- Albert A. Koelmans (1)
- J. Beermann (1)
- J.W.P. Coolen (1)
- R.P.M.A. Crooijmans (1)
- Martine J. Heuvel-Greve van den (1)
- R.G. Jak (1)
- Tineke Kampen (1)
- P.C. Luttikhuizen (1)
- Ariadna S. Szczybelski (1)
- Edwin T.H.M. Peeters (1)
- Joris Vromans (1)
- Nico W. Brink van den (1)
Low genetic connectivity in a fouling amphipod among man-made structures in the southern North Sea
Luttikhuizen, P.C. ; Beermann, J. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Jak, R.G. ; Coolen, J.W.P. - \ 2019
Marine Ecology Progress Series 615 (2019). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 133 - 142.
Genetic strucutre - Connectivity - Offshore oil platform - Offshore wind farm - Amphipod - Biofouling - Gene flow
Offshore environments are increasingly invaded by man-made structures that form hard-substrate habitats for many marine species. Examples include oil and gas platforms, wind turbines and shipwrecks. One of the hypothesised effects is an increased genetic connectivity among natural populations due to new populations growing on man-made structures that may act as stepping stones. However, few data are available on genetic connectivity among organisms
inhabiting artificial offshore structures. Here, we present a study on the common fouling amphipod Jassa herdmani from offshore structures in the southern North Sea. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome-c-oxidase 1, N = 514) were obtained from artificial structures at 17 locations in the southern North Sea, including 13 shipwrecks, 2 wind turbines and 2 platforms. Samples from these locations were significantly differentiated, meaning that strong population
structure exists for this species in the area. Levels of intraspecific variation were consistent with stable population sizes. No evidence was found for isolation by distance. Using coalescent simulations, the oldest population subdivision events were estimated to date back to the time the study area was flooded following the Last Glacial Maximum. We therefore tentatively conclude that J. herdmani may have colonised man-made structures from previously existing populations on the
sea floor, and that the increase in offshore installations has not led to an overall increase in genetic connectivity for this species.
Avoidance tests as a tool to detect sublethal effects of oil-impacted sediments
Szczybelski, Ariadna S. ; Kampen, Tineke ; Vromans, Joris ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Heuvel-Greve, Martine J. van den; Brink, Nico W. van den; Koelmans, Albert A. - \ 2018
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)6. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1757 - 1766.
Amphipod - Avoidance - Benthic macroinvertebrates - Distillate marine grade A oil - Oil spills - Risk assessment
Currently, risk assessment for oil contamination does not consider behavioral responses of benthos to oil toxicity. Avoidance of oil-contaminated sediment by benthic amphipods, however, may be a highly sensitive endpoint for sublethal effects of commonly used distillate fuels. In the present study, the avoidance behavior of temperate freshwater (Gammarus pulex) and marine (Gammarus locusta) amphipods was tested by allowing them to choose between a reference sediment and a distillate marine grade A (DMA) oil-spiked sediment. Avoidance of DMA-spiked sediment at 1000mg/kg dry weight was significant within the total exposure time (96h) in G. pulex and within the first 72h in G. locusta in 1 of 2 tests. Absence of DMA avoidance at lower concentrations (≤250mg/kg dry wt) indicates that test species can only detect DMA above these concentrations. However, sensitivity to oil may vary according to the phenology and physiological conditions of the populations involved, such as the species temperature tolerance and reproductive stage. The results suggest that avoidance tests may be used as an alternative to traditional chronic toxicity tests provided that a causal link between avoidance and long-term effects can be established.