings. The objectives of this paper are twofold: (i) to highlight the potential contribution of research collaborations in conflict environments beyond pragmatic considerations of access and security; and (ii) to argue for more explicit attention to how such forms of collaboration influence the construction of knowledge and for more rigour in tracing the implications of such cooperation. The paper seeks to contribute to continuous learning on the possibilities/impossibilities of working with interactive research under conditions of conflict and insecurity.
    Climate Change, Weather Shocks and Violent Conflict: A Critical Look at the Evicence
    Klomp, J.G. ; Bulte, E.H. - \ 2013
    Agricultural Economics 44 (2013)s1. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 63 - 78.
    civil conflict - economic shocks - natural-resources - global climate - war - variability - institutions - insurgency - grievance - africa
    We use cross-country data to explore whether temperature and rainfall shocks trigger violent conflict, or not. We include a wide range of country and time samples, and explore whether the impact of weather shocks is conditional on income or political regimes. Our overall conclusion is sobering. Notwithstanding the attention this topic has attracted from the media and policy makers, we find little robust evidence linking weather shocks to the onset of conflict.
    Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members
    Dreu, C.K.W. de; Shalvi, S. ; Greer, L.L. ; Kleef, G.A. van; Handgraaf, M.J.J. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)11. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 7 p.
    intranasal oxytocin - parochial altruism - social behaviors - neural circuitry - humans - vasopressin - increases - trust - war - eusociality
    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual’s motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that noncooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.
    War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone
    Peters, K. - \ 2011
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press (International African library 41) - ISBN 9781107004191 - 292
    kinderen - oorlog - jeugd - plattelandsontwikkeling - geschiedenis - sociologie - levensomstandigheden - platteland - conflict - sierra leone - west-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - grondeigendom - children - war - youth - rural development - history - sociology - living conditions - rural areas - conflict - sierra leone - west africa - least developed countries - land ownership
    War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone addresses the currently incomplete understanding of the conflict in Sierra Leone by focusing on the direct experiences and interpretations of protagonists. The data presented challenges the widely canvassed notion of this conflict as a war motivated by "greed, not grievance," pointing instead to a rural crisis expressed in terms of unresolved tensions between landowners and marginalized rural youth, further reinforced and triggered by a collapsing patrimonial state.
    Institutions, violent conflict, windfall gains and economic development in Africa
    Voors, M.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731029 - 166
    ontwikkelingseconomie - economische ontwikkeling - instellingen - institutionele economie - conflict - afgewaaid fruit - oorlog - corruptie - development economics - economic development - institutions - institutional economics - conflict - windfalls - war - corruption - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klein Goldewijk, B. - \ 2011
    Rotterdam : NAi-publishers - ISBN 9789056628178 - 480
    cultuur - cultureel erfgoed - culturele waarden - identiteit - rampen - oorlog - erfgoed - culture - cultural heritage - cultural values - identity - disasters - war - heritage areas
    All that we're wrecking is stones" was Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar's dismissal of the Taliban's destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan, the largest standing statues of Buddha in the world. The intention of the fighters was not only the destruction of foreign idols, but breaking the soul of a culture. Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster insists that culture is a necessity for national self-respect. International heritage specialists, relief workers and politicians discuss the importance of protecting cultural heritage that is threatened by war and calamity; and reports on projects in conflict zones are augmented by contributions on international administrative and legal aspects, as well as political and socio-cultural perspectives. The result is both an indictment of the senseless destruction of cultural heritage and an argument for culture as a priority in processes of restoration and reconstruction.
    The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya
    Jansen, B.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858591 - 273
    rampen - oorlog - vluchtelingen - noodgevallen - sociologie - agressief gedrag - organisatie - bevolkingsverplaatsing - economie - vn - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - kenya - afrika - disasters - war - refugees - emergencies - sociology - aggressive behaviour - organization - resettlement - economics - un - non-governmental organizations - local government - local population - kenya - africa

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in

    Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of

    the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis

    per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First,

    the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of

    space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions

    of the camp as an abnormality. In this thesis, I analyze the ways in which refugees

    settle down in the camp and inhabit the humanitarian space. From a physical

    perspective, the camp has grown into a center of facilities in a wider region of

    insecurity, war and marginalized pastoral lands in a semi-desert. Compared to the

    region, the camp resembles a multicultural and cosmopolitan place, with various

    connections to the wider world.

    I have analyzed five domains in which social ordering takes place:

    humanitarian governance, the camp as a warscape, the camp economy, third

    country resettlement and repatriation. In all these domains, refugees seek to

    organize themselves and their surroundings vis-à-vis the humanitarian agencies

    and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

    In chapter two, I describe how UNHCR de facto became the government of

    the refugee camp on behalf of the Kenyan government. In this capacity it operates

    in a confusion of roles; it is both implementer of aid and assistance in the general

    administration of the camp, and monitor and guard of States’ obligations to

    respect refugee rights. This makes that UNHCR and its implementing NGOs not

    only offer, preach and teach entitlements, but are simultaneously for a large part

    responsible in their delivery and for the decision of who is granted inclusion in the

    camp’s services. I have recognized this in the notion of an entitlement arena,

    which highlights how refugees maneuver in the grey area between UNHCR’s

    camp governing and rights monitoring roles. The entitlements born out of refugee

    and human rights then translate into expectations and promises that become part

    of negotiations seeking to align, dodge or alter the camp’s organization. For a

    large part, this negotiation takes places along the interfaces between UNHCR and

    its implementing partners, and the refugees. By employing participation strategies

    in the governing of the camp, UNHCR contributed to the creation of subauthorities,

    which play an important role in the referral of refugees within the aid

    system, but also in the identification of vulnerabilities.

    In the domain of the warscape, I analyze how boundaries between refugee

    leadership and rebel movements have blurred, adding and altering these subauthorities.

    Apart from the camp having a function in the broader war tactics of

    rebel movements in the past and in the present, the notion of the camp as a

    warscape highlights how the politics of war and the dynamics of conflict reach

    and partly order the camp. This warscape notion, instead of being problematic, is

    analyzed from a perspective of place making, through which refugees claim

    political agency and room to organize themselves vis-à-vis the refugee regime,

    thereby reshaping the living arrangements of the camp and organizing where

    people settle on the basis of ethnic and violent histories in the past and in the

    camp. This authority transcends into everyday forms of power and governance,

    largely because of an understanding of imminent and symbolic violence between

    the different groups.

    In a socio-economic domain, I describe how refugees build on the resource of

    aid and create a diversity of livelihood strategies. Aid, more than just a handout or

    a necessity, is comparable to a natural resource in the contours of the camp. For

    refugees, once they are allowed inside the camp, aid is simply there. It is

    something one can vie for, and can harvest, until it is depleted. I describe this as a

    process of “digging aid,” comparable to subsistence farming. On the basis of this

    aid, a camp economy has grown, with linkages to informal and formal regional

    and international economies. The development of the camp economy has

    stimulated socio-economic changes. The local community has found a resource in

    the camp and “dropout pastoralists” have settled around the camp in a way that is

    comparable to the ways urban migrants flock to cities. The camp represents a

    cosmopolitan place where people of different backgrounds come together, meet

    each other, and adapt to each other.

    The fourth domain, described in chapter five, concerns the camp as a portal

    for resettlement. The perspective of third country resettlement in Kakuma has

    both been a reason for people to come to the camp, and a phenomenon that

    greatly contributed to its development. Resettlement can thus be seen as both an

    opportunity as a solution to which people seek access. With this, resettlement

    became an organizing principle for people in the camp. The large volume of

    resettlement from Kakuma contributes to the character of the camp as a transitory

    space. Many informants came to Kakuma not so much to return “home” again,

    but to move forward instead. Kakuma as a portal offers migratory routes to those

    who manage to be considered eligible according to the agencies’ and receiving

    countries’ qualifications. Although imagined as a measure to protect those most in

    need, in reality, becoming eligible for resettlement involves a combination of

    factors, including access to the agencies and a vulnerability or a fitting identity. It

    is here that the warscape and the entitlement arena intertwine to become the

    system of resettlement.

    Chapter six shows how repatriation becomes subject to maneuvering. Over the

    course of my fieldwork, peace broke out in Sudan and repatriation was initiated.

    The prospect was complicated, however. In Sudan, public amenities such as

    schools, health care, and water were scarce or lacking. Towns and urban centers

    were still largely under Arabic influence. The result was that the humanitarian

    government in the form of UNHCR and the NGOs sought to control return

    movements, while refugees sought to strategize and organize return in their own

    ways, and the Sudanese authorities in Sudan sought to keep the refugees in Kenya

    until further notice.

    The notion of the camp as an accidental city comes back in that the camp was

    recognized for its facilities and weighed against the lack thereof in Sudan. New

    arrivals similarly came for education, or for basic amenities and even food.

    Refugees from other nationalities had concerns because of a possible closure of

    Kakuma. Many of them had a rebel or military past, or feared being regarded as

    rebels in their home countries, and thus saw limited opportunities to go home.

    Also people from town were unsure of what would remain of Kakuma in the

    event of the camp being closed.

    This research contributes to earlier work in earlier stages of refugee hosting in

    other camps, and covering specific subthemes. With the analogy to the city, I

    bring together those subthemes in one common frame. The result can in part be

    understood as a history of the specific camp of Kakuma. This nicely captures the

    title of this research, for something that gains a history breaks free from the frame

    of temporality, perhaps by accident. With this approach, this book is not only

    relevant for social science or anthropology, but also as a historical record.

