Update on streptococcus suis research and prevention in the era of antimicrobial restriction: 4th international workshop on s. suis
Segura, Mariela ; Aragon, Virginia ; Brockmeier, Susan L. ; Gebhart, Connie ; Greeff, Astrid de; Kerdsin, Anusak ; O’Dea, Mark A. ; Okura, Masatoshi ; Saléry, Mariette ; Schultsz, Constance ; Valentin-Weigand, Peter ; Weinert, Lucy A. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Gottschalk, Marcelo - \ 2020
Pathogens 9 (2020)5. - ISSN 2076-0817
Antimicrobials - Diagnosis - Epidemiology - Genomics - Public health - Streptococcus suis - Swine - Vaccine policies - Vaccines - Zoonosis
Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs or pork meat. Sporadic cases of human infections have been reported worldwide. In addition, S. suis outbreaks emerged in Asia, making this bacterium a primary health concern in this part of the globe. In pigs, S. suis disease results in decreased performance and increased mortality, which have a significant economic impact on swine production worldwide. Facing the new regulations in preventive use of antimicrobials in livestock and lack of effective vaccines, control of S. suis infections is worrisome. Increasing and sharing of knowledge on this pathogen is of utmost importance. As such, the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the infection, antimicrobial resistance, progress on diagnosis, prevention, and control were among the topics discussed during the 4th International Workshop on Streptococcus suis (held in Montreal, Canada, June 2019). This review gathers together recent findings on this important pathogen from lectures performed by lead researchers from several countries including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Thailand, The Netherlands, UK, and USA. Finally, policies and recommendations for the manufacture, quality control, and use of inactivated autogenous vaccines are addressed to advance this important field in veterinary medicine.
Use of models for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines in European aquaculture: Current situation and future perspectives
Rico, Andreu ; Vighi, Marco ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Horst, Mechteld ter; Macken, Ailbhe ; Lillicrap, Adam ; Falconer, Lynne ; Telfer, Trevor C. - \ 2019
Reviews in Aquaculture 11 (2019)4. - ISSN 1753-5123 - p. 969 - 988.
Antimicrobials - Antiparasitics - Aquaculture - Environmental models - Environmental risk assessment
Veterinary Medicinal Products (VMPs) are used in intensive aquaculture production to treat a wide range of bacterial and parasitic infestations. Their release into the environment poses concerns regarding their potential ecotoxicological risks to aquatic ecosystems, which need to be evaluated making use of appropriate Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) schemes and models. This study presents an overview of the major aquaculture production systems in Europe, the VMPs most commonly used, and the environmental quality standards and regulatory procedures available for their ERA. Furthermore, it describes the state-of-the-art on the development of environmental models capable of assessing the fate, exposure, ecotoxicological effects and risks of VMPs in aquaculture production systems, and discusses their level of development and implementation within European aquaculture. This study shows that the use of environmental models in regulatory ERA is somewhat limited in many European countries. Major efforts have been dedicated to assess the fate and exposure of antiparasitic compounds in salmonid cage systems, particularly in Scotland, while models and scenarios for assessing dispersal of antimicrobials, in general, and antiparasitic compounds in the Mediterranean as well as in Scandinavian regions are less available. On the other hand, the use of ecological models for assessing the effects and risks of VMPs is almost absent. Recommendations are provided to improve the chemical exposure and effect assessments and the ecological realism of the modelling outcomes, paying special attention to the protection goals set for the regulatory ERA of VMPs in Europe.
En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing : A position paper explaining the VetCAST approach
Toutain, Pierre Louis ; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain ; Damborg, Peter ; Ferran, Aude A. ; Mevius, Dik ; Pelligand, Ludovic ; Veldman, Kees T. ; Lees, Peter - \ 2017
Frontiers in Microbiology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-302X
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing - Antimicrobials - Breakpoints - VetCAST - Veterinary
VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) - the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information for AST implementation. Finally, after establishing a CBP, VetCAST will promulgate expert comments and/or recommendations associated with CBPs to facilitate their sound implementation in a clinical setting.
Non-targeted workflow for identification of antimicrobial compounds in animal feed using bioassay-directed screening in combination with liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry
Wegh, Robin S. ; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A. ; Driessen-Van Lankveld, Wilma D.M. ; Pikkemaat, Mariël G. ; Zuidema, Tina ; Ginkel, Leen A. Van - \ 2017
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)11. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1935 - 1947.
animal feed - antibiotics - Antimicrobials - bioassay - LC-MS
A non-targeted workflow is reported for the isolation and identification of antimicrobial active compounds using bioassay-directed screening and LC coupled to high-resolution MS. Suspect samples are extracted using a generic protocol and fractionated using two different LC conditions (A and B). The behaviour of the bioactive compound under these different conditions yields information about the physicochemical properties of the compound and introduces variations in co-eluting compounds in the fractions, which is essential for peak picking and identification. The fractions containing the active compound(s) obtained with conditions A and B are selected using a microbiological effect-based bioassay. The selected bioactive fractions from A and B are analysed using LC combined with high-resolution MS. Selection of relevant signals is automatically carried out by selecting all signals present in both bioactive fractions A and B, yielding tremendous data reduction. The method was assessed using two spiked feed samples and subsequently applied to two feed samples containing an unidentified compound showing microbial growth inhibition. In all cases, the identity of the compound causing microbiological inhibition was successfully confirmed.
|Physiopathology of coxiella burnetii infection and host immunologic response
Ammerdorffer, Anne ; Kuley, Runa ; Roest, Hendrik-Jan - \ 2017
In: The Principles and Practice of Q Fever: The One Health Paradigm / Caetano Simoes, João Carlos, Ferreira Anastácio, Sofia, Jorge da Silva, Gabriela, Nova Science Publishers - ISBN 9781536108514 - p. 91 - 106.
