Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Effect of three types of liquid compost combined with Avicennia marina leaves on growth and survival of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon)
Ariyati, Restiana Wisnu ; Rejeki, Sri ; Widowati, Lestari L. ; Elfitasari, Tita ; Bosma, Roel H. - \ 2019
International Aquatic Research (2019). - ISSN 2008-4935
Aquaculture - Fertilizer - LEISA - Mangrove - Shrimp

The sustainability of prawn farming in brackish water ponds is controversial because of low yields and a history of mangrove clearing. Low yields are due largely to insufficient preparation of pond bottoms. Mangrove trees are often planted on pond bunds as window dressing. This study examines the effect of three types of liquid compost from vegetable, fruit, and both vegetable and fruit in tanks to which whole or chopped Avicennia marina leaves have been added to mimic local pond conditions. In a split-plot design, 28 square tanks were each stocked with one hundred 15-day-old post-larvae tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon). Four tanks were used as controls and 24 were assigned to the treatments, 12 with whole and 12 with chopped leaves. Of the treatment tanks, 4 received liquid compost from vegetable, 4 received fruit, and 4 received mixed vegetable and fruit. Shrimp were weighed at the start, halfway point, and the end of the 50-day trial, and fed at 5% of the estimated total weight; survival was counted at the end. The survival rates of treatments and controls (65–76%) were not significantly different. Shrimp in water with vegetable compost grew significantly faster (2.7% day−1) than in both treatments with fruit (2.5% day−1), while all treatments were associated with significantly faster growth than were the controls (2.0% day−1). The lower growth rate of shrimp fed fruit compost may have been due to dinoflagellates, which are known to negatively affect shrimp. Shrimp in tanks with chopped mangrove leaves grew slightly better than shrimp in tanks with whole mangrove leaves.

Growth and safety assessment of feed streams for black soldier fly larvae: A case study with aquaculture sludge
Schmitt, Eric ; Belghit, Ikram ; Johansen, Johan ; Leushuis, Raymond ; Lock, Erik Jan ; Melsen, Diede ; Ramasamy Shanmugam, Ram Kathirampatti ; Loon, Joop Van ; Paul, Aman - \ 2019
Animals 9 (2019)4. - ISSN 2076-2615
Aquaculture - Black soldier fly larvae - Mineral composition - Safety risks - Sludge

The production of food is an intensive source of environmental impact. In aquaculture, one source of impact is solid waste, which contains high concentrations of minerals, other nutrients, and metals. The larvae of Hermetia illucens are capable of consuming this material, but applying technology that is based on these larvae for managing waste streams, like those from aquaculture, requires careful examination of safety risks. A study is performed examining the growth performance of larvae that were fed on solid aquaculture waste. Subsequently, a thorough analysis of safety risks from inorganics, with detailed the results on microelements that have previously received little attention in the literature, is performed to serve as a guideline for how to assess the safety of waste streams such as these. Findings confirm existing results in the literature that Cd is bioaccumulative, but also that other elements, including Hg, Mn, and especially K, are bioaccumulative. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research where the accumulation of Ag is also tested. The results of these tests are explained within the context of regulations in various countries where Hermetia illucens is cultivated, serving as a reference for practitioners to rigorously screen out high risk feed streams that they may consider using as feed sources. It is intended that these references and the demonstrated accumulation of a range of elements motivate comprehensive industry safety practices when evaluating new feed sources.

A single meal containing phytosterols does not affect the uptake or tissue distribution of cholesterol in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Spankeren, Michel van; Sibinga, Nathaniel ; Reinshol, Øyvind ; Torstensen, Bente E. ; Sæle, Øystein ; Liland, Nina S. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Marine Science 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-7745
Aquaculture - Cholesterol - Cholesterol uptake - Phytosterols - Zebrafish

Increased plant oil inclusion in aquaculture feeds has led to higher dietary phytosterol concentrations and speculation about whether this affects the metabolism and health of the fish. The mechanisms of cholesterol absorption and how phytosterols may affect this is unknown in fish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to study the effects of phytosterols on the uptake and organ distribution of dietary cholesterol in fish. One meal of diets containing a constant addition of cholesterol (cold and [4- 14 C] cholesterol) and varying types and concentrations of phytosterols were fed to fish in individual compartments. The fish were not previously conditioned on the experimental diets. Activity of 14 C was then measured in water and fish tissues to quantify the tissue distribution and excretion of cholesterol. There were no effects of the moderate dietary concentrations of phytosterols on the excretion or tissue distribution of dietary cholesterol 24 h after the meal.