    Protracted refugee camps constitute an experiment in humanitarian action, but

    also in thinking about questions of governance and security in refugee hosting

    contexts in developing countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nepal,

    Thailand and other locations where the content of this book may be relevant.

    Ritual dynamics in humanitarian assistance
    Richards, P. - \ 2010
    Disasters 34 (2010)Suppl. 2. - ISSN 0361-3666 - p. S138 - S146.
    sierra-leone - rights - war
    Those who intervene in crises must take care to ensure that assistance does not undermine the processes through which social cohesion is generated or restored. From a neo-Durkheimian analytical perspective, feeding creates social loyalties as well as saves lives. Humanitarian agencies provide practical assistance to livelihoods, but they need also to create space for the ritual agency on which social cohesion depends. Attention to the rituals of food distribution helps humanitarian actors to address a potentially damaging dissociation between social and material facts. A post-war food security project in Sierra Leone is used to illustrate the point. The lessons of this intervention have implications for the organisation of humanitarian assistance at all levels, both international and local. The paper argues that establishing space for ritualisation within humanitarian programmes is an obligation for those who wish to do no harm
    WO2 luchtfoto's toen & nu : tentoonstelling Bibliotheek Wageningen UR, 9 april t/m 17 september 2010
    Voskuil, R. ; Missel, L. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Bibliotheek Wageningen UR - 32
    luchtfotografie - tentoonstellingen - oorlog - nederland - luchtfotointerpretatie - aerial photography - exhibitions - war - netherlands - aerial photo interpretation
    Tekstboekje bij de gelijknamige tentoonstelling.
    Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Nillesen, E.E.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): P. Verwimp. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856597 - 134
    economische ontwikkeling - oorlog - conflict - instellingen - ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingsbeleid - overheidsbeleid - burundi - centraal-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelingseconomie - institutionele economie - governance - economic development - war - conflict - institutions - development aid - development policy - government policy - burundi - central africa - least developed countries - developing countries - development economics - institutional economics - governance
    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not necessarily far apart.
    I assess the influence of foreign aid using macro-level data of 30 Sub-Saharan African countries. Opponents argue that foreign aid corrupts, and will end up in the hands of a small elite. Institutional quality (e.g. corruption) will hence deteriorate, thereby adversely affecting economic growth. Even worse, the inflow of foreign exchange can presumably induce civil warfare or prolong existing wars. My outcomes suggest that aid reduces corruption the next year. Consistent with several accounts from small-scale development programs, impacts however disappear once donors reduce monitoring efforts.
    What about an alleged relation between foreign aid and civil war? Foreign aid does not influence the probability that a war will start but reduces the probability that ongoing wars continue the next year. The result on war start-ups speaks against the idea that aid motivates rebels that want to “grab” the money by getting into power. This cross-national (macro) result is consistent with micro-level results I find for rebellion in Burundi. Variation in appropriable export rents shows no robust relation with rebellion. Lower incomes however do promote rebellion; fighting may then suddenly become an attractive alternative to farming.
    The micro-level data from Burundi also allow examining people’s behaviour after warfare. Wars are destructive, but exposure to war violence appears to improve social relations within communities and promote investment in risky, more profitable, cash crops. These results could be interpreted as evidence of rapid (macro)-economic post-war recovery as recently observed in Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Mozambique and Angola.
    The dissertation challenges some conventional beliefs about key themes in development economics and policy. The results may help rethink researchers, policy-makers and donors about future paths to sound development.
    Bridging troubled waters? : everyday inter-ethnic interaction in a content of violent conflict in Kottiyar Patty, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
    Gaasbeek, T. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks; Linden Vincent. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085856467 - 370
    rampen - conflict - oorlog - etniciteit - etnische groepen - agressief gedrag - voorlichting - irrigatie - waterbeheer - huwelijk - sociologie - sociale differentiatie - sri lanka - zuid-azië - disasters - conflict - war - ethnicity - ethnic groups - aggressive behaviour - extension - irrigation - water management - marriage - sociology - social differentiation - sri lanka - south asia - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2009
    Surrey : Ashgate (Non-state actors in international law, politics and governance series ) - ISBN 9780754677437 - 223
    samenleving - politiek - oorlog - instellingen voor ontwikkelingshulp - gevalsanalyse - vrede - peace building - internationale betrekkingen - internationale conflicten - society - politics - war - development agencies - case studies - peace - peacebuilding - international relations - international conflicts
    Since the early 1990s, international development organizations and donor agencies increasingly recognize the contributions local civil society can make to peace. Despite their popularity, questions still remain on the actual nature, practices, and roles of local civil society organizations in sustaining peace. So, how do international organizations support local peace building? Do they really understand conflict? "Partners in Peace" challenges the global perception and assumptions of the role played by civil society peace building operations and offers a radically new perspective on how international organizations can support this effort. Framing the debate using case studies in Africa and Central America, Mathijs van Leeuwen examines different meanings of peace building, the practices and politics of interpreting conflict, and how planned interventions work out. In developing this argument, van Leeuwen explores: policies and practices of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Cordaid, Norwegian Church Aid, Norwegian People's Aid; internal dynamics of Sudanese Women's Voice for Peace organization; land disputes and strengthening traditional conflict resolution in Burundi; and, peasant movements and the Catholic Church in Guatemala. Comparing this original view with contemporary perceptions of non-state actors, "Partners in Peace" includes many recommendations for NGOs involved in peace building and constructs a new understanding on how these practises relate to politics and practices on the ground.
    Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone
    Chakanda, R.T.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg; Bert Visser. - - 161
    oryza - rice - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - war - landraces - varieties - phenotypic variation - farming systems - sierra leone - farmers' knowledge - oryza - rijst - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - oorlog - landrassen - rassen (planten) - fenotypische variatie - bedrijfssystemen - sierra leone - kennis van boeren
    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the economy, agricultural production and the conservation of plant genetic resources at the farm level was severely affected. It emerged that farmers’ effectiveness to cultivate and manage their seed systems and the options to grow rice under insecure conditions were disrupted at different levels in the three districts studied. However, the general consequence of the war in all of the districts was that farmers lost considerable amounts of their seed stocks. Total losses for some rice varieties was averted because of the occurrence of a number of varieties in more than one village in the same region, which was a result of farmers seed exchange systems, and also due to farmer movement during the war. The majority of the varieties that were reported lost were actually “dispersed” in the regions, indicating good options for post-war recovery.

    There was little evidence that the genetic composition of rice varieties were significantly altered as a consequence of the war, except for the total loss of upland varieties in one of the districts. The varieties that had the highest survival were those that had wider pre-war distribution, showed plasticity in growing habits wherein they demonstrated the potential to grow in both agro-ecosystems and in the different districts, and the fact that they existed in many different forms.

    Statistical analysis showed a clear distinction between upland and lowland varieties, which demonstrated the effectiveness of farmer selection with regard to the two production ecosystems. This was different for the periods defined as pre-war and post-war. Pre-war varieties were less well defined in this respect. Further to this, there was evidence of a change in rice genetic resources between the pre-war and post-war situations, which was demonstrated in the number of varieties for each of the two ecosystems. Despite these changes, and the losses in seed stocks as a consequence of the war, genetic diversity increased in post-war rice varieties.

