Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Current refinement(s):

    Records 1 - 100 / 123

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    Kalibratie pH meter Inolab
    Bom, Jesse ; Dijksman, J.A. ; Lageschaar, Luuk ; Galen, Martijn van; Hoogendam, C.W. ; Wegh, R.A.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    ph - zuurgraad - meetinstrumenten - instrumenten (meters) - kalibratie - ph - acidity - indicating instruments - instruments - calibration
    Instructievideo over de kalibratie van de InoLab pH meter
    pH meter Inolab
    Bom, Jesse ; Dijksman, J.A. ; Lageschaar, Luuk ; Galen, Martijn van; Hoogendam, C.W. ; Wegh, R.A.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    ph - zuurgraad - instrumenten (meters) - meetinstrumenten - ph - acidity - instruments - indicating instruments
    Instructievideo over het gebruik van de Inolab pH meter
    Kalibratie pH meter Schott
    Bom, Jesse ; Dijksman, J.A. ; Lageschaar, Luuk ; Galen, Martijn van; Hoogendam, C.W. ; Wegh, R.A.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    ph - zuurgraad - meetinstrumenten - instrumenten (meters) - kalibratie - ph - acidity - indicating instruments - instruments - calibration
    Instructievideo over de kalibratie van de Schott pH meter
    Uitloging en effecten van metalen uit staalslakken beoordeeld in mesocosms
    Foekema, E.M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Sonneveld, C. ; Hoornsman, G. ; Blanco Garcia, A. - \ 2016
    Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (Rapport / IMARES C063/16) - 102
    mesocosmossen - oosterschelde - zware metalen - zuurgraad - erosiebestrijding - waterkwaliteit - mesocosms - eastern scheldt - heavy metals - acidity - erosion control - water quality
    Het doel van dit project was vast te stellen in welke mate zware metalen uit in zee gebrachte staalslakken bij een voor de Oosterschelde realistische en een worst-case waterverversingssnelheid: - uitlogen naar de waterkolom; - opgenomen worden door schelpdieren (mossel), wieren (Zee-eik), zakpijpen en sponzen; - negatieve effecten veroorzaken bij bovengenoemde organismen en op het mesocosm ecosysteem. De resultaten van de staalslakken zijn vergeleken met breuksteen, het materiaal dat traditioneel voor dijkverzwaring gebruikt wordt en maasgrind als referentiemateriaal met naar verwachting weinig of geen uitloging.
    Interacties tussen ijzerchelaten en andere spoorelementen vaak onderschat : analysecijfers tonen niet altijd wat beschikbaar is voor plant
    Staalduinen, J. van; Voogt, W. - \ 2015
    Onder Glas 12 (2015)5. - p. 10 - 11.
    glastuinbouw - voedingsstoffen - bemesting - ijzerhoudende meststoffen - plantenvoeding - ijzerabsorptie - chelaten - meststoffen met sporenelementen - absorptie - zuurgraad - substraten - recirculatiesystemen - irrigatiewater - greenhouse horticulture - nutrients - fertilizer application - iron fertilizers - plant nutrition - iron absorption - chelates - trace element fertilizers - absorption - acidity - substrates - recirculating systems - irrigation water
    IJzer is onder normale wortelcondities vaak moeilijk opneembaar voor planten. Dat geldt ook en misschien wel juist voor substraatteelten. IJzerchelaten – organische moleculen die ijzerionen adsorberen en afstaan aan of in plantenwortels – bieden uitkomst. Bij de keuze van het juiste chelaat dient men niet alleen oog te hebben voor de pH van de voedingsoplossing of in de mat. Zij kunnen ook verbindingen aangaan met andere spoorelementen, waardoor drainwateranalyse soms een vertekend beeld geeft van wat er werkelijk beschikbaar is.
    pH pensinhoud interessante variabele
    Klop, A. - \ 2010
    V-focus 7 (2010)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 18 - 19.
    rundveehouderij - pens - zuurgraad - pensinhoud - pensvertering - rundveevoeding - cattle husbandry - rumen - acidity - rumen contents - rumen digestion - cattle feeding
    De processen in de pens van de koe vormen een complex en dynamisch geheel. De zuurgraad (pH) in de pens is een van de graadmeters die daar wat over zegt. Door continue meting is het verloop van de pH nauwkeurig in beeld te brengen. Met enig rekenwerk kan het grillige verloop uitgedrukt worden in kengetallen, waardoor de gegevens van verschillende koeien beter met elkaar te vergelijken zijn.
    PH bufferanalyse 2009. Bepaling zuurbindende waarde volgens het KIWA keur minerale wolproducten
    Blok, C. ; Winkel, A. van; Berg, C.C. van den - \ 2010
    zuur-base-evenwicht - wolproductie - zuurgraad - methodologie - oefening - milieu-analyse - acid base equilibrium - wool production - acidity - methodology - practice - environmental analysis
    Poster over de PH bufferanalyse 2009, een bepaling van de zuurbindende waarde volgens het KIWA keur minerale wolproducten. De methode voldoet in de praktische uitvoering. De auteurs stellen dat het valt te overwegen de methode niet te gebruiken voor standaard-steekproeven maar uitsluitend voor te schrijven als methode bij geschillen.
    Benutting van biologisch rantsoen slechter?
    Klop, A. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2009
    V-focus 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 22 - 23.
    melkveehouderij - ruwvoer (forage) - verteerbaarheid - biologische landbouw - pensvertering - zuurgraad - melkveevoeding - voederkwaliteit - dairy farming - forage - digestibility - organic farming - rumen digestion - acidity - dairy cattle nutrition - forage quality
    Een goede vertering van het ruwvoer hangt af van de eigenschappen van het ruwvoer én van het micromilieu in de pens. Een combinatie van beide factoren geeft inzicht in voerbenutting. Vergelijk het met een composteringsproces. Zowel de soort organisch materiaal als het broeiproces in de hoop spelen een grote rol
    Richtlijnen voor substraat moeten problemen voorkomen : onderzoeker Chris Blok geeft uitleg over nieuwe normering pH
    Bouwman-van Velden, Pieternel ; Blok, C. ; Kaarsemaker, R.C. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)8. - p. 58 - 59.
    tuinbouwbedrijven - kassen - teelt onder bescherming - bodem ph - steenwol - groeimedia - zuurgraad - normen - richtlijnen (directives) - glastuinbouw - market gardens - greenhouses - protected cultivation - soil ph - rockwool - growing media - acidity - standards - directives - greenhouse horticulture
    Op basis van proeven is er een concept beoordelingsrichtlijn (BRL) voor het pH buffergedrag van opkweekpotten opgesteld. Onderdeel van het onderzoek is het ontwikkelen van methodieken om pH gedrag in steenwol te meten. De richtlijnen doen vooral dienst om schades tijdens de opkweek te voorkomen
    Onderzoek naar optimale pH bij komkommer : Lage pH positief, verhoging van NH4 kan beperkt helpen
    Voogt, W. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)1. - p. 62 - 63.
    tuinbouw - teelt onder bescherming - komkommers - onderzoek - ph - zuurgraad - mineralenvoeding - substraten - chlorose - glastuinbouw - groenten - horticulture - protected cultivation - cucumbers - research - ph - acidity - mineral nutrition - substrates - chlorosis - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables
    Het gewas komkommer reageert positief op een lage pH waarde in het substraat. De productie is hoger en er treedt minder chlorose op. Dit komt door een betere opname van spoorelementen. Bij een hoge pH geeft een extra NH4-dosering compensatie voor het hoge niveau, maar te veel NH4 werkt negatief. Realisatie van lage pH-waarden in de mat is in de praktijk lastig. Aanbevolen wordt in ieder geval te voorkomen dat de pH waarde in de mat boven 6 uitkomt
    Een kijkje in de ziel van een aspergeplant
    Kruistum, G. van - \ 2009
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2009 (2009)4. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 42 - 43.
    tuinbouw - asparagus - zuurgraad - eigenschappen - wortels - gewaskwaliteit - rassen (planten) - horticulture - asparagus - acidity - properties - roots - crop quality - varieties
    Het 'functioneren' van een aspergeplant snappen vereist kennis van de planteigenschappen en fysiologische processen. Omgevingsfactoren hebben invloed op beide en de plant reageert er op haar eigen manier op. Een kijkje in de ziel van een aspergeplant
    Steenuil pikt te veel cadmium op
    Brink, N.W. van den - \ 2008
    Kennis Online 2008 (2008)nov. - p. 7 - 7.
    cadmium - zware metalen - risicovermindering - risicofactoren - bodem ph - zuurgraad - toxische stoffen - ecotoxicologie - cadmium - heavy metals - risk reduction - risk factors - soil ph - acidity - toxic substances - ecotoxicology
    Op plekken met veel cadmium in de bodem kunnen beheerders de risico’s van dit giftige zware metaal beperken door de locatie anders in te richten. Hoe precies, dat bestuderen onderzoekers van Alterra. Het kan bijvoorbeeld helpen om het gras langer te laten groeien, of lindes te planten, aldus projectleider Nico van den Brink
    Sulfate reduction under acidic conditions for selective model recovery
    Bijmans, M.F.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Piet Lens. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049258 - 156
    sulfaat - redoxreacties - zuurgraad - metalen - terugwinning - afvalwaterbehandeling - bioreactoren - nikkel - ijzer - sulfaatreductie - sulfate - redox reactions - acidity - metals - recovery - waste water treatment - bioreactors - nickel - iron - sulfate reduction
    Dit proefschrift heeft als doel om processen te ontwikkelen voor selectieve metaal herwinning uit afvalwater and processtromen die meerdere metalen bevatten, door gebruik te maken van sulfaat reductie onder zure omstandigheden
    Van schraal naar rijk zand : beoordeling van en maatregelen voor verbetering van zandgrond op melkveebedrijven
    Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Bokhorst, J.G. ; Boer, H.C. de; Hanegraaf, M.C. - \ 2008
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 21
    biologische landbouw - organische stof - graslanden - maïs - zuurgraad - bodem ph - stikstofgehalte - zandgronden - bodemfauna - bodemstructuur - dierhouderij - geiten - rundvee - schapen - bodemkwaliteit - maatregelen - organic farming - organic matter - grasslands - maize - acidity - soil ph - nitrogen content - sandy soils - soil fauna - soil structure - animal husbandry - goats - cattle - sheep - soil quality - measures
    De bodemkwaliteit van een perceel is sterk bepalend voor de benutting van meststoffen en uiteindelijk de gras- en maïsproductie. Een schrale of een rijke zandgrond is dus ook bepalend voor de portemonnee. Voor een veehouder is het belangrijk de bodemkwaliteit van zijn percelen op waarde te kunnen beoordelen. Dit om aan de ene kant de bemesting strategisch te kunnen inzetten maar ook met gerichte maatregelen de bodemkwaliteit te kunnen verbeteren. Deze brochure (van NMI, WUR en Louis Bolk Instituut) geeft handvatten in het beoordelen van bodemkwaliteit voor de melkveehouderij en draagt maatregelen aan voor verbetering.
    Ecologie en beheersing van zwarte vlekkenziekte in peen : resultaten onderzoek 2005/2006
    Wanders, J. ; Meier, R. ; Booij, C.J.H. ; Velema, E. - \ 2006
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving (Rapport PPO 500086)
    groenteteelt - veldgewassen - wortelgewassen als groente - daucus carota - gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - rhizoctonia - zuurgraad - bewaarziekten - detectie - vegetable growing - field crops - root vegetables - daucus carota - plant protection - plant pathogenic fungi - rhizoctonia - acidity - storage disorders - detection
    Bij Parijse peen en waspeen treden er al voor de oogst vaak verschijnselen op waarbij donkere vlekken ontstaan. De partij peen kan hierdoor onverkoopbaar worden. In dit project is getracht om de oorzaak te vinden. De aangeleverde penen bleken aangetast te zijn door Rhizoctonia solani. Er werd geen relatie met de aanwezigheid van nematoden vastgesteld. Wel leek er een relatie met de pH te zijn.
    Maillard-reactie door model beheersbaar
    Roost, M. van - \ 2006
    Elsevier Voedingsmiddelen Industrie 2006 (2006)1. - ISSN 1570-6907 - p. 22 - 23.
    voedselchemie - voedseltechnologie - maillard-reactie - bruinkleuring - simulatiemodellen - pigmenten - ph - zuurgraad - suikers - eiwitten - kwaliteit - smaak - productieprocessen - food chemistry - food technology - maillard reaction - browning - simulation models - pigments - ph - acidity - sugars - proteins - quality - taste - production processes
    Gewenste en ongewenste bruinkleuring van levensmiddelen door een Maillard-reactie is vaak lastig te beheersen. Wageningse onderzoekers ontwikkelden een simulatiemodel, waarmee producentenmeer inzicht krijgen in de Maillard-reactie, en zo ook de kleur van het eindproduct beter kunnen beheersen tijdens het productieproces en de opslag. Met schematische weergave van de Maillard-reactie
    Zuurtegraad van het melkvet en vaker melken
    Slaghuis, B.A. ; Jong, O. de; Bos, K. ; Wemmenhove, H. ; Koning, C.J.A.M. de - \ 2005
    ZuivelZicht 97 (2005)7. - ISSN 0165-8573 - p. 20 - 21.
    melken - machinaal melken - melkvet - zuurgraad - vetbolletjes - melkmachines - milking - machine milking - milk fat - acidity - fat globules - milking machines
    Dinds de invoering van het automatisch melken is er gemiddeld een stijging te zien van de zuurtegraad van het melkvet. Het is een gevolg van een toename van de vetsplitsing in de melk, die een aantal oorzaken heeft
    Kwaliteit spuitwater heeft in specifieke gevallen invloed op werking middelen
    Zeeland, M.G. van; Schans, D.A. van der; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 95 - 97.
    gewasbescherming - herbiciden - dicamba - glyfosaat - bentazon - waterkwaliteit - spuiten - dosering - toedieningshoeveelheden - hulpstoffen - toevoegingen - zuurgraad - waterhardheid - hardheid - plant protection - herbicides - dicamba - glyphosate - bentazone - water quality - spraying - dosage - application rates - adjuvants - additives - acidity - water hardness - hardness
    Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen worden vaak in lagere doseringen dan de etiketdosering toegepast, om zo het milieu te ontzien en kosten te besparen. Andere factoren, zoals de waterkwaliteit, worden daardoor belangrijker voor het slagen van de bespuiting. De zuurgraad (pH) van het water en allerlei ionen of deeltjes in het water kunnen moleculen van de werkzame stof binden en zodoende de effectiviteit van de bespuiting benadelen. Om de werking van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen te verbeteren zijn waterconditioners en hulpstoffen ontwikkeld en op de markt gebracht. Onderzocht wordt onder welke omstandigheden en voor welke middelen deze hulpmiddelen nodig zijn
    NTM - Een model voor de voorspelling van potentiële biodiversiteit en kans op voorkomen van vegetatietypen
    Schouwenberg, E.P.A.G. - \ 2004
    biodiversiteit - waarden - vegetatie - zuurgraad - vocht - voorspelling - verzuring - beslissingsmodellen - natuur - verdroging (milieu) - biodiversity - values - vegetation - acidity - moisture - prediction - acidification - decision models - nature - groundwater depletion
    Het model NTM, NatuurTechnisch Model, is ontwikkeld voor de voorspelling van (potentiële) biodiversiteit en kans op voorkomen van vegetatietypen op basis van de hydrologie en de bodemkenmerken zuurgraad en stikstofbeschikbaarheid. Het model doet voorspellingen in termen van 'potentiële natuurwaarde' of de kans op voorkomen van vegetatietypen
    Vetsplitsing - Zuurtegraad melkvet hoger bij automatisch melken
    Slaghuis, B.A. - \ 2004
    Veeteelt 21 (2004)9. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 67 - 68.
    melkveehouderij - machinaal melken - robots - melkkwaliteit - melkvet - zuurgraad - vetbolletjes - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dairy farming - machine milking - robots - milk quality - milk fat - acidity - fat globules - farm management
    Sinds de invoering van het automatisch melken is er gemiddeld genomen een stijging te zien van de zuurtegraad van het melkvet. Deze stijging is het gevolg van een toename van de vetsplitsing in melk, veroorzaakt door verschillende factoren die hier in het kort worden weergegeven
    Sweet and sour taste preferences of children
    Liem, D.G. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Kees de Graaf. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085041054 - 200
    consumptiepatronen - kinderen - voedselvoorkeuren - smaken - smaakgevoeligheid - zintuiglijke waarneming - zoetheid - zuurgraad - geur en smaak - consumption patterns - children - food preferences - tastes - taste sensitivity - organolepsis - sweetness - acidity - flavour