Food from the ocean; towards a research agenda for sustainable use of our oceans’ natural resources
Hoof, Luc Van; Fabi, Gianna ; Johansen, Vegar ; Steenbergen, Josien ; Irigoien, Xabier ; Smith, Sarah ; Lisbjerg, Dennis ; Kraus, Gerd - \ 2019
Marine Policy 105 (2019). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 44 - 51.
Food from our oceans - Fisheries - Aquaculture - Seafood processing - Research
By 2050 it is expected that food, clean drinking water and sustainable energy has to be produced for world population of closeto10 billion people. Ourseasandoceansrepresent71%ofearth'ssurface,yetitsspaceandresources today are not sustainably utilised to their full extent. The importance of the use of the marine environment is within the EU widely acknowledged and reflected in such agendas as the EU Blue Growth strategy, the Food 2030 agenda and the Food from our Oceans vision. In order to substantiate the vision to increasingly feed the world population from our oceans, a foresight exercise was implemented to construct an agenda of the science needed in the realm of fisheries, aquaculture and seafood. This resulted in a research agenda that is logically argued and based on an analysis made by stakeholders and experts which led to the identification of priorities having a scientific analytical basis as well as a societal reference. The process and the results of this foresight exercise are presented and are put int he wider context of Europe's research agenda towards 2050. In order to bring about the required Blue Revolution, substantial effort should be rendered to the science and innovation needed to support this development.
Assessment of the geographical potential for co-use of marine space, based on operational boundaries for Blue Growth sectors
Burg, S.W.K. van den; Aguilar-Manjarrez, José ; Jenness, Jeff ; Torrie, Melanie - \ 2019
Marine Policy 100 (2019). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 43 - 57.
Aquaculture - Blue Economy - Blue Growth - Marine governance - Marine spatial planning

The worlds’ oceans and seas have tremendous potential to contribute to the provision of food, feed, energy and natural resources. The emerging concepts of “Blue Growth” and “Blue Economy” have put the development of new marine industries on the political agenda. As marine industries expand, spatial interconnections and industry boundaries are being drawn and the potential for the combined use of marine space is being explored. The aim of this paper is to provide a single source document that summarizes the probable boundaries of marine growth industries, namely aquaculture; offshore wind energy with fixed foundations; floating offshore wind energy; tidal and wave energy; marine biotechnology, seabed mining; and tourism and recreation, based on depth and distance from the shore. This is an important first step in developing a single source document for marine industry boundaries that will help marine spatial planners and researchers develop innovative industry combinations to foster growth in the marine sector. This paper explores marine industry overlaps in four basins: European Atlantic, Baltic/North Sea, Mediterranean/Black Sea and the Caribbean/ Gulf of Mexico. By describing the geographical characteristics of different sea basins, this paper helps to focus marine governance strategies for stimulating combinations of marine industries towards the most promising areas. The methodology developed in this paper was also used to generate 72 country-specific maps and corresponding tables to support marine spatial planning processes at a national level.

Managing the microbial community of marine fish larvae : A holistic perspective for larviculture
Vdastein, Olav ; Attramadal, Kari J.K. ; Bakke, Ingrid ; Forberg, Torunn ; Olsen, Yngvar ; Verdegem, Marc ; Giatsis, Cristos ; Skjermo, Jorunn ; Aasen, Inga M. ; Gatesoupe, François Joel ; Dierckens, Kristof ; Sorgeloos, Patrick ; Bossier, Peter - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-302X
Aquaculture - Aquaculture systems - Bacterial flows - Microbe-host interactions - Microbe-microbe interaction - Microbial management