    AFLP results indicated that rice varieties in Sierra Leone possess different levels of intra-variety variation, which makes it difficult to identify homogenous genotypes at the seed unit level. This was attributed to genetic exchanges caused by farmers’ practices of growing different varieties in mixtures. The variation however does not alter the profile of inter-variety genetic differences, which remains large enough to distinguish one variety from the other. It demonstrates that the genetic composition of rice varieties remains distinct from one another, and that variety names in Sierra Leone are good indicators for genetic diversity of rice at the farm level.
    Aiding violence or peace? The impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict in sub-Saharan Africa
    Ree, J. de; Nillesen, E.E.M. - \ 2009
    Journal of Development Economics 88 (2009)2. - ISSN 0304-3878 - p. 301 - 313.
    serial-correlation - war - consequences - dataset - growth
    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid flows on the risk of civil conflict. We improve on earlier studies on this topic by addressing the problem of the endogenous aid allocation using GDP levels of donor countries as instruments. A more structural addition to the literature is that we efficiently control for unobserved country specific effects in typical conflict onset and conflict continuation models by first differencing. The literature often overlooks the dynamic nature of these types of models, thereby forcing unlikely i.i.d. structures on the error terms implicitly.1 As a consequence, malfunctioning institutions, deep-rooted political grievances, or any other obvious, yet unobserved and time persistent determinants of war are simply assumed away. We find a statistically significant and economically important negative effect of foreign aid flows on the probability of ongoing civil conflicts to continue (the continuation probability), such that increasing aid flows tends to decrease civil conflict duration. We do not find a significant relationship between aid flows and the probability of civil conflicts to start (the onset probability)
    Framing and Reframing in Invasion Biology
    Keulartz, F.W.J. ; Weele, C.N. van der - \ 2008
    Configurations 16 (2008)1. - ISSN 1063-1801 - p. 93 - 115.
    ecological restoration - ecosystems - biodiversity - metaphor - faking - world - wild - war
    In this essay, we focus on metaphors in invasion biology. The emergence of this discipline went hand in hand with heated debates on the so-called exotic species issue. The dualistic stalemate in which these debates have resulted-with only two extreme positions, nativism on the one hand and cosmopolitanism on the other-is at least partly connected to the dominance of loaded political metaphors. To break up this dichotomy to create space for fruitful debate, we will explore various metaphorical frames of ecological thinking and their implications for invasion biology. We will deconstruct the nativism-cosmopolitanism dichotomy by identifying various management practices, in each of which the native species issue is shaped differently.
    The Struggle after Combat. The role of NGOs in DDR processes: Afganistan Case Study
    Frerks, G.E. ; Gompelman, G. ; Laar, S. van de; Klem, B. - \ 2008
    The Hague : Cordaid - 51
    oorlog - veteranen - reconstructie - ontwapening - vrede - war - veterans - reconstruction - disarmament - peace
    It has come to be well-recognised that effective DDR (Disarmant, Demobilisation and Reinregration of ex-combatants) is crucial for building durable peace and preventing a relapse into conflict. It has also become clear that DDR is difficult and that it is intertwined with other war to peace transitions, such as establishing security and legitimate governance, rehabilitation, the return of refugees, economic recovery, and transitional justice. So the main research question that this study wants to answer is: what is the role of NGOs – and Cordaid’s partners in particular – in DDR processes in relation to military and other actors involved with such processes?
    Annual Report "In the shadows of a conflict" programme, Mozambique, 2007-2008
    Bolding, J.A. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 10
    conflict - oorlog - vluchtelingen - mozambique - zimbabwe - politieke conflicten - conflict - war - refugees - mozambique - zimbabwe - political conflicts
    Fragmented lives: reconstructing rural livelihoods in post-genocide Rwanda
    Koster, M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Georg Frerks; Lisa Price. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049678 - 468
    plattelandsontwikkeling - huishoudens - gezinsinkomen - oorlog - conflict - sociologie - sociale economie - platteland - plattelandsbevolking - huishoudelijke consumptie - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - landbouw - armoede - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - etnische groepen - rwanda - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - sociaal kapitaal - geslacht (gender) - rural development - households - household income - war - conflict - sociology - socioeconomics - rural areas - rural population - household consumption - subsistence farming - agriculture - poverty - rural women - woman's status - ethnic groups - rwanda - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - social capital - gender
    During the genocide in Rwanda (1994) nearly a million Tutsi and moderate Hutu were killed and millions of people were displaced. Since 2002, social scientist Marian Koster has regularly visited the country for her PhD-research at Wageningen University. Her study centred on the strategies that households in the northeast of Rwanda use to secure their livelihoods. During her visits to Rwanda, Koster was told that the poorest and most vulnerable households consist of those headed by women, and specifically those headed by widows. However, her research clearly indicates that this is not the case and that widowed heads of households perform much better than is generally assumed. This has important consequences for development interventions which, in an attempt to reach the poorest of the poor, continue to target widows. Koster’s research also shows that many new laws and policies, meant to increase land tenure security and agricultural production, are counterproductive and directly undermine poor people’s livelihood strategies.
    Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049562 - 252
    oorlog - conflict - sociale onrust - preventie - internationale samenwerking - ontwikkelingsbeleid - hedendaagse samenleving - sudan - rwanda - burundi - democratische republiek kongo - guatemala - peace building - vrede - maatschappelijk middenveld - internationale conflicten - politieke conflicten - sociaal conflict - conflictmanagement - war - conflict - social unrest - prevention - international cooperation - development policy - contemporary society - sudan - rwanda - burundi - congo democratic republic - guatemala - peacebuilding - peace - civil society - international conflicts - political conflicts - social conflict - conflict management
    This study looks into images, and assumptions, of civil-society peacebuilding and its support by international development organizations, and how this relates to politics and practices of peacebuilding on the ground. It is built principally on a series of case studies of peacebuilding interventions and organizations working in southern Sudan, Burundi and the African Great Lakes Region, and Guatemala. This study underscores the importance of implicit assumptions in contemporary peacebuilding work. International support to civil-society peacebuilding is often guided by simplified notions on conflict and the potential roles of civil society in bringing about peace. To arrive at better peacebuilding practices, it is necessary to know more about what civil society is, how it works, and how the assumptions motivating its support work out in practice. This requires exploring the everyday peacebuilding practices of civil-society organizations. In particular, attention needs be given to the organizing practices of peacebuilding organizations, how they operate and develop, to the different meanings attributed to peacebuilding by the diverse parties involved, and to how understanding peacebuilding is part of organizational politics.
    In fieldwork and analysis, I applied an actor-oriented approach. Such an approach helps to clarify how policies and interventions of organizations result from the everyday practices of organizations and the people and authorities of the communities where they implement their programs. A core notion in this study is discourse, referring to collective practices of ordering or ‘framing’ in the minds of actors, who make sense of their experiences through coherent schemes. Discourses are often seen as implying power: as dominant traditions of looking at the world which eliminate alternative visions, or as affecting social relations through diverse ways. Organizations may use discourses strategically, for example, to legitimize interventions. Discourse can be highly political, promoting particular agendas for development.
    While acknowledging the power of discourse, this study focuses on discourse as a cognitive process. To be able to operate and to respond to the complexity of conflict and peacebuilding, development organizations simplify reality. But simplifying reality always implies that parts of reality are lost or remain underexposed. In the case studies, I reflect on the consequences of simplification, and explore how development organizations can better take account of the necessary simplifications they make. In practice, it is often difficult to separate the cognitive exercise of ordering from the politics of ordering - the two often interact or go closely together. Simplification always implies political choices by prioritizing certain problems and interpreting particular interventions as the most appropriate. The study argues that to understand ordering requires giving equal attention to the several attributes of discourse. This research approach is elaborated upon in chapter 1.
    Chapter 1 also reflects on my experiences with an interactive research approach. Through such an interactive approach, I aimed to develop a sense of ownership over questions and recommendations by the civil-society organizations involved in the research and so enhance their peacebuilding work. In my experience, an interactive approach enhances the depth of ethnography and analysis of findings. Carrying out research with (instead of only on) organizations facilitates relations of trust and witnessing organizing practices from within organizations, and enables discussing findings with research partners. It stands out in this study that rather than a research methodology, the interactive character of research should be seen as an intention. The extent to which research becomes interactive cannot be planned, nor assured by the adoption of particular interactive methodologies. Rather, the interactive character of research develops with the advancement of collaboration. Crucial to this process is mutual commitment, which depends on the flexibility of the research and research partners, the expected benefits for the participants, the extent to which expectations are satisfied along the way, and the enthusiasm of individual participants. The interactive character of research is also affected by organizational changes and changing interests. Practically, this means that a researcher needs to ensure that space for participation and non-participation is maintained throughout the process.
    The subsequent two chapters analyse international discourses and policies of peacebuilding, and look at a general level at how organizations make sense of conflict. Chapter 2 analyzes how over the 1990s, peacebuilding discourses developed that attributed a major role to civil society in realizing peace. Though seeming consensus on peacebuilding evaporated with the anti-terrorist policies after 9/11, and peacebuilding roles taken on by international NGOs and local civil-society organizations were reclaimed by donor governments and multi-lateral agencies, many international and local organizations continued to be involved in peacebuilding. Nonetheless, consensus on what peacebuilding should look like remains absent. Development actors differ considerably in prioritizing particular domains, and do not agree on the sequencing and interdependence of particular interventions. Moreover, practices of civil-society peacebuilding implicitly build on strong assumptions about the roles civil society, the state and international actors should play in peacebuilding and governance.
    Chapter 3 analyses how those policy trends and emerging discourses regarding peacebuilding and civil society are reflected in the work of particular international development organizations. The chapter demonstrates that peacebuilding is not just an opportunistically applied policy label but has acquired different meanings in practice. Definitions of peacebuilding in policy strategies reflect the different backgrounds of organizations. At the same time, local conditions set limits and pose specific opportunities for peacebuilding. The chapter illustrates that rather than that international development organizations change their practices when new discourses come into fashion and replace previous ones, practices of organizations follow slower. Newer and older discourses continue to be relevant in the practices of organizations. This provides room for manoeuvre to organizations who find in this multiple grounds to legitimize a large range of intervention strategies. Policies are an ongoing process, and are shaped along the way by diverse participants, a theme that is elaborated upon also in the next chapters.
    The remainder of the study discusses case studies of the everyday practices of civil-society peacebuilding in a variety of countries. Chapter 4 analyses the organizing practices of a local women’s peace organization in southern Sudan. The case underscores how the practice of policy making and implementation is more related to the internal dynamics of an organization than to the planned objectives of the intervention. The chapter highlights that to better understand civil-society peacebuilding we need qualitative approaches that give central attention to dynamics of peace organizations. These include the history of an organization and the context in which it develops, the way conflict is experienced in the every day life of local people, the way how actors in and around organizations give meaning to the organization and its practices, and the politics of organizations. The chapter outlines such an approach, presenting five properties of local peace organizations that need be taken into account when supporting local peacebuilding.
    The next two case studies look in particular at how the framing of conflict situations works through in interventions. Chapter 5 analyses how conflict and peacebuilding in the Great Lakes Region are increasingly framed in regional terms. In practice, however, local and international organizations have difficulty in analysing the regional character of conflict and arriving at collaborative regional strategies. Moreover, local civil-society organizations are deeply embedded in the politics of regional conflict. Consequently, the shift to regional peacebuilding approaches remains more theoretical than practical. A regional framing of conflict helps to understand conflict, but fails to inform intervention practice.
    Chapter 6 discusses the consequences of understanding land disputes in Burundi as short term problem, resulting from the massive return of refugees and displaced to their home communities. This particular framing of land disputes urged international and local organizations to initiate programmes for strengthening the capacities of local conflict resolving institutions. The case material shows that though the return of refugees was a factor in disputes about land, there is a lot of continuity between conflict-related and regular land disputes in Burundi. Many land disputes require first and foremost solutions at the political level, rather than at the local level. Moreover, the question was whether the strengthening of local dispute resolving mechanisms would enhance their legitimacy and accessibility, and could guarantee the protection of vulnerable people. While a framing of local land disputes in terms of an emergency helped to define interventions, this framing neglected the long-term, structural character of many land disputes.
    Chapter 7 tackles the question of what the official ending of violence implies for the roles, policies and practices of civil-society organizations. It discusses how Guatemalan civil-society organizations deal with agrarian conflict, ten years after the 1996 peace agreements. The case study shows how international organizations tend to assume that the peace agreements implied a switch to a peaceful situation, in which state institutions function, and civil society can effectively participate in the democratic process. This imagining makes them to assume that civil society now has to switch from protest to proposal, and to neglect the slow process of societal transformation in a post-conflict setting. The chapter argues that the pace and extent of societal transformation has a strong influence on how organizations can develop. It also illustrates that framing conflict and intervention is a continuous process, in which organizational politics play an important role. Finally, the chapter raises some questions on the overall roles of the international community in realizing peace. It argues that the increasing global influence on national governance processes effectively diminishes the power of local citizens to demand accountability from their governments for the processes of change initiated.
    Chapter 8, the conclusion of the study, argues the importance of looking at the everyday practices of peacebuilding. It points out how international discourses on civil-society peacebuilding have resonated in the policies of international development organizations. Over the last fifteen years many organizations have come to reflect on how their programmes contribute to peaceful societies. What emerged was not a circumscribed and shared peacebuilding agenda, but a shared preoccupation with the impacts of diverse interventions on peace and conflict. The precise reasons why organizations apply the term, what peacebuilding does and how it works cannot be read from mandates and policy documents. It requires one to look at the everyday politics and practices of organizations. The meaning of peacebuilding results from everyday negotiations of staff-members and stakeholders at different levels in the aid-chain, each with their own interests and perspectives. To understand peacebuilding, one needs to understand the history of organizations and individual staff members, and the multiple identities and realities organizations represent to the people participating in them, and explore the roles of both organizational politics and conflict politics in defining interventions.
    The conclusion also poses pertinent questions on the assumptions underlying contemporary peacebuilding work, in particular on the roles of civil society and governance. The particular roles civil-society organizations may play in peacebuilding and their most effective contributions to governance strongly depend on local conditions, and on how those influence organizations. International development organizations tend to have particular images of what civil society should do and look like and are eager to support only those organizations fitting their image. International support to local civil society needs to take more account of prevailing forms of governance and the history and development of civil society in a particular context.
    Finally, the conclusion lines out different processes through which organizations arrive at particular framings of the reality in which they operate. Such framings simplify reality in ways that create possibilities for intervention or restrict them. Framing involves cognitive processes of ordering and creating routine, as much as organizational politics. Organizations tend to separate emergency from normality, to focus on techniques of intervention, and to interpret contexts and peacebuilding interventions according to their own frames of reference and particular expertise. At the same time, organizational politics –intentionally or unintentionally– play a strong role in ordering. Organizations promote particular representations of reality that are in line with their possibilities for intervention, and that legitimize them to intervene, and that present their interventions in a-political terms.
    The chapter underscores the high expectations international organizations often have of their intervention. The study points to the need to observe modesty and connect to local agendas. Rather than to work on grand schemes of peacebuilding and taking the lead in societal transformation, they need to be partners in peace.


