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The impact of dispersal, plant genotype and nematodes on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization
Rasmussen, Pil U. ; Chareesri, Anupol ; Neilson, Roy ; Bennett, Alison E. ; Tack, Ayco J.M. - \ 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 132 (2019). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 28 - 35.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - Colonization ability - Dispersal - Genotype - Nematodes - Plantago lanceolata
While the majority of parasitic and mutualistic microbes have the potential for long-range dispersal, the high turnover in community composition among nearby hosts has often been interpreted to reflect dispersal constraints. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we need further insights into the relative importance of dispersal limitation, host genotype and the biotic environment on the colonization process. We focused on the important root symbionts, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We studied AM fungal colonization ability in a controlled mesocosm setting, where we placed Plantago lanceolata plants belonging to four different genotypes in sterile soil at 10, 30 and 70 cm from a central AM fungal inoculated P. lanceolata plant. In part of the mesocosms, we also inoculated the source plants with nematodes. AM fungi colonized receiver plants <1 m away over the course of ten weeks, with a strong effect of distance from source plant on AM fungal colonization. Plant genotype influenced AM fungal colonization during the early stages of colonization, while nematode inoculation had no effect on AM fungal colonization. Overall, the effect of both dispersal limitation and plant genetic variation may underlie the small-scale heterogeneity found in natural AM fungal communities.
Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, but suppress nitrous oxide emissions shortly after urea application
Teutscherova, Nikola ; Vazquez, Eduardo ; Arango, Jacobo ; Arevalo, Ashly ; Benito, Marta ; Pulleman, Mirjam - \ 2019
Geoderma 338 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 493 - 501.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - Nitrification - Nitrous oxide - Tropical grasses - Urea
The potential of the symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O has gained scientific attention in the last years. Given the high nitrogen (N) requirements of AMF and their role in plant N uptake, they may reduce the availability of mineral N that could be subject to N2O emissions and leaching losses. We investigated the impact of AMF on the growth of tropical grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. and on N2O released after fertilization with urea in a mesocosm study. To evaluate the role of nitrification in N2O emissions, we used nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). The study included a full-factorial design (n = 6) with two AMF treatments (with and without AMF inoculation) and three fertilization treatments (control, urea and urea + DCD), applied after 92 days of growth. Plant growth, soil properties and N2O emissions were measured during the following 2 weeks and the abundance of nitrifiers was quantified one and two weeks after fertilization. The production of N2O increased after urea application but only without DCD, indicating the importance of nitrification in N2O emissions. The emissions of N2O after urea application were reduced by 46% due to the presence of AMF. Nevertheless, the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was increased by urea and AMF, while plant growth was reduced by the AMF. The increased root:shoot ratio of the biomass in AMF pots suggests competition between AMF and plants. This study demonstrated that immobilization of N by AMF can reduce N2O emissions after fertilization, even when plant growth is reduced. The inverse relationship between (higher) AOB abundance and (lower) nitrification rates suggests that changes in the activity of AOB, rather than abundance, may be indicative of the impact of the AMF-Brachiaria symbiosis on N cycling in tropical grasslands. Alternatively, the difference between N2O emissions from AMF and non-AMF pots may be explained by increased reduction of N2O in the presence of AMF. Longer-term studies are needed to verify whether the effects of AMF on N2O emissions and/or plant growth persist over time or are limited to initial immobilization of N by AMF in N-limited systems.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi negatively affect nitrogen acquisition and grain yield of maize in a N deficient soil
Wang, Xin Xin ; Wang, Xiaojing ; Sun, Yu ; Cheng, Yang ; Liu, Shitong ; Chen, Xinping ; Feng, Gu ; Kuyper, Thomas W. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)MAR. - ISSN 1664-302X
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - Benomyl - Competition - Maize - Nitrogen uptake
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in enhancing the acquisition of immobile nutrients, particularly phosphorus. However, because nitrogen (N) is more mobile in the soil solution and easier to access by plants roots, the role of AMF in enhancing N acquisition is regarded as less important for host plants. Because AMF have a substantial N demand, competition for N between AMF and plants particularly under low N condition is possible. Thus, it is necessary to know whether or not AMF affect N uptake of plants and thereby affect plant growth under field conditions. We conducted a 2-year field trial and pot experiments in a greenhouse by using benomyl to suppress colonization of maize roots by indigenous AMF at both low and high N application rates. Benomyl reduced mycorrhizal colonization of maize plants in all experiments. Benomyl-treated maize had a higher shoot N concentration and content and produced more grain under field conditions. Greenhouse pot experiments showed that benomyl also enhanced maize growth and N concentration and N content when the soil was not sterilized, but had no effect on maize biomass and N content when the soil was sterilized but a microbial wash added, providing evidence that increased plant performance is at least partly caused by direct effects of benomyl on AMF. We conclude that AMF can reduce N acquisition and thereby reduce grain yield of maize in N-limiting soils.
