Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==Adaptation
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Human adaptation to biodiversity change: An adaptation process approach applied to a case study from southern India
Thornton, Thomas F. ; Puri, Rajindra K. ; Bhagwat, Shonil ; Howard, Patricia - \ 2019
Ambio (2019). - ISSN 0044-7447 - 16 p.
Adaptation - Biodiversity change - Climate change - Invasive plants - Vulnerability

Adaptation to environmental change, including biodiversity change, is both a new imperative in the face of global climate change and the oldest problem in human history. Humans have evolved a wide range of adaptation strategies in response to localised environmental changes, which have contributed strongly to both biological and cultural diversity. The evolving set of locally driven, ‘bottom-up’ responses to environmental change is collectively termed ‘autonomous adaptation,’ while its obverse, ‘planned adaptation,’ refers to ‘top-down’ (from without, e.g. State-driven) responses. After reviewing the dominant vulnerability, risk, and pathway approaches to adaptation, this paper applies an alternative framework for understanding human adaptation processes and responding more robustly to future adaptation needs. This adaptation processes-to-pathways framework is then deployed to consider human responses to biodiversity change caused by an aggressive ‘invasive’ plant, Lantana camara L., in several agri-forest communities of southern India. The results show that a variety of adaptation processes are developing to make Lantana less disruptive and more useable—from avoidance through mobility strategies to utilizing the plant for economic diversification. However, there is currently no clear synergy or policy support to connect them to a successful long-term adaptation pathway. These results are evaluated in relation to broader trends in adaptation analysis and governance to suggest ways of improving our understanding and support for human adaptation to biodiversity change at the household, community, and regional livelisystem levels, especially in societies highly dependent on local biodiversity for their livelihoods.

Drought and conflicts at the local level: Establishing a water sharing mechanism for the summer-autumn rice production in Central Vietnam
Huynh, Chuong Van; Scheltinga, Catharien Terwisscha van; Pham, Ty Huu ; Duong, Non Quoc ; Tran, Phuong Thi ; Nguyen, Linh Hoang Khanh ; Pham, Tung Gia ; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich ; Timmerman, Jos - \ 2019
International Soil and Water Conservation Research 7 (2019)4. - ISSN 2095-6339 - p. 362 - 375.
Adaptation - Agriculture - Climate change - Governance - Rice production - Water sharing

In recent years, water for agricultural production gradually became a significant challenge in the context of climate change in Vietnam. Sustainable solutions are required, which consider the use of resources for both human needs and ecology, and that account for the equitable distribution and the livelihood of the farmers now and in the future. In particular, the farmers in the province of Quang Nam facing water shortage in the cultivation of paddy in the summer-autumn season. Conflicts arise regarding the sharing of the water between the farmers, the drinking water company and the hydropower company. In the context of climate change, the water shortage is expected to increase in the future. The article presents the results of participatory action research (PAR) approach to develop a local level mechanism for water sharing, in which stakeholders actively participated. Water sharing mechanism was developed, envisioning a sustainable solution for inclusive water sharing. The mechanism was successfully implemented in two cases, one at commune level (Tho stream) and one at the district level (Mo stream). The participatory approach proved to be successful in setting up a broadly acceptable mechanism that will need to be further incorporated in the institutional set-up.

To what extent is climate change adaptation a novel challenge for agricultural modellers?
Kipling, R.P. ; Topp, C.F.E. ; Bannink, A. ; Bartley, D.J. ; Blanco-Penedo, I. ; Cortignani, R. ; Prado, A. del; Dono, G. ; Faverdin, P. ; Graux, A.I. ; Hutchings, N.J. ; Lauwers, L. ; Özkan Gülzari, Gülzari ; Reidsma, P. ; Rolinski, S. ; Ruiz-Ramos, M. ; Sandars, D.L. ; Sándor, R. ; Schönhart, M. ; Seddaiu, G. ; Middelkoop, J. van; Shrestha, S. ; Weindl, I. ; Eory, V. - \ 2019
Environmental Modelling & Software 120 (2019). - ISSN 1364-8152
Adaptation - Agricultural modelling - Climate change - Research challenges