    Evaluatie Stabiliteitsfonds 2004 en 2005
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam/Wageningen : BartKlemResearch / Wageningen Universiteit - 92
    ontwikkelingshulp - stabiliteit - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - herstel - preventie - conflict - oorlog - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - beoordeling - ontwikkelingslanden - nederland - vrede - reconstructie - development aid - stability - development - development policy - rehabilitation - prevention - conflict - war - non-governmental organizations - development programmes - assessment - developing countries - netherlands - peace - reconstruction
    The Settlement Issue in Turkey and the Kurds: an Analysis of Spatial Policies, Modernity and War
    Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2007
    Leiden & Boston : Brill (Social, economic and political studies of the Middle East and Asia (S.E.P.S.M.E.A.) vol. 102) - ISBN 9789004155572 - 354
    vestigingspatronen - nederzetting - etnische groepen - minderheden - oorlog - overheidsbeleid - turkije - koerdistan - guerrilla - opstand - nationale politiek - settlement patterns - settlement - ethnic groups - minorities - war - government policy - turkey - kurdistan - guerrilla - rebellion - national politics
    In seeking to understand village evacuation in the Kurdistan region of Turkey in the 1980s and 1990s, this book focuses on the spatial aspects of the armed conflict. It tries to explain how settlement and resettlement policies and practices in Turkey have been part of a larger project of political and cultural engineering, based on a revision of a classical understanding of modernity as reflected in the work of Durkheim, Mauss, and Tönnies. This interdisciplinary perspective has allowed contributions from sociology to the political sciences and from history to social geography.
    Human security and international insecurity
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klein Goldewijk, B. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860166 - 320
    veiligheid - conflict - oorlog - vluchtelingen - instellingen voor ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingshulp - beleid - overheidsbeleid - politiek - bestuur - safety - conflict - war - refugees - development agencies - development aid - policy - government policy - politics - administration
    Working on Peace-Building and Conflict Prevention
    Schennink, B. ; Haar, G. van der - \ 2006
    Amsterdam, The Netherlands : Dutch University Press - ISBN 9789036100519 - 217
    conflict - oorlog - politiek - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - vluchtelingen - nederland - wereld - vrede - conflict - war - politics - non-governmental organizations - refugees - netherlands - world - peace
    Principles and pragmatism, Civil-military action in Afghanistan and Liberia
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. ; Laar, S. van de; Klingeren, M. van - \ 2006
    Utrecht/Amsterdam : Universiteit Utrecht/Bart Klem Research - ISBN 9789073726581 - 119
    oorlog - conflict - ontwikkelingshulp - technische hulpverlening - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - afghanistan - liberia - vrede - humanitaire hulp - militaire activiteiten - militaire hulp - war - conflict - development aid - technical aid - non-governmental organizations - afghanistan - liberia - peace - humanitarian aid - military activities - military aid
    This study looks into civil-military relations in conflict and post-conflict countries. In recent years, the issue has invoked a heated debate, which has occasionally lacked nuance and clarity. Some guidelines have emerged, but they are hardly sufficient for adequate positioning. This study focuses on Afghanistan and Liberia and is intended to assist policymakers and practitioners in developing adequate strategies by answering the following questions: What does cooperation between peacekeeping forces and aid agencies entail in practice? What are the strengths and weaknesses of peacekeeping forces in providing civilian aid? What are the risks and opportunities involved for NGOs when cooperating with peacekeeping forces? What opinion do civil society organisations in the countries concerned have about cooperation with peacekeeping forces? The study starts out by highlighting the changing nature of contemporary conflict and the concomitant changes in the humanitarian, military and development domains. It goes on to order and define key concepts used in current debates on the topic. The subsequent description of civil-military relations in the current peace missions in Afghanistan and Liberia is based on extensive field work and forms the main empirical body of the report.
    Perceived conflicts between pastoralism and conservation of the Kiang Equus kiang in the Ladakh Trans-Himalaya, India
    Bhatnagar, Y.V. ; Wangchuk, R. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Mishra, C. - \ 2006
    Environmental Management 38 (2006)6. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 934 - 941.
    wildlife - war
    An emerging conflict with Trans-Himalayan pastoral communities in Ladakh¿s Changthang Plateau threatens the conservation prospects of the kiang (Equus kiang) in India. It is locally believed that Changthang¿s rangelands are overstocked with kiang, resulting in forage competition with livestock. Here, we provide a review and preliminary data on the causes of this conflict. Erosion of people¿s tolerance of the kiang can be attributed to factors such as the loss of traditional pastures during an Indo-Chinese war fought in 1962, immigration of refugees from Tibet, doubling of the livestock population in about 20 years, and increasing commercialization of cashmere (pashmina) production. The perception of kiang overstocking appears misplaced, because our range-wide density estimate of 0.24 kiang km¿2 (± 0.44, 95% CL) is comparable to kiang densities reported from Tibet. A catastrophic decline during the war and subsequent recovery of the kiang population apparently led to the overstocking perception in Ladakh. In the Hanle Valley, an important area for the kiang, its density was higher (0.56 km¿2) although even here, we estimated the total forage consumed by kiang to be only 3¿4% compared to 96¿97% consumed by the large livestock population (78 km¿2). Our analysis nevertheless suggests that at a localized scale, some herders do face serious forage competition from kiang in key areas such as moist sedge meadows, and thus management strategies also need to be devised at this scale. In-depth socioeconomic surveys are needed to understand the full extent of the conflicts, and herder-centered participatory resolution needs to be facilitated to ensure that a sustainable solution for livelihoods and kiang conservation is achieved.
    Footpaths to reintegration : armed conflict, youth and the rural crisis in Sierra Leone
    Peters, K. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards; Kees Jansen. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044017 - 188
    conflict - oorlog - landbouwontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - plattelandsgemeenschappen - sierra leone - plattelandsjongeren - jeugd - conflict - war - rural youth - youth - agricultural development - rural development - rural areas - rural communities - sierra leone
    Return after flight : exploring the decision making process of Sudanese war-displaced people by employing an extended version of the theory of reasoned action
    Uffelen, J.G. van - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks, co-promotor(en): K. McKemey. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085043836 - 415
    oorlog - vluchtelingen - migratie - bevolkingsverplaatsing - besluitvorming - verplaatsing - menselijk gedrag - risico - bedrijfsvoering - sudan - ethiopië - slachtoffers - humanitaire hulp - actieonderzoek - war - refugees - migration - resettlement - decision making - displacement - human behaviour - risk - management - sudan - ethiopia - victims - humanitarian aid - action research

    Research Issues and Approach

    Forced displacement and the response of the international community is one of the most pressing challenges of contemporary times. Whether in dealing with refugees or internally displaced people the international system has been struggling to prevent forced migration, address its consequences and find ‘durable’ solutions (chapter 1). This study concentrates on repatriation policy and practice, which are considered to lack responsiveness to the needs, initiatives and strategies of the displaced as the prime actors (chapter 2 and 3). The assumption addressed in this study is that a better understanding of displaced people’s return planning, and the beliefs, values and motivations underpinning them, is fundamental to developing effective strategies that result in appropriate protection, humanitarian assistance and reintegration support as well as sustainable development for people displaced by conflict.