    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and the Netherlands. Understanding how sweet and sour taste preferences are formed and modified can help health professionals and those working in industry, to develop strategies to decrease the consumption of sweet tasting foods and to increase the variety of children's diet with sour tasting foods. By using a variety of stimuli that differed in sweet (0.14M - 0.61M sucrose) and sour (0.00M - 0.25M citric acid) taste we investigated 1) how sweet and sour taste preferences of young children can be measured 2) which concentrations of sucrose and citric acid are most preferred 3) how repeated exposure modifies preferences and 4) how these preferences are related to oral physiological processes and food consumption. From the 7 studies we carried out it can be concluded that sweet and sour taste preferences of young children can consistently be measured with paired comparison and rank-order methods. Children prefer beverages with high concentrations of sucrose (0.61M) and a substantial part of children have a preference for extreme sour foods (0.08-0.25M citric acid). The later is related to intensity and novelty seeking behavior and consumption of fruits rather than oral physiological differences. Preferences for sour taste are related to exposure to sour taste during infancy and can not easily be changed by short repeated exposure during childhood. This is in contrast with preference for sweet taste, which can be heightened by a short repeated exposure during childhood. The knowledge gained by the present thesis may open the window to low-sweet and high-sour foods. This could be beneficial for fruit consumption and the dietary variety during childhood.
    Verbeter Hibiscus met voeding
    Aendekerk, T.G.L. - \ 2003
    De Boomkwekerij 16 (2003)9. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 15 - 15.
    houtachtige planten als sierplanten - hibiscus - plantenvoeding - fertigatie - zuurgraad - voedingsoplossingen - mestbehoeftebepaling - groeistoornis - misvormingen - ornamental woody plants - hibiscus - plant nutrition - fertigation - acidity - nutrient solutions - fertilizer requirement determination - failure to thrive - malformations
    Onderzoek naar de invloed van pH en de voedingsoplossing op groeiafwijkingen bij Hibiscus. Gegevens in bijgaande tabellen: 1) Gebruikte voedingsoplossingen (waarden in mmol/l); 2) Beoordeling bij gebruikte voedingsoplossingen; 3) Optimale voedingsoplossingen (waarden in mmol/l) in twee periodes; 4) Optimale bemestingsniveaus in de potgrond (waarden in mmol/l).
    Oorzaak vetsplitsing in melk niet altijd duidelijk
    Slaghuis, B.A. - \ 2003
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 17 (2003)2. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 14 - 15.
    melken - machinaal melken - robots - automatisering - melkkwaliteit - melkveehouderij - melkvet - vetbolletjes - zuurgraad - landbouwkundig onderzoek - milking - machine milking - robots - automation - milk quality - dairy farming - milk fat - fat globules - acidity - agricultural research
    Omdat de oorzaken niet duidelijk zijn, gaat het PV nader onderzoek uitvoeren naar vetsplitsing.
    EU-project Automatisch Melken (3); melkkwaliteit & hygiene
    Vorst, Y. van der; Koning, K. de - \ 2002
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 16 (2002)3. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 18 - 19.
    melken - machinaal melken - automatisering - robots - melkkwaliteit - melkveehouderij - melk - kwaliteit - melkhygiëne - kiemgetal - bacteriëntelling - zuurgraad - ph - melkvet - melkveebedrijven - onderzoeksprojecten - celgetal - milking - machine milking - automation - robots - milk quality - dairy farming - milk - quality - milk hygiene - bacterial count - bacterial counting - acidity - ph - milk fat - dairy farms - research projects - somatic cell count
    Ditmaal is dat de melkkwaliteit. De kwaliteit is goed te noemen, maar de zuurtegraad van het melkvet is een punt van aandacht.
    Overstroming en vegetatie: literatuurstudie over de effecten van overstroming op voedselrijkdom en zuurgraad
    Sival, F.P. ; Jansen, P.C. ; Nijhof, B.S.J. ; Heidema, A.H. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 335) - 66
    vegetatie - inundatie - ph - redoxpotentiaal - voedingsstoffen - eutrofiëring - nederland - literatuuroverzichten - natuurontwikkeling - nutriënten - overstroming - laagveen - rivierkleigebied - voedselrijkdom - zuurgraad - vegetation - flooding - ph - redox potential - nutrients - eutrophication - netherlands - literature reviews
    Door middel van een literatuurstudie aangevuld met kennis van water- en natuurterreinbeheerders betrokken bij lopende onderzoeksprojecten is getracht een beeld te vormen van de bestaande kennis en de kennishiaten. De effecten van inundatie op de redoxpotentiaal, zuurgraad, trofiegraad en de vegetatie worden beschreven. Ook is per fysisch-geografische eenheid (rivierklei-, laagveen en hogere zandgebieden) beschreven wat het effect is van inundatie.De uitkomsten van deze studie zijn ook gebruikt om kennishiaten te identificeren om zo richting te kunnen geven aan het vervolgonderzoek.
    Stijging gehalte vrije vetzuren bij automatisch melken
    Slaghuis, B. ; Koning, K. de - \ 2001
    Rundvee praktijkonderzoek 14 (2001)1. - ISSN 1569-805X - p. 8 - 9.
    melkmachines - machinaal melken - melken - melkinterval - robots - automatisering - melkkwaliteit - melkvet - zuurgraadwaarde - vetzuren - zuurgraad - melkveehouderij - milking machines - machine milking - milking - milking interval - robots - automation - milk quality - milk fat - acid degree value - fatty acids - acidity - dairy farming
    Sinds de invoering van de melkrobot op bedrijven is te zien dat het gemiddelde gehalte aan vrije vetzuren omhoog gaat. Sommige bedrijven kampen zelfs met een korting voor vrije vetzuren.
    Validity of Ellenberg indicator values judged from physico-chemical field measurements
    Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Joosten, V. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Berendse, F. - \ 2001
    In: Vegetation and ecosystem functions; 44th IAVS symposium Freising-Weihenstephan. Freising (Germany), IAVS, 2001 - p. 189 - 189.
    grondwaterstand - statistiek - vegetatie - zuurgraad
    Historische pH en stikstofbeschikbaarheden in bossen en natuurterreinen
    Kros, J. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Reeks Mileuplanbureau 14 / Alterra-rapport 217) - 27
    stikstof - bodem - bodem ph - verzuring - zuurgraad - bossen - natuurreservaten - monitoring - modellen - nederland - nitrogen - soil - soil ph - acidification - acidity - forests - nature reserves - monitoring - models - netherlands
    Op landelijke schaal zijn de zuurgraad en stikstofbeschikbaarheid in bossen en natuurterreinen berekend voor de jaren 1950 en 1980. Hiertoe zijn op landelijke schaal modelberekeningen uitgevoerd met het model SMART2 met gebruikmaking van historische depositiebeelden. De gemodelleerde pH-waarden zijn gevalideerd aan de hand van een beperkte set met historische metingen voor de jaren 1950, 1980 en 1990. De modelresultaten laten zien dat de pH tussen 1950 en 1980 gedaald is. Deze pH-daling is echter niet groot. Landelijk gemiddeld gaat het om een daling variërend van 0,2 pH-eenheden (laag 0-30 cm) tot 0,3 pH-eenheden (laag 0-60 cm). De gemodelleerde mediane stikstofbeschikbaarheid neemt in de periode 1950-1980 toe van 5 tot 7 kmol c per hectare per jaar.
    The use of upscaling procedures in the application of soil acidification models at different spatial scales
    Vries, W. de; Kros, J. ; Salm, C. van der; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 1998
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 50 (1998)1-3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 223 - 236.
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - modellen - onderzoek - geostatistiek - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - models - research - geostatistics
    Different soil acidification models have been developed for use on different scales, i.e., NUCSAM for the local scale, RESAM for the regional (national) scale and SMART for the continental scale. This paper focuses on the uncertainties associated with scale transfer by a simpler model description by (i) temporal aggregation of process descriptions, (ii) neglection of processes associated with vertical aggregation of soil layers and (iii) the use of less detailed formulations of processes (process aggregation) and by spatial aggregation of input data. Results obtained for simulations in acid (sandy) soils indicate that (i) temporal aggregation and process aggregation have a limited impact on the long-term (decades) annual response of soil solution chemistry to atmospheric deposition, (ii) vertical aggregation mainly affects predictions of solutes which show a strong concentration gradient with depth and (iii) spatial aggregation hardly affects the average output for a given forest/soil combination. However, ignoring the variability in input parameters, largely affects the frequency distribution of model outputs in a region. Results imply that model simplification is an adequate step in the upscaling of modelling results from a local to a regional scale.
    Exposure of non-target plants to pesticides: a review on atmospheric concentrations and no-effect levels with special attention for herbicide vapours
    Kempenaar, C. ; Tonneijk, A.E.G. ; Eerden, L.J. van der - \ 1998
    Wageningen : AB-DLO - 20
    gewasbescherming - pesticiden - herbiciden - lucht - hygiëne - luchtverontreiniging - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - chemische samenstelling - planten - chemische analyse - plant protection - pesticides - herbicides - air - hygiene - air pollution - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - chemical composition - plants - chemical analysis
    Effecten van hydrologische maatregelen tegen verzuring en vermesting op vegetatie, bodem en grondwater in Groot Zandbrink; evaluatie na vijf jaar
    Jansen, P.C. ; Kemmers, R.H. ; Delft, S.P.J. van; Knol, W.C. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum - 64
    ecologie - hydrologie - rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bodemchemie - anorganische verbindingen - mineralen - graslanden - nederland - ecohydrologie - gelderland - gelderse vallei - ecology - hydrology - rivers - streams - canals - water - surface water - water pollution - water quality - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - soil chemistry - inorganic compounds - minerals - grasslands - netherlands - ecohydrology - gelderland - gelderse vallei
    In het natuurreservaat Groot Zandbrink zijn greppels aangelegd in natte schraalgraslanden als maatregel tegen verzuring. Sinds 1991 worden de ontwikkelingen in vegetatie, bodem en grondwater gevolgd. Daartoe wordt ieder jaar de vegetatie gekarteerd enwordt de bodem om de twee jaar en het bodemwater ieder kwartaal bemonsterd. Op verschillende plekken bleek de maatregel in natte perioden effectief: de calciumverzadiging en het aandeel lithotroof water in de wortelzone nam toe, terwijl ook de bedekking met kwelafhankelijke plantensoorten groter werd. Tijdens de droge periode juni '95-oktober '96 zijn de veranderingen echter teniet gegaan. Verder toonde het onderzoek aan dat in vergelijking met de periode 1978-1981 de hoogste grondwaterstanden minder langdurig bereikt worden en de gemiddeld laagste grondwaterstand is gedaald.
    Verzuring in Nederland; indirecte effecten
    Erisman, J.W. ; Vries, W. de - \ 1997
    Bodem 7 (1997)3. - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 109 - 111.
    bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - nederland - soil ph - soil acidity - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - netherlands
    Invloed van milieubedreigingen op de natuurwaarden van het Nederlandse bos. Basisdocument voor Natuurverkenning '97
    Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Jansen, P.C. ; Schotman, A.G.M. ; Vries, F. de; Kemmers, R.H. ; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. ; Schaap, W. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : SC-DLO (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 413) - 104
    bosbouw - achteruitgang, bossen - levensvatbaarheid - synecologie - milieu - verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - verdroging - drogen - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - forestry - forest decline - viability - synecology - environment - pollutants - pollution - adverse effects - desiccation - drying - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain
    Validation and application of soil acidification models at local, national and European scale; a compilation of articles on the models NuCSAM, ReSAM and SMART
    Kros, J. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Salm, C. van der; Vries, W. de; Reinds, G.J. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre - 158
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bosbouw - neerslag - zure regen - zure depositie - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - modellen - onderzoek - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - forestry - precipitation - acid rain - acid deposition - chemical properties - acidity - models - research
    An overview is given of three dynamic soil acidification models for application on different spatial scales. NUCSAM, the model for the local scale, was validated on data from two intensively monitored research sites. Results of annual average soil solution concentrations and fluxes calculated with the validated NUCSAM model agreed well with those of the national-scale model RESAM and to a lesser extent with those of the European-scale model SMART. Various deposition scenarios for SOx, NOx and NHx on soils were evaluated with the three acidification models.
    Invioed van de zuurtegraad van varkensurine op de ammoniakemissie
    Eizing, A. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : IMAG-DLO (Rapport / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Milieu- en Agritechniek 96-02) - ISBN 9789054061397 - 27
    varkenshouderij - vleesproductie - vleesvee - urine - luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - vervluchtiging - guanine - hypoxanthinen - hippurinezuur - ph - zuurgraad - waterstofionen - mengmeststoffen - varkensmest - pig farming - meat production - beef cattle - urine - air pollution - ammonia emission - volatilization - guanine - hypoxanthines - hippuric acid - ph - acidity - hydrogen ions - compound fertilizers - pig manure
    Dit rapport beschrijft het effect van een lagere urine-pH op de ammoniakemissie in een varkensstal. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in een modelopstelling met de zogenaamde stalsimulator, waarbij de invloed van de urine-pH op de ammoniakemissie werd onderzocht. Hiervoor werd de urine van vleesvarkens op balanskooien gescheiden van de faeces opgevangen. De pH werd gevarieerd door het toevoegen van fosforzuur of hippuurzuur aan de urine.
    Long-term changes of chemistry and biota in moorland pools in relation to changes in atmospheric deposition
    Dam, H. van; Houweling, H. ; Wortelboer, F.G. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Smeulders, S.M. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : DLO Institute for Forestry and Nature Research (IBN Research Report 96/6) - 147
    meren - reservoirs - plassen - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - chemische eigenschappen - neerslag - zuurgraad - zure regen - zwampen - moerassen - wetlands - lakes - reservoirs - ponds - water - water pollution - water quality - eutrophication - chemical properties - precipitation - acidity - acid rain - swamps - marshes - wetlands
    An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe
    Kruitwagen, S. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H. Folmer; L. Hordijk. - S.l. : Kruitwagen - ISBN 9789054855842 - 235
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - atmosfeer - milieu - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - lucht - hygiëne - economisch beleid - instrumenten (meters) - vergunningen - zwaveldioxide - kwaliteit - conservering - landen van de europese unie - maatregelen - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - atmosphere - environment - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - water pollution - air - hygiene - economic policy - instruments - permits - sulfur dioxide - quality - conservation - european union countries - measures
    7.1 Introduction
    This study has examined the question of whether a system of tradeable emission permits can contribute to a cost-effective reduction of SO 2 emissions in Europe, taking into account prespecified deposition targets and what sort of system it should be. To deal with this question three research topics have been examined.
    (I) What are the main economic aspects of a European acid rain policy?
    (II) What are the advantages and the disadvantages of using a system of tradeable permits to implement a European acid rain policy?
    (III) What should a system of tradeable emission permits for a non-uniformly mixing pollutant look like in order to take deposition targets into account?