Modelling is key to adapting agriculture to climate change (CC), facilitating evaluation of the impacts and efficacy of adaptation measures, and the design of optimal strategies. Although there are many challenges to modelling agricultural CC adaptation, it is unclear whether these are novel or, whether adaptation merely adds new motivations to old challenges. Here, qualitative analysis of modellers’ views revealed three categories of challenge: Content, Use, and Capacity. Triangulation of findings with reviews of agricultural modelling and Climate Change Risk Assessment was then used to highlight challenges specific to modelling adaptation. These were refined through literature review, focussing attention on how the progressive nature of CC affects the role and impact of modelling. Specific challenges identified were: Scope of adaptations modelled, Information on future adaptation, Collaboration to tackle novel challenges, Optimisation under progressive change with thresholds, and Responsibility given the sensitivity of future outcomes to initial choices under progressive change.

Facilitators of adaptation and antifungal resistance mechanisms in clinically relevant fungi
Hokken, Margriet W.J. ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Melchers, W.J.G. ; Verweij, P.E. - \ 2019
Fungal Genetics and Biology 132 (2019). - ISSN 1087-1845
Adaptation - Antifungal compounds - Antifungal resistance mechanisms - Aspergillus spp. - Candida spp. - Cryptococcus spp. - Mutation rate - Reproduction

Opportunistic fungal pathogens can cause a diverse range of diseases in humans. The increasing rate of fungal infections caused by strains that are resistant to commonly used antifungals results in difficulty to treat diseases, with accompanying high mortality rates. Existing and newly emerging molecular resistance mechanisms rapidly spread in fungal populations and need to be monitored. Fungi exhibit a diversity of mechanisms to maintain physiological resilience and create genetic variation; processes which eventually lead to the selection and spread of resistant fungal pathogens. To prevent and anticipate this dispersion, the role of evolutionary factors that drive fungal adaptation should be investigated. In this review, we provide an overview of resistance mechanisms against commonly used antifungal compounds in the clinic and for which fungal resistance has been reported. Furthermore, we aim to summarize and elucidate potent generators of genetic variability across the fungal kingdom that aid adaptation to stressful environments. This knowledge can lead to recognizing potential niches that facilitate fast resistance development and can provide leads for new management strategies to battle the emerging resistant populations in the clinic and the environment.

Multispecies hybridization in birds
Ottenburghs, Jente - \ 2019
Avian Research 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2053-7166
Adaptation - Admixture - Genomics - Introgression - Network analysis - Phylogenetics - Speciation

Hybridization is not always limited to two species; often multiple species are interbreeding. In birds, there are numerous examples of species that hybridize with multiple other species. The advent of genomic data provides the opportunity to investigate the ecological and evolutionary consequences of multispecies hybridization. The interactions between several hybridizing species can be depicted as a network in which the interacting species are connected by edges. Such hybrid networks can be used to identify 'hub-species' that interbreed with multiple other species. Avian examples of such 'hub-species' are Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus). These networks might lead to the formulation of hypotheses, such as which connections are most likely conducive to interspecific gene flow (i.e. introgression). Hybridization does not necessarily result in introgression. Numerous statistical tests are available to infer interspecific gene flow from genetic data and the majority of these tests can be applied in a multispecies setting. Specifically, model-based approaches and phylogenetic networks are promising in the detection and characterization of multispecies introgression. It remains to be determined how common multispecies introgression in birds is and how often this process fuels adaptive changes. Moreover, the impact of multispecies hybridization on the build-up of reproductive isolation and the architecture of genomic landscapes remains elusive. For example, introgression between certain species might contribute to increased divergence and reproductive isolation between those species and other related species. In the end, a multispecies perspective on hybridization in combination with network approaches will lead to important insights into the history of life on this planet.