    Displaced people are not helpless and passive recipients of ‘well-intended’ aid. Inappropriate generalisations about refugees and other war related displaced people have encouraged ignorance of war-displaced people as conscious and active human beings, strategising their return options and making sense out of often highly complex and dynamic return environments. Displaced people are therefore to be regarded as actors possessing agency, i.e. they are capable of processing social experience and devising ways of coping with life, even under the most extreme forms of coercion. This study therefore emphasises the importance of human agency in informing both repatriation policy and practice.

    The research presented in this thesis has:

    1. Explored the factors that have greatest influence on the return decisions of war-displaced people

    2. Looked into the ability of an actor oriented model to account for, and explain, the dynamic nature of return beliefs and issues informing the decision to return

    3. Examined the application of the extended Theory of Reasoned Action in terms of increasing the understanding of prospective return behaviour as compared with more traditional models

    4. Tested the inclusion of the vulnerability concept in enhancing the sensitivity of the model in volatile and hazard prone contexts

    5. Looked into the appropriateness of an actor oriented formal model in informing both policy and practice.

    Method

    The Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) was selected as the actor-oriented model of choice to explore war-displaced people’s return decision-making. Most reviews in the field of behavioural research have drawn attention to the TORA as one of the principal theoretical constructs for both the study and prediction of behaviour. The theory has been applied to a wide variety of behavioural domains proving its robust nature, predictive power and its ability to perform in different contexts (section 4.3 presents the rationale for its application to this study). This research presents the first time this theoretical construct has been applied to study the systematic identification of return beliefs and issues taken into account by people displaced by war when making decisions regarding return and repatriation.

    The information gathered through applying the TORA allows for a detailed explanation of displaced people’s return decision-making (see figure 4.1). At a general level return behaviour is determined by return intent. The principal theoretical assumption underpinning the approach is that attitudes and social normative pressures inform behavioural intent. A third variable, Perceived Behavioural Control was later included in the model to expand the TORA’s ability to address behaviours that are not under the full volitional control of the subjects under study, i.e. the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985, 1988 and 2005). This study suggests a fourth determinant, Perceived Vulnerability, based on the assumption that it would enhance the sensitivity of the model when dealing with risk prone behavioural contexts. The third level of analysis accounts for attitudes and subjective norms in terms of beliefs about the consequences of return and about the normative expectations of relevant referents. Each successive level of analysis in this sequence provides a more comprehensive account of the factors determining repatriation (reference is made to figure 4.1).

    One of the components (section 1.3) of this research is to apply the extended TORA model in exploring the return intent of a group of Sudanese refugees sheltered in three camps in western Ethiopia. Another, and related component, is to test the appropriateness of the extended TORA in different forced migration situations by exploring return intent of a group of internally displaced people in the Sudan. The application of the Theory of Reasoned Action within both displacement contexts is described in section 4.4, 6.1 and 9.1. The findings are presented in chapters 6, 7 and 9.

    Research Findings

    Research Question 1: What factors have greatest influence on the decision to return of Sudanese refugees and IDPs? Are these structurally different?

    Both the refugee and IDP study demonstrate the influence of attitude over social norms. Return intent, and ultimately return behaviour, was found to be primarily governed by displaced people’s own experience and perspectives regarding return, as opposed to social influences or pressures. The Perceived Level of Control and Perceived Vulnerability, though strongly correlated with general return intent for the refugee study and weakly for the IDP study, are less influential compared with attitude (both variables are strongly correlated with each other indicating that vulnerability expresses a significant perceived lack of control). These findings underline displaced people’s disposition to decide return based on their personal experience and evaluation of the consequences of return (sections 6.4 and 9.3).

    Various descriptive variables were defined to distinguish between differences in displaced people’s backgrounds and contexts. Generally speaking, refugees’ return planning and strategies were found to be most significantly influenced by:

    · Camp location
    · Tribal background
    · Gender
    · Type of critical event initiating flight
    · Flight pattern and length of displacement experience
    · Knowledge regarding whereabouts of family in the Sudan
    · Prominent challenge faced by being a refugee
    · The type of conflict thought to present the main challenge towards future life in the Sudan.

    The internally displaced study found a much more limited number of variables which registered significantly differences in return intent:

    · Having or not having an income from a permanent job or daily labour
    · The expressed level of vulnerability in displacement
    · The type of benefits associated by residing in or near Khartoum.

    The difference in the number of diagnostic variables partly reflects the diverse make-up of the refugee study, which was comprised of eight ethnic groups and many different return contexts, as compared with one particular tribal group and return area for the IDP study.

    Analysis of the refugee data found that, in general, return intent is influenced by the following barriers or blockages presented in decreasing order of influence (section 6.5, appendix 6.6):

    · Will be conscripted into an armed group
    · Face hardship and difficulties
    · Our children will be abducted
    · Will be repeatedly displaced
    · Will be arrested
    · No modern health care services provided
    · No educational services provided
    · Our children will not have access to schooling
    · To rebuild livelihoods better not wait for UN repatriation
    · Loss of chance for resettlement in western country
    · Insecurity makes it difficult to have enough to eat.

    Influential drivers for return were found to be:

    · Food-secure within a short period of time (less than six months)
    · Can rely on traditional ways of peacemaking
    · Collect and consume wild foods to survive
    · Large household helps to become food secure.

    Either, a change in the level to which these beliefs are seen to be true or untrue, or a change in the attributed value to these prospective outcomes, affects the intention to return and, therefore, ultimately return behaviour.

    The IDP study found the following blockages presented in order of decreasing significance (appendix 9.6):

    · Experience serious food shortages and face hunger
    · Find that we have become different from those who stayed behind
    · Face serious shortage of safe and reliable drinking water
    · Difficulties in constructing our tukuls or shelters
    · Life will be different from what it used to be before the conflict: ‘life has changed’
    · If provided, aid is best distributed by our own leaders
    · Will be suspected
    · Face repeated displacement
    · The international community not providing food aid means we might die
    · Face insecurity in our home area
    · Half food rations for a year is better than full rations for 6 months.

    Influential drivers affecting the return decision were found to be:

    · Children will have access to school
    · Burial in my home area
    · Rely on our traditional ways of peacemaking to make and maintain peace
    · Depend on forest foods and fish for survival following return
    · Come to own goats or cattle (re-build wealth status)
    · Half food rations for a year is better than full rations for 6 months.

    The seventy salient beliefs emitted by the refugees, and the fifty-one by the IDPs, were grouped in a logical way to represent attitudinal dimensions of return behaviour referred to as belief domains or systems. A total of eleven domains were defined: safety & security, health, education, food security, mode of return, peace makers, peace spoilers, culture and integration, processes of change, community based support systems, and humanitarian aid.

    For both the refugee and IDP study influential barriers informing general return are found in a number of belief domains: safety and security, health, educational and food security. Influential drivers in the traditional community based peace making, food security- and aid-domains. Interestingly only the IDP study found that loss of identity and processes of change are influential in deciding return. It appears that prolonged exposure to an urban lifestyle has formed a deterrent towards return, as the displaced feel that they have changed and therefore life in Abyei will never be the same. However, on the other hand the desire to be buried in one’s homeland forms an influential driver towards return. Both influential beliefs reflect an underlying schism between the older generation who grew up in Abyei and a younger generation having hardly any memory of their home area and a rural livelihood. In a different way this generational divide is also found amongst refugees and is expressed in the popularity of the resettlement option to America, Canada or Australia amongst the younger refugee generation. For them the potential re-settlement option forms a strong barrier against return to the Sudan.

    It was shown that clustering of all salient return beliefs provided an interesting insight in the general cognitive structures underlying the various belief and value domains that inform decisions to return. Associations of influential beliefs acting as barriers, or drivers with less influential ones, provided an understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the beliefs taken into consideration when deciding return (figure 6.1 in section 6.6 and figure 9.1 in section 9.4).

    Research Question 2: Can a structured actor-oriented model account for, and give insight into, the dynamic nature of return beliefs and expectations of home that inform displaced people’s decision to return?