Immune response - Adaptive immunity - Antimicrobials - Clinical symptoms - Innate immunity - Pathophysiology - Q fever fatigue syndrome
Coxiella burnetii is an interesting example of obligate intracellular bacteria that has uniquely evolved to thrive in the harshest conditions. The bacterium can infect a wide range of host species and also exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. C. burnetii infection can cause abortions in small ruminants, reproductive problems in cattle, and acute or chronic disease in humans. The high infectivity and zoonotic potential of C. burnetii was recently witnessed in the unprecedented Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands (2007-2010). A complete understanding of how C. burnetii can cause disease requires an appreciation of the host immune responses. This may in turn help to improve diagnostics tests, develop effective vaccines and pharmacological agents against infection, and reduce health-care burden by controlling the disease.
Modelling concentrations of antimicrobial drugs : Comparative pharmacokinetics of cephalosporin antimicrobials and accuracy of allometric scaling in food-producing and companion animals
Taverne, Femke J. ; Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M. van; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mouton, Johan W. - \ 2016
BMC Veterinary Research 12 (2016)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
Allometric scaling - Antimicrobials - Cephalosporins - Companion animals - Food-producing animals - Mathematical models - Pharmacokinetics
Background: To optimize antimicrobial dosing in different animal species, pharmacokinetic information is necessary. Due to the plethora of cephalosporin antimicrobials and animal species in which they are used, assessment of literature data is unavailable. We assessed the accuracy of allometric scaling by comparing the predicted and the published pharmacokinetic value in an animal pharmacokinetics in all species is unfeasible. In this study we aimed to describe pharmacokinetic data of cephalosporins by reviewing the available literature for food producing and companion animal species. We assessed the accuracy of interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling techniques to determine pharmacokinetic characteristics of cephalosporins in animal species for which species/humans not included in the allometric modelling. Results: In general, excretion of cephalosporins takes place mainly through renal mechanisms in the unchanged form and volume of distribution is limited in all animal species. Differences in plasma protein binding capacity and elimination half-life are observed but available information was limited. Using allometric scaling, correlations between body weight (BW) and volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (Cl) were R 2 > 0.97 and R 2 > 0.95 respectively for ceftazidime, ceftiofur, cefquinome and cefepime but not ceftriaxone. The allometric exponent ranged from 0.80 to 1.31 for Vd and 0.83 to 1.24 for Cl. Correlations on half-life ranged from R2 0.07-0.655 (literature) and R2 0.102-0.876 (calculated). Conclusions: Allometric scaling can be applied for interspecies extrapolation of cephalosporin pharmacokinetic parameters Vd and Cl, but not elimination half-life. We hypothesize that the accuracy could be improved by using more refined scaling techniques.
An evaluation of fish health-management practices and occupational health hazards associated with Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Phu, Tran Minh ; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh ; Dung, Tu Thanh ; Hai, Dao Minh ; Son, Vo Nam ; Rico Artero, Andreu ; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard ; Madsen, Henry ; Murray, Francis ; Dalsgaard, Anders - \ 2016
Aquaculture Research 47 (2016)9. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 2778 - 2794.
Pangasianodon hypophthalmus - Antimicrobials - Catfish - Fish disease - Mekong Delta - Occupational health
This study aimed to evaluate the current status on the use of probiotics, disinfectants and antimicrobials in hatcheries, nurseries and grow-out farms producing Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 aquaculture enterprises (15 hatcheries, 32 nurseries and 36 grow-out farms). Farmers reported use of a total of 24 different antimicrobials, e.g. for treatment of bacillary necrosis and motile aeromonad septicaemia, and a variety of disinfectants, probiotics and nutritional supplements. In contrast to small-scale farmers, all large-scale grow-out farmers studied were certified and therefore had higher levels of formal education and specialized aquaculture training to diagnose and treat diseases. All farmers prepared their own medicated feed with a high risk of treatment failure, negative environmental impact from released antimicrobials and resistance development. Small-scale farmers were at particular occupational health risks when handling antimicrobials and other chemicals, e.g. mixing medicated feed with bare hands. There is an urgent need to improve knowledge and use innovative approaches, e.g. private-public partnerships, to assure a prudent use of chemicals, to improve capacity and access to disease diagnosis, particularly for small-scale grow-out farmers and nurseries. Efforts to control use of antimicrobials in aquaculture should be coordinated with the livestock and human health sectors taking an One-Health approach.