Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?
Limpens, J. ; Egmond, E. van; Li, B. ; Holmgren, M. - \ 2014
Functional Ecology 28 (2014)1. - ISSN 0269-8463 - p. 283 - 290.
sphagnum mosses - picea-mariana - water-table - scots pine - boreal - growth - peatlands - recruitment - establishment - carbon
1.Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unraveling the mechanisms that may explain successful tree seedling establishment in these ecosystems is highly relevant. 2.To assess the role of drought on early tree seedling establishment and the relative importance of plant traits in tree seedling survival, we conducted a factorial glasshouse experiment with seven conifer species. 3.Our results show that drought inhibits moss growth, thereby increasing survival of tree seedlings. Survival success was higher in Pinus than in Picea species, ranking Pinus banksiana > Pinus sylvestris > Pinus nigra > Picea mariana > Picea glauca, Picea sitchensis > Picea rubens. We found that those species most successful under dry and wet conditions combined a fast shoot growth with high seed mass. 4.We conclude that plant traits contribute to explaining successful early tree seedling establishment in bogs
Soil maps of The Netherlands
Hartemink, A.E. ; Sonneveld, M.P.W. - \ 2013
Geoderma 204-205 (2013). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 1 - 9.
water-table - seasonal fluctuation - survey information - classification - evaluate
The Netherlands has a long history of soil research. Over the past 150 years, seven national soil maps have been produced at scales ranging from 1:50,000 to 1:1,000,000. The maps were based on different conceptual models which reflected advances in soil science as well as societal demands. There are four phases in the development of soil mapping in The Netherlands. The first three are: (i) the geological phase (1837–1937), (ii) the physiographic phase (1937–1962) and (iii) the morphometric phase (1962–1995). The earliest soil maps, made in the mid-1800s, were largely based on surface geology. In 1950 the first national soil map was published based on physiographic soil mapping. From the 1960s onwards, mapping followed a pedogenetic–morphometric approach and these maps have been widely used in land use planning, hydrologic studies, re-allotments, and agricultural land evaluations. An increase in environmental awareness with the need to assess environmental impacts and developments in information technology induced the digital soil information phase (1995–present). New technologies have improved the collection, storage, analysis and presentation of soil geographic information. It is concluded that initial soil mapping in The Netherlands had a strong agricultural focus but that the current maps are used in a wide range of applications.
Uncertainty in future N2O emissions due to land use change and socio-economic developments
Nol, L. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Environmental Management 94 (2012)1. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 78 - 90.
nitrous-oxide emissions - methane emissions - scenario development - water-table - soil - uncertainty - inventory - model - scale - agriculture
Better insight in the possible range of future N2O emissions can help to construct mitigation and adaptation strategies and to adapt land use planning and management to climate objectives. The Dutch fen meadow landscape is a hotspot of N2O emission due to high nitrogen inputs combined with moist peat soils due to land use change. Socio-economic developments in the area are expected to have major impacts on N2O emission. The goals of this study are to estimate changes in N2O emissions for the period 2006–2040 under three different scenarios for the Dutch fen meadow landscape (rural production, rural fragmentation, and rural multifunctionality) and to quantify the share of different emission sources. Three scenarios were constructed and quantified based on the Story-And-Simulation approach. The rural production and the rural fragmentation scenarios are characterized by globalization and a market-oriented economy; in the rural production scenario dairy farming has a strong competitive position in the study region, while under the rural fragmentation scenario agriculture is declining. Under the rural multifunctionality scenario, the global context is characterized by regionalization and stronger regulation toward environmental issues. The N2O emission decreased between 2006 and 2040 under all scenarios. Under the rural production scenario, the N2O emission decreased by 7%. Due to measures to limit peat mineralization and policies to reduce agricultural emissions, the rural multifunctionality scenario showed the largest decrease in N2O emissions (44%). Under the rural fragmentation scenario, in which the dairy farming sector is diminished, the emission decreased by 33%. Compared to other uncertainties involved in N2O emission estimates, the uncertainty due to possible future land use change is relatively large and assuming a constant emission with time is therefore not appropriate.