Transition pathways to sustainability in greater than 2 °C climate futures of Europe
Frantzeskaki, Niki ; Hölscher, Katharina ; Holman, Ian P. ; Pedde, Simona ; Jaeger, Jill ; Kok, Kasper ; Harrison, Paula A. - \ 2019
Regional Environmental Change 19 (2019)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 777 - 789.
Adaptation - Climate change - Mitigation - Pathways - Transformation - Transition management

The complex challenges arising from climate change that exceeds the +2 °C target (termed ‘high-end climate change’) in Europe require new integrative responses to support transformations to a more sustainable future. We present a novel methodology that combines transition management and high-end climate and socioeconomic change scenarios to identify pathways and move Europe closer to sustainability. Eighteen pathways have been co-created with stakeholders through a participatory process. The pathways support Europe in moving towards a desirable future vision, through top-down and bottom-up actions that lower greenhouse gas emissions, reduce impacts of and vulnerabilities to climate and socioeconomic changes and enhance well-being. Analysis shows that the pathways that are robust to future scenario uncertainty are those that shift Europe towards sustainable lifestyles, support and strengthen good governance for sustainability and promote adaptive resource management for water, agriculture and energy. The methodology can support the design of the urgent actions needed to meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement and to transform Europe, in preparation for an uncertain future.

Integrating farmers’ adaptive knowledge into flood management and adaptation policies in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta : A social learning perspective
Tran, Thong Anh ; Rodela, Romina - \ 2019
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 55 (2019). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 84 - 96.
Adaptation - Flood management - Knowledge brokers - Mekong Delta - Shadow systems - Social learning - Vietnamese

Flood management and adaptation are important elements in sustaining farming production in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). While over the past decades hydraulic development introduced by the central government has substantially benefited the rural economy, it has simultaneously caused multiple barriers to rural adaptation. We investigate the relational practices (i.e., learning interactions) taking place within and across the flood management and adaptation boundaries from the perspective of social learning. We explore whether and how adaptive knowledge (i.e., experimental and experiential knowledge) derived from farmers’ everyday adaptation practices contributes to local flood management and adaptation policies in the selected areas. We collected data through nine focus groups with farmers and thirty-three interviews with government officials, environmental scientists, and farmers. Qualitative analysis suggests that such processes are largely shaped by the institutional context where the boundary is embedded. This study found that while the highly bureaucratic operation of flood management creates constraints for feedback, the more informal arrangements set in place at the local level provide flexible platforms conducive to open communication, collaborative learning, and exchange of knowledge among the different actors. This study highlights the pivotal role of shadow systems that provide space for establishing and maintaining informal interactions and relationships between social actors (e.g., interactions between farmers and extension officials) in stimulating and influencing, from the bottom-up, the emergence of adaptive knowledge about flood management and adaptation in a local context.

Enabling local public health adaptation to climate change
Austin, Stephanie E. ; Ford, James D. ; Berrang-Ford, Lea ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Ross, Nancy A. - \ 2019
Social Science and Medicine 220 (2019). - ISSN 0277-9536 - p. 236 - 244.
Adaptation - Adaptive capacity - Canada - Climate change - Germany - Health policy - Multi-level governance - Public health

Local public health authorities often lack the capacity to adapt to climate change, despite being on the ‘front lines’ of climate impacts. Upper-level governments are well positioned to create an enabling environment for adaptation and build local public health authorities' capacity, yet adaptation literature has not specified how upper-level governments can build local-level adaptive capacity. In this paper we examine how federal and regional governments can contribute to enabling and supporting public health adaptation to climate change at the local level in federal systems. We outline the local level's self-assessed adaptive capacity for public health adaptation in Canadian and German comparative case studies, in terms of funding, knowledge and skills, organizations, and prioritization, drawing upon 30 semi-structured interviews. Based on interviewees' recommendations and complemented by scientific literature, we develop a set of practical measures that could enable or support local-level public health adaptation. We find that adaptive capacity varies widely between local public health authorities, but most report having insufficient funding and staff for adaptation activities. We propose 10 specific measures upper-level governments can take to build local public health authorities' capacity for adaptation, under the interrelated target areas of: building financial capital; developing and disseminating usable knowledge; collaborating and coordinating for shared knowledge; and claiming leadership. Federal and regional governments have an important role to play in enabling local-level public health adaptation, and have many instruments available to them to fulfill that role. Selecting and implementing measures to enable local public health authorities' adaptive capacity will require tailoring to, and consideration, of the local context and needs.