The availability of high-quality juveniles is a bottleneck in the farming of many marine fish species. Detrimental larvae-microbe interactions are a main reason for poor viability and quality in larval rearing. In this review, we explore the microbial community of fish larvae from an ecological and eco-physiological perspective, with the aim to develop the knowledge basis for microbial management. The larvae are exposed to a huge number of microbes from external and internal sources in intensive aquaculture, but their relative importance depend on the rearing technology used (especially flow-through vs. recirculating systems) and the retention time of the water in the fish tanks. Generally, focus has been on microbes entering the system, but microbes from growth within the system is normally a substantial part of the microbes encountered by larvae. Culture independent methods have revealed an unexpected high richness of bacterial species associated with larvae, with 100-250 operational taxonomic units associated with one individual. The microbiota of larvae changes rapidly until metamorphosis, most likely due to changes in the selection pressure in the digestive tract caused by changes in host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Even though the microbiota of larvae is distinctly different from the microbiota of the water and the live food, the microbiota of the water strongly affects the microbiota of the larvae. We are in the early phase of understanding larvae-microbe interactions in vivo, but some studies with other animals than fish emphasize that we so far have underestimated the complexity of these interactions. We present examples demonstrating the diversity of these interactions. A large variety of microbial management methods exist, focusing on non-selective reduction of microbes, selective enhancement of microbes, and on improvement of the resistance of larvae against microbes. However, relatively few methods have been studied extensively. We believe that there is a lot to gain by increasing the diversity of approaches for microbial management. As many microbial management methods are perturbations of the microbial community, we argue that ecological theory is needed to foresee and test for longer term consequences in microbe-microbe and microbe-larvae interactions. We finally make some recommendations for future research and development.

Use of models for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines in European aquaculture : Current situation and future perspectives
Rico, Andreu ; Vighi, Marco ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Horst, Mechteld ter; Macken, Ailbhe ; Lillicrap, Adam ; Falconer, Lynne ; Telfer, Trevor C. - \ 2018
Reviews in Aquaculture (2018). - ISSN 1753-5123
Antimicrobials - Antiparasitics - Aquaculture - Environmental models - Environmental risk assessment

Veterinary Medicinal Products (VMPs) are used in intensive aquaculture production to treat a wide range of bacterial and parasitic infestations. Their release into the environment poses concerns regarding their potential ecotoxicological risks to aquatic ecosystems, which need to be evaluated making use of appropriate Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) schemes and models. This study presents an overview of the major aquaculture production systems in Europe, the VMPs most commonly used, and the environmental quality standards and regulatory procedures available for their ERA. Furthermore, it describes the state-of-the-art on the development of environmental models capable of assessing the fate, exposure, ecotoxicological effects and risks of VMPs in aquaculture production systems, and discusses their level of development and implementation within European aquaculture. This study shows that the use of environmental models in regulatory ERA is somewhat limited in many European countries. Major efforts have been dedicated to assess the fate and exposure of antiparasitic compounds in salmonid cage systems, particularly in Scotland, while models and scenarios for assessing dispersal of antimicrobials, in general, and antiparasitic compounds in the Mediterranean as well as in Scandinavian regions are less available. On the other hand, the use of ecological models for assessing the effects and risks of VMPs is almost absent. Recommendations are provided to improve the chemical exposure and effect assessments and the ecological realism of the modelling outcomes, paying special attention to the protection goals set for the regulatory ERA of VMPs in Europe.

