Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Benefit Sharing in the Arctic: A Systematic View
Petrov, Andrey N. ; Tysyachnyouk, M. - \ 2019
Resources 8 (2019)3. - ISSN 2079-9276 - 16 p.
benefit sharing - extractive industries - Arctic - coporate social responsibility - social license to operate
Benefit sharing is a key concept for sustainable development in communities affected by the extractive industry. In the Arctic, where extractive activities have been growing, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of benefit sharing frameworks is especially critical. The goal of this paper is to develop a synthesis and advance the theory of benefit sharing frameworks in the Arctic. Based
on previously published research, a review of literature, a desktop analysis of national legislation, as well as by capitalizing on the original case studies, this paper analyzes benefit sharing arrangements and develops the typology of benefit sharing regimes in the Arctic. It also discusses the examples of various regimes in Russia, Alaska, and Canada. Each regime is described by a combination of principles, modes, mechanisms, and scales of benefit sharing. Although not exhaustive or entirely comprehensive, this systematization and proposed typologies appear to be useful for streamlining the analysis and improving understanding of benefit sharing in the extractive sector. The paper has not identified an ideal benefit sharing regime in the Arctic, but revealed the advantages and pitfalls of different existing arrangements. In the future, the best regimes –in respect to sustainable development would support the transition from benefit sharing to benefit co-management.
Maritime Futures 2035: The Arctic Region : Workshop Report & Technical Documentation
Blair, Berill ; Muller-Stoffels, Marc - \ 2019
- 88 p.
Maritime - Arctic - scenario development - sustainability indicators - forecasts - climate-change/ - sea ice
What kind of forecast information is needed for safe and sustainable Arctic maritime activities now and through 2035? Building on the SALIENSEAS project’s platform for coproduction of climate services for maritime sectors active in European Arctic waters, a group of experts were brought together to develop
scenarios for safe and sustainable maritime operations by the year 2035. Starting with the focal question “What information is needed to successfully respond to changes impacting Arctic maritime activities now and through 2035?” participants deliberated the most influential drivers of change that will impact the need for metocean and sea ice services to reduce uncertainties in maritime operational and tactical planning
Soil frost effects on streamflow recessions in a subarctic catchment
Ploum, Stefan W. ; Lyon, Steve W. ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Velde, Ype van der - \ 2019
Hydrological Processes 33 (2019)9. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 1304 - 1316.
Arctic - hydrology - permafrost - recession analysis - snowmelt - soil frost - thawing - warming
The Arctic is warming rapidly. Changing seasonal freezing and thawing cycles of the soil are expected to affect river run-off substantially, but how soil frost influences river run-off at catchment scales is still largely unknown. We hypothesize that soil frost alters flow paths and therefore affects storage–discharge relations in subarctic catchments. To test this hypothesis, we used an approach that combines meteorological records and recession analysis. We studied streamflow data (1986–2015) of Abiskojokka, a river that drains a mountainous catchment (560 km2) in the north of Sweden (68° latitude). Recessions were separated into frost periods (spring) and no-frost periods (summer) and then compared. We observed a significant difference between recessions of the two periods: During spring, discharge was linearly related to storage, whereas storage–discharge relationships in summer were less linear. An analysis of explanatory factors showed that after winters with cold soil temperatures and low snowpack, storage–discharge relations approached linearity. On the other hand, relatively warm winter soil conditions resulted in storage–discharge relationships that were less linear. Even in summer, relatively cold antecedent winter soils and low snowpack levels had a propagating effect on streamflow. This could be an indication that soil frost controls recharge of deep groundwater flow paths, which affects storage–discharge relationships in summer. We interpret these findings as evidence for soil frost to have an important control over river run-off dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing significant catchment-integrated effects of soil frost on this spatiotemporal scale.
Reindeer Herders Without Reindeer. The Challenges of Joint Knowledge Production on Kolguev Island in the Russian Arctic
Pristupa, A.O. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Amelung, S.B. - \ 2019
Society & Natural Resources 32 (2019)3. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 338 - 356.
Arctic - ECORA - ecosystem approach - indigenous involvement in natural resource management - indigenous peoples - integrated ecosystem management - joint knowledge production - Kolguev Island - reindeer herding - Russia
Kolguev Island in the Russian Arctic has a unique tundra ecosystem and an indigenous Nenets population whose livelihood is traditionally based on reindeer herding. The Nenets faced a major crisis in 2013–2014 when the reindeer population collapsed. Widely different explanations for this collapse were put forward. This lack of a shared perspective points at the failure of genuine joint knowledge production (JKP) in the island’s UNEP–GEF’s ECORA project (2004–2009). The ECORA project aimed to achieve integrated ecosystem management by stimulating dialog and mutual learning among indigenous people, state agencies, and scientists. This paper analyses the failure of ECORA’s JKP, using a recently developed framework of conditions for successful JKP. The results suggest that ECORA met none of these conditions. It failed at bringing the scientific and indigenous knowledge systems together, and the produced knowledge did not resonate with indigenous people’s perception of living in Kolguev.
Tundra Trait Team : A database of plant traits spanning the tundra biome
Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Myers-Smith, Isla H. ; Elmendorf, Sarah C. ; Normand, Signe ; Thomas, Haydn J.D. ; Alatalo, Juha M. ; Alexander, Heather ; Anadon-Rosell, Alba ; Angers-Blondin, Sandra ; Bai, Yang ; Baruah, Gaurav ; Beest, Mariska te; Berner, Logan ; Björk, Robert G. ; Blok, Daan ; Bruelheide, Helge ; Buchwal, Agata ; Buras, Allan ; Carbognani, Michele ; Christie, Katherine ; Collier, Laura S. ; Cooper, Elisabeth J. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Dickinson, Katharine J.M. ; Dullinger, Stefan ; Elberling, Bo ; Eskelinen, Anu ; Forbes, Bruce C. ; Frei, Esther R. ; Iturrate-Garcia, Maitane ; Good, Megan K. ; Grau, Oriol ; Green, Peter ; Greve, Michelle ; Grogan, Paul ; Haider, Sylvia ; Hájek, Tomáš ; Hallinger, Martin ; Happonen, Konsta ; Harper, Karen A. ; Heijmans, Monique M.P.D. ; Henry, Gregory H.R. ; Hermanutz, Luise ; Hewitt, Rebecca E. ; Hollister, Robert D. ; Hudson, James ; Hülber, Karl ; Iversen, Colleen M. ; Jaroszynska, Francesca ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja - \ 2018
Global Ecology and Biogeography 27 (2018)12. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1402 - 1411.
alpine - Arctic - plant functional traits - tundra