Flood tolerance in two tree species that inhabit both the Amazonian floodplain and the dry Cerrado savanna of Brazil
Pires, Hérica Ribeiro Almeida ; Franco, Augusto Cesar ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni ; Kruijt, Bart ; Ferreira, Cristiane Silva - \ 2018
AoB Plants 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2041-2851
Adaptation - Environmental stress - Flood tolerance - Phenotypic plasticity - Population differentiation - Seed germination in water - Submergence tolerance - Waterlogging

Comparing plants of the same species thriving in flooded and non-flooded ecosystems helps to clarify the interplay between natural selection, phenotypic plasticity and stress adaptation. We focussed on responses of seeds and seedlings of Genipa americana and Guazuma ulmifolia to substrate waterlogging or total submergence. Both species are commonly found in floodplain forests of Central Amazonia and in seasonally dry savannas of Central Brazil (Cerrado). Although seeds of Amazonian and Cerrado G. americana were similar in size, the germination percentage of Cerrado seeds was decreased by submergence (3 cm water) and increased in Amazonian seeds. The seeds of Amazonian G. ulmifolia were heavier than Cerrado seeds, but germination of both types was unaffected by submergence. Three-month-old Amazonian and Cerrado seedlings of both species survived 30 days of waterlogging or submersion despite suffering significant inhibition in biomass especially if submerged. Shoot elongation was also arrested. Submersion triggered chlorosis and leaf abscission in Amazonian and Cerrado G. ulmifolia while waterlogging did so only in Cerrado seedlings. During 30 days of re-exposure to non-flooded conditions, G. ulmifolia plants that lost their leaves produced a replacement flush. However, they attained only half the plant dry mass of non-flooded plants. Both submerged and waterlogged G. americana retained their leaves. Consequently, plant dry mass after 30 days recovery was less depressed by these stresses than in G. ulmifolia. Small amounts of cortical aerenchyma were found in roots 2 cm from the tip of well-drained plants. The amount was increased by flooding. Waterlogging but not submergence promoted hypertrophy of lenticels at the stem base of both species and adventitious rooting in G. ulmifolia. Despite some loss of performance in dryland plants, flood tolerance traits were present in wetland and dryland populations of both species. They are part of an overall stress-response potential that permits flexible acclimation to locally flooded conditions.

Scientific knowledge use and addressing uncertainties about climate change and ecosystem functioning in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt estuaries
Veraart, J.A. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Slobbe, E.J.J. van; Kabat, P. - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 90 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 148 - 160.
Adaptation - Climate change - Freshwater - Knowledge - Problem framing - Uncertainties

This paper analyses how scientists, policy makers and water users engage with scientific knowledge and uncertainties during a lengthy and complex decision-making process (2000–2014) about water quality, freshwater resources and climate adaptation in the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt estuaries. The research zooms in on lake Volkerak-Zoom. Interviews confirm that ‘negotiated knowledge’ shaped by the agricultural sector, NGO's and water managers can lead to strategies to improve water quality problems. One such a strategy, based on negotiated knowledge, is to create an inlet to allow limited tides and inflow of saline waters in Lake Volkerak-Zoom. Meanwhile, during negotiations, monitoring showed an autonomous decline in the annually returning algal blooms, leading to new uncertainties and disrupting the negotiations. At another negotiation arena, water users and policy makers repeatedly disputed scientific assessments about costs and benefits regarding additional freshwater supply for agriculture and the knowledge underlying proposed decisions was still considered uncertain in 2014. Several strategies have been observed to deal with uncertainties in decision making, such as deconstruction of certainties, creation of deadlines for decisions and selection of preferred solutions based upon the ‘No-regret principle’. The risk of a lengthy decision making process can be reduced when the responsible authorities recognize, acknowledge and give an equal role to these behavioural strategies to address uncertainties. Tailor-made strategies are needed to make knowledge use more efficient, for example, joint-fact-finding (in case of disputed knowledge and ambiguity), additional research and monitoring (in case of epistemic uncertainty) or commissioning research whereby temporarily a protected environment is created to allow research without political interference (in case of ontic/structural uncertainty).