    The findings identified through the data analysis of the refugee and IDP studies underline the importance of recognising the diversity in backgrounds and return contexts over time that exist within war-displaced populations. Application of the TORA construct identified how such differences are reflected in the attitudes, social norms and perceived level of control and vulnerability. The degree to which household heads plan to return, and the type of return beliefs and issues informing the decision to return, showed a very significant variation across different segments of both the refugee and IDP population, as well as across the various return options presented (for the refugee study: return in the 2002/3 dry season, the period 2003-5 and when there is ‘peace’; for the IDP study return in the 2003/4 dry season, following the signing of the peace agreement and return with Abyei presenting a safe and secure home area). The decision-making process of displaced people regarding return was thus found to be both dynamic and context specific.

    Findings of both studies highlighted the social diversity and diversification of the communities regarding migrational decision-making. Household categories were found to express a diversity of return responses. Generally speaking, and in line with expectations, the intention to return was found to increase over time with peace signalling a strong increase in that intent. This highlights the importance of conflict resolution to the return decision-making of people displaced by war and conflict. Independent of the return option pursued, the return decision of both refugee and IDP household categories was found to be governed foremost by displaced people’s experience and knowledge regarding displacement, and expectations of the return process and context.

    Analysis of the refugee data demonstrates that prior to peace the security situation and its implications for returnees’ livelihoods are seen as serious obstacles for return. However, provision of aid and services in relatively stable and peaceful areas was found to directly result in a higher return intent, particularly so for those households planning to return to their home village. Findings of the IDP study demonstrated the same pattern, with those planning to return before the signing of a peace agreement preferring the SPLA controlled southern part of their home area. Interestingly, if peace is seen to exist, the provision of aid and services in areas of return no longer affects displaced people’s decision to return: the focus shifts towards social integration issues including community support systems.

    Both the refugee and IDP studies found that the nature and number of influential return beliefs informing the return-decision change over the return options from barriers to drivers and from beliefs dealing with fulfilment of basic needs and security to socio-culturally connotated beliefs. If peace exists the influential return beliefs informing the decision of both refugees and IDPs form all drivers towards return. The one common influential belief for both groups is the perceived level to which one can rely on traditional mechanisms to manage conflict within their own and across tribal territories (section 6.7 and 9.5).

    The Subjective Norm (perceived social pressure) registered a strong correlation with stated Intent to return for the refugees studied, independent of the return option pursued. Although, perceived social pressure was also found to strongly influence IDPs’ return decision in the immediate or proximate future, it became a weaker factor once the location (Abyei) was considered a peaceful and safe environment to return to.

    Regarding the refugee study, both the Perceived Level of Control and Perceived Vulnerability were found to strongly influence the return decision independent of the return option. In general, refugees’ decision to return prior to ‘peace’ reflects both an underlying pre-occupation with threats and hazards in what are perceived as potentially volatile post return environments, as well as a lack of control over the return process itself. Following ‘peace’ return is associated with resilience and increased levels of control. The IDP study found that the perceived level of control and vulnerability only informed the decision to return prior to the peace agreement. Following the signing of the agreement and with Abyei being safe and secure both variables do not significantly inform the return decision. Generally speaking this reflects refugees’ tendency to take issues of vulnerability and control into account when deciding return independent of the return moment itself. For the internally displaced Dinka Ngok this depends on the peace process, following the signing of a peace agreement vulnerability and perceived control no longer influence the decision to return as such.

    As a structured actor oriented model the TORA was thus found to be able to explain the dynamic nature of return beliefs and issues in informing displaced people’s decision to return.

    Research Question 3: Will the application of an ‘actor-oriented’ approach lead to a greater understanding of prospective return behaviour than currently applied models on which return management and policy are based?

    A majority of the studies on displaced people’s attitudes towards repatriation reflect the importance of displaced people’s decision-making in the return or repatriation process (section 4.2). Yet most formal repatriation programmes are conceived by governments and agencies with little reference to, and understanding of, the return decision making process of war-displaced people, their return strategies and in many cases pro-active stand regarding return.

    Rather than explaining return behaviour as emanating from the external context (socio, economic or political) the TORA explains behaviour by exploring the psychosocial antecedents informing the return decisions of displaced people. The TORA, as a method, encapsulates the concept of human agency by exploring displaced people’s knowledge-, belief-, value- and power-domains which inform the decision to return. Displaced people are not the passive receivers of ‘well intended’ aid but participate and interact with other actors involved in the return process and reconstruction efforts. The beliefs and issues that were found to influence their decision to return reflect both their background and the specific nature of return contexts (chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8, 9).

    The findings of both the refugee and internally displaced people studies demonstrate that the descriptive utility of the extended Theory of Reasoned Action is a powerful and informative conceptual model. Certainly when compared with the traditional ‘push-pull’ migration theory as well as assimilationist models of migrant integration that still dominate much of the discourse on migration (section 2.1). The TORA directly accounts for the experience of migrants, a failure of former models, for which they have been criticised (section 10.2). The TORA also presents a participatory approach (the elucidation of salient return beliefs and issues across a displaced population during the first stage of the interview process). Lack of participation, due to insufficient time or space, has been a common criticism of repatriation policy and practice. Additionally the TORA’s findings are supported statistically, while more socio-anthropological oriented studies are sometimes critiqued for their biased outcomes, reflecting the personal views and opinions of the researcher, and their lack of representation.

    Research Question 4: Does the inclusion of the notion of vulnerability enhance the sensitivity of an actor-oriented model in volatile or hazard prone environments?

    The addition of the ‘Perceived Vulnerability’ variable as an extension of the TORA drew attention to displaced people’s understanding of a potential risk associated with the proposed return. The variable makes it possible to analyse the context specific nature of risk and ability to cope, thus providing an insight into their perception of vulnerability.

    The refugee study found that the decision to return is very strongly informed by the Perceived Vulnerability variable, independent of the return option pursued (section 6.9). In general, the nature of Perceived Vulnerability expresses vulnerability associated with beliefs in the security and safety-domain before, and following peace resilience associated with beliefs related to the food security-, cultural-, community support- and aid-domains. The case study on Nuer and Anyuak return (chapter 7) illustrated that prospective return areas may present hazardous environments even with return pursued when there is ‘peace’. From a vulnerability perspective the imminent importance of influential Nuer beliefs, such as fear of hostile tribes, and lack of control by a central authority over small firearms at such a point in time highlights the volatility of prospective areas of return. All of these form influential deterrents regarding return.

    The IDP study demonstrated that the return decision is strongly informed by the Perceived Vulnerability variable for ‘immediate’ return only, i.e. return in early 2004. The decision to return following the signing of a peace agreement and with Abyei presenting a peaceful return environment was not informed by the Perceived Vulnerability variable. However, some individual influential return beliefs were found to be associated with aspects of vulnerability, notably beliefs in the safety-security domain and cultural domain respectively (section 9.5 and table 9.3b and 9.3c).

    The importance of the Perceived Vulnerability variable is that it draws attention to critical return issues and explains them in terms of the context specific nature of the hazard. Seen as a predictive warning utility the Perceived Vulnerability determinant enables to uphold the voluntary nature of return and to inform appropriate protection and aid programming over and following return, prior to return itself. The Nuer and Anyuak case study also demonstrated its use as an indicator of whether return strategies are based on risk reduction or increased coping capability. Nuer return strategies were found to be primarily informed by the level to which they perceive themselves able to cope with threats posed in post-return environments. The return strategy of the Anyuak was found to be based on a combination of risk reduction and increased coping capability. The case study highlighted the potential of such differentially informed strategies to be dysfunctional in that they are likely to generate conflict in frontier areas where Nuer and Anyuak interests overlap (see section 7.6).

    Perceived Vulnerability, as a variable of return intent, is numerically expressed in a Vulnerability measure based on a scale ranging from very ‘vulnerable’ to very ‘resilient’. The ‘Perceived Vulnerability’ scale is useful for measuring and comparing expressed vulnerability or resilience levels both within and across displaced populations. The nature of expressed vulnerability or resilience can be explored by looking into the associations with the reasoned return beliefs and expectations of home. This ability makes the extended TORA a potent tool in community-based vulnerability and capacity analysis when considering return behaviour.

    By using the Perceived Vulnerability reading as a descriptor variable, the return planning and strategies of household categories expressing different levels of vulnerability or resilience in return can be studied. Following the signing of a peace agreement, the IDP study found that households expressing vulnerability in return (as opposed to households who express themselves to be resilient or highly resilient) are prepared to take on the biggest risk, while at the same time they were found least likely to cope with that risk. Further analysis established that the return decision of households expressing vulnerability in return is emotively informed, and does not reflect an analysis of what may constitute critical return beliefs and issues. The findings of the IDP study also indicated that, with increasing levels of resilience, the return decision reflects a critical consideration of reasoned return beliefs and expectations of Abyei. In contrast, independent of the level of vulnerability associated with return, refugee household’s decisions to return when there is ‘peace’ were found to be significantly informed by an analysis of reasoned return beliefs and issues.

    As a descriptor variable the Perceived Vulnerability determinant proved to be a highly differentiating variable, explaining the level to which refugee or IDP households plan return, the particular sets of return beliefs and expectations of the return context influentially informing the return decision, the nature of vulnerability or resilience expressed in return as well as how the different household categories feel about return (in terms of return beliefs and expectations of home).

