Designing with pathways : A spatial design approach for adaptive and sustainable landscapes
Zandvoort, Mark ; Kooijmans, Nora ; Kirshen, Paul ; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptiveness - Climate adaptation - Decision pathways - Flood risk management - Landscape architecture - Spatial design - Uncertainty - Visualization
Despite rising attention to pathways thinking in multiple domains such as climate adaptation, energy supply planning, and flood risk management, their spatial translation is so far understudied. We set out to study how spatial design based on pathways thinking can help develop more adaptive and sustainable landscapes. Using landscape analysis, field research, and research-through-designing in a case study on climate resilience in Boston (USA), we argue for better understanding of the spatial and design consequences of pathways in general. Our results indicate that pathways can be spatially translated, demanding landscape-informed choices when sequencing different policy actions. We found that spatial designing makes the landscape consequences of pathways transparent and enables policy-makers to replace the input of policy actions with spatial interventions, select pathways according to different underlying design strategies, use the mapped pathways to initiate an iterative research-through-designing process to test and inform different designs, and spatially visualize the pathways and possible sequences of actions. We conclude that policy-makers should be cognizant about the spatial implications of pathways and offer directions to enrich applications of pathways thinking for achieving adaptive and sustainable landscapes.
Handling uncertainty through adaptiveness in planning approaches : comparing adaptive delta management and the water diplomacy framework
Zandvoort, M. ; Vlist, M.J. van der; Brink, A. van den - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 20 (2018)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 183 - 197.
Adaptiveness - environmental planning - planning approaches - uncertainty - water management
Planners and water managers seek to be adaptive to handle uncertainty through the use of planning approaches. In this paper, we study what type of adaptiveness is proposed and how this may be operationalized in planning approaches to adequately handle different uncertainties. We took a comparative case study approach to study two planning approaches: the water diplomacy framework (WDF) and adaptive delta management (ADM). We found that the approaches differ in their conceptualization of uncertainty and show that different types of adaptiveness are used in the approaches. While WDF builds on collaborative adaptive management as a set of ongoing adjustments and continuous learning to handle uncertainty, ADM deliberately attempts to anticipate future adaptations through a set of tools which allows for seizing opportunities and avoiding lock-in and lock-out mechanisms. We conclude that neither of the approaches is fully able to account for different uncertainties. Both approaches may benefit from specific insights in what uncertainty and adaptiveness entail for the development of water management plans.