Motivation: The Tundra Trait Team (TTT) database includes field-based measurements of key traits related to plant form and function at multiple sites across the tundra biome. This dataset can be used to address theoretical questions about plant strategy and trade-offs, trait–environment relationships and environmental filtering, and trait variation across spatial scales, to validate satellite data, and to inform Earth system model parameters. Main types of variable contained: The database contains 91,970 measurements of 18 plant traits. The most frequently measured traits (> 1,000 observations each) include plant height, leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf fresh and dry mass, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus content, leaf C:N and N:P, seed mass, and stem specific density. Spatial location and grain: Measurements were collected in tundra habitats in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, including Arctic sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Fennoscandia and Siberia, alpine sites in the European Alps, Colorado Rockies, Caucasus, Ural Mountains, Pyrenees, Australian Alps, and Central Otago Mountains (New Zealand), and sub-Antarctic Marion Island. More than 99% of observations are georeferenced. Time period and grain: All data were collected between 1964 and 2018. A small number of sites have repeated trait measurements at two or more time periods. Major taxa and level of measurement: Trait measurements were made on 978 terrestrial vascular plant species growing in tundra habitats. Most observations are on individuals (86%), while the remainder represent plot or site means or maximums per species. Software format: csv file and GitHub repository with data cleaning scripts in R; contribution to TRY plant trait database (www.try-db.org) to be included in the next version release.

Stress behaviour and physiology of developing Arctic barnacle goslings (Branta leucopsis) is affected by legacy trace contaminants
Scheiber, Isabella B.R. ; Weiß, Brigitte M. ; Jong, Margje E. De; Braun, Anna ; Brink, Nico W. Van Den; Loonen, Maarten J.J.E. ; Millesi, Eva ; Komdeur, Jan - \ 2018
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 285 (2018)1893. - ISSN 0962-8452
acute stress behaviour - Arctic - barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) - HPA corticosterone metabolites - legacy trace metal contamination - stress coping