    Destitution amongst vulnerable IDPs is often more pronounced when compared with refugees. Refugees, independent of the level of expressed vulnerability, have recourse to an established system of international protection and assistance which IDPs lack. The importance of the finding that most vulnerable IDPs make an emotively as opposed to reasoned return decision highlights the fact that situations of severe deprivation can induce instances of behaviour that may be counter to the subjects’ underlying beliefs. In a sense one can say that the voluntary nature of return, a key Guiding Principle on Internal Displacement is itself compromised by pronounced levels of destitution in displacement, which can place the most vulnerable particularly at risk on return.

    The expansion of the TORA with the ‘Perceived Vulnerability’ variable was found to enhance its descriptive utility in exploring the potential for disaster in post –return environments. Both this ability and the findings of the refugee and IDP studies suggest that, in contexts where the elements of threat or fear are associated with the decision in question, this extended version of the TORA will enhance the explanatory power of the model for the study of risk-prone behavioural decisions.

    Research Question 5: Can a formal theoretical model be suitable for general application to inform repatriation policy and practice?

    Is the extended TORA as a formal theoretical model suitable for general application to inform repatriation policy and practice? Findings of the refugee and IDP studies suggest a positive answer to this question on three different accounts.

    First, the value of the extended TORA construct as a model for isolating specific return beliefs and issues. These need to be taken into account in policy and strategy formation in order to inform direct interventions in the field of protection, provision of aid and re-integration support. Also, its descriptive utility is a valuable tool in managing more effectively the nexus between spontaneous return and organised repatriation.

    Secondly, as an extension to the TORA the Perceived Vulnerability construct enables the exploration of both the importance and nature of vulnerability associated with key migrational decisions. This makes the TORA construct a potent tool for mapping social or community vulnerability in volatile or hazard prone contexts. With vulnerability being a central concept in disaster studies, and a more recent focus as an aspect of world development, the construct of Perceived Vulnerability is a potential tool for the development of disaster policy and practice.

    Finally, this research has drawn attention to the importance of the level to which the emotively expressed attitude towards the return decision is informed by the analysis of reasoned return beliefs and expectations of home as an indicator of the voluntary nature of return. This is an important finding, as many a repatriation programme or assisted return has been initiated based only on an emotively informed return response. This has led to misguided interventions resulting in a waste of resources at best, and at worst placed returnees at risk. The findings of both refugee and IDP studies suggest that for voluntary return to take place in safety and dignity, the decision to return should to a significant degree reflect a reasoned analysis of pertinent return beliefs and issues.

    Based on the findings of this study recommendations are made regarding areas where the extended version of the TORA can be applied to inform the development of both policy and practice. To mention the most promising (chapter 10):

    · Its role in multi-way information systems to enhance communication between the major stakeholders in the management of population return

    · Compilation of a checklist of beliefs derived from other research into critical return beliefs as a check to make sure that potentially critical return issues are taken note of

    · Rather than exploring general return planning and strategies, particular belief and value domains may be focused upon, e.g. exploring in-depth the security and safety domain with the purpose of informing protection programming

    · The need to simplify and deprofessionalise the models’ application in order to make the construct more widely available and cost-effective, e.g. to facilitate its re-deployment to account for changes of return intent over time

    · Rather than focusing on the institutional interest and need to understand displaced people’s decision-making, attention should be given to the models’ utility in serving ‘direct’ community interest, e.g. as a tool of community learning regarding critical return factors.



    Conclusion

    By applying the extended TORA an understanding of war-displaced people’s return decision is gained which is instrumental to guide humanitarian aid and development interventions that support and build on displaced people’s return strategies. The extended TORA can contribute to the development of both repatriation policy and practice, which enables a genuine and more participatory approach to planning and decision-making. This would result in interventions which take account of the complexity inherent in return and repatriation. Honouring displaced people’s agency allows for taking into account their critical return beliefs and issues. Ultimately, this comes down to the question of respect. Respect for the complexity of what ‘voluntary return’ constitutes in today’s world and, even more important, respect for the people who are forcibly displaced. This means insuring a return to their places of origin in safety and with dignity, not as a favour, but as a fundamental human right.War-affected displacement and its responses by the international community is one of the most pressing challenges of contemporary times. Whether in dealing with refugees or internally displaced people, the international system has been struggling to prevent forced migration, address its consequences and find durable solutions. Repatriation policy and practice, pursued as the durable solution to war induced displacement, are being critiqued for lacking responsiveness to the needs, initiatives and strategies of the displaced as its prime actors. A better understanding of displaced people’s return decisions, and the beliefs, values and motivations underpinning them, is seen as instrumental in developing strategies to deliver effective protection, humanitarian assistance and reintegration support.
    This thesis explores the return decision-making process of war-displaced communities by taking an actor oriented approach. The Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; Ajzen, 1985, 1988 and 2005) was used to analyse the psycho-social antecedents of displaced people’s decision to return. A ‘Perceived Vulnerability’ variable was suggested as an extension of the model, based on the belief that it would make the model more sensitive to potentially hazard prone or risky behavioural contexts. Two major surveys were undertaken in order to explore the decision-making process of a group of Sudanese refugees and a group of internally displaced people.

    Both surveys found that the dynamics of return are informed by the changing nature of return beliefs and expectations considered influential by war-displaced people when deciding return. Such issues were found to reflect the social diversity and internal differentiation of war-displaced communities, as well as the diversity of return contexts. The ‘Perceived Vulnerability’ variable enhanced the descriptive value of the model in hazard prone or risky contexts and was found instrumental to analyse the context specific nature of risk and ability to cope with those risks thus providing an insight in displaced people’s perception of vulnerability. The study’s findings suggest that the application of a formal model, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, can be suitable for informing repatriation policy and practice. As an actor oriented approach, the theory may prove helpful in developing flexible and de-centralised approaches that support and build upon displaced people’s return strategies, as appropriate to complex and dynamic contexts.

    Keywords: Forced Migration, Humanitarian Aid, Resettlement, Repatriation, Migrational Decision Making, Refugees, IDPs, Sudan, Ethiopia, Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Vulnerability, Risk Management

    Cross-Racial Envy and Underinvestment in South Africa
    Haile, D.T. ; Sadrieh, A. ; Verbon, H. - \ 2006
    Munich, Germany : CESifo (Working Papers 1657) - 23
    intercultureel onderzoek - interraciale relaties - etnische groepen - etniciteit - oorlog - inkomensverdeling - sociale economie - menselijk gedrag - economische ontwikkeling - zuid-afrika - cross cultural studies - race relations - ethnic groups - ethnicity - war - income distribution - socioeconomics - human behaviour - economic development - south africa
    Trust games are employed to investigate the effect of heterogeneity in income and race on cooperation in South Africa. The amount of socio-economic information available to the subjects about their counterparts is varied. No significant behavioural differences are observed, when no such information is provided. However, when the information is available, it significantly affects individual trust behaviour. The low income subjects from both racial groups invest significantly less in partnerships with the high income subjects of the other racial group than in any other partnership. We attribute this behaviour to cross-racial envy, which on aggregate may lead to substantial underinvestment in the economy.
    Settlement wars : an historical analysis of displacement and return in the Kurdistan region of Turkey at the turn of the 21st century
    Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards; M.M. van Bruinessen. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085043706 - 239
    nederzetting - geschiedenis - oorlog - vestigingspatronen - plattelandskern - turkije - settlement - history - war - settlement patterns - rural settlement - turkey
    The return of the population and the reorganisation of rural areas are current topics in war-torn countries. In the 1990s, southeastTurkeywas the scene of a war between the Turkish army and the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK). In its efforts to effectively control the guerrilla activities of the PKK, the Turkish army cleared an estimated 3000 to 4000 villages. According to the Turkish authorities this led to the displacement of some 400,000 people but according to human rights organisations 4 million people (the majority of them Kurds) were displaced. Most of them settled in towns inside and outside of the region.

    Various studies have indicated that a sizeable majority of the displaced rural population would rather return to their own village. Although various programmes have been developed to facilitate this return, few people have actually returned.

    Settlement Warsinvestigated the return policy of the Turkish government. It discusses that various government agencies had wide-ranging and even conflicting ideas about 'returning'. Agencies mainly concerned with public safety - the army and governors in the region - have insurmountable objections against a return of the rural population. They fear that the people are sympathetic towards the PKK, and will once again enable this organisation to organise itself in rural areas.