Transgenerational effects of cyanobacterial toxins on a tropical micro-crustacean Daphnia lumholtzi across three generations
Dao, Thanh-Son ; Vo, Thi-My-Chi ; Wiegand, Claudia ; Bui, Ba-Trung ; Dinh, Khuong V. - \ 2018
Environmental Pollution 243 (2018). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 791 - 799.
Adaptation - Life history traits - Microcystins - Tolerance - Zooplankton

Climate change and human activities induce an increased frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms which could release toxins to aquatic ecosystems. Zooplankton communities belong to the first affected organisms, but in tropical freshwater ecosystems, this issue has yet been poorly investigated. We tested two questions (i) if the tropical Daphnia lumholtzi is capable to develop tolerance to an ecologically relevant concentration of purified microcystin-LR and microcystins from cyanobacterial extract transferable to F1 and F2 generations? And (ii) would F1 and F2 generations recover if reared in toxin-free medium? To answer these questions, we conducted two full factorial mutigenerational experiments, in which D. lumholtzi was exposed to MC-LR and cyanobacterial extract at the concentration of 1 μg L−1 microcystin continuously for three generations. After each generation, each treatment was spit into two: one reared in the control (toxin free) while the other continued in the respective exposure. Fitness-related traits including survival, maturity age, body length, and fecundity of each D. lumholtzi generation were quantified. Though there were only some weak negative effects of the toxins on the first generation (F0), we found strong direct, accumulated and carried-over impacts of the toxins on life history traits of D. lumholtzi on the F1 and F2, including reductions of survival, and reproduction. The maturity age and body length showed some inconsistent patterns between generations and need further investigations. The survival, maturity age (for extract), and body length (for MC-LR) were only recovered when offspring from toxin exposed mothers were raised in clean medium for two generations. Chronic exposure to long lasting blooms, even at low density, evidently reduces survival of D. lumholtzi in tropical lakes and reservoirs with ecological consequences. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of cyanobacterial toxins for 3 generations tropical Daphnia lumholtzi developed no or marginal tolerance.

A framework for priority-setting in climate smart agriculture research
Thornton, Philip K. ; Whitbread, Anthony ; Baedeker, Tobias ; Cairns, Jill ; Claessens, Lieven ; Baethgen, Walter ; Bunn, Christian ; Friedmann, Michael ; Giller, Ken E. ; Herrero, Mario ; Howden, Mark ; Kilcline, Kevin ; Nangia, Vinay ; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian ; Kumar, Shalander ; West, Paul C. ; Keating, Brian - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 167 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 161 - 175.
Adaptation - Agriculture - Climate change - Mitigation - Research

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is widely promoted as an approach for reorienting agricultural development under the realities of climate change. Prioritising research-for-development activities is crucial, given the need to utilise scarce resources as effectively as possible. However, no framework exists for assessing and comparing different CSA research investments. Several aspects make it challenging to prioritise CSA research, including its multi-dimensional nature (productivity, adaptation and mitigation), the uncertainty surrounding many climate impacts, and the scale and temporal dependencies that may affect the benefits and costs of CSA adoption. Here we propose a framework for prioritising agricultural research investments across scales and review different approaches to setting priorities among agricultural research projects. Many priority-setting case studies address the short- to medium-term and at relatively local scales. We suggest that a mix of actions that span spatial and temporal time scales is needed to be adaptive to a changing climate, address immediate problems and create enabling conditions for enduring change.