Swimming exercise to control precocious maturation in male seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
Graziano, Marco ; Benito, Raul ; Planas, Josep V. ; Palstra, Arjan P. - \ 2018
BMC Developmental Biology 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-213X
Aquaculture - Fish endocrinology - Optimal swimming speed - Precocious maturation - Puberty
Background: Male European seabass, already predominant (~ 70%) in cultured stocks, show a high incidence (20-30%) of precocious sexual maturation under current aquaculture practices, leading to important economic losses for the industry. In view of the known modulation of reproductive development by swimming exercise in other teleost species, we aimed at investigating the effects of sustained swimming on reproductive development in seabass males during the first year of life in order to determine if swimming could potentially reduce precocious sexual maturation. Methods: Pre-pubertal seabass (3.91 ± 0.22 g of body weight (BW)) were subjected to a 10 week swimming regime at their optimal swimming speed (Uopt) in an oval-shaped Brett-type flume or kept at rest during this period. Using Blazka-type swim tunnels, Uopt was determined three times during the course of the experiment: 0.66 m s- 1 at 19 ± 1 g BW, 10.2 ± 0.2 cm of standard length (SL) (week 1); 0.69 m s- 1 at 38 ± 3 g BW, 12.7 ± 0.3 cm SL (week 5), and also 0.69 m s- 1 at 77 ± 7 g BW, 15.7 ± 0.5 cm SL (week 9). Every 2 weeks, size and gonadal weight were monitored in the exercised (N = 15) and non-exercised fish (N = 15). After 10 weeks, exercised and non-exercised males were sampled to determine plasma 11-ketotestosterone levels, testicular mRNA expression levels of genes involved in steroidogenesis and gametogenesis by qPCR, as well as the relative abundance of germ cells representing the different spermatogenic stages by histological examination. Results: Our results indicate that sustained swimming exercise at Uopt delays testicular development in male European seabass as evidenced by decreased gonado-somatic index, slower progression of testicular development and by reduced mRNA expression levels of follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshR), 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βhsd), 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βhsd), estrogen receptor-beta (erβ2), anti-mullerian hormone (amh), structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1B (smc1β), inhibin beta A (inhba) and gonado-somal derived factor 1 (gsdf1) in exercised males as compared with the non-exercised males. Conclusions: Swimming exercise may represent a natural and non-invasive tool to reduce the incidence of sexually precocious males in seabass aquaculture.
Development and application of a duplex PCR assay for detection of Crangon crangon bacilliform virus in populations of European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon)
Eynde, Benigna Van; Christiaens, Olivier ; Delbare, Daan ; Cooreman, Kris ; Bateman, Kelly S. ; Stentiford, Grant D. ; Dullemans, Annette M. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Smagghe, Guy - \ 2018
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 153 (2018). - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 195 - 202.
Aquaculture - CcBV - Crustacean - Diagnostic - Disease - Nudiviridae
Crangon crangon bacilliform virus (CcBV) was first discovered in 2004 in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) caught along the English coast. This study describes a duplex PCR assay developed for the detection of CcBV, based on amplification of the lef-8 gene (211 bp) of CcBV and the E75 gene (105 bp) of C. crangon as an internal amplification control. The lef-8 and E75 primer pairs were designed based on preliminary genome sequencing information of the virus and transcriptomic data available for C. crangon, respectively. Sequencing of the resulting amplicons confirmed the specificity of this PCR assay and sequence analysis of the lef-8 fragment revealed amino acid identity percentages ranging between 31 and 42% with members of the Nudiviridae, proposing that CcBV may reside within this family.Finally, the duplex PCR assay was applied to samples of C. crangon hepatopancreas tissue collected along the Belgian coast to screen for the presence of CcBV. The prevalence of CcBV averaged 87%, which is comparable to previous reports of high prevalence, based upon histological analysis, in shrimp collected along the English coast. Development of a specific and sensitive PCR assay to detect CcBV will provide a useful tool for future aquaculture and research programs involving C. crangon.
Technical inefficiency of Vietnamese pangasius farming : A data envelopment analysis