    Conversely agencies that focus on developing the region believe that rural areas cannot remain permanently uninhabited. However these agencies do not want to see the former settlement structurerestored,and their inhabitants return. Rather they consider the clearance of so many villages as an opportunity to develop a new settlement structure for rural areas. This structure should be built up around villages that can fulfil the role of local centres, and facilitate the downscaling of administration.
    Fieldwork in hazardous areas
    Hilhorst, D. ; Jansen, B.J. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Disaster Studies - 27
    rampen - gevaren - natuurrampen - conflict - oorlog - noodgevallen - noodhulp - onderzoek - ethiek - veldwerk - disasters - hazards - natural disasters - conflict - war - emergencies - emergency relief - research - ethics - field work
    Gender, conflict and development
    Bouta, T. ; Frerks, G.E. ; Bannon, I. - \ 2005
    Washington, D.C. : World Bank - ISBN 9780821359686 - 192
    rampen - conflict - oorlog - vrouwen - arbeid (werk) - ontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - vrede - disasters - conflict - war - women - labour - development - gender - peace
    No peace, no war: the anthropology of contemporary armed conflicts
    Richards, P. - \ 2005
    Oxford : James Currey - ISBN 9780852559352 - 288
    oorlog - conflict - strijdkrachten - politiek - boeren - sociale antropologie - etnische groepen - afrika - azië - europa - latijns-amerika - war - conflict - armed forces - politics - farmers - social anthropology - ethnic groups - africa - asia - europe - latin america
    Gender relations, livelihood security and reproductive health among women refugees in Uganda. The case of Sudanese women in Rhino Camp and Kiryandongo refugee settlements
    Mulumba, D. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789085043041 - 353
    man-vrouwrelaties - vluchtelingen - vrouwen - voortplantingsgedrag - gezondheidszorg - gezondheidsbeleid - gemeenschappen - uganda - afrika - sudan - oorlog - conflict - huishoudens - migranten - gender relations - refugees - women - reproductive behaviour - health care - health policy - war - conflict - households - migrants - communities - sudan - uganda - africa
    Armed conflict and civil wars are the main cause of refugees in the Great Lakes Region of Eastern Africa. Forced migration into alien refugee settings exacerbates gender inequalities and increases the vulnerability of women and girls. The main objective of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of gender relations, livelihood security and reproductive health among refugees in Uganda with a particular focus on women. The research design was descriptive and exploratory in nature and the methodology was primarily qualitative. The main findings were that refugee policies and gender relations have an immense influence on human reproduction, reproductive health and livelihood security. Although UNHCR has formulated gender sensitive policies, their implementation in rural settlements remains gender neutral. In addition, the strategic needs of women refugees are not catered for. The study concludes that there is a discrepancy between the international and national policies and what is on the ground.
    Dien Hoetink. 'Bij benadering'. Biografie van een landbouw-juriste in crisis- en oorlogstijd
    Kamp, J.E. van - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789085040538 - 393
    biografieën - vrouwen - geschiedenis - crises - oorlog - nederland - kantooremployés - overheidsorganisaties - wetgeving - agrarisch recht - landbouwministeries - overheidsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - landbouw - voedselvoorziening - beleid inzake voedsel - handel - voedingsmiddelen - indonesië - duitsland - agrarische handel - politiek - nazisme - biographies - women - office workers - legislation - agriculture - agricultural law - ministries of agriculture - government organizations - government policy - agricultural policy - politics - food supply - food policy - agricultural trade - trade - foods - history - crises - war - germany - indonesia - netherlands - nazism
    A woman with a university degree who makes a career outside of the home was rather exceptional in the first half of the twentieth century. This biography about Dien Hoetink (1904-1945) describes her legal work in Dutch agriculture between 1933 and 1945.It attemps to answer the question to what degree her work can be considered the preliminary draft for the public regulation of Dutch agriculture after the Second World War.When describing her work asanlawyer emphasis is placed on the interaction between her personal life history and her work.

    In November 1933 Dien Hoetink was appointed as a staff member in the office of the Agricultural Crises Committee inThe Hague. At the end of 1939 she was appointed head of the legal department of the Government Organisation for Food Supply during Times of War. (RbVVO) In this position she was responsible for the legislation on food supply during the German occupation. She based this legislation on the articles 152-154 of the Dutch Constitution in order to get a fluent transition to new legislation after the departure of the Germans.

    Dien Hoetink lost her life (Ravensbrück 1945) because of her struggle to maintain important elements of Dutch legal practice during the German occupation. In spite of her tragic death, her role as legal advisor for the RbVVO marked the start of the introduction of public duties for civil organisations in Dutch agriculture. Her main intellectual issue, the importance of the 'public interest', will be remembered.

    Free desriptors: intellectual biography, emancipation of women, social-historical biography,Dutch East Indies, agricultural depression, food supply during Worldwar II, black market, Dutch Constitution, publicduties of civil organisations, concentration camp Ravensbrück.

    Controversy over recent West African wars: an agrarian question?
    Richards, P. - \ 2004
    Copenhagen : University of Copenhagen (Occasional paper ) - ISBN 9788791121128 - 25
    oorlog - conflict - agressief gedrag - jeugd - arbeid (werk) - contractarbeid - landbouwhervorming - landbouw - afrika - slavernij - war - conflict - aggressive behaviour - youth - labour - bonded labour - agrarian reform - agriculture - africa - slavery
    Dealing with diversity, Sri Lankan discourses on peace and conflict
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. - \ 2004
    The Hague : Clingendael Institute of International Relations - ISBN 9789050310918 - 328
    oorlog - conflict - etniciteit - etnische groepen - politiek - cultuur - ontwikkeling - sri lanka - vrede - geslacht (gender) - islam - war - conflict - ethnicity - ethnic groups - politics - culture - development - sri lanka - peace - gender - islam
    Dealing with Diversity: Sri Lankan Discourses on Peace and Conflict Georg Frerks and Bart Klem [eds] What is the conflict in Sri Lanka? An ethnic problem? A historical threat to Buddhism? A liberation struggle? Or the unfortunate outcome of political mismanagement? Dealing with Diversity bundles contributions from a great variety of Sri Lankan authors. The accounts often contradict each other, but this book does not aim to identify the `right¿ perspective or the `truth¿. Georg Frerks and Bart Klem argue that these multiple discourses are simply a fact and they need to be understood.
    Women's roles in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction: Literature review and institutional analysis
    Bouta, T. ; Frerks, G.E. - \ 2002
    Doetinchem : Reed Elsevier Business Information BV - ISBN 9789059011830
    conflict - oorlog - man-vrouwrelaties - rollen (functie) - vrouwen - organisaties - overheidsorganisaties - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - geslacht (gender) - conflict - war - gender relations - roles - women - organizations - government organizations - non-governmental organizations - gender
    Seeds and survival: plant genetic resource management in conflict and post-war recovery.
    Richards, P. ; Ruivenkamp, G. ; Drift, R. van de; Mulbah Gonowolo, ; Jusu, M.S. ; Langley, C. ; McGuire, S.J. - \ 1997
    Rome : IPGRI [etc.] - ISBN 9789290433491 - 61
    genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - oorlog - conflict - in-situ conservering - west-afrika - plant genetic resources - war - conflict - in situ conservation - west africa
    Fighting for the Rain Forest: war, youth and resources in Sierra Leone.
    Richards, P. - \ 1996
    London [etc.] : James Currey [etc.] - ISBN 9780852553985 - 198
    jeugd - oorlog - bosbedrijfsvoering - regenbossen - milieueffect - geschiedenis - sociale structuur - sierra leone - west-afrika - vrede - youth - war - forest management - rain forests - environmental impact - history - social structure - sierra leone - west africa - peace
    A study of the methods of warfare, the youths involved and the aspirations for schools and jobs that motivates them to fight. The author argues that the war can only be understood in the context of old traditions of social and technical management of the forest.
    Tussen ons volk en de honger : de voedselvoorziening, 1940 - 1945
    Trienekens, G.M.T. - \ 1985
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): A.M. van der Woude. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789070482237 - 537
    economie - noodgevallen - voedselproductie - voedingsmiddelen - nederland - filosofie - aanbodsevenwicht - oorlog - maatregelen - economics - emergencies - food production - foods - netherlands - philosophy - supply balance - war - measures

    On the eve of the German occupation of 1940-1945, The Netherlands was one of the most densely populated countries in the World. How can we account for the fact that, without any imports from overseas, the general standard of health amongst the population remained at a reasonable level, until after the rail strike in September 1944, when the 'Dutch hunger-winter' set in. Explanations are sought in discussions of following issues: economic preparations for defence, the unity of German and Dutch interests in keeping the Dutch people fed, the setting up and functioning of food provision organizations, the radical changes in agricultural production, and the equitable division of the available food. Exports to Germany remained limited. Calculations are made of the quantity of food that was available, through the black market apart from distribution by official channels. In order to achieve this, and because of falsification during the occupation, it has been necessary tot reassemble most of the existing statistical data on agriculture. Finally the results of the calculations regarding the availability of food are compared with those on public health.

    Een blik op bezet Nederland : luchtfoto's van de geallieerden : hoe de geallieerden luchtfoto's maakten en gebruikten en wat wij er nu mee doen
    Staal, G. ; Voskuil, R.P.G.A. - \ 1980
    Wageningen : Studium Generale Landbouwhogeschool - 96
    luchtfotografie - oorlog - schade - fotointerpretatie - nederland - verdedigingswerken - aerial photography - war - damage - photointerpretation - netherlands - defensive works
    Oorspronkelijk Stiboka bezit: luchtfoto's RAF: luchtopnames Nederland tijdens de oorlog;
    De regeling der agrarische defensieschade
    Koppejan, A.W.G. - \ 1943
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G. Minderhoud. - Wageningen : Wageningse Boek- en Handelsdrukkerij - 160
    oogstschade - verliezen - economische impact - militaire gebieden - bomschade - compensatiebedragen - oorlog - crop damage - losses - economic impact - military areas - gunfire and bomb damage - compensatory amounts - war
    Damages caused to agriculture and horticulture by defensive measures could be reimbursed in various ways. Reimbursement could be by replacement at government expense, replacement in kind, or by financial compensation. Three systems were draughted for estimating damages in field cropping or pasturing: 1. The book-keeping method in which the financial surplus was calculated on the damaged farm and similar undamaged farms; 2. Immediate settlement based on an estimate of the surplus for the crop derived from data on this crop for 3 similar farms; 3. Fixed damages, which were an extreme simplification of method 1.

    These systems were equally suitable for estimating compensation in land reallocations and in land acquisition for roads. The principle of damage estimates by calculating farm profits after excluding 'internal risks' was important for many studies on farm economics, especially studies on the financial consequences of changes in farming system.

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