Comment on “Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management”1
Wellstead, Adam ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Cairney, Paul ; Davidson, Debra ; Dupuis, Johann ; Howlett, Michael ; Rayner, Jeremy ; Stedman, Richard - \ 2018
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48 (2018)10. - ISSN 0045-5067 - p. 1241 - 1245.
Adaptation - Climate change - Mechanisms - Mitigation - Policy

We comment on the recent comprehensive review “Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management” by Williamson and Nelson (2017, Can. J. For. Res. 47: 1567–1576, doi:10.1139/cjfr-2017-0252). They employ the popular barriers analysis approach and present a synthesis highlighting the numerous barriers facing Canadian forest managers. The underlying functionalist assumptions of such an approach are highly problematic from both a scholarly and a practical policy perspective. We argue that social scientists engaged in climate change research who want to influence policy-making should understand and then empirically apply causal mechanisms. Methods such as process tracing and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) are promising tools that can be employed in national-or local-level assessments.

Tipping points in adaptation to urban flooding under climate change and urban growth : The case of the Dhaka megacity
Ahmed, Farhana ; Moors, Eddy ; Khan, M.S.A. ; Warner, Jeroen ; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 79 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 496 - 506.
Adaptation - Climate change, land use - Flood - Planning - Urban growth

Envisioning the future city as the outcome of planned development, several master and strategic plans for Dhaka were prepared. However, these plans, do not adequately address the well-known and combined effects of climate change and unplanned urbanization on urban flooding. Additionally, the spatial planning component is missing in adaptation planning, which broadly concentrates on the climate change. Long-term adaptation strategies should consider both the temporal and spatial extent of flooding. Uncertainties in climate change and urbanization will induce planning failure beyond the Adaptation Tipping Point for flooding exceeding the thresholds of the bio-physical system or the acceptable limits of societal preference. In this paper, a shift is proposed from the current planning practice of single-dimensional ‘Predict and Act’ towards a more resilience-based ‘Monitor and Adapt’ approach. It is prudent to visualize the effects of urbanization and climate change and translate them into strategies for improved adaptation based spatial planning. Here, Dhaka's exposure to floods under different climate change and urban (planned and unplanned) development scenarios is assessed based on acceptable thresholds obtained from plans (top-down defined) and stakeholders (bottom-up perspectives). The scale of effects of these two drivers on urban flooding is exhibited through the zone differentiated flooding extent. While apparently the effect of climate change on flooding is greater than that of unplanned urban developments, both play an important role in instigating tipping points and intensifying risks.

Genome-wide characterization of selection signatures and runs of homozygosity in Ugandan goat breeds
Onzima, Robert B. ; Upadhyay, Maulik R. ; Doekes, Harmen P. ; Brito, Luiz F. ; Bosse, Mirte ; Kanis, Egbert ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Genetics Livestock Genomics 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-8021
Adaptation - Candidate genes - Capra hircus - Genetic diversity - Genomic inbreeding - Homozygosity - Selective sweeps

Both natural and artificial selection are among the main driving forces shaping genetic variation across the genome of livestock species. Selection typically leaves signatures in the genome, which are often characterized by high genetic differentiation across breeds and/or a strong reduction in genetic diversity in regions associated with traits under intense selection pressure. In this study, we evaluated selection signatures and genomic inbreeding coefficients, FROH, based on runs of homozygosity (ROH), in six Ugandan goat breeds: Boer (n = 13), and the indigenous breeds Karamojong (n = 15), Kigezi (n = 29), Mubende (n = 29), Small East African (n = 29), and Sebei (n = 29). After genotyping quality control, 45,294 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained for further analyses. A total of 394 and 6 breed-specific putative selection signatures were identified across all breeds, based on marker-specific fixation index (FST-values) and haplotype differentiation (hapFLK), respectively. These regions were enriched with genes involved in signaling pathways associated directly or indirectly with environmental adaptation, such as immune response (e.g., IL10RB and IL23A), growth and fatty acid composition (e.g., FGF9 and IGF1), and thermo-tolerance (e.g., MTOR and MAPK3). The study revealed little overlap between breeds in genomic regions under selection and generally did not display the typical classic selection signatures as expected due to the complex nature of the traits. In the Boer breed, candidate genes associated with production traits, such as body size and growth (e.g., GJB2 and GJA3) were also identified. Furthermore, analysis of ROH in indigenous goat breeds showed very low levels of genomic inbreeding (with the mean FROH per breed ranging from 0.8% to 2.4%), as compared to higher inbreeding in Boer (mean FROH = 13.8%). Short ROH were more frequent than long ROH, except in Karamojong, providing insight in the developmental history of these goat breeds. This study provides insights into the effects of long-term selection in Boer and indigenous Ugandan goat breeds, which are relevant for implementation of breeding programs and conservation of genetic resources, as well as their sustainable use and management.