Anh Ngoc, Pham Thi ; Gaitán-Cremaschi, D. ; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M. ; Le, Tru Cong ; Bosma, Roel H. ; Verreth, Johan ; Lansink, Alfons Oude - \ 2018
Aquaculture Economics & Management 22 (2018)2. - ISSN 1365-7305 - p. 229 - 243.
Aquaculture - bootstrap truncated regression - data envelopment analysis - inefficiency - pangasius
Vietnamese pangasius farming needs to produce efficiently to compete in world markets. This study investigates the input- and output-specific technical inefficiency of Vietnamese pangasius farmers. First, we used a Russell-type (input–output) directional distance function to estimate the input- and output-specific technical inefficiency. Second, we applied a bootstrap truncated regression to analyze the factors influencing these technical inefficiencies. Results show that the main challenges for enhancing the performance of Vietnamese pangasius production are inadequate use of capital assets (inefficiency of 42%) and improper methods to achieve higher fish yield (inefficiency of 30%). Input-specific technical inefficiency (pond area and feed) is negatively associated with the experience and education level of pangasius farmers. Location of the farm in a saltwater intrusion area is positively associated with the inefficiency of producing fish. Outcomes of this study are useful to identify successful strategies to minimize the use of inputs while simultaneously maximizing fish production.
Exploring fish microbial communities to mitigate emerging diseases in aquaculture
Bruijn, Irene de; Liu, Yiying ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. ; Raaijmakers, Jos M. - \ 2018
FEMS microbiology ecology 94 (2018)1. - ISSN 0168-6496
Aquaculture - Beneficial microbes - Emerging diseases - Fish - Microbiomes
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and the excessive use of antibiotics and other chemicals is of substantial concern. A more sustainable disease control strategy to protect fish and shellfish from (re-)emerging diseases could be achieved by introduction or augmentation of beneficial microbes. To establish and maintain a 'healthy' fish microbiome, a fundamental understanding of the diversity and temporal-spatial dynamics of fish-associated microbial communities and their impact on growth and health of their aquatic hosts is required. This review describes insights in the diversity and functions of the fish bacterial communities elucidated with next-generation sequencing and discusses the potential of the microbes to mitigate (re-)emerging diseases in aquaculture.
Circular economy and economic viability of aquaponic systems : Comparing urban, rural and peri-urban scenarios under Dutch conditions
Stadler, M.M. ; Baganz, D. ; Vermeulen, T. ; Keesman, K.J. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of ICESC2015. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611726 - p. 101 - 114.
Aquaculture - Horticulture - Nile tilapia and tomato production - Sensitivity analysis - ⋯-.Overview
Aquaponics combines aquaculture and hydroponic practices. It is a young new agricultural industry, which depends less on primary energy and material inputs than conventional production systems. Potentially, aquaponic systems have a key role to play in food provision. Furthermore, aquaponics tackles challenges such as land, nutrient and water scarcity and reductions in energy use and food miles. Its controlled growing conditions and the expired use of chemicals and pesticides make this technology a promising one. Besides its ecological merits, aquaponic systems save costs on water treatment and fertilizers and benefit from double outputs (fish and crops). Economic viability, however, requires well-defined business models aimed at positioning aquaponic systems in a specific market niche. Given the different price and quality levels of fresh produce globally, aquaponic systems can be more or less successful as a means for (local) fresh food production. This study looks at one of the most challenging situations for positioning a new growing system: the Dutch food industry with its large-scale horticulture, its multiple fishing harbours and agricultural activities and its highly efficient cooled supply chain We address the economic viability of aquaponic systems and describe possible socio-economic scenarios. As compared to rural and peri-urban scenarios, it can be concluded that, under the current Dutch market conditions, the urban scenario seems to be the most promising business concept, producing locally, fresh food, relying on premium prices.
Business case for mussel aquaculture in offshore wind farms in the North Sea
Burg, S.W.K. van den; Kamermans, P. ; Blanch, M. ; Pletsas, D. ; Poelman, M. ; Soma, K. ; Dalton, G. - \ 2017
Marine Policy 85 (2017). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 1 - 7.
Aquaculture - Business case - Mussels - Offshore wind - Risk assessment