Natural populations are persistently exposed to environmental pollution, which may adversely impact animal physiology and behaviour and even compromise survival. Responding appropriately to any stressor ultimately might tip the scales for survival, as mistimed behaviour and inadequate physiological responses may be detrimental. Yet effects of legacy contamination on immediate physiological and behavioural stress coping abilities during acute stress are virtually unknown. Here, we assessed these effects in barnacle goslings (Branta leucopsis) at a historical coal mine site in the Arctic. For three weeks we led human-imprinted goslings, collected from nests in unpolluted areas, to feed in an abandoned coal mining area, where they were exposed to trace metals. As control we led their siblings to feed on clean grounds. After submitting both groups to three well-established stress tests (group isolation, individual isolation, on-back restraint), control goslings behaved calmer and excreted lower levels of corticosterone metabolites. Thus, legacy contamination may decisively change stress physiology and behaviour in long-lived vertebrates exposed at a young age.

How including ecological realism impacts the assessment of the environmental effect of oil spills at the population level: The application of matrix models for Arctic Calanus species
Vries, Pepijn de; Tamis, Jacqueline ; Hjorth, Morten ; Jak, Robbert ; Falk-Petersen, Stig ; Heuvel-Greve, Martine van den; Klok, Chris ; Hemerik, Lia - \ 2018
Marine Environmental Research 141 (2018). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 264 - 274.
matrix models - Arctic - calanus - lc50 - noec - Population dynamics - Oil spill
For oil spill responses, assessment of the potential environmental exposure and impacts of a spill is crucial. Due to a lack of chronic toxicity data, acute data is used together with precautionary assumptions. The effect on the Arctic keystone (copepod) species Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus glacialis populations is compared using two approaches: a precautionary approach where all exposed individuals die above a defined threshold concentration and a refined (full-dose-response) approach. For this purpose a matrix population model parameterised with data from the literature is used. Population effects of continuous exposures with varying durations were modelled on a range of concentrations. Just above the chronic No Observed Effect Concentration (which is field relevant) the estimated population recovery duration of the precautionary approach was more than 300 times that of the refined approach. With increasing exposure concentration and duration, the effect in the refined approach converges to the maximum effect assumed in the precautionary approach.
Making the Arctic predictable : the changing information infrastructure of Arctic weather and sea ice services
Knol, Maaike ; Arbo, Peter ; Duske, Paula ; Gerland, Sebastian ; Lamers, Machiel ; Pavlova, Olga ; Sivle, Anders Doksæter ; Tronstad, Stein - \ 2018
Polar Geography 41 (2018)4. - ISSN 1088-937X - p. 279 - 293.
Arctic - information infrastructure - polar prediction - sea ice - shipping - weather

This paper explores the changing infrastructure around weather and sea ice information provisioning for Arctic marine areas. Traditionally, the most important providers of operational information on sea ice and weather conditions are the national sea ice and meteorological services. More recently, the community of Arctic information providers has become more heterogeneous with the establishment of numerous collaborative platforms. Three case studies will enhance our understanding of current developments (BarentsWatch, Polar View and Arctic Web). We analyze their organization and funding structures, the types of services they develop, and their target groups. Based upon these cases, we discuss the information infrastructure’s dynamics and underlying drivers of change. Apart from an expected need for customized services due to changing Arctic activity patterns, new initiatives arise due to a combination of (1) progress in information and communication technology, (2) a need to enhance interoperability of data systems, (3) and a desire to improve customized data conveyance from provider to user. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the changing Arctic information infrastructure and defines directions for further research.