Facilitating change for climate-smart agriculture through science-policy engagement
Dinesh, Dhanush ; Zougmore, Robert B. ; Vervoort, Joost ; Totin, Edmond ; Thornton, Phillip K. ; Solomon, Dawit ; Shirsath, Paresh B. ; Pede, Valerien O. ; Lopez Noriega, Isabel ; Läderach, Peter ; Körner, Jana ; Hegger, Dries ; Girvetz, Evan H. ; Friis, Anette E. ; Driessen, Peter P.J. ; Campbell, Bruce M. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)8. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Agricultural research for development - Agriculture - Climate change - Climate-smart agriculture - Food security - Mitigation - Science-policy engagement - Science-policy interface

Climate change impacts on agriculture have become evident, and threaten the achievement of global food security. On the other hand, the agricultural sector itself is a cause of climate change, and if actions are not taken, the sector might impede the achievement of global climate goals. Science-policy engagement efforts are crucial to ensure that scientific findings from agricultural research for development inform actions of governments, private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international development partners, accelerating progress toward global goals. However, knowledge gaps on what works limit progress. In this paper, we analyzed 34 case studies of science-policy engagement efforts, drawn from six years of agricultural research for development efforts around climate-smart agriculture by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Based on lessons derived from these case studies, we critically assessed and refined the program theory of the CCAFS program, leading to a revised and improved program theory for science-policy engagement for agriculture research for development under climate change. This program theory offers a pragmatic pathway to enhance credibility, salience and legitimacy of research, which relies on engagement (participatory and demand-driven research processes), evidence (building scientific credibility while adopting an opportunistic and flexible approach) and outreach (effective communication and capacity building).

Institutional perspectives of climate-smart agriculture : A systematic literature review
Totin, Edmond ; Segnon, Alcade C. ; Schut, Marc ; Affognon, Hippolyte ; Zougmoré, Robert B. ; Rosenstock, Todd ; Thornton, Philip K. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Climate-smart agriculture - Institutions - Mitigation - Systematic review

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is increasingly seen as a promising approach to feed the growing world population under climate change. The review explored how institutional perspectives are reflected in the CSA literature. In total, 137 publications were analyzed using institutional analysis framework, of which 55.5% make specific reference to institutional dimensions. While the CSA concept encompasses three pillars (productivity, adaptation, and mitigation), the literature has hardly addressed them in an integrated way. The development status of study sites also seems to influence which pillars are promoted. Mitigation was predominantly addressed in high-income countries, while productivity and adaptation were priorities for middle and low-income countries. Interest in institutional aspects has been gradual in the CSA literature. It has largely focused on knowledge infrastructure, market structure, and hard institutional aspects. There has been less attention to understand whether investments in physical infrastructure and actors' interaction, or how historical, political, and social context may influence the uptake of CSA options. Rethinking the approach to promoting CSA technologies by integrating technology packages and institutional enabling factors can provide potential opportunities for effective scaling of CSA options.