The European Blue Growth strategy aims to expand the new maritime sectors of aquaculture, energy, biotechnology, coastal tourism and mineral mining. Growth of these sectors will increases pressure on the seas, particularly on those areas that are densely used by traditional sectors such as fisheries and transport. This has triggered interest in developing multiuse of space and multiuse platforms at sea. This paper assesses the feasibility of offshore mussel production project in wind farms by design and ex-ante evaluation of a mussel aquaculture system in the North Sea. A system for mussel cultivation in the Dutch Borssele offshore wind farm was designed, producing both mussel seed and consumption-sized mussels with semi-submerged longlines. Based on the economic model and the risk assessment, this paper concludes that mussel aquaculture is an appealing commercial model for increased returns in offshore wind farms. The economic models shows that the internal rate of return and net present value are positive and based on the sensitivity analysis, it can be concluded that these results are robust.

Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio
Way, K. ; Haenen, O. ; Stone, D. ; Adamek, M. ; Bergmann, S.M. ; Bigarré, L. ; Diserens, Nicolas ; El-Matbouli, M. ; Gjessing, M.C. ; Jung-Schroers, V. ; Leguay, E. ; Matras, M. ; Olesen, Niels J. ; Panzarin, Valentina ; Piačková, V. ; Toffan, A. ; Vendramin, N. ; Veselý, T. ; Waltzek, T. - \ 2017
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 126 (2017)2. - ISSN 0177-5103 - p. 155 - 166.
Aquaculture - CEVD - Cyprinus carpio - Koi sleepy disease - PCR - Poxvirus
Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Although the structure of the CEV genome is not yet elucidated, molecular epidemiology studies have suggested distinct geographical populations of CEV infecting both koi and common carp. Detection and identification of cases of CEVD in common carp were unreliable using the original PCR primers. New primers for conventional and quantitative PCR (qPCR) have been designed that improve detection, and their sequences are provided in this paper. The qPCR primers have successfully detected CEV DNA in archive material from investigations of unexplained carp mortalities conducted >15 yr ago. Improvement in disease management and control is possible, and the principles of biosecurity, good health management and disease surveillance, applied to koi herpesvirus disease, can be equally applied to CEVD. However, further research studies are needed to fill the knowledge gaps in the disease pathogenesis and epidemiology that, currently, prevent an accurate assessment of the likely impact of CEVD on European koi and common carp aquaculture and on wild carp stocks.
A probabilistic approach to assess antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments and its application to an intensive aquaculture production scenario
Rico, Andreu ; Jacobs, Rianne ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Tello, Alfredo - \ 2017
Environmental Pollution 231 (2017). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 918 - 928.
Antibiotic resistance - Antibiotics - Aquaculture - Environment - Risk assessment
Estimating antibiotic pollution and antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments is important to design management strategies that advance our stewardship of antibiotics. In this study we propose a modelling approach to estimate the risk of antibiotic resistance development in environmental compartments and demonstrate its application in aquaculture production systems. We modelled exposure concentrations for 12 antibiotics used in Vietnamese Pangasius catfish production using the ERA-AQUA model. Minimum selective concentration (MSC) distributions that characterize the selective pressure of antibiotics on bacterial communities were derived from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dataset. The antibiotic resistance development risk (RDR) for each antibiotic was calculated as the probability that the antibiotic exposure distribution exceeds the MSC distribution representing the bacterial community. RDRs in pond sediments were nearly 100% for all antibiotics. Median RDR values in pond water were high for the majority of the antibiotics, with rifampicin, levofloxacin and ampicillin having highest values. In the effluent mixing area, RDRs were low for most antibiotics, with the exception of amoxicillin, ampicillin and trimethoprim, which presented moderate risks, and rifampicin and levofloxacin, which presented high risks. The RDR provides an efficient means to benchmark multiple antibiotics and treatment regimes in the initial phase of a risk assessment with regards to their potential to develop resistance in different environmental compartments, and can be used to derive resistance threshold concentrations.
The 'seafood gap' in the food-water nexus literature-issues surrounding freshwater use in seafood production chains
Gephart, Jessica A. ; Troell, Max ; Henriksson, Patrik J.G. ; Beveridge, Malcolm C.M. ; Verdegem, Marc ; Metian, Marc ; Mateos, Lara D. ; Deutsch, Lisa - \ 2017
Advances in Water Resources 110 (2017). - ISSN 0309-1708 - p. 505 - 514.
Aquaculture - Fisheries - Food-water nexus - Freshwater use assessment - Impact assessment methodology - Water footprint

Freshwater use for food production is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades with population growth, changing demographics, and shifting diets. Ensuring joint food-water security has prompted efforts to quantify freshwater use for different food products and production methods. However, few analyses quantify freshwater use for seafood production, and those that do use inconsistent water accounting. This inhibits water use comparisons among seafood products or between seafood and agricultural/livestock products. This 'seafood gap' in the food-water nexus literature will become increasingly problematic as seafood consumption is growing globally and aquaculture is one of the fastest growing animal food sectors in the world. Therefore, the present study 1) reviews freshwater use concepts as they relate to seafood production; 2) provides three cases to highlight the particular water use concerns for aquaculture, and; 3) outlines future directions to integrate seafood into the broader food-water nexus discussion. By revisiting water use concepts through a focus on seafood production systems, we highlight the key water use processes that should be considered for seafood production and offer a fresh perspective on the analysis of freshwater use in food systems more broadly.

Mobilizing investors for blue growth
Burg, Sander W.K. van den; Stuiver, Marian ; Bolman, Bas C. ; Wijnen, Roland ; Selnes, Trond ; Dalton, Gordon - \ 2017
Frontiers in Marine Science 3 (2017)JAN. - ISSN 2296-7745
Aquaculture - Blue growth - EU policy - Investment theory - Investors - Offshore wind

The European Union's Blue Growth Strategy is a long term strategy to support sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors, aiming to contribute to innovation and economic growth (European Commission, 2012). The EU sees the financial sector as a key partner to bring about transition to sustainable consumption and production. However, knowledge about investment behavior, experience with working with these investors, and ways to engage investors in the Blue Growth sectors is lacking. This paper examines this knowledge gap. It characterizes investors and identifies investor behavior, investors' motives, and conditions and criteria relevant for investors to invest in Blue Growth sectors. The presented results are derived from a literature study on investors and investment behavior, an electronic survey and in-depth interviews. Stereotypical images of private equity bankers or wealthy individuals do not do justice to the diversity of investors involved in the Blue Growth sectors. These sectors are still in development and various risks reduce the willingness to invest. Risk mitigation should be seen as a shared responsibility of entrepreneurs, investors and governments. Government support must go further than financial support for research and development or technological demonstration projects. Proven technologies get stuck in the Valley of Death as investors alone are not willing to take the risk associated with upscaling of promising technologies. Tied in a reciprocal relationship, governments need to attract private investors-their capital, knowledge, and networks-to further grow of the Blue Growth sectors while investors need stable, predictable, and effective government support schemes to mitigate their financial risks.

Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture
Janssen, K. ; Chavanne, H. ; Berentsen, P. ; Komen, H. - \ 2017
Aquaculture 472 (2017)suppl. 1. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 8 - 16.
Aquaculture - Breeding programs - Europe - Genetic gain - Market share

Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance. Surveys were conducted among breeding companies of five major species cultured in Europe: Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, European seabass, gilthead seabream, and turbot. The market share was estimated as the combined egg or juvenile production of breeding companies relative to the total egg or juvenile production in Europe for each species in 2012. Cumulative genetic gain was estimated from the number of selected generations in current breeding programs, combined with genetic trends, reported selection responses in literature, and phenotypic differences. The combined market share of breeding companies ranged from 43-56% for seabass to 100% for turbot. The total volume of fish production in Europe that originated from selective breeding was 1653-1706 thousand tonnes, corresponding to 80-83% of the total aquaculture production. Over species, there were 37 breeding programs of which the majority performed family selection. Growth performance was universally selected upon.Cumulative genetic gain in growth performance varied from +. 65% for turbot to +. 900% for trout in terms of harvest weight, and from +. 25% for turbot to +. 200% for trout in terms of thermal growth coefficient. It is concluded that selective breeding has a major impact on European aquaculture and will contribute to future growth of the sector. Statement of relevance: This manuscript helps to understand the impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture. It shows that the adoption of selective breeding is much higher in Europe than globally. It demonstrates that selective breeding has led to major improvements. Forecasts of industry trends are made and the importance of selective breeding to future growth of aquaculture production is illustrated.

On-farm evaluation of the Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0) : Theoretical and practical considerations
Folkedal, O. ; Pettersen, J.M. ; Bracke, M.B. ; Stien, L.H. ; Nilsson, J. ; Martins, C. ; Breck, O. ; Midtlyng, P.J. ; Kristiansen, T. - \ 2016
Animal Welfare 25 (2016)1. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 135 - 149.
Animal welfare - Aquaculture - Atlantic salmon - Diagnostic - Sea cage - Semantic modelling

The present study investigated the operational feasibility of the recently developed Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0) designed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in production cages. Ten salmon farms containing spring smolts were visited twice, first between May and June the first year in sea cages, and secondly 2-3 months later. On each farm the SWIM 1.0 assessments were carried out for the two cages assumed by the farmer to represent the best and worst welfare status. The applied welfare indicators (WIs) were water temperature, salinity, stocking density, lighting, disturbance, daily mortality rate, appetite, sea lice infestation ratio, condition factor, emaciation state, vertebral deformation, maturation stage, smoltification state, fin condition and skin condition. The effective time to carry out the welfare evaluation was about 1.5 h per farm. The results showed some marked differences between visits; relatively larger proportions of emaciated fish were sampled during the first compared to the second visit, and more homogeneous scores of skin and fin damage were found on the second visit. The overall welfare index scores were generally in accordance with the farmers' ranking of the 'best' and the 'worst' sea cage during the first visit. Together, the findings of this study suggest that the SWIM model may be employed for documentation of animal welfare over the salmon marine production cycle. The results call attention towards re-assessment of some of the welfare indicators, improved sampling methods, and a more user-friendly interface. All-in-all the current SWIM model is regarded as a promising candidate tool towards welfare assessment of farmed salmon.

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Freshwater Agriculture in the Coastal Mekong Delta : Farm-scale Opportunities and Water Management Challenges
Nhan, D.K. ; Phuong, To Lan ; Son, Nguyen Ngoc ; Ha, Vo Van ; Tin, Nguyen Hong ; Pham Dang Tri, V. ; Trung, Nguyen Hieu ; Bosma, R.H. ; Halsema, G.E. van - \ 2016
Tropicultura 34 (2016)special. - ISSN 0771-3312 - p. 120 - 120.
Climate Change - Water productivity - Rice - Aquaculture - southern vietnam
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