Symbiotic soil fungi enhance ecosystem resilience to climate change
Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. de; Pugnaire, Francisco I. ; Kothamasi, David ; Heijden, Marcel G.A. van der - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 5228 - 5236.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - Climate change - Nitrogen - Nutrient leaching - Phosphorus - Rainfall regimes
Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils through leaching. These losses can be environmentally damaging, causing groundwater eutrophication and also comprise an economic burden in terms of lost agricultural production. More intense precipitation events caused by climate change will likely aggravate this problem. So far it is unresolved to which extent soil biota can make ecosystems more resilient to climate change and reduce nutrient leaching losses when rainfall intensity increases. In this study, we focused on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, common soil fungi that form symbiotic associations with most land plants and which increase plant nutrient uptake. We hypothesized that AM fungi mitigate nutrient losses following intensive precipitation events (higher amount of precipitation and rain events frequency). To test this, we manipulated the presence of AM fungi in model grassland communities subjected to two rainfall scenarios: moderate and high rainfall intensity. The total amount of nutrients lost through leaching increased substantially with higher rainfall intensity. The presence of AM fungi reduced phosphorus losses by 50% under both rainfall scenarios and nitrogen losses by 40% under high rainfall intensity. Thus, the presence of AM fungi enhanced the nutrient interception ability of soils, and AM fungi reduced the nutrient leaching risk when rainfall intensity increases. These findings are especially relevant in areas with high rainfall intensity (e.g., such as the tropics) and for ecosystems that will experience increased rainfall due to climate change. Overall, this work demonstrates that soil biota such as AM fungi can enhance ecosystem resilience and reduce the negative impact of increased precipitation on nutrient losses.
Differential responses of soil bacteria, fungi, archaea and protists to plant species richness and plant functional group identity
Dassen, Sigrid ; Cortois, Roeland ; Martens, Henk ; Hollander, Mattias de; Kowalchuk, George A. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De - \ 2017
Molecular Ecology 26 (2017)15. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 4085 - 4098.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - Microbial diversity - Plant community diversity - Rhizobia - α-diversity - β-diversity
Plants are known to influence belowground microbial community structure along their roots, but the impacts of plant species richness and plant functional group (FG) identity on microbial communities in the bulk soil are still not well understood. Here, we used 454-pyrosequencing to analyse the soil microbial community composition in a long-term biodiversity experiment at Jena, Germany. We examined responses of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists to plant species richness (communities varying from 1 to 60 sown species) and plant FG identity (grasses, legumes, small herbs, tall herbs) in bulk soil. We hypothesized that plant species richness and FG identity would alter microbial community composition and have a positive impact on microbial species richness. Plant species richness had a marginal positive effect on the richness of fungi, but we observed no such effect on bacteria, archaea and protists. Plant species richness also did not have a large impact on microbial community composition. Rather, abiotic soil properties partially explained the community composition of bacteria, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), archaea and protists. Plant FG richness did not impact microbial community composition; however, plant FG identity was more effective. Bacterial richness was highest in legume plots and lowest in small herb plots, and AMF and archaeal community composition in legume plant communities was distinct from that in communities composed of other plant FGs. We conclude that soil microbial community composition in bulk soil is influenced more by changes in plant FG composition and abiotic soil properties, than by changes in plant species richness per se.
Indicator species and co-occurrence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the European scale
Bouffaud, Marie Lara ; Creamer, Rachel E. ; Stone, Dote ; Plassart, Pierre ; Tuinen, Diederik van; Lemanceau, Philippe ; Wipf, Daniel ; Redecker, Dirk - \ 2016
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 103 (2016). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 464 - 470.
454 pyrosequencing - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - European scale - ITS
Utilizing a European transect of 54 soil samples, comprising of grasslands, arable and forest sites, we analyzed community composition of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) using pyrosequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region. We found a significant influence of environmental factors (soil pH and organic carbon or land use) on the community composition, but these factors did not fully explain the overall amount of AMF diversity. Geographical distance of sites also significantly affected community structure, indicating significant dispersal limitations of Glomeromycota at the European scale. Indicator species have been proposed by land use and physicochemical soil parameters. Generalist species were also identified, that were found occurring in a large proportion of the sample sites. By co-occurrence analysis of species pairs we show that, at this spatial scale, closely-related species are more likely to co-occur than distantly-related ones. This suggests that environmental filtering is a more dominant driving force in community assembly than fungal competition.