Climatic modifiers of the response to nitrogen deposition in peat-forming Sphagnum mosses: a meta-analysis
Limpens, J. ; Granath, G. ; Gunnarson, U. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. - \ 2011
New Phytologist 191 (2011)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 496 - 507.
global change - nutritional constraints - terrestrial ecosystems - carbon accumulation - species richness - ombrotrophic bog - vascular plants - n deposition - water-table - growth
• Peatlands in the northern hemisphere have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) during the Holocene than any other terrestrial ecosystem, making peatlands long-term C sinks of global importance. Projected increases in nitrogen (N) deposition and temperature make future accumulation rates uncertain.• Here, we assessed the impact of N deposition on peatland C sequestration potential by investigating the effects of experimental N addition on Sphagnum moss. We employed meta-regressions to the results of 107 field experiments, accounting for sampling dependence in the data.• We found that high N loading (comprising N application rate, experiment duration, background N deposition) depressed Sphagnum production relative to untreated controls. The interactive effects of presence of competitive vascular plants and high tissue N concentrations indicated intensified biotic interactions and altered nutrient stochiometry as mechanisms underlying the detrimental N effects. Importantly, a higher summer temperature (mean for July) and increasedannual precipitation intensified the negative effects of N. The temperature effect was comparable to an experimental application of almost 4 g N m-2 yr-1 for each 1°C increase.• Our results indicate that current rates of N deposition in a warmer environment will strongly inhibit C sequestration by Sphagnum-dominated vegetation
Methane emissions in two drained peat agro-ecosystems with high and low agricultural intensity
Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Kroon, P.S. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Huissteden, J.C. van; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2010
Plant and Soil 329 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 509 - 520.
broeikasgassen - methaan - emissie - veengronden - agro-ecosystemen - ontwaterde omstandigheden - landbouw - bodemtemperatuur - greenhouse gases - methane - emission - peat soils - agroecosystems - drained conditions - agriculture - soil temperature - nitrous-oxide fluxes - spatial variability - water-table - soil-temperature - ch4 - scale - n2o - grasslands - peatlands - cover
Methane (CH4) emissions were compared for an intensively and extensively managed agricultural area on peat soils in the Netherlands to evaluate the effect of reduced management on the CH4 balance. Chamber measurements (photoacoustic methods) for CH4 were performed for a period of three years in the contributing landscape elements in the research sites. Various factors influencing CH4 emissions were evaluated and temperature of water and soil was found to be the main driver in both sites. For upscaling of CH4 fluxes to landscape scale, regression models were used which were specific for each of the contributing landforms. Ditches and bordering edges were emission hotspots and emitted together between 60% and 70% of the total terrestrial CH4 emissions. Annual terrestrial CH4 fluxes were estimated to be 203 (±48%), 162 (±60%) and 146 (±60%) kg CH4 ha-1 and 157 (±63%), 180 (±54%) and 163 (±59%) kg CH4 ha-1 in the intensively managed site and extensively managed site, for 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. About 70% of the CH4 was emitted in the summer period. Farm based emissions caused per year an additional 257 kg CH4 ha-1 and 172 kg CH4 ha-1 for the intensively managed site and extensively managed site, respectively. To further evaluate the effect of agricultural activity on the CH4 balance, the annual CH4 fluxes of the two managed sites were also compared to the emissions of a natural peat site with no management and high ground water levels. By comparing the terrestrial and additional farm based emissions of the three sites, we finally concluded that transformation of intensively managed agricultural land to nature development will lead to an increase in terrestrial CH4 emission, but will not by definition lead to a significant increase in CH4 emission when farm based emissions are included
Stochastic uncertainties and sensitivities of a regional-scale transport model of nitrate in groundwater
Brink, E. van den; Zaadnoordijk, W.J. ; Burgers, S.L.G.E. ; Griffioen, J. - \ 2008
Journal of Hydrology 361 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 309 - 318.