Is land fragmentation facilitating or obstructing adoption of climate adaptation measures in Ethiopia?
Cholo, Tesfaye C. ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Sietz, Diana ; Peerlings, Jack - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Gamo Highlands - Land fragmentation - Sustainable land management

Land fragmentation is high and increasing in the Gamo Highlands of southwest Ethiopia. We postulate that this substantial land fragmentation is obstructing the adoption of sustainable land management practices as climate adaptation measures. To explore this, a mixed method study was conducted with emphasis on a multivariate probit model. The results indicate that farmers adapt to climate change and variability they perceive. According to the probit model, there is no clear answer to the question whether land fragmentation facilitates or obstructs adoption of sustainable land management practices. Yet, a qualitative analysis found that farmers perceive land fragmentation as an obstacle to land improvement as adaptation strategy. Moreover, farmers invest more in land improvement on plots close to their homestead than in remote plots. However, the higher land fragmentation also promoted crop diversification, manure application and terracing. Although exogenous to farmers, we therefore suggest that land fragmentation can be deployed in climate change adaptation planning. This can be done through voluntary assembling of small neighboring plots in clusters of different microclimates to encourage investment in remote fields and to collectively optimize the benefits of fragmentation to adaptation.

Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Alternatives for Smallholder Farmers in the Upper Blue-Nile Basin
Nigussie, Yalemzewd ; Werf, Edwin van der; Zhu, Xueqin ; Simane, Belay ; Ierland, Ekko C. van - \ 2018
Ecological Economics 151 (2018). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 142 - 150.
Adaptation - Agriculture - Climate change - Ethiopia - Multi-criteria analysis - Stakeholders

Climate change is expected to have severe negative impacts on the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, smallholder farmers and governments in these regions tend to be ill-prepared for the impacts of climate change. We present the results of a stakeholder-based multi-criteria analysis of climate change adaptation options for agriculture, natural resource management and water management in the upper Blue-Nile basin in Ethiopia. We use the PROMETHEE II outranking method to analyse data from a survey in which farmers and experts were asked to evaluate adaptation options based on potentially conflicting criteria. Adaptation options for soil and land management, such as crop rotation and composting, score high based on two sets of criteria for assessing adaptation options for agriculture. River diversion, preventing leaching and erosion, and drip irrigation are ranked highest as adaptation options for water management. Regarding natural resource management, the highest ranked adaptation options are afforestation, water retention and maximizing crop yield. Rankings by farmers and by experts are weakly correlated for agriculture and water management, and negatively correlated for natural resource management, which shows the importance of extension services and of involving farmers in the decision-making process to ensure the feasibility of adaptation options.

Genotype assembly, biological activity and adaptation of spatially separated isolates of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus
Ali, Ghulam ; Abma-Henkens, Marleen H.C. ; Werf, Wopke van der; Hemerik, Lia ; Vlak, Just M. - \ 2018
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 153 (2018). - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 20 - 29.
Adaptation - Biological activity - Cropping systems - Genetic characterization - Geographical regions - Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedroviruses
The cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous insect. It has recently made a comeback as a primary insect pest of cotton in Pakistan due to reductions in pesticide use on the advent of genetically modified cotton, resistant to Helicoverpa armigera. Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infects S. litura and is recognized as a potential candidate to control this insect. Twenty-two NPV isolates were collected from S. litura from different agro-ecological zones (with collection sites up to 600 km apart) and cropping systems in Pakistan to see whether there is spatial dispersal and adaptation of the virus and/or adaptation to crops. Therefore, the genetic make-up and biological activity of these isolates was measured. Among the SpltNPV isolates tested for speed of kill in 3rd instar larvae of S. litura, TAX1, SFD1, SFD2 and GRW1 were significantly faster killing isolates than other Pakistani isolates. Restriction fragment length analysis of the DNA showed that the Pakistan SpltNPV isolates are all variants of a single SpltNPV biotype. The isolates could be grouped into three genogroups (A–C). The speed of kill of genogroup A viruses was higher than in group C according to a Cox’ proportional hazards analysis. Sequence analysis showed that the Pakistan SpltNPV isolates are more closely related to each other than to the SpltNPV type species G2 (Pang et al., 2001). This suggests a single introduction of SpltNPV into Pakistan. The SpltNPV-PAK isolates are distinct from Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus. There was a strong correlation between geographic spread and the genetic variation of SpltNPV, and a marginally significant correlation between the latter and the cropping system. The faster killing isolates may be good candidates for biological control of S. litura in Pakistan.
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