    This chapter summarizes and presents the conclusions of this research. First 1 present the conclusion on the efficacy of the different integrated assessment models in analysing the effects of emission reduction. I then summarize the conclusions on guided bilateral permit trading. Finally, I make several suggestions for further research.

    7.2 Economic theory of pollution control
    In this research I have followed the ecological approach to pollution control. This approach does not aim at optimal pollution control levels where marginal abatement costs equal marginal benefits. Marginal benefits are usually too difficult to determine. Instead it aims at cost-effective abatement of pollutants to reach prespecified enviromnental targets. Since acid rain is an international environmental problem, cost- effective abatement needs to be considered in an international context. To achieve cost-effective international abatement it is necessary to have cooperation among countries. Although full cooperation results in minimized total costs for the cooperating countries, individual countries may, however, not act accordingly. This has been explained by the existence of the prisoner's dilemma. However, the assumptions underlying the prisoner's dilemma do not always hold in reality, and in the real world, countries do have some incentives to cooperate. Moreover, side payments can be introduced to stimulate countries to participate in cooperative abatement strategies.

    Another issue I discussed is which policy instruments can be used to implement pollution control policy. A main distinction can be made between economic and non- economic instruments (regulation). A main advantage of economic instruments is their cost-effective character because, unlike regulation, economic instruments result in minimum control costs. Moreover, they allow more flexibility to the polluters and provide a continuous incentive for developing and adapting new control technologies. This thesis has elaborated on the use of tradeable emission permits.

    7.3 Tradeable permits for non-uniformly mixing pollutants
    Environmental degradation by non-uniformly mixing pollutants depends not only on the amount of emission, but also on the location of that emission. Accordingly, the environmental aim I followed in this study was not to reach an emission target, but rather to reach deposition targets. This has main consequences for using a system of tradeable emission permits as this system, in principle, only regulates emissions. It does not take the resulting depositions into account. The implications of permit trading for non-uniformly mixing pollutants have been illustrated and the alternatives for taking emission location into account in permit trading, that were put forward in the literature were discussed in Chapter 3.

    It cannot be concluded in general that emission permits are a suitable instrument for controlling non-uniformly mixing pollutants. The use of emission permits results in a cost-minimum reduction of emissions, but the enviromnental implications of this emission reduction are uncertain, as deposition may be unacceptably large at some locations. To what extent the resulting cost-effective emission allocation deviates from the cost-effective deposition allocation depends on the source-receptor relationships and the marginal control costs of controlling the sources. In the USA, however, tradeable emission permits are actually used for the non-uniformly mixing pollutant SO 2 . Nevertheless, one should be aware that this emission trading does not focus on reaching a deposition target, but is only emission oriented. Environmental targets are taken care of by State Implementation Plans in the USA.

    Deposition permits are an obvious alternative to emission permits for taking emission location into account. Theoretically, the use of tradeable deposition permits results in a cost-effective allocation that meets deposition targets. According to this system, sources have to own the appropriate number of deposition permits for each receptor affected. In this way authorities can control deposition targets. However, a disadvantage of this system is that it may result in an increase in emissions, which is politically delicate. Another argument against this system is the trading complexity that occurs because sources have to operate simultaneously in many different markets.

    Since the use of both emission and deposition permits is not considered to be a very suitable instrument, several alternatives permit systems for non-uniformly mixing pollutants have been proposed in the literature. Relatively simple alternatives are permit trading within zones and the 'worst case' approach, but unfortunately, these systems do not guarantee the non-violation of deposition targets.

    A promising permit trading system that does not violate deposition targets seems to be a more advanced one where the trading is subject to rules. Three variants are known: the pollution offset, the non-degradation offset and the modified pollution offset. All systems guarantee non-violation of deposition targets. The constraints on emissions and on deposition targets, however, differ between these systems. The pollution offset offers the largest trade opportunities, but allows for an increase in emissions. The non-degradation offset and the modified pollution offset are more restricting and consequently result in higher abatement costs. Which of the two has the lower cost cannot be shown on theoretical grounds.

    In judging permit trading systems, special attention has to be paid to the nature of the trading process. Although many studies implicitly assume a simultaneous trading process, it seems more reasonable to consider permit trading as a bilateral and sequential process. Combining permit trading subject to rules with the bilateral and sequential trading concept sheds new light on the cost-effectiveness of these permit trading systems. Empirical studies indicate that bilateral permit trading applying offset rules do not result in cost-effective abatement. However, bilateral and sequential trading has only been recently applied to studies on permit trading, and has been examined further in this study. A main conclusion is that permit trading for non-uniformly mixing pollutants has to be restricted in some way if deposition targets are to be taken into account. What is needed are restrictions that result in non-violation of deposition targets, and at the same time, do not hamper the attainment of the cost-effective allocation.

    7.4 Integrated assessment models
    Integrated assessment models can be used for quantifying the consequences of abatement allocations. These models provide a scientific basis for evaluating alternative abatement allocations and are therefore a useful tool in policy making. Three integrated assessment models are available for Europe : (i) the Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation model (RAINS); (ii) the Abatement Strategies Assessment Model (ASAM) and (iii) the Coordinated Abatement Strategy Model (CASM). Integrated assessment models provide information on emissions, abatement costs, the atmospheric transport of emissions and the environmental effects of alternative abatement strategies. Since accurate monetarization of enviromnental damage is very difficult and complex in practice, the environmental damage is expressed in physical terms. For acidification, the environmental damage is expressed in exceedance of critical loads. Given these targets, a cost-effective emission abatement policy can be found. This makes these models very useful for policy analysis.

    Among the European integrated assessment models, the RAINS model is the most complete and extensive. Although the RAINS model, the ASAM and the CASM are roughly similar, they diverge on various points as well. One difference is the number of acidifying compounds they take into account. Other differences are the optimization options that are implemented and the accuracy of the emission location. Finally, the data sources used differ in some submodels. The main benefit of the ASAM is its accuracy on emission locations and the resulting atmospheric transport. However, because of lack of data for this purpose, the intended accuracy is only partial. Model results show no significant differences caused by the grid to grid approach used. A serious drawback of this model is the lack of clarity of the procedure needed to derive the so called Best Economic Environmental Pathway. The CASM is attractive because of its large number of optimization criteria. However, since policy aims at reaching certain deposition targets, optimization criteria to minimize environmental damage, given a budget constraint are not actually very useful for policy purposes. Comparison of the CASM and the RAINS model shows that the model results are broadly in line with each other.

    There are two reasons for the current status of acceptance of the RAINS model. First, the model is the most completely integrated assessment model for acidification. The alternative integrated assessment models, the CASM and the ASAM do not substantially improve the RAINS model. Second, RAINS was developed by scientists of various disciplines at an international "East-West" institute. This aspect mainly played a role in the acceptance of RAINS in international policy making (Hordijk, 1991, 1995). Acid rain models have substantially increased knowledge of the acid rain problem and have provided useful information for assisting and improving policy making. In this research I used the RAINS model for calculations. The reasons for this choice were those given above: (i) the model is the most complete one for acidification and (ii) the model is widely accepted and was used in the international negotiations on the Second Sulphur Protocol.

    7.5 Guided bilateral trade

    7.5.1 Theory
    Research has shown that in case of non-uniformly mixing pollutants, permit trading has to be constrained if a cost-effective emission allocation is to be attained. It has been argued that if permit trading is constrained, it is necessary to consider permit trading as a bilateral process. In Chapter 5 I developed a new system for bilateral permit trading describing it as guided bilateral trade. The aim of this system is to provide large trade opportunities while at the same time preventing the violation of deposition targets. However, it is not necessary to require that every trade transaction meets the deposition targets. A subsequent trade transaction might compensate for the deposition exceedance at a receptor brought about by a previous trade transaction. To be able to take care of the deposition targets, the guided bilateral trade system restricts trading by a trade vector which indicates the number of permits sources are allowed to sell or buy.

    Guided bilateral permit trading achieves a cost-effective allocation if all trade transactions that are in accordance with the trade vector are profitable. A drawback of guided bilateral permit trading is that trade transactions are not necessarily profitable. Whether this is so depends on the source-receptor relationships, the abatement cost functions, the deposition targets and the initial permit distribution. To reach the deposition targets ultimately, non-profitable trade transactions need to be compensated in some way. Before trade transactions can be guided to the costeffective emission allocation, this allocation has to be known. Therefore full information is required by the trade institution in order to establish the trade vector. Unfortunately, this cancels out one of the characteristics of tradeable permits, namely that full information is not needed. Knowledge on the costeffective emission allocation by policy makers might cause the guided bilateral permit system to become unnecessary. However, knowing this allocation does not by definition imply that it will be agreed upon at once, as can be seen from the Second Sulphur Protocol. In that case, a suitable instrument for achieving further cost savings is a system of guided bilateral trade.

    The term guided bilateral trade indicates that the permit market as such is not able to generate the desired outcome. The trade process has to be guided by a trade institution that takes care of the number of traded permits. However, any trading system that takes deposition targets into account will need some kind of control. The main advantage of the guided bilateral trade system is that the costeffective emission abatement allocation can be achieved if all trade transactions are profitable, or, if not, when non profitable transactions are subsidized. In the past, achieving the cost- effective allocation was thought to be possible by means of a simultaneous trade process. However, as I indicated in section 5.3, the practical functioning of such a trade system is a black box. This box can be opened by means of the system of guided bilateral trade.
    7.5.2 Simulation results

    To examine to what extent the guided bilateral trade system results in a costeffective reduction of S02 emissions in Europe, taking into account deposition targets, I used the RAINS model to simulate guided bilateral permit trading among European countries for SO 2 emissions. In calculating the cost-effective emission allocation, emission is measured at national level. Accordingly, guided bilateral permit trading only allocates emission reduction between countries. The way in which countries meet their emission reduction is a next step. For the sake of completeness it should be noted that the European abatement allocation is only cost-effective if all individual countries also reduce their national emissions in a cost minimum way. I simulated guided bilateral permit trading for three cases. In the policy oriented Base Case, permit trading aimed at the cost-effective emission allocation, given the Current Reduction Plans of the European countries. In variant 1 the restriction of Current Reduction Plans was released. Variant 2 examined guided bilateral permit trading, starting from the SO 2 Protocol.

    The simulation results indicated that permit trading steers the trade process towards the cost-effective allocation of emission abatement, but the cost-effective allocation of emission abatement will not be fully reached by profitable trade transactions. In all three cases, the profit generated by guided bilateral permit trading was substantial. In the Base Case and in variant 1, the cost saying of permit trading amounted to 13.5% of the total abatement costs. From a policy point of view, variant 2 is very interesting since it draws heavily on the actual situation in Europe. The simulation result of Variant 2 indicated that guided bilateral permit trading, starting from the emission allocation in the Second SO 2 Protocol, results is a cost saving of 7.8% of the total abatement costs. Given this result, we may conclude that, compared to the SO 2 Protocol, some cost-effective improvement is possible by guided bilateral permit trading. However, it should be noted that the simulation results excluded transaction costs. Therefore, the indicated cost savings can be regarded as the upper limit of possible savings.

    The simulation results indicated that the trade sequence influenced the generated profit. However, the simulations showed that the impact of trade sequences on the profit level was small. This suggests that a trade coordinating institute does not have to play an active role in the matching of trade partners, but only has to control whether countries trade according to the trade vector.

    Having discussed the main aspects of this study I now want to turn to the third research question. By developing the guided bilateral permit trading system I have shown how a permit trading system for non-uniformly mixing pollutants could be formulated that takes deposition targets into account. The main drawback of this system is that full information on the cost-effective allocation is needed by the environmental authorities if such a trading system is to be successfully implemented. But, it should also be realized that in the current practice this information has already been used: in the negotiations on the Second Sulphur Protocol the information on the cost-effective emission allocation provided by the RAINS model served as a guideline for the agreed emissions reduction. Since countries agreed upon the emission reductions in the Second Sulphur Protocol, they might agree on a permit trading system that is based on the same information.

    7.6 Guided bilateral trade revisited
    In this study I have been extensively illustrated that aiming at deposition targets for acidification while minimizing abatement costs is a complex matter. It depends on three factors: the source receptor relationships, the deposition targets and the differences in marginal abatement costs. Obviously, a policy instrument that is designed to generate a cost-effective abatement allocation needs to deal with this complexity. After having analysed the system of guided bilateral trade for SO 2 emissions in Europe thoroughly, the final question that has to be looked at is whether this system would be suitable for implementation in practice and how it could be introduced. This question is discussed in this section, paying attention to cost effectiveness, innovation, international agreements, implementation costs, distributional effects and practical implementation.

    The system of guided bilateral permit trading succeeds in reaching the cost-effective abatement allocation if all allowed trade transactions are profitable. If not, the cost- effective allocation will only be fully reached if the trade transactions needed to reach this cost-effective allocation are subsidized. This will be difficult since it is necessary to prune away profits from profitable trades to generate funds for subsidizing. However, the simulation results of guided bilateral permit trading indicate that the violation of deposition targets is only very moderate if the costeffective allocation is not fully reached by guided bilateral permit trading. Therefore it can be stated that guided bilateral permit trading is sufficient for the cost-effectiveness criterion. Arguments generally favouring the use of tradeable emission permits are that the use of permits provides a continuous incentive to search for technology innovation and provides flexibility to polluters in the way they want to comply with the environmental targets. Guided bilateral trade provides this incentive and flexibility as well.

    An important aspect in judging the suitability of guided bilateral permit trading is the conformity with international agreements. In this thesis 1 have shown that given the Second Sulphur Protocol, guided bilateral permit trading can improve the cost- effectiveness of emission abatement. Whether a system of guided bilateral permit trading will really be successful will largely depend on the willingness of the European countries to accept the specified trade rules and the initial distribution of permits. A disadvantage for negotiating countries may be that emission permits, by definition, put a price on pollution that was previously free. To make permits acceptable, countries first have to receive permits for free. In this thesis it was suggested that the agreed emission levels from the Second Sulphur Protocol could serve as a guideline for the initial distribution of permits, since countries have already committed themselves to these amounts. In fact, given the current sulphur protocol, the guided bilateral permit trading system provides a 'recipe' for reaching the cost- effective sulphur dioxide allocation in Europe. Since the sulphur protocol is an agreement among national governments, permit trading among these governments is an obvious succession. However, alternatively, a system could be implemented in which permit trading could take place among firms (see section 7.7).

    The costs of implementation of a guided bilateral permit trading system have not been studied in this research and it is therefore difficult to judge the system on this criterion. However, compared to the current international practice of negotiations, there seems to be no indication so far that the costs of this trading system will be substantially higher. Neither the distributional aspects of guided bilateral permit trading have been dealt with extensively. In general, no country will be worse off with permit trading, since a country will only trade permits if this results in a profit, resulting in a Pareto improvement. A country selling permits will only sell permits if the permit price exceeds the marginal abatement costs, and a country will only buy permits if this is cheaper than emission abatement. So, in so far as the abatement costs of countries change as a result of permit trading, this change is always compensated by the buying or selling of permits. Therefore, guided bilateral permit trading will only result in very moderate distributional effects.

    The most obvious way for practical implementation of guided bilateral permit trading is to extend the Second Sulphur Protocol with a guided bilateral permit trading scheme in an additional annex, in accordance with annex II in which the current committed emission reductions are stated. Currently, countries are obliged to report the annual levels of sulphur emissions to the Executive Body of the Convention each year. Likewise, countries could be obliged to report their trade transactions annually. I suggest that it is better to include a trade scheme in the protocol rather than the trade vector, since a trade scheme as presented in Table 6.15 or 6.16 results in the largest cost savings. Furthermore, by presenting a trade scheme, countries do not have to search for their trading partner. This form of implementation does not require the establishment of a new agency since it fits into the current international negotiation arrangement on acidification, through the Convention under the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations.

    In this section I have indicated that guided bilateral permit trading principally offers a suitable supplement to the sulphur protocol for reaching a cost-effective emission allocation. I have also indicated how such a trading system could be implemented. Remembering that the simulation results showed that guided bilateral permit trading may generate a cost saving of 143 million DM, this system can be taken as a suitable policy instrument for reducing sulphur dioxide emissions. Whether it can really be successfully implemented largely depends on the political willingness of countries to accept such a trading scheme.