Between Soviet Legacy and Corporate Social Responsibility: Emerging Benefit Sharing Frameworks in the Irkutsk Oil Region, Russia
Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Petrov, Andrey N. ; Kuklina, Vera ; Krasnoshtanova, Natalia - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 23 p.
benefit sharing - extractive industries - natural resources - Russia - Arctic - corporate social responsibility
Benefit sharing arrangements are a central element of the interactions between oil companies and local communities in resource regions of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. This paper focused on developing a systematic understanding and typology of benefit sharing arrangements within the oil sector in the Russian Arctic and sub-Arctic, using the Irkutsk Oil Region as a case study. It provided a critical analysis of prevalent arrangements and practices (modes and mechanisms of benefit sharing), as well as examined institutional and social underpinnings of these benefit sharing frameworks. Qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews were used. The paper demonstrated that sub-Arctic communities are not equally benefiting from oil and gas extraction. Despite a considerable variety of existing arrangements revealed by this study, no benefit sharing mode or mechanism prevalent today ensures sustainable development of local communities. This may stem from the incompatibility between post-Soviet legacies, corporate social responsibility principles, and local institutional frameworks. Although focused on a particular region, this research was indicative of general benefit sharing patterns in modern Russia and beyond.
Innovative Strategies for Observations in the Arctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ISOBAR)-the Hailuoto 2017 campaign
Kral, Stephan T. ; Reuder, Joachim ; Vihma, Timo ; Suomi, Irene ; O'Connor, Ewan ; Kouznetsov, Rostislav ; Wrenger, Burkhard ; Rautenberg, Alexander ; Urbancic, Gabin ; Jonassen, Marius O. ; Båserud, Line ; Maronga, Björn ; Mayer, Stephanie ; Lorenz, Torge ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. ; Steeneveld, Gert J. ; Seidl, Andrew ; Müller, Martin ; Lindenberg, Christian ; Langohr, Carsten ; Voss, Hendrik ; Bange, Jens ; Hundhausen, Marie ; Hilsheimer, Philipp ; Schygulla, Markus - \ 2018
Atmosphere 9 (2018)7. - ISSN 2073-4433
Arctic - Boundary layer remote sensing - Ground-based in-situ observations - Polar - Remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) - Sea ice - Stable atmospheric boundary layer - Turbulence - Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)

The aim of the research project "Innovative Strategies for Observations in the Arctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ISOBAR)" is to substantially increase the understanding of the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SBL) through a combination of well-established and innovative observation methods as well as by models of different complexity. During three weeks in February 2017, a first field campaign was carried out over the sea ice of the Bothnian Bay in the vicinity of the Finnish island of Hailuoto. Observations were based on ground-based eddy-covariance (EC), automatic weather stations (AWS) and remote-sensing instrumentation as well as more than 150 flight missions by several different Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) during mostly stable and very stable boundary layer conditions. The structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and above could be resolved at a very high vertical resolution, especially close to the ground, by combining surface-based measurements with UAV observations, i.e., multicopter and fixed-wing profiles up to 200magl and 1800magl, respectively. Repeated multicopter profiles provided detailed information on the evolution of the SBL, in addition to the continuous SODAR and LIDAR wind measurements. The paper describes the campaign and the potential of the collected data set for future SBL research and focuses on both the UAV operations and the benefits of complementing established measurement methods by UAV measurements to enable SBL observations at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.

Combined Geophysical Measurements Provide Evidence for Unfrozen Water in Permafrost in the Adventdalen Valley in Svalbard
Keating, Kristina ; Binley, Andrew ; Bense, Victor ; Dam, Remke L. Van; Christiansen, Hanne H. - \ 2018
Geophysical Research Letters 45 (2018)15. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 7606 - 7614.
Arctic - Coastal - CSAMT - Permafrost - SNMR - Svalbard
Quantifying the unfrozen water content of permafrost is critical for assessing impacts of surface warming on the reactivation of groundwater flow and release of greenhouse gasses from degrading permafrost. Unfrozen water content was determined along an ~12-km transect in the Adventdalen valley in Svalbard, an area with continuous permafrost, using surface nuclear magnetic resonance and controlled source audio-magnetotelluric data. This combination of measurements allowed for differentiation of saline from fresh pore water, and frozen from unfrozen pore water. Above the limit of Holocene marine transgression, no unfrozen water was detected, associated with high electrical resistivity. Below the marine limit, within several kilometers of the coast, up to ~10% unfrozen water content was detected, associated with low resistivity values indicating saline pore water. These results provide evidence for unfrozen water within continuous, thick permafrost in coastal settings, which has implications for groundwater flow and greenhouse gas release in similar Arctic environments.
Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Arctic Ocean
Kühn, Susanne ; Schaafsma, Fokje L. ; Werven, Bernike van; Flores, Hauke ; Bergmann, Melanie ; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion ; Tekman, Mine B. ; Franeker, Jan A. van - \ 2018
Polar Biology 41 (2018)6. - ISSN 0722-4060 - p. 1269 - 1278.
Airborne micro-fibre contamination - Arctic - Microplastic - Polar cod (Boreogadus saida)
One of the recently recognised stressors in Arctic ecosystems concerns plastic litter. In this study, juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) were investigated for the presence of plastics in their stomachs. Polar cod is considered a key species in the Arctic ecosystem. The fish were collected both directly from underneath the sea ice in the Eurasian Basin and in open waters around Svalbard. We analysed the stomachs of 72 individuals under a stereo microscope. Two stomachs contained non-fibrous microplastic particles. According to µFTIR analysis, the particles consisted of epoxy resin and a mix of Kaolin with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Fibrous objects were excluded from this analysis to avoid bias due to contamination with airborne micro-fibres. A systematic investigation of the risk for secondary micro-fibre contamination during analytical procedures showed that precautionary measures in all procedural steps are critical. Based on the two non-fibrous objects found in polar cod stomachs, our results show that ingestion of microplastic particles by this ecologically important fish species is possible. With increasing human activity, plastic ingestion may act as an increasing stressor on polar cod in combination with ocean warming and sea-ice decline in peripheral regions of the Arctic Ocean. To fully assess the significance of this stressor and its spatial and temporal variability, future studies must apply a rigorous approach to avoid secondary pollution.
Benefit sharing in the Arctic energy sector: Perspectives on corporate policies and practices in Northern Russia and Alaska
Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Petrov, Andrey N. - \ 2018
Energy Research & Social Science 39 (2018). - ISSN 2214-6296 - p. 29 - 34.
Benefit sharing - Indigenous peoples - Energy sector - Oil and gas - Arctic
Many transnational energy companies are engaged in the exploration and development of oil reserves in the Arctic, and are facing policy challenges in respect to benefit sharing with the local communities. Benefit sharing arrangements between oil and natural gas companies and indigenous communities were investigated in Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Districts, Irkutsk and Sakhalin regions in Russia and the North Slope of Alaska. We argue that Indigenous communities are not equally benefitting from oil and gas extraction, and no one benefit sharing policy model seems to ensure a sustainable local development. This may stem from the mismatch between benefit sharing policies and local institutional frameworks. Thus, as a part of benefit sharing obligations, companies and the state must work with Indigenous peoples and other affected communities to build local capacities and human capital. There is an urgent need to improve our knowledge base about benefit sharing in the Arctic energy sector, and we urge the Arctic Council Sustainable Development Working Group and/or the Arctic Economic Council to conduct a synthesis study aiming at finding best practices, identifying lessons learned, and initiating an inclusive, multi-stakeholder process of developing guidelines for companies on benefit-sharing in the Arctic.
Sustainable Tourism and Natural Resource Conservation in the Polar Regions: An Editorial
Huijbens, Edward ; Lamers, M.A.J. - \ 2017
Resources 6 (2017)3. - ISSN 2079-9276 - 7 p.
tourism - Arctic - Antarctic - polar - research
This editorial provides an introduction to the special issue of Resources on Sustainable Tourism and Natural Resource Conservation in the Polar Regions, which proceeds the fifth bi-annual conference of the International Polar Tourism Research Network (IPTRN). The conference and coinciding community workshop on tourism development were organized at the edge of the Arctic in the community of Raufarhöfn (pop. 160) in Northeast Iceland from 29 August to 2 September 2016.
Polar snow algae as a valuable source of lipids?
Hulatt, Chris J. ; Berecz, Orsolya ; Egeland, Einar Skarstad ; Wijffels, René H. ; Kiron, Viswanath - \ 2017
Bioresource Technology 235 (2017). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 338 - 347.
Arctic - Microalgae - Photobioreactor - Snow algae - Triacylglycerol (TAG)

Microalgae offer excellent opportunities for producing food and fuel commodities, but in colder climates the low growth rates of many varieties may hamper production. In this work, extremophilic Arctic microalgae were tested to establish whether satisfactory growth and lipid production could be obtained at low water temperature. Five species of snow/soil algae originating from Svalbard (78–79°N) were cultivated at 6 °C, reaching high cell densities (maximum dry weight 3.4 g·L−1) in batch cultivations, and high productivity (maximum 0.63 g·L−1·d−1). After 20 days of cultivation total lipids ranged from 28% to 39% of the dry weight, and diverse patterns of neutral lipid (triacylglycerol; TAG) accumulation were observed. The five species largely accumulated unsaturated fatty acyl chains in neutral lipids, especially polyunsaturated C16 series fatty acids, C18:1n-9 and C18:3n-3. The results indicate that polar microalgae could provide an opportunity to increase the yields of