water-table - netherlands - fluctuation - management - fate
Groundwater quality management relies more and more on models in recent years. These models are used to predict the risk of groundwater contamination for various land uses. This paper presents an assessment of uncertainties and sensitivities to input parameters for a regional model. The model had been set up to improve and facilitate the decision-making process between stakeholders and in a groundwater quality conflict. The stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis comprised a Monte Carlo simulation technique in combination with a Latin hypercube sampling procedure. The uncertainty of the calculated concentrations of nitrate leached into groundwater was assessed for the various combinations of land use, soil type, and depth of the groundwater table in a vulnerable, sandy region in The Netherlands. The uncertainties in the shallow groundwater were used to assess the uncertainty of the nitrate concentration in the abstracted groundwater. The confidence intervals of the calculated nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater for agricultural land use functions did not overlap with those of non-agricultural land use such as nature, indicating significantly different nitrate leaching in these areas. The model results were sensitive for almost all input parameters analyzed. However, the NSS is considered pretty robust because no shifts in uncertainty between factors occurred between factors towards systematic changes in fertilizer and manure inputs of the scenarios. In view of these results, there is no need to collect more data to allow science based decision-making in this planning process
How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration?
Jandl, R. ; Lindner, M. ; Vesterdal, L. ; Bauwens, B.M.S.D.L. ; Baritz, R. ; Hagedorn, F. ; Johnson, D.W. ; Minkkinen, K. ; Byrne, K.A. - \ 2007
Geoderma 137 (2007)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 253 - 268.
land-use change - spruce picea-abies - organic-matter - climate-change - boreal forest - litter decomposition - nitrogen deposition - site preparation - pinus-radiata - water-table
We reviewed the experimental evidence for long-term carbon (C) sequestration in soils as consequence of specific forest management strategies. Utilization of terrestrial C sinks alleviates the burden of countries which are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Land-use changes such as those which result from afforestation and management of fast-growing tree species, have an immediate effect on the regional rate of C sequestration by incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2) in plant biomass. The potential for such practices is limited in Europe by environmental and political constraints. The management of existing forests can also increase C sequestration, but earlier reviews found conflicting evidence regarding the effects of forest management on soil C pools. We analyzed the effects of harvesting, thinning, fertilization application, drainage, tree species selection, and control of natural disturbances on soil C dynamics. We focused on factors that affect the C input to the soil and the C release via decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The differentiation of SOM into labile and stable soil C fractions is important. There is ample evidence about the effects of management on the amount of C in the organic layers of the forest floor, but much less information about measurable effects of management on stable C pools in the mineral soil. The C storage capacity of the stable pool can be enhanced by increasing the productivity of the forest and thereby increasing the C input to the soil. Minimizing the disturbances in the stand structure and soil reduces the risk of unintended C losses. The establishment of mixed species forests increases the stability of the forest and can avoid high rates of SOM decomposition. The rate of C accumulation and its distribution within the soil profile differs between tree species. Differences in the stability of SOM as a direct species effect have not yet been reported
Effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on CH4 emissions from European mires
Silvola, J. ; Saarnio, S. ; Foot, J. ; Sundh, I. ; Greenup, A. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Ekberg, A. ; Mitchell, E.P. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 2003
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 (2003)2 - 1068. - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 37 - 1-37-12.
atmospheric carbon-dioxide - methane emissions - boreal mire - raised co2 - northern peatlands - water-table - nitrogen deposition - bog vegetation - forest soils - temperature
 Methane fluxes were measured at five sites representing oligotrophic peatlands along a European transect. Five study plots were subjected to elevated CO2 concentration (560 ppm), and five plots to NH4NO3 (3 or 5 g N yr(-1)). The CH4 emissions from the control plots correlated in most cases with the soil temperatures. The depth of the water table, the pH, and the DOC, N and SO4 concentrations were only weakly correlated with the CH4 emissions. The elevated CO2 treatment gave nonsignificantly higher CH4 emissions at three sites and lower at two sites. The N treatment resulted in higher methane emissions at three sites (nonsignificant). At one site, the CH4 fluxes of the N-treatment plots were significantly lower than those of the control plots. These results were not in agreement with our hypotheses, nor with the results obtained in some earlier studies. However, the results are consistent with the results of the vegetation analyses, which showed no significant treatment effects on species relationships or biomass production.