    7.7 Suggestions for further research
    Many aspects on tradeable emission permits have been examined in the literature. In this thesis I have emphasized the application of such permits to non-uniformly mixing pollutants for which a bilateral and sequential permit trading has been developed. This research could be extended to include topics such as banking of permits or market power. Additional suggestions for further research include (i) the aggregation in permit trading, (ii) the enlargement of permit trading to total acidification and its relation to other environmental problems, (iii) permit trading in relation to other environmental problems ensuing from common sources and (iv) the implementation of guided bilateral permit trading where there is no protocol.

    (i) In this study I have assumed permit trading takes place among national governments. One justification for this is that a permit trading system has a fair chance of being accepted if it is close to the current multiparty negotiations that assign targets to nations, as in the sulphur protocols. An alternative would be that emission permits be distributed to and traded by firms. Arguments in favour of this are that national governments lack experience and lack knowledge about operations and compliance options at the firm level. The question is what guided bilateral permit trading would look like if trading took place among firms. Although the general methodology of guided bilateral permit trading needs no modification, if trading is taking place among firms rather than among countries, its implementation requires additional research. To simulate permit trading among firms, additional data are needed. The source receptor matrix has to be adapted since it is the location of firms that matters now. The source receptor matrix has to link the firm's emissions to deposition, Moreover, abatement costs have to be specified at the firm level. The current RAINS-Europe model does not contain these necessary data and refinements. However, the RAINS-Asia model, a policyoriented model which provides a framework for integrated assessment of acid deposition in Asia, does already provide an analysis for large point sources. In this model, the emissions of 355 large point sources are linked to deposition at 1°x 1° grid cells (Foell et al., 1995).

    Alternatively, permit trading between firms could be analysed by a 'two-stage method'. This method, which needs no modification of the source receptor matrix, consists of first selecting two trading countries and next of selecting the firms with the lowest and the highest marginal control costs within these countries. Obviously, the firm with the lowest marginal costs is selected for the country selling permits and the firm with the highest marginal costs for the country buying permits. The next trade would be between the firms with the second highest and the second lowest costs, and so on.

    (ii) Acidification is not only caused by sulphur dioxide emission, but also by nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Instead of analysing trade in of sulphur permits, as I have done in this thesis, it would be interesting to study the opportunities for the use of tradeable permits for total acidification. This multipollutant approach is in accordance with the ongoing negotiations on a following protocol on acidification. However, it requires additional research, including the following topics. Firstly, the three pollutants contribute in a different way to acidity. This would lead to possible substitution of emission reduction. Further, spatial patterns of emission and deposition differ, and abatement-cost functions show differences. These differences imply that permit trading for total acidification will be complex, but considering all acidifying emissions simultaneously may provide additional cost savings. An interesting topic to analyse in this context is how to allocate the emission reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides as the latter contribute both to acidification and to tropospheric ozone. The role of nitrogen oxides in acidification has been discussed in Chapter 1. Tropospheric ozone is formed by complex chemical reactions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) and nitrogen oxides. The ratio of VOC and NO x , and not merely their total amounts, is important for ozone formation. This implies that when the ratio of VOC to NO x is very small, reduction of NO x , can actually increase ozone formation. In general, the abatement of nitrogen oxide is more expensive than the abatement of sulphur dioxide. This implies that a shift from nitrogen oxides to sulphur dioxide emission reduction would result in cost savings. However, as nitrogen oxides contribute to tropospheric ozone, preventing high ozone concentrations might, in some cases, prohibit the reduction of nitrogen oxides. An additional restriction on NO x emissions would be needed to take this into account in a permit trading system .

    (iii) A third extension of guided bilateral permit trading for sulphur dioxide emission would be to link sulphur dioxide emission to climatic change. The rationale for this is that both problems have a common source, that is, energy use. In the RAINS model for Europe which was used for this study, only end-of-pipe technologies are available for reducing emissions. However, changes in energy use may be of benefit to both acidification and climatic change. To analyse the effect of changes in energy use for sulphur dioxide emissions the RAINS model should be extended with an accurate energy scenario module. The RAINS-Asia model is already equipped to generate energy scenarios. The so called energy scenario generator in this model estimates energy consumption contributing to SO 2 emissions (Foell et al., 1995).

    (iv) A final topic for further research is how to implement a system of guided bilateral permit trading if a protocol had not yet been signed. Given an agreed initial permit allocation and given the restriction of the trade vector, it would be obvious to provide the opportunity to trade emission permits. Countries will have a strong incentive to trading since this is beneficial in terms of costs. If it appeared that countries would not trade, this could be an indication that transaction costs are too high. If transactions costs exceeded the indicated cost savings, permit trading would not take place, and countries would comply with the emission reduction without trading.

    It has become clear that research on tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions is an interesting topic that needs further investigation. Extending the research by the suggested options may provide new insights into how to achieve emission reductions at minimum abatement costs. Especially growing economies, such as those in Asia and Latin America, that will suffer from sulphur dioxide emissions and deposition in the near future, can benefit from a better insight into tradeable emission permits for reaching cost-effective reductions.

    Invloed van aanzuren op het gehalte aan vluchtige vetzuren in verse vleesvarkensmengmest = Effect of acidification on the concentration of volatile fatty acids in fresh pig slurry
    Hoeksma, P. ; Vijn, T.K. ; Derikx, P.J.L. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : IMAG-DLO (Rapport / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Milieu- en Agritechniek 95-16) - 30
    mest - vloeibare meststoffen - rundveedrijfmest - luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - emissie - vervluchtiging - ph - zuurgraad - waterstofionen - mestoverschotten - mestverwerking - manures - liquid manures - cattle slurry - air pollution - ammonia - emission - volatilization - ph - acidity - hydrogen ions - manure surpluses - manure treatment
    Modelling of soil acidity and nitrogen availability in natural ecosystems in response to changes in acid deposition and hydrology
    Kros, J. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 1995
    Wageningen : SC-DLO (Report / DLO Winand Staring Centre 95) - 90
    bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - bodem - stikstof - plantengemeenschappen - vegetatie - onderzoek - ecologie - hydrologie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - modellen - ecohydrologie - soil ph - soil acidity - soil - nitrogen - plant communities - vegetation - research - ecology - hydrology - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - models - ecohydrology
    Changes in vegetation are often caused by changes in abiotic site factors. The SMART2 model has been developed to evaluate the effects of changes in ion inputs by atmospheric deposition and seepage on these site factors. Linkage with the Multiple Stress Model for Vegetation (MOVE) enables evaluation of the effects on the occurrence probability of vegetation species in response to deposition and seepage scenarios. Combinations of two deposition and two seepage scenarios were evaluated with SMART2. Results focused on pH, nitrogen availability and base saturation. Effects of changes in pH on the occurrence probability of forest understorey in a nutrient-poor deciduous forest were evaluated with MOVE.
    Scenario studies on soil acidification at different spatial scales
    Vries, W. de; Kros, J. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Salm, C. van der; Posch, M. - \ 1995
    In: Scenario studies for the rural environment : selected and edited proceedings of the symposium scenario studies for the rural environment, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 12 - 15 September 1994 / Schoute, J.T.H., Finke, P.A., Veeneklaas, F.R., - p. 169 - 188.
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - modellen - onderzoek - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - models - research
    Three dynamic soil acidification models have been developed for application on local, national and continental (European) scales, namely NUCSAM, RESAM and SMART. This paper gives an overview of results of various model validation and scenario studies for the effects of SOx, NOx and NHx deposition on soils. Furthermore, the various strong and weak points of the models are evaluated in terms of uncertainties in model predictions, the use of the models in acidification abatement policies, and the limitations and possibilities of using the models in other scenario studies, such as changes in land use, hydrology and heavy-metal deposition.
    Humus- en bodemprofielen in natte schraalgraslanden; resultaten van een bodemkundig onderzoek in 13 referentiegebieden voor het onderzoek naar Effectgerichte Maatregelen tegen verzuring (EGM)
    Delft, S.P.J. van - \ 1995
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum - 166
    organische verbindingen - bodem - bodemchemie - bodemkarteringen - graslanden - natuurgebieden - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - nederland - organic compounds - soil - soil chemistry - soil surveys - grasslands - natural areas - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - netherlands
    In dertien referentiegebieden voor het onderzoek naar effectgerichte maatregelen tegen verzuring in natte schraalgraslanden zijn profielbeschrijvingen gemaakt. De referentiegebieden liggen in beekdalen, laagveengebieden en natte duinvalleien verspreidover Nederland. Er zijn 160 boringen verricht tot maximaal 3 m. Speciale aandacht is besteed aan het humusprofiel, dat indicatief kan zijn voor de mate van verzuring en verdroging van de bodem. De beekdalen, in de pleistocene dekzandlandschappen, zijn deels met venige of moerige afzettingen opgevuld. Hier komen mull- en moderhumusvormen voor. In de laagveengebieden komen alleen semi-terrestrische humusvormen voor, in de duinvalleien moder- en mullhumusvormen.
    Uncertainties in long-term predictions of forest soil acidification due to neglecting seasonal variability
    Kros, J. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Vries, W. de; Salm, C. van der - \ 1995
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 79 (1995)1/4. - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 353 - 375.
    bosschade - zure regen - zure gronden - kattekleigronden - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - modellen - onderzoek - forest damage - acid rain - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - models - research
    Soil and soil solution response simulated with a site-scale soil acidification model (NUCSAM) was compared with results obtained by a regional soil acidification model (RESAM). Uncertainties due to neglecting seasonal variability in long-term predictions were investigated by comparing long-term RESAM and NUCSAM simulations. Although both the seasonal and the interannual variations in soil solution parameters were large, the trend in soil solution parameters of RESAM and NUCSAM corresponded quite well. Generally, it appeared that the uncertainty due to time resolution in long-term predictions was relatively small.
    Application of soil acidification models with different degrees of process description (SMART, RESAM and NUCSAM) on an intensively monitored spruce site
    Salm, C. van der; Kros, J. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Vries, W. de; Reinds, G.J. - \ 1995
    In: Solute modelling in catchment systems / Trudgill, S.T., - p. 327 - 346.
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bosbouw - neerslag - zure regen - zure depositie - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - modellen - onderzoek - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - forestry - precipitation - acid rain - acid deposition - chemical properties - acidity - models - research
    A one-layer (SMART) and a multi-layer (RESAM) soil acidification model with temporal resolutions of one year and a multi-layer model with a resolution of one day (NUCSAM) were applied to an intensively monitored spruce site in Solling, Germany. The major aim was to study the influence of model simplifications and reduction of temporal and vertical resolutions on the simulation of soil solution concentrations. Results showed that all the models were able to simulate most of the concentrations reasonably during the examined period (1973-1989). However, the one-layer model, SMART, had difficulties in simulating strong changes in soil solution concentrations owing to a lower retardation in the soil system.
    Impacts of acid deposition on concentrations and fluxes of solutes in acid sandy forest soils in the Netherlands.
    Vries, W. de; Grinsven, J.J.M. van; Breemen, N. van; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Jansen, P.C. - \ 1995
    Geoderma 67 (1995)1. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 17 - 43.
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bodem - stikstof - zwavel - aluminium - bodem pH - bodemaciditeit - Nederland - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - soil - nitrogen - sulfur - aluminium - soil pH - soil acidity - Netherlands
    This article summarizes the most important impacts of acid atmospheric deposition on the soil solution chemistry of acid sandy forest soils in the Netherlands, by comparing and interpreting data from soil solution monitoring studies (18 stands) and a national soil solution survey (150 stands). Important conclusions are: forest soils are invariably saturated with sulphate (leaching equals deposition); there is generally a relatively large retention of nitrogen, although there are indications that forest soils become nitrogen-saturated at total inputs above 4.0 kmolc per ha per year aluminium mobilization is the major buffer mechanism neutralizing the acidity input.
    A data base for European forest soils
    Reinds, G.J. - \ 1994
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre (Technical document / DLO Winand Staring Centre 7) - 77
    bosschade - zure regen - fysicochemische eigenschappen - bodemeigenschappen - bodemchemie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - databanken - europa - forest damage - acid rain - physicochemical properties - soil properties - soil chemistry - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - databases - europe
    On the statistical analysis of vegetation change: a wetland affected by water extraction and soil acidification
    Braak, C.J.F. ter; Wiertz, J. - \ 1994
    Journal of Vegetation Science 5 (1994)3. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 361 - 372.
    plantensuccessie - drainage - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - statistische analyse - statistische inferentie - natuurbescherming - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - wetlands - polders - plant succession - drainage - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - statistical analysis - statistical inference - nature conservation - policy - management - wetlands - polders
    A case study is presented on the statistical analysis and interpretation of vegetation change without precise information on environmental change. The changes in a vegetation of a Junco-Molinion grassland are evaluated on the basis of relevés of 1977 and 1988 (20 plots) from a small nature reserve on moist oligotrophic, Pleistocene sands in The Netherlands. The changes are attributed to water withdrawal (since 1972) and soil acidification. Their effect on the vegetation is inferred from data on water depth and acidity collected in 1988. Many species typical of moist oligo- or mesotrophic and neutral haylands and several rare species such as Parnassia palustris, Selinum carvifolia and Ophioglossum vulgare decreased in abundance. A few species increased, especially Anthoxantum odoratum, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolatum. A significant decrease was found in the mean Ellenberg indicator value for moisture and for acidity. The mean indicator value for nutrients did not change significantly. Multivariate analysis of the species data by redundancy analysis demonstrated the overall significance of the change in species composition between 1977 and 1988 (P<0.01, Monte Carlo permutation). The spatial and temporal variation in the species data was displayed in ordination diagrams and interpreted in terms of water depth and pH. A simple model is developed to infer the change in water depth and pH from the relevé data and recent data on water depth and pH. Because the correlation between water depth and pH made joint estimation of the changes useless, the change in pH was estimated for a series of likely changes in water depth. For the most likely change in water depth, significant acidification was inferred from the change in vegetation.
    Growth and nutrition of Douglas fir, Scots pine and pedunculate oak in relation to soil acidification
    Visser, P.H.B. de - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; G.R. Findenegg; W.G. Keltjens. - S.l. : De Visser - ISBN 9789054852902 - 185
    bosbouw - houtteelt - bosbouwkundige handelingen - groei - milieufactoren - bomen - bodemchemie - bodemaciditeit - verzuring - beluchting - voedingsstoffenopname (planten) - bodem ph - plantenfysiologie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - forestry - silviculture - forestry practices - growth - environmental factors - trees - soil chemistry - soil acidity - acidification - aeration - nutrient uptake - soil ph - plant physiology - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain

    In a Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on sandy soil in the Netherlands, inputs of water, nutrients and acid loads were changed for four years. Effects of soil changes on growth and nutrition were compared with similar foreign experiments, and with some soil-tree relationships in an oak ( Quercus robur L.) stand, which had different soil types within the site. Water limitations in the stands were demonstrated by a 40% to 50% increase in tree basal area growth from water additions of 3 mm d -1or more. Needle N and K contents were depressed and needle shedding was retarded in autumn by irrigation in the Douglas fir stand. In both coniferous stands mineralization and nitrate leaching were enhanced by the moister soil conditions. The modest growth response to nutrient applications in addition to irrigation, proved that no nutrient deficiencies were present at the sites, although foliar P and K increased instantly. The application of dissolved K, Mg and Ca to both acid forest soils increased Al dissolution and decreased Ca/Al ratios in soil solution. This soil reaction was even stronger when applying dissolved (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and was explained by the combined effect of soil exchange processes and root uptake of the applied cations, both increasing soil acidification. The applied (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 initially enhanced tree growth, later followed by growth reduction in the forest stand and tree death in a pot trial at similar NH 4 supply rates.

    Douglas fir growth was higher at optimal water and nutrient applications when atmospheric loads were excluded. The reduced NH 4 inputs resulted in a decrease of NO 3 leaching, in a lower needle N concentration and tended to decrease Al concentrations and Al/Ca ratios in soil solution relative to the treatment with atmospheric loads.

    Transpiration of Douglas fir, as measured from sapflow, was drastically reduced during summer drought. Irrigated trees showed optimal transpiration rates and were found to absorb water more readily after rain events relative to previously water-stressed trees. NH 4 applications in a pot trial initially increased shoot growth and transpiration of juvenile Douglas fir, but strong soil acidification later impaired root functioning and water uptake.

    Soil response to acid deposition at different regional scales : field and laboratory data, critical loads and model predictions
    Vries, W. de - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; A. Breeuwsma. - S.l. : De Vries - ISBN 9789032702557 - 487
    fysicochemische eigenschappen - bodemeigenschappen - bodemchemie - anorganische verbindingen - mineralen - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - onderzoek - modellen - nederland - physicochemical properties - soil properties - soil chemistry - inorganic compounds - minerals - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - research - models - netherlands - cum laude

    Enhanced soil, ground water and surface water acidification by elevated deposition of S and N compounds is one of the most important large-scale environmental problems today. This thesis deals with the quantification of:
    (i) natural and man-induced sources of acidification in agricultural soils and forest soils in the Netherlands;
    (ii) present impacts of atmospheric S and N deposition on the solution chemistry of acid sandy forest soils in the Netherlands;
    (iii) various buffermechanisms (i.e. mineral weathering, cation exchange and AI dissolution) in acid sandy soils in the Netherlands;
    (iv) average critical deposition levels (loads) for N and acidity (N and S) for forests, heathlands, ground water and surface water in the Netherlands;
    (v) spatial variability in critical loads for N, S and acidity and the degree by which these loads are exceeded at present on forests in the Netherlands and in Europe;
    (vi) long-term impacts of acidic deposition on representative non-agricultural soils;
    (vii) spatial variability in long-term impacts of acidic deposition on forest soils in the Netherlands and in Europe.

    Quantification was performed on the basis of interpretation of literature information, combined with field research (i and ii), laboratory research (iii), and model research, (iv, v, vi and vii). In order to derive critical loads, steady-state soil models were developed, i.e. a one-layer model (START) for application on a European scale and a multi-layer model (MACAL) for application on a national scale. Similarly, two dynamic soil models were developed to assess the long-term soil response to acidic deposition, i.e. a onelayer model (SMART) for application in Europe and a multi-layer model (RESAM) for application in the Netherlands.

    Results showed that:
    (i) the contribution of acid deposition to soil acidificatiom in the Netherlands is dominant in non- calcareous forest soils (≥80%), intermediate in non-calcareous agricultural soils (≤50%) and minor in calcareous soils (≤20%);
    (ii) S0 4 behaves conservative in Dutch forest soils, whereas N is largely retained. Despite the high N deposition, actual soil acidification, which is mainly manifested by leaching of AI associated with SO 4 and NO 3 leaching, is dominantly caused by S deposition;
    (iii) dissolution of AI from secondary inorganic AI compounds is the dominant buffermechanism in acid sandy (forest) soils. The dissolution rate of AI can be described well as a function of the secondary AI pool and the degree of undersaturation with respect to gibbsite;
    (iv) average critical N loads for forests, heathlands, ground waters and surface waters in the Netherlands generally vary between 500 mol c ha -1yr -1('sensitive' heathlands and surface waters) and 3600 mol c ha -1yr -1('insensitive' ground waters). Average critical acid loads are generally lower and range between 400 mol c ha -1yr -1('sensitive' ground- and surface waters) to 1700 mol c ha -1yr -1('insensitive' forests and ground waters);
    (v) critical loads are largely exceeded in Central and Western Europe both in N (up to 3500 mol c ha -1yr -1) and S (up to 12000 mol c ha -1yr -1). In the Netherlands largest exceedances occur in areas with intensive animal husbandry. There emission reductions of more than 80% are needed to meet the critical loads;
    (vi) long-term continuation of present atmospheric deposition causes a depletion of the pool of secondary AI compounds, both in forest soils and dune soils of the Netherlands, leading to extremely low pH values. However, reduction of atmospheric deposition levels leads to a fast improvement of the soil solution quality (decreased concentrations in SO 4 , NO 3 and AI and increased pH);
    (vii) deposition scenarios including current reduction plans with respect to S and N emission lead to an improvement in the soil solution quality below forests in the Netherlands, but not in Europe.

    Time trends & mechanism of soil acidification
    Wesselink, L.G. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; J.J.M. van Grinsven. - S.l. : Wesselink - ISBN 9789054852896 - 129
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bosbouw - verzuring - bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - forestry - acidification - soil ph - soil acidity - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain

    The effects of acid atmospheric deposition on forest ecosystems have been studied intensively in the past two decades. Measurements of element budgets in forested ecosystems throughout the world have shown that acid deposition may deplete stores of exchangeable base cations in the soil, decrease the soil pH, increase rates of mineral weathering, and release potentially toxic Al into the soil solution. In summary, acid atmospheric deposition can strongly alter the chemical environment for living organisms.

    In this thesis the mechanisms that may control those phenomena are studied, with emphasis on soil chemical processes. Central in this study are long and comprehensive data sets from continuous measurements (monitoring) of element fluxes in forest ecosystems, specifically from the Solling experimental forest in Germany.

    Base Cations

    Using over 20 years of data on deposition and soil chemistry at Solling, chapter 2 discusses how long-term changes in atmospheric deposition of acid anions and base cations affect dissolved and exchangeable pools of base cations in the soil, through the process of cation exchange. Positive effects of declining SO 4 deposition in the 1980s, which potentially reduces leaching of base cations from the soil, were partially offset by (i) continued high concentrations of dissolved SO 4 in the soil and (ii) declining deposition of the base cations Ca and Mg. The latter appears to result from stricter controls on particle emissions from fuel combustion and industrial processes. Recent studies indicate that declining deposition of base cations is observed in other regions of Europe and North America as well. This is a matter of concern as forests may be sensitive to changes in base cation deposition which is, together with mineral weathering, the most important source of nutrients to forests on acidified soils.

    In chapter 3 we quantified rates of mineral weathering at Solling, as a source of nutrients and acid neutralization. Estimates of field weathering rates were obtained from, (i) long-term input- output mass balances, correcting for changes in stores of exchangeable base cations in the soil, and (ii) elemental analysis of the soil profile. At Solling, rates of supply of Ca, K and Na by weathering are much lower than by atmospheric deposition; for Mg the contributions are of similar magnitude. This emphasizes (i) the relevance of atmospheric deposition of base cations as a nutrient source to the Solling forests, and (ii) the concern with respect to its present decline. To investigate mechanisms of mineral weathering of Mg and K, a series of laboratory weathering experiments with soils from Solling were conducted.

    These focused on weathering of illite, the dominant mineral source of K and Mg. A major problem in quantifying rates of mineral weathering is the large discrepancy in rates obtained in laboratory studies and field estimates, with laboratory rates being generally one to three orders higher. In the laboratory, effects of pH, temperature, and soil solution composition on illite weathering were studied. Corrected for the effects of these factors, Mg and K release rates from illite measured in the laboratory were comparable (K) or a factor 2 to 4 higher (Mg) than rates inferred from field methods. It is concluded that field estimates of weathering rates, from elemental analysis of the soil profile or input-output flux balances, remain necessary to obtain reliable estimates of base cation weathering rates.

    Anions

    In a simplified way, anions in the soil solution can be regarded as carriers of base and acid cations, through charge balance constraints. Understanding the processes that determine dissolved concentrations of these components in the soil is therefore of prior importance. In chapter 4 we discussed the processes that govern the mobility of dissolved Cl, SO 4 and NO 3 in the Solling spruce soil over a period of 18 years. For this purpose a simulation model describing soil hydrology and a number of biogeochemical processes was introduced. Using throughfall water and concentrations as input to the model, concentrations of Cl in soil solutions were successfully simulated, a requirement to further study components that interact chemically or biologically with the soil.

    Sorption of SO 4 is of significance in the soils at Solling due to comparatively high contents of Al and Fe oxides. By contrast, in the mineralogically poor sandy soils in the Netherlands SO 4 often behaves chemically nearly conservative. The steep increase in dissolved SO 4 in the Solling spruce soil during the mid-1970s was modelled adequately using adsorption parameters reported in literature, and was explained by a steep adsorption isotherm and a state of near saturation of SO 4 sorption sites in the early 1970s, at the start of the monitoring program. Rates of desorption of SO 4 in the 1980s in response to declining SO 4 deposition, described by the same model, were less than those measured in the field. In the absence of evidence for alternative controls on dissolved SO 4 , like jurbanite (AlOHSO 4 dissolution, the mechanism of SO 4 desorption remains unclear.

    The model increased our understanding of the processes that control repeated 3-year cycles of high and low concentrations of N0 3 in deeper layers (90 cm) of the Solling spruce soil. Recently, there is increasing interest in N-dynamics in forest ecosystems, as N-saturation has been hypothesized as an additional cause of forest decline. In the Solling spruce soil, concentrations of N0 3 water leaving the soil profile increased when the N-flux into the mineral soil, from deposition and net mineralization, exceeded the N uptake capacity of the forest at a threshold value of around 4 kmol ha -1yr -1. At present, total deposition of N on the spruce forest amounts to 3.3 kmol ha -1yr -1and is close to this threshold value. This points to the critical role of N mineralization processes in the litter layer, where large stores of N have accumulated over the past 25 years. The annual release of N from the spruce litter layer was positively correlated with rainfall. This was apparent from large N releases from litter in relatively wet years which subsequently increased NO 3 concentrations at the 90 cm depth.

    Aluminum

    The main acid neutralizing process in acid forest soils under high acid loads is the release of AI to the soil solution. Soil acidification models generally describe the solubility of reactive soil Al by equilibrium or kinetic dissolution of Al-trihydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), In chapters 5 and 6, we scrutinized the evidence for this reaction mechanism from extensive sets of field data, but found little support for the gibbsite model. By contrast, evidence points to AI binding to soil organic matter as a control of dissolved Al, even when organic matter contents are low. In chapter 6 a new, mechanistic, and yet simple model was presented that explained much of the spread in Al-solubility, as observed in 29 different soil layers from 18 forest soils. The model describes Al-solubility as a function of the degree to which humus binding sites are saturated with Al. It involves only two soil specific parameters, the organic C content of the soil and an estimate of the pool of organically bound soil Al, and may therefore be easily incorporated in current soil acidification models.

    The soils studied in this thesis generally receive high loads of acid deposition, and acidity is largely neutralized by release of Al in the upper 20 cm of the mineral soil. It has been suggested that in surface layers of these soils depletion of reactive soil Al may result within decades. The depletion hypothesis was put to test by measuring pools of organically bound soil Al in old (around 1980) and new (around 1993) samples from research sites at Hackfort and Gerritsfles in the Netherlands, and Solling in Germany. Indeed, significant decreases with time were found. Independently measured depletion of organically bound soil Al and declining Al solubility, as observed previously from 6 years of field monitoring at Hackfort in the 1980s, proved to be consistent with the humus-Al model presented in this thesis. Rates of depletion of organically bound soil Al at Hackfort, the Netherlands, during a period of about 13 years were lower than expected from long-term monitoring of Al solute fluxes. This suggests that pools other than organically bound Al, i.e. silicates and inorganic Al hydroxides, may contribute to Al mobilization as well. Literature indicates that release of Al from these pools may be kinetically constrained. The current discussion on whether Al activities in solutions of acid forest soils are controlled by kinetically constrained (time dependent) dissolution of inorganic Al hydroxides or by equilibrium binding to soil organic matter is, in my view, clarified when the kinetic and the equilibrium process are regarded as sequential; kinetic release supplying Al to the organic exchanger, which equilibrates with the soil solution.

    GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

    1. In the recent past, deposition of SO 4 , Ca and Mg on the German Solling forests has declined significantly as a result of reduced industrial emissions.
    2. Results from Solling indicate that soil de-acidification, i.e. an increase in the pool of exchangeable base cations, as a result of declining SO 4 deposition may be offset by i) continuous release of sorbed SO 4 from the soil and ii) declining deposition of base
    cations.
    3. Weathering rates of Ca, K and Na at Solling, Germany, are much lower than their supply by atmospheric deposition; for Mg the contributions of deposition and weathering are of similar magnitude.
    4. Illite is the main mineral source of Mg and K at Solling. Although coming from the same mineral source, the two cations are released by different mechanisms. Magnesium release is controlled by chemical kinetic processes and its release is highly
    pH dependent (R≈(H +) 0.8), whereas K is released from interlayers by diffusion, a process that showed independent of pH.
    6. A six-fold increase of dissolved SO 4 in the Solling spruce soil (90 cm) in the mid 1970s, and continuously high concentrations thereafter, is explained by 'peaking' SO 4 deposition loads in the mid-1970s that entered a mineral soil where the SO 4 sorption capacity was nearly saturated.
    6. Repeated 3-year cycles of high and low concentrations of NO 3 in deeper layers (90 cm) of the Solling spruce soil are related to excess release of N from the litter layer in comparatively wet years.
    7. Strong changes in pH and less strong changes in pAl (-log{Al 3+}) in response to varying acid anion concentrations, generally observed in acid forest soils, and the measured increased of CEC with time in the surface soil of the Solling spruce sites, support the hypothesis of Al solubility control by complexation to soil organic matter.
    8. Data from 29 soil layers of 18 forest soils, covering a range in soil pH, Al activities, and reactive soil Al pools indicate that Al solubility control by complexation to soil organic matter is a general phenomenon, even when organic C contents are low.
    9. Much of the variation in Al solubility observed in 29 different soil layers of 18 forest soils is explained by the organically bound Al: soil C ratio.
    10. In surface soils where stores of organically bound Al are low and release rates high depletion of reactive, organically bound, soil Al is significant on a time scale of 12 to 14 years only.
    11. Independently measured declines in (i) Al solubility in surface soils at Hackfort the Netherlands, from 6 years of monitoring of soil water chemistry and (ii) pools of organically bound soil Al, are consistent with the Al-humus equilibrium model
    proposed in this thesis.
    12. In acid forest soils where dissolved Al activities are controlled by equilibrium complexation to soil organic matter, kinetically constrained release of Al from inorganic Al pools may well contribute to acid neutralization.

    The solubility of aluminum in acidic forest soils: long-term changes due to acid deposition.
    Mulder, J. ; Stein, A. - \ 1994
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58 (1994). - ISSN 0016-7037 - p. 85 - 94.
    bodem - aluminium - bruine bosgronden - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - uitspoelen - soil - aluminium - brown forest soils - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - leaching
    Basenverzadiging in soortenrijke trilvenen
    Wirdum, G. van - \ 1993
    In: Effectgerichte maatregelen tegen verzuring en eutrofiering in natuurterreinen : [proceedings van een symposium op 30 oktober 1992] / Cals, M., de Graaf, M., Roelofs, J., KU Nijmegen [etc.] - ISBN 9789037301748 - p. 97 - 126.
    plantengemeenschappen - zwampen - wetlands - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - natuurbescherming - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - plant communities - swamps - wetlands - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - nature conservation - policy - management - netherlands
    De invloed van atmosferische depositie op diatomeeen en chemische samenstelling van het water in sprengen, beken en bronnen
    Dam, H. van; Mertens, A. ; Janmaat, L.M. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : DLO-IBN (IBN - rapport 052)
    rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - oppervlaktewater - rivierwater - chemische samenstelling - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bacillariophyta - verontreiniging - waterorganismen - nederland - droge depositie - biologische eigenschappen - rivers - streams - canals - surface water - river water - chemical composition - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - bacillariophyta - pollution - aquatic organisms - netherlands - dry deposition - biological properties
    Reductie van ammoniakemissie : mogelijkheden en kosten van beperking van ammoniakemissie op nationaal en regionaal niveau
    Oudendag, D.A. - \ 1993
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Onderzoekverslag / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 102) - ISBN 9789052421940 - 82
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - emissie - vervluchtiging - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - prijzen - prijsvorming - kosten - wiskundige modellen - onderzoek - nederland - mestoverschotten - air pollution - ammonia - emission - volatilization - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - prices - price formation - costs - mathematical models - research - netherlands - manure surpluses
    SMB - a Simple Mass Balance model to calculate critical loads : model description and user manual
    Salm, C. van der; Voogd, J.C.H. ; Vries, W. de - \ 1993
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre (Technical document / DLO Winand Staring Centre 11) - 30
    bodem - stikstof - fosfor - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - modellen - onderzoek - nederland - soil - nitrogen - phosphorus - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - models - research - netherlands
    De chemische samenstelling van bodem en bodemvocht van duingronden in de provincie Zuid-Holland
    Vries, W. de - \ 1993
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 280) - 31
    duinen - duingronden - bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - bodemoplossing - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - nederland - zuid-holland - dunes - dune soils - soil ph - soil acidity - soil solution - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - netherlands - zuid-holland
    Lagere nitraatverliezen bij aanzuren van mest tot pH 4
    Lent, A.J.H. van - \ 1993
    Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 6 (1993)6. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 25 - 28.
    drijfmest - stalmest - dierlijke meststoffen - toevoegingen - salpeterzuur - ph - zuurgraad - waterstofionen - kunstmeststoffen - samenstelling - onderzoek - proeven - slurries - farmyard manure - animal manures - additives - nitric acid - ph - acidity - hydrogen ions - fertilizers - composition - research - trials
    In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de technische aspecten van het aanzuren van mest in de kelder en silo. Het onderzoek was in het afgelopen stalseizoen vooral gericht op het verminderen van de denitrificatieverliezen.
    Time series analysis of changes in the soil solution: evidence for approach to nitrogen saturation in Dutch forest soils.
    Stein, A. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 1993
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 47 (1993). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 147 - 158.
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - statistiek - waarschijnlijkheidsanalyse - wiskunde - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - statistics - probability analysis - mathematics
    Sulfur cycling in two Dutch moorland pools
    Marnette, E.C.L. - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; T.E. Cappenberg. - S.l. : Marnette - ISBN 9789054851561 - 143
    kringlopen - meren - plassen - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - zwavel - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - stilstaand water - nederland - cycling - lakes - ponds - water pollution - water quality - eutrophication - sulfur - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - standing water - netherlands

    Due to atmospheric acid deposition, the chemistry of many moorland pools has changed, resulting in changes in their fauna and flora. Most moorland pools are sensitive to acid loading because underlying and surrounding soils are low in chemical buffering capacity. Biological processes in the sediment like denitrification and SO 42-reduction are of major importance to internal alkalinization necessary to neutralize the atmospheric input of potential acidifying N and S components. This study deals with the cycling of sulfur in moorland pools and was aimed at a better understanding of the factors influencing the S cycle in these freshwaters.

    Characterization and quantification of sulfur pools in sediment and overlying water column. Determination of spatial variability of chemical characteristics related to S-cycling.

    In highly organic moorland pool sediment (mean C content of top 10 cm = 9.8% dwt) about 46% of the total S is in organic S form, whereas in sandy sediment (mean C content = 1.4% dwt) the organic S fraction makes up about 75% of the total S pool. The sediments of the moorland pools Gerritsfles and Kliplo, have been compared statistically with respect to total S and S-related sediment contents (Chapter 6). The pools differ significantly in their horizontal and vertical distribution of S. Statistical analyses indicate that spatial variation of S in Kliplo is due to organically bound S. For Gerritsfles spatial interrelation between C, S or Fe could not be recognized. As evidenced by this study, a choice for a measurement unit like mass fraction (g g -1) or volumetric mass (Mg cm -3) is crucial for the interpretation of spatial variability. In spatial studies of sediment constituents, it is essential to express contents of these constituents in volumetric mass fractions, since spatial sediment patterns are often obscured by spatial variations in bulk density. Taking into account spatial variability is concise for a proper quantification of S-budgets of pools or lakes.

    Determination of SO 42-reduction rates and transformation rates of SO 42-into organic and inorganic S fractions. Estimation of S oxidation rates in sediments and overlying water column.

    In GerritsfIes S cycling near the sediment/water boundary was investigated by measuring (1) SO 42-reduction rates in the sediment, (2) depletion of SO 42-in the overlying water column and (3) release of 35S from the sediment into the water column (Chapter 2). Two locations differing in sediment type (highly organic and sandy) were compared with respect to reduction rates and depletion of SO 42-in the overlying water.

    Sulfate reduction rates, estimated by diagenetic modelling and whole core 35SO 42-injection, ranged from 0.27 to 11.2 mmol m -2d -1. Rates of SO 42-consumption in the overlying water were estimated by changes in SO 42-concentration over time in in situ enclosures and varied from -0.51 to 1.81 mmol m -2d -1. Maximum rates of oxidation to SO 42-in July 1990 estimated by combination of SO 42-reduction rates and rates of in situ SO 42-uptake in the enclosed water column were 10.3 and 10.5 mmol m -2d -1at an organic rich site and at a sandy site respectively.

    Experiments with 35S 2-and 35SO 42-tracer suggested (1) a rapid formation of organically bound S from dissimilatory reduced SO 42-and (2) transport of mainly non-SO 42--S, from the sediment into the overlying water.
    Sulfate reduction rates in sediments with higher volumetric mass fraction of organic matter did not significantly differ from those in sediments with a lower mass fraction of organic matter.

    The role of inorganic S, with emphasis on pyrite, in the S cycle of Gerritsfles and Kliplo.

    In Gerritsfles and Kliplo, pyrite is the most important iron sulfide phase (Chapter 3).The redox status appeared to be a main factor in determining whether pyrite or a monosulfide, defined by the content of acid volatile sulfur (AVS), is formed. Sedimentary FeS 2 -S/AVS-S molar ratios in sediments of Gerritsfles and Kliplo, which are overlain by a continuously oxygenated water column, were 32 and 55 respectively whereas in other lakes, where stratification caused anaerobic conditions in the hypolininion, FeS 2 /AVS ratios were <1.

    Framboidal pyrite, presumably formed slowly through sulfurization of iron sulfide precursors is thought to be an important pathway of pyrite formation in the freshwater sediments of Gerritsfles and Kliplo. The presence of single-crystal pyrite indicates that pyrite in both sediments may also form rapidly. The close association of pyrite framboids and organic matter, and the undersaturation of bulk porewaters with respect to amorphous FeS suggest that the framboidal pyrite is formed at microsites within organic matter. Alternating reduced and more oxic conditions in the sediment will supply Fe 2+and zerovalent sulfur respectively for the formation of pyrite. That a large fraction of pyrite is in (dead) plant cells may be explained by preferential oxidation of pyrite at locations where pyrite is not so protected against O 2 intrusion, in contrast to the pyrite located inside organic matter microsites.

    Calculation of a chemical S-budget in both freshwater systems using models and chemical data of pool- and rainwater.

    The chemical composition of surface waters of Gerritsfies and Kliplo and of incident precipitation, were monitored from 1982 to 1990. Sulfur and water budgets were calculated using a hydrochemical model developed for well-mixed nonstratifying lakes (Chapter 4). In Gerritsfies and Kliplo respectively 70 and80%of the incoming S is lost to the sediment primarily through reduction of SO 42-indicating that SO 42-reduction is an important mechanism to buffer the incoming acidic S compounds. Total atmospheric deposition of S has decreased significantly after 1986 at both locations. A model describing the sulfur budget in terms of input, output and reduction/oxidation processes predicted a fast decrease of poolwater SO 42-concentrations after a decrease of atmospheric input. However, SO 42-concentrations in the surface water were lowered only slightly or remained constant so there must be an extra source of SO 42-to the water column. Two possible mechanisms can explain this extra source of SO 42-: desorption of SO 42-from the sediment and the release of SO 42-through desiccation of a part of the pool bottom after dry summers. Further investigations would be needed to study the relative importance of these mechanisms.

    Mineralization of sedimentary organic S

    'Me mineralization rate of organic S compounds in Gerritsfles was estimated to reveal its importance in the overall S cycle (Chapter 5).The mineralization rate of organic S was estimated indirectly from diagenetic modelling of pore water NH 4+depth profiles and the ratio of organic N and S contents. Since the mineralization rates of organic N and S do not follow the stoichiometry of the contents of organic N and S, it was only possible to estimate a maximum rate of organic S mineralization. The maximum rate of organic S mineralization was 25 mmol m -22 y -1, only 1-2% of the SO 42-reduction in Gerritsfles sediments so, mineralization of organic S therefore, appears to play a minor role in the overall S-cycle.

    Effects of atmospheric chemistry and bark chemistry on epiphytic lichen vegetation in The Netherlands
    Dobben, H.F. van; Wamelink, W. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (RIN report 92/23) - 34
    korstmossen - toxische stoffen - chemie - indicatorplanten - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bosbouw - straatbomen - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - nederland - chemische factoren - lichens - toxic substances - chemistry - indicator plants - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - forestry - street trees - ornamental woody plants - netherlands - chemical factors
    De directe bijdrage van Pb en Cd in atmosferische depositie aan de Pb- en Cd-belasting van gras, spinazie, waspeen en tarwe in een zandige zavelgrond
    Dalenberg, J.W. ; Driel, W. van - \ 1992
    Haren (Gr.) : DLO-Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid (Nota / DLO-Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid 255) - 26
    graslanden - spinacia oleracea - spinazie - daucus carota - penen - triticum aestivum - tarwe - hexaploïdie - chemische samenstelling - planten - chemische analyse - veldgewassen - akkerbouw - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bodemverontreiniging - luchtverontreiniging - cadmium - lood - grasslands - spinacia oleracea - spinach - daucus carota - carrots - triticum aestivum - wheat - hexaploidy - chemical composition - plants - chemical analysis - field crops - arable farming - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - soil pollution - air pollution - cadmium - lead
    Onderzoek naar de invloed van het toevoegen van vanille op de bepaling van het zuurgehalte (FFA-gehalte) van botervet
    Lam, R. ; Labrijn, J.F. ; Onstenk, C.G.M. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten (Rapport / RIKILT-DLO 92.10) - 20
    boter - vetzuren - boterolie - vanilline - zuurgraad - butter - fatty acids - butter oil - vanillin - acidity
    De invloed van de eind - pH op de eetkwaliteit van varkensvlees = The effect of ultimate pH on eating quality of pork
    Eikelenboom, G. ; Hoving - Bolink, A.H. ; Wal, P.G. van der - \ 1992
    Zeist : IVO-DLO (Rapport / DLO - Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord" (IVO-DLO) B-385) - 28
    varkensvlees - dierlijke producten - kwaliteit - ph - zuurgraad - waterstofionen - pigmeat - animal products - quality - ph - acidity - hydrogen ions
    Titreerbare zuurtegraad van het vet van melk : interne niveaucontrole
    Koning, A. de; Vermunt, A.E.M. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten (Rapport / RIKILT-DLO 92.15) - 8
    melk - zuurgraad - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - vetten - melkproducten - zuivelindustrie - zuivelonderzoek - inspectie - melk testen - milk - acidity - food - foods - fats - milk products - dairy industry - dairy research - inspection - milk testing
    Emission of fumigants from soil and dispersion in air
    Berg, F. van den - \ 1992
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. Wartena, co-promotor(en): E.H. Adema; M. Leistra. - S.l. : Van den Berg - 223
    grondsterilisatie - bodemfumigatie - desinfecteren - bodem - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - pesticidenresiduen - persistentie - organische verbindingen - bodemchemie - nematiciden - luchtverontreiniging - milieu - schade - milieueffect - fumigatie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - milieuhygiëne - soil sterilization - soil fumigation - disinfestation - soil - plant protection - pesticides - pesticide residues - persistence - organic compounds - soil chemistry - nematicides - air pollution - environment - damage - environmental impact - fumigation - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - environmental hygiene

    In the Netherlands, soil fumigants are used on a large scale for nematode control in arable farming. After injecting the fumigant into the soil, a fraction of the dosage of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate (formed from metham-sodium) diffuses up to the soil surface and escapes into the air.

    The processes involved in fumigant behaviour in soil are described and the factors affecting these processes are discussed. A standard model including the most important processes is described and used to simulate the fumigation of fields injected with 1,3-dichloropropene or metham-sodium. It was computed that up to a few tens of percent of the dosage of the fumigant can be emitted into the air during the first three weeks after injection.

    The impact of several simplifications in the standard model on the rate and extent of emission of fumigant into the air was evaluated. The effect of a fumigant content- dependent rate coefficient for the transformation of fumigant in soil and that of changes in soil moisture content on the rate and extent of emission into the air was computed to be substantial. Although a diurnally changing soil temperature was computed to affect the rate of emission of fumigant into the air substantially, its effect on the cumulative emission in time, compared with a soil system at the average temperature, was computed to be negligible.

    Measurements on the one-hour concentrations of methyl isothiocyanate and 1,3-dichloropropene in air were done around two fields injected with metham-sodium and around two other fields injected with 1,3-dichloropropene. Concentrations measured in air were compared with those computed using a gaussian plume model. The comparatively large differences between the computed and measured concentrations in the air during the first few days after injection could be ascribed to an underestimation of the source strength of the emission. Improving the description of the pattern of concentrations of fumigant in air would require more detailed measurements on input parameters for the dispersion model.

    In two consecutive years, 6-hour concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate were measured at two locations in a region with intensive use of soil fumigants. For some weeks with many fumigations in this region, the concentration of fumigant in air at a receptor site, with representative fumigated fields at different upwind distances, was computed using a gaussian plume model. The computed and measured concentrations were of the same order of magnitude.

    Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on the biogeochemistry of moorland pools and surrounding terrestrial environment.
    Dobben, H.F. van; Mulder, J. ; Dam, H. van; Houweling, H. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : Pudoc (Agricultural research reports 931) - ISBN 9789022010723 - 232
    wetlands - bosbouw - bomen - heidegebieden - luchtverontreiniging - milieu - schade - milieueffect - trofische graden - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - stilstaand water - ecologie - bossen - verontreiniging - wetlands - forestry - trees - heathlands - air pollution - environment - damage - environmental impact - trophic levels - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - standing water - ecology - forests - pollution
    Veranderingen in bodem en vegetatie van het Speulderbos
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Leeters, E.E.J.M. ; Vrielink, J.G. - \ 1991
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 104.1)
    bodemkarteringen - kaarten - bosbouw - bodem-plant relaties - bodemchemie - ecosystemen - bossen - neerslag - zuurgraad - zure regen - veluwe - gelderland - soil surveys - maps - forestry - soil plant relationships - soil chemistry - ecosystems - forests - precipitation - acidity - acid rain - veluwe - gelderland
    Door vergelijking van twee vegetatiekaarten van het Speulderbos wordt een beeld gegeven van de vegetatie-veranderingen gedurende de periode 1958-1988. De vegetatie-veranderingen worden beschreven in termen van verandering van trofie-niveau. Eveneens door middel van kaartvergelijking zijn relaties onderzocht tussen de geconstateerde veranderingen enerzijds en abiotische, biotische en historische factoren anderzijds. De kaartvergelijking werd uitgevoerd met het GIS-pakket ARC-INFO. De relaties tussen de veranderingen en het complex van mogelijk verklarende factoren werd nader onderzocht met multipele regressie-analyse. De hoofdtrend van de door de plantengroei geïndiceerde veranderingen blijkt een verrijking van het bosmilieu met voedingsstoffen te zijn. De mate van eutrofiëring is vooral gecorreleerd met het oorspronkelijk vegetatietype, de bosgeschiedenis, de afstand tot de dichtstbijzijnde cultuurgronden en de bodem.
    Effecten van atmosferische depositie op de chemische samenstelling van grondwater onder bos.
    Mulder, J. ; Beek, C.G.E.M. van; Dierx, H.A.L. - \ 1991
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 24 (1991). - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 490 - 493.
    waterkwaliteit - verontreinigingsbeheersing - grondwaterverontreiniging - bescherming - preventie - verwijdering - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bosbouw - watererosie - infiltratie - oppervlakkige afvoer - zure depositie - overijssel - water quality - pollution control - groundwater pollution - protection - prevention - removal - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - forestry - water erosion - infiltration - runoff - acid deposition - overijssel
    Analyse van de verzuringsproblematiek in de Nederlandse landbouw met een geïntegreerd systeemdynamisch/economisch optimaliserings-model
    Nijland, G.O. - \ 1991
    Agro Informatica 4 (1991)5. - ISSN 0925-4455 - p. 7 - 8.
    milieu - landbouw - zuurgraad - geïntegreerde systemen - modellen - systeemanalyse - optimalisatie - nederland - environment - agriculture - acidity - integrated systems - models - systems analysis - optimization - netherlands
    Mapping critical loads : a guidance to the criteria, calculations, data collection and mapping of critical loads
    Sverdrup, H. ; Vries, W. de; Henriksen, A. - \ 1990
    Copenhagen etc. : Nordic Council of Ministers [etc.] (Miljoerapport 1990:14) - ISBN 9788773035016 - 124
    bodemchemie - anorganische verbindingen - mineralen - bodem - stikstof - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - modellen - onderzoek - normen - standaardisering - soil chemistry - inorganic compounds - minerals - soil - nitrogen - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - models - research - standards - standardization
    Ammonia volatilization from arable land after surface application or incorporation of dairy cattle slurry
    Faassen, H.G. van; Chardon, W.J. ; Bril, J. - \ 1990
    Haren : Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid (Nota / Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid 236) - 83
    dierlijke meststoffen - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - luchtverontreiniging - geurstoffen - ammoniak - animal manures - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - air pollution - odours - ammonia
    Het gebruik van onzekerheidsanalyse bij modelberekeningen : een toepassing op het regionale bodemverzuringsmodel RESAM
    Kros, J. ; Janssen, P.H.M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 65) - 127
    bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - bodemoplossing - fysicochemische eigenschappen - bodemeigenschappen - bodemchemie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - nederland - soil ph - soil acidity - soil solution - physicochemical properties - soil properties - soil chemistry - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - netherlands
    Vermindering van ammoniakemissie door korstvorming op rundveemengmest
    Bode, M.J.C. de - \ 1990
    Wageningen : IMAG (Rapport / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen nr. 226) - 41
    opslagloodsen - mest - ammoniak - dierlijke meststoffen - drijfmest - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - lucht - hygiëne - luchtverontreiniging - atmosfeer - milieu - rundveedrijfmest - stores - manures - ammonia - animal manures - slurries - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - air - hygiene - air pollution - atmosphere - environment - cattle slurry
    Mestscheiding onder de roosters
    Asseldonk, M. van; Voermans, J. - \ 1990
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 4 (1990)1. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 18 - 20.
    varkens - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - mestverwerking - pigs - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - manure treatment
    Op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij is gedurende een jaar het scheiden van mest onder de roosters bestudeerd. De mest werd gescheiden in een dikke en dunne fractie en dagelijks, met behulp van een mestschuif, uit de afdeling verwijderd.
    Netto zuurbelasting van de bodem door atmosferische depositie
    Loman, H. - \ 1989
    Haren (Gr.) : IB (Nota / Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid 207) - 44
    bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - bosschade - chemische precipitatie - luchtverontreiniging - zouten - depositie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - soil ph - soil acidity - forest damage - chemical precipitation - air pollution - salts - deposition - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain
    Ammonia volatilization from arable land after surface application or incorporation of cattle slurry : intermediate report of the period November 1988 - May 1989
    Molen, J. van der; Faassen, H.G. van; Chardon, W.J. - \ 1989
    Haren : Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid (Projectgroep Verzuringsonderzoek 36-15) - 32
    dierlijke meststoffen - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - luchtverontreiniging - geurstoffen - ammoniak - animal manures - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - air pollution - odours - ammonia
    Beperking van de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest : een verkenning van mogelijkheden en kosten
    Oudendag, D.A. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 1989
    Den Haag : LEI (Onderzoekverslag / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Structuuronderzoek 56) - ISBN 9789052420455 - 72
    dierlijke meststoffen - opslagloodsen - mest - drijfmest - lucht - hygiëne - luchtverontreiniging - atmosfeer - milieu - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - ammoniak - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - bescherming - herstel - kostenanalyse - nederland - animal manures - stores - manures - slurries - air - hygiene - air pollution - atmosphere - environment - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - ammonia - sustainability - natural resources - resource utilization - protection - rehabilitation - cost analysis - netherlands
    Kwetsbaarheid van de Nederlandse bodem voor verzuring : een voorlopige indicatie in het kader van de Richtlijn Ammoniak en Veehouderij
    Vries, W. de; Breeuwsma, A. ; Vries, F. de - \ 1989
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 29) - 73
    bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - cartografie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - nederland - luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - emissie - vervluchtiging - thematische cartografie - soil ph - soil acidity - mapping - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - netherlands - air pollution - ammonia - emission - volatilization - thematic mapping
    Lange-termijn effecten van verschillende depositiescenario's op representatieve bosbodems in Nederland
    Vries, W. de; Kros, J. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 30) - 89
    bosbouw - verzuring - bodem pH - bodemaciditeit - bodem - metaalelementen - zure gronden - kattekleigronden - neerslag - zure regen - zure depositie - aluminium - modellen - onderzoek - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - Nederland - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - forestry - acidification - soil pH - soil acidity - soil - metallic elements - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - precipitation - acid rain - acid deposition - aluminium - models - research - chemical properties - acidity - Netherlands - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models
    Om inzicht te krijgen in het lange-termijn effect van verschillende depositiescenario's op bosbodems zijn simulaties uitgevoerd gedurende een periode van 100 jaar met het regionale bodemverzuringsmodel RESAM, dat in het kader van het Nationaal Programma Zure Regen is ontwikkeld
    De reductie van de ammoniakemissie uit varkensmest na toediening op bouwland : in- en onderwerkmethoden en tijdstippen van de bewerking na de mesttoediening : mestsoorten van verschillende huisvestingssytemen
    Bruins, M.A. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : IMAG (Rapport / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen nr. 225) - 27
    dierlijke meststoffen - drijfmest - varkens - varkensstallen - lucht - hygiëne - luchtverontreiniging - atmosfeer - milieu - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - ammoniak - opslagloodsen - mest - toedieningswijzen - bouwland - akkerbouw - animal manures - slurries - pigs - pig housing - air - hygiene - air pollution - atmosphere - environment - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - ammonia - stores - manures - application methods - arable land - arable farming
    In het najaar van 1988 is in een Nederlands-Engelse samenwerking onderzoek verricht naar de mogelijkheden om de emissie uit varkensmest te beperken na toediening op bouwland.
    Eerste resultaten mestspoelsystemen
    Asseldonk, M.M.L. van; Hoekstra, P. - \ 1989
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 3 (1989)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 9 - 11.
    varkensstallen - opslagloodsen - drijfmest - vloeibare meststoffen - schoonmaakgereedschap - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - pig housing - stores - slurries - liquid manures - cleaning equipment - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain
    De eerste voorlopige resultaten van de afdelingen met de mestspoelsystemen op het varkensproefbedrijf Sterksel zijn bekend. De cijfers wijzen op een belangrijke beperking van de ammoniakemissie ten opzichte van de traditionele opslag van mest onder deroosters.
    Stalluchtzuivering bij mestvarkens
    Asseldonk, M.M.L. van - \ 1989
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 3 (1989)5. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 24 - 25.
    varkensstallen - afmesten - varkens - luchtverontreiniging - geurstoffen - atmosfeer - aërosolen - samenstelling - stof - luchtkwaliteit - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - pig housing - finishing - pigs - air pollution - odours - atmosphere - aerosols - composition - dust - air quality - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain
    Op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij is gedurende een jaar de stallucht van één mestvarkensafdeling met behulp van een biobed gezuiverd. Onder de op het Proefstation geldende omstandigheden werd voor de NH3- emissie een reductie van 85% en voorde emissie van stankstoffen een reductie van 75% bereikt.
    Helpen lamellen tegen de uitstoot van ammoniak
    Klooster, C.E. van 't; Bokma, S. - \ 1989
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 3 (1989)5. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 6 - 7.
    varkensstallen - milieubeheersing - gebouwen - ventilatie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - lucht - hygiëne - luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - pig housing - environmental control - buildings - ventilation - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - air - hygiene - air pollution - ammonia
    Op het Proefstation worden ervaringen opgedaan met lamellen, die mogelijk de uitstoot van ammoniak uit de mestkelder verminderen, goedkoop zijn en in vrijwel iedere stal zijn in te passen. De plastic flappen scheiden de lucht in de put van die in stal.
    Sulfur cycling in a Dutch moorland pool under elevated atmospheric S-deposition.
    Feijtel, T.C.J. ; Salingar, Y. ; Hordijk, C.A. ; Sweerts, J.P.R.A. ; Breemen, N. van; Cappenberg, Th.E. - \ 1989
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 44 (1989). - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 215 - 234.
    meren - reservoirs - plassen - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - zwavel - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - lakes - reservoirs - ponds - water - water pollution - water quality - eutrophication - sulfur - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain
    Influence of airborne ammonium sulfate on soils of an oak woodland ecosystem in The Netherlands: Seasonal dynamics of solute fluxes.
    Breemen, N. van; Boderie, P.M.A. ; Booltink, H.W.G. - \ 1989
    In: Acid precipitation. Vol. 1. Case studies / Adriane, D.C., Havas, M., - p. 209 - 236.
    bosbouw - bomen - bodem - stikstof - bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bodemvorming - bodemprofielen - zure depositie - forestry - trees - soil - nitrogen - soil ph - soil acidity - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - soil formation - soil profiles - acid deposition
    The mechanism of NH3 and SO2 uptake by leaves and its physiological effects = [Het mechanisme van de NH3 en SO2 opname door bladeren en hierdoor veroorzaakte fysiologische effecten]
    Hove, L.W.A. van - \ 1989
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; W.J. Vredenberg. - S.l. : Van Hove - 155
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - oogstschade - luchtverontreiniging - zwaveldioxide - ammoniak - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - crop damage - air pollution - sulfur dioxide - ammonia

    The relation between uptake of atmospheric ammonia (NH 3 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) by individual leaves, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was examined. The experiments were carried out with bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) and poplar shoots ( Populus euramericana L. ). The method of analysis was derived from methods used in photosynthetic research. The uptake of NH 3 or SO 2 was experimentally determined by using a leaf chamber specially developed for this research. Simultaneously, transpiration and carbondioxide (CO 2 ) assimilation of leaves were measured.

    The adsorption of NH 3 and SO 2 strongly increased with increasing air humidity, indicating a major role of water in the adsorption process. A descriptive model for the adsorption in the cuticle-watersystem is proposed. The affinity of SO 2 for the leaf surface was found to be approximately twice that of NH 3 . A mixture of these gases in the air mutually stimulated their adsorption on the leaf surface. No significant desorption or transport of these gases through the cuticle could be detected.

    The uptake of NH 3 into leaves appeared to be dependent on the leaf boundary layer and stomatal resistance and NH 3 concentration at the leaf surface. In contrast, a less clear relation between SO 2 uptake and stomatal resistance was found, in particular at a low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The measured flux was larger than can be calculated from the boundary layer and stomatal resistance for H 2 O, suggesting a lower resistance of the diffusion pathway. The same was observed for NH 3 at a low temperature and VPD. It is postulated that this discrepancy is due to a difference in path length.

    Under the conditions of the present research the physiological effects caused by a prolonged exposure to NH 3 or SO 2 became notable at concentrations of about 100 μg.m -3. The NH 3 exposure had a positive effect on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and NH 3 uptake, whereas a small irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was induced by the SO 2 exposure.

    The relations assessed in this study can be used to construct a descriptive model for NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into leaves as a function of wind velocity, light intensity, air temperature and humidity.

    Systeemanalyse en beleidsscenario's verzuringsproblematiek in de Landbouw. Discussienota t.b.v. referentenbijeenkomsten in april-mei 1989 in het kader van het project Systeemanalyse van de Nederlandse Landbouw (SAL).
    Bovy, M.W.L. ; Knol, O.M. ; Nijland, G.O. ; Stallen, P.J. ; Verberne, F.C.M. - \ 1989
    Amsterdam [etc.] : IMSA [etc.] - 36
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - landbouw - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - systeemanalyse - onderzoek - analyse - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - nederland - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - agriculture - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - water pollution - systems analysis - research - analysis - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models - netherlands
    Tijdreeksen van gegevens over chemie en diatomeeen uit enige verzuurde vennen
    Dam, H. van; Mertens, A. - \ 1988
    Leersum : RIN (Intern rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Natuurbeheer 88/47) - 25
    bacillariophyta - fytoplankton - zoet water - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - stilstaand water - nederland - veluwe - gelderland - bacillariophyta - phytoplankton - fresh water - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - standing water - netherlands - veluwe - gelderland
    Aanpak, structuur en voorlopige procesbeschrijving van een bodemverzuringsmodel voor toepassing op regionale schaal
    Vries, W. de; Waltmans, M.J.P.H. ; Versendaal, R. van - \ 1988
    Wageningen : STIBOKA (Rapport / Stichting voor Bodemkartering nr. 2014) - 132
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - modellen - onderzoek - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - soil ph - soil acidity - models - research
    Het rapport beschrijft de opzet van een voorlopig bodemverzuringsmodel, waarin de meeste zuurproducerende en zuurverbruikende processen zijn opgenomen. Het accent ligt op de aanpak van het bodemverzuringsmodel in relatie tot de specifieke problemen die optreden bij toepassing op regionale schaal. Wat de aanpak betreft wordt ingegaan op de afbakening van het te modelleren systeem, de gekozen modelstructuur en de voorlopige modelformulering. M.b.t. de toepassing ligt de nadruk op het probleem van data-invoer en het gebruik van geografische informatiesystemen
    De nutriëtenbalans van droge zandgrondvegetaties in verband met eutrofiëring via de lucht: Een simulatiemodel als hulpmiddel bij het beheer van vochtige heidevelden
    Berendse, F. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : CABO - 51
    heidegebieden - eutrofiëring - natuurbescherming - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - fysicochemische eigenschappen - bodemeigenschappen - bodemchemie - heathlands - eutrophication - nature conservation - policy - management - netherlands - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - physicochemical properties - soil properties - soil chemistry
    Hydrochemisch onderzoek in het zuidelijk Peelgebied. Dl. 2
    Pomper, A.B. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1867) - 71
    grondwater - chemische eigenschappen - waterkwaliteit - verontreinigingsbeheersing - grondwaterverontreiniging - zuurgraad - zure regen - de peel - groundwater - chemical properties - water quality - pollution control - groundwater pollution - acidity - acid rain - de peel
    De bestudering van de kwaliteit van het diepe grondwater in het Zuidelijk Peelgebied, werd in 1981 gestart met het uitvoeren van een bemonsteringsronde. Op dat moment was over de situatie tav. de grondwaterkwaliteit in het gebied nog betrekkelijk weinig bekend.
    Atmosferische depositie en de gevolgen voor de kwaliteit van het grondwater onder een naald- en een loofbos in de Gelderse Vallei
    Jansen, P.C. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : ICW (ICW nota 1862) - 34
    grondwater - chemische eigenschappen - bosbouw - neerslag - zure regen - zure depositie - zuurgraad - natuurgebieden - gelderland - gelderse vallei - groundwater - chemical properties - forestry - precipitation - acid rain - acid deposition - acidity - natural areas - gelderland - gelderse vallei
    In een natuurgebiedje in de Gelderse Vallei is onder een klein dennebos, dat op een infiltratieprofiel ligt, sterk verzuurd grondwater aangetroffen. Het ligt voor de hand dat de atmosferische depositie van zure en verzurende stoffen hiervoor verantwoordelijk is. Om te zien in hoeverre dit inderdaad het geval is en welke verschillen er zijn met de depositie in een loofbos is een onderzoek verricht naar de aard en de omvang van de depositie in een klein dennebos en in een amerikaans eikenbos.
    Biogeochemistry of an oak-woodland ecosystem in The Netherlands affected by acid atmospheric deposition.
    Breemen, N. van; Visser, W.F.J. ; Pape, Th. - \ 1988
    Wageningen : Pudoc (Agricultural Research reports 930) - ISBN 9789022009161 - 197
    bosbouw - bomen - biocenose - ecosystemen - kringlopen - biogeochemie - bodemwater - bosschade - zure regen - fysicochemische eigenschappen - bodemeigenschappen - bodemchemie - bodem - stikstof - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - bodemvorming - bodemprofielen - zure depositie - nederland - gelderland - forestry - trees - biocoenosis - ecosystems - cycling - biogeochemistry - soil water - forest damage - acid rain - physicochemical properties - soil properties - soil chemistry - soil - nitrogen - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - soil ph - soil acidity - soil formation - soil profiles - acid deposition - netherlands - gelderland
    Impact of acid atmosphere deposition on soils : field monitoring and aluminum chemistry
    Mulder, J. - \ 1988
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen. - S.l. : Mulder - 163
    bosbouw - verzuring - bodem pH - bodemaciditeit - bodem - aluminium - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - zure depositie - metaalelementen - bodemgiftigheid - forestry - acidification - soil pH - soil acidity - soil - aluminium - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - acid deposition - metallic elements - soil toxicity

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions were obtained from intensive monitoring programmes conducted at a number of sites in northwestern Europe and North-America. Specific hypotheses were tested in laboratory experiments.

    Atmospheric acid inputs dominated total acid loads in nearly all soils studied. This was particularly true for forest soils in the Netherlands, due to an extreme dry deposition of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 in the forest canopy. Input of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 may acidify the soil, due to NH 4 assimilation, or nitrification of NH 4 and subsequent leaching of NO 3 .

    In soils rich in weatherable minerals, mobilization of base cations dominated acid neutralization, so that percolation water was buffered at relatively high pH values and the mobility of aluminum was low. In these soils the mobilization and transport of aluminum was mainly driven by organic acids, which is consistent with the podzolization theory. However, in soils depleted in weatherable minerals (e.g. most of the acid, sandy soils in the Netherlands), mobilization rates of base cations were too low for a substantial neutralization of atmospheric acidity, so that pH values of the percolation water were often low enough to cause a significant mobilization of aluminum. In these soils the atmospherically derived strong acid load was almost fully neutralized by aluminum dissolution. Much of this dissolved inorganic aluminum is currently lost to the groundwater.

    Although aluminum is abundant in soils only a minor fraction, largely consisting of non-silicate organically bound aluminum, formed in the course of soil development (podzolization), was readily dissolved. The current rapid and irreversible depletion of this fraction in many acid, sandy soils of the Netherlands constitutes a drastic change in soil genesis. Depletion may eventually also result in reduced acid neutralization, due to decreased dissolution of aluminum.

    The aluminum solubility control varied with soil depth. Surface soil solutions were highly undersaturated with respect to gibbsite solubility, whereas saturation was approached in the subsoil. Possibly, the low aluminum solubility in the surface soil was controlled by an exchange type equilibrium with organic soil aluminum. Insight in the aluminum solubility control in soils is not only relevant for improving our understanding of the aluminum chemistry in soils per se, but it may also help explaining the aluminum chemistry of surface water in mountainous catchments, where soil solutions may reach the stream via different flowpaths through the soil, depending on hydrological conditions.

    Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils : quantification of chemical and hydrologic processes
    Grinsven, J.J.M. van - \ 1988
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; F.A.M. de Haan. - S.l. : Van Grinsven - 213
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bosbouw - verzuring - bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - zure depositie - grondanalyse - bodemoplossing - kwantitatieve technieken - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - forestry - acidification - soil ph - soil acidity - acid deposition - soil analysis - soil solution - quantitative techniques - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models

    Atmospheric deposition of SO x , NOx and NHx will cause major changes in the chemical composition of solutions in acid soils, which may affect the biological functions of the soil. This thesis deals with quantification of soil acidification by means of chemical budgets, kinetics of mineral weathering of aluminum and base cations, and simulation of soil acidification. Most results apply to an acid forest soil on the Hackfort estate, for which monitoring data were available from 1981 to 1987.

    Spatial variability of soil solution composition was found to be the dominant source of uncertainty in determining chemical budgets. Uncertainty in annual chemical budgets due to simulation of unsaturated soil water fluxes generally does not exceed 10%. A new method was developed for in situ measurement of unsaturated soil water fluxes at a similar accuracy as obtained by numerical simulation.

    Weathering of Al is the dominant process for proton buffering in acid soils. In dutch acid soils, the most reactive pool for Al is present in hydrated oxides, often in association with organic matter. On average the weathering rate of Al increases nearly proportional with (H +), and decrease strongly with increasing depletion of reactive Al. Total exhaustion of the reactive pool of hydrated oxides may become a problem in the coming century.

    A new column percolation technique was developed to measure weathering rates at controlled pH in absence of mechanical disturbance. In all cases base cation weathering rates from laboratory experiments were considerably higher than estimated ' from field mass balance studies. A yet unconsidered effect for explanation of this discrepancy, is the increase of weathering rate with (by approximation the square root of) the percolation rate. Moreover, evidence was found that assumed patchy coatings of secondary Al may be protective against weathering of Ca from plagioclases.

    The ILWAS model was adapted for simulation of soil acidification. The model proved to be appropriate to simulate annual budgets and seasonal variation of concentrations for all major components. Concentration peaks near the end of summer appeared to be overestimated, but also scarce field observations may be biased. The model seemed somewhat too crude to predict N-dynamics. The model was used to analyze the response of the soil system to 50% reduction of deposition, fertilization, and removal of forest vegetation. Scenario analyses, demonstrated that pH is not a sensitive indicator for changes in soil chemistry. Simple models, using large time steps, may be adequate to evaluate average annual changes of soil solution characteristics over periods of several decades.

    De protonenbalans van ecosystemen: principes en voorbeelden.
    Breemen, N. van; Verstraten, J.M. - \ 1988
    Biovisie magazine 68 (1988)12. - ISSN 0921-9242 - p. 22 - 28.
    bodem ph - bodemaciditeit - bodem - buffercapaciteit - fixatie - bodemkunde - absorptie - adsorptie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - soil ph - soil acidity - soil - buffering capacity - fixation - soil science - absorption - adsorption - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain
    Nitraatimmissie en Nederlandse ecosystemen : een globale risico-analyse
    Denneman, W.D. ; Torenbeek, R. - \ 1987
    Arnhem : RIN (RIN-rapport 87/23) - 164
    luchtverontreiniging - milieu - schade - milieueffect - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - stikstofkringloop - bacteriën - dierlijke meststoffen - besluitvorming - analyse van besluiten - nederland - air pollution - environment - damage - environmental impact - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - nitrogen cycle - bacteria - animal manures - decision making - decision analysis - netherlands
    Monitoring of chemistry, macrophytes, and diatoms in acidifying moorland pools
    Dam, H. van - \ 1987
    Leersum : RIN (RIN-rapport 87/19) - 91
    verontreiniging - waterorganismen - meren - reservoirs - plassen - water - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - hydrobiologie - classificatie - dieren - schade - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - bacillariophyta - stilstaand water - nederland - pollution - aquatic organisms - lakes - reservoirs - ponds - water - water pollution - water quality - eutrophication - hydrobiology - classification - animals - damage - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - bacillariophyta - standing water - netherlands
    Ammoniak - emissie uit grasland
    Vertregt, N. ; Rutgers, B. - \ 1987
    Wageningen : CABO (Cabo-verslag nr. 65) - 23
    ammoniak - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - drijfmest - stalmest - graslanden - luchtverontreiniging - emissie - vervluchtiging - lucht - hygiëne - ammonia - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - slurries - farmyard manure - grasslands - air pollution - emission - volatilization - air - hygiene
    In dit verslag wordt een overzicht gegeven van de in 1986 verkregen meetresultaten betreffende ammoniakvervluchtiging uit een urineplek in een windtunnelsysteem, waarbij bemonstering geschiedde aan de uit de tunnel stromende lucht
    Verzuring van vennen : een tijdsverschijnsel
    Dam, H. van - \ 1987
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C. den Hartog, co-promotor(en): N. van Breemen. - S.l. : Van Dam - 175
    hydrobiologie - classificatie - luchtverontreiniging - milieu - schade - milieueffect - verontreiniging - waterorganismen - meren - reservoirs - plassen - water - chemische eigenschappen - rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - neerslag - zuurgraad - zure regen - stilstaand water - hydrobiology - classification - air pollution - environment - damage - environmental impact - pollution - aquatic organisms - lakes - reservoirs - ponds - water - chemical properties - rivers - streams - canals - surface water - water pollution - water quality - precipitation - acidity - acid rain - standing water

    Changes in chemistry, particularly pH, of a number of soft-water moorland pools in The Netherlands are described. Several groups of organisms, including diatoms, and direct measurements are used to infer past pH values. Diatoms were studied from preserved samples from the beginning of the 20th century, from recent samples and from sediment cores. Old data about chemistry, macrophytes and human impact were obtained from published and unpublished documents.

    In isolated pools in nature reserves the pH declined to c. 4 from initial values between 4 and 6 at the beginning of this century. Small inputs of nutrients by agriculture, fisheries or swimming retards acidification. The diversity and dissimilarity of diatom assemblages decrease by acidification, particularly in clear water pools. Acidification boosts the growth of the diatom Eunotiaexigua .

    Sulphate concentrations were extremely high in 1977 and 1978 in two clear water pools where more than half of the bottom surface was exposed to the atmosphere during the extremely dry summer of 1976 and decreased afterwards, parallel to Juncusbulbosus . E.exigua decreased with a delay. Apparently reduced sulphur compounds, which accumulated in the bottom due to atmospheric deposition in the decades before, were oxidized in the dry summer of 1976. No such changes were seen after the dry summer of 1921. In these two pools the pH declined from 5-6 in 1920 to c. 4 in c. 1980. In a brown water pool, where only a small fraction of the bottom was exposed in 1976, changes by the drought were small. Also the decline of pH in this pool since 1920 (c. 0.5 unit) was relatively small.

    Palaeolimnological studies were conducted in three pools, which were supposed to be pristine. However, it appeared both from coring results and documented evidence that these pools had pH values between 4 and 5 in the early 19th century and became subsequently more alkaline by nutrient enrichment. After 1900 the pools were acidified because anthropogenic enrichment was finished and acid atmospheric deposition increased.

    To follow the effect of future changes of acid atmospheric deposition and understand the processes involved, chemical and biological monitoring should continue. Input of buffering substances in some moorland pools could maintain weakly acid conditions in Dutch surface waters.

    Atmospheric behaviour of ammonia and ammonium
    Asman, W.A.H. - \ 1987
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; H.W. Georgii. - S.l. : Asman - 173
    atmosfeer - samenstelling - chemische samenstelling - aërosolen - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - lucht - hygiëne - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - milieu - ammoniak - atmosphere - composition - chemical composition - aerosols - dust - air pollution - air quality - air - hygiene - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - environment - ammonia

    1.4.1 Scope of this thesis

    A few models for ammonia and ammonium exist. Russell et al. (1983) made a multi-layer Lagrangian transport model describing the transport and formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol for California. They did not take reactions of ammonia and sulphuric acid into account, nor wet deposition. Their model was mainly used to compute diurnal variations of ammonium nitrate aerosol, ammonia and nitric acid concentrations, which were compared with measurements for one day.

    De Leeuw et al. (1986) developed a multi-layer Lagrangian transport model with detailed chemistry including the reaction with sulphuric acid containing aerosol and wet deposition. Their model was especially designed to describe episodes with high aerosol concentrations.

    More complicated models as discussed above have the advantage of giving more insight in detailed (chemical) mechanisms. But the results obtained with such models are often difficult to verify as components are involved which are not measured, or not at all levels the model gives results for. Moreover, more complicated models require relatively more computing time, which makes them less suitable to compute long-term average concentrations. At this moment no good information is available on seasonal variations in the ammonia emission. Moreover, much Information on the variation both in time and space of other processes is also lacking. This means that some processes involved can be described in detail, whereas others cannot. Such models suffer then from an imbalance in the treatment of different processes, and the results of the models will be no better than is dictated by the weakest link in the chain. It should be mentioned here that such models still can be very valuable to study mechanisms and possible interactions between different processes and components. But because of the lacking information on e.g. short-time variation in emission no realistic short-term concentrations can be obtained.

    Some information on the processes involved is available, but sometimes only on a yearly basis. It seems therefore most appropriate to integrate the existing knowledge by using a relatively simple model for the computation of yearly averaged concentrations. A first attempt to do this was made by Fisher (1984). He tried to compute deposition fields for ammonium in precipitation and the total deposition (sum of dry and wet deposition) of NHx (sum of ammonia and ammonium) for Europe. But he had to conclude that his approach would remain limited until the main rates of removal of nitrogen compounds were better known.

    The scope of this thesis is:

    a. To evaluate the existing knowledge of all processes involved.
    b. To acquire additional crucial information on some processes from own field measurements.
    c. To integrate this knowledge by applying a model for the computation of long-term average (ground level) concentrations, with emphasis on the European scale. This model has been developed especially for ammonia and ammonium.
    d. To show some new applications of models: computation of historical import/export balances and concentration patterns.

    1.4.2. On the presentation

    This thesis consists mainly of separate articles (chapters 3 to 6) which were submitted to Atmospheric Environment. This has some consequences:
    a. Some information is presented in more than one article or part of this thesis.
    b. A list of references appears after each chapter.
    c. The articles have not been written at the same time. As a result some information was not yet known at the time of preparation of some articles, although this does not lead to any serious inconsequences.
    In the following a preview is given of the contents of the different chapters.

    Chapter 2

    In this chapter some information is presented on the geographical distribution of the yearly averaged ammonia emission in Europe, which is essential to understand the model results.

    Chapter 3

    In this chapter field measurements are described. These measurements were performed for the following purposes:
    a. To verify the estimated emission density
    b. To get an indication on the vertical concentration profiles of ammonia, ammonium and related components In an area where emission occurs. This information is needed to model the horizontal transport.
    c. To get an indication of the overall conversion rate of ammonia to ammonium.

    Chapter 4

    In this chapter is described how correction factors can be computed which can be used in a simple Lagrangian long-range transport model to describe the effects of turbulent mixing on concentration and deposition patterns. By using these correction factors more realistic results can be obtained.

    Chapter 5

    This chapter forms the basic part of the thesis and describes the evaluation and integration of the present knowledge, the setup of the model, numerical aspects of the model and comparison of model results with measurements. Although the model in principle would allow to vary most parameters as a function of time and space (e.g. dry deposition velocity, reaction rate, mixing height etc.) this was not done in practice in view of all uncertainties in the parameter values. Therefore, also no processes like escape into the reservoir layer were taken into account.

    Chapter 6

    In this chapter it is shown that it is not only possible to use a model to describe the present situation, but also to give estimates of concentrations in the past. These estimates make it possible to know where trends in concentrations measured in the past can be expected.

    Chapter 7

    In this chapter the conclusions of this study are summarized and discussed.

    Check title to add to marked list
    << previous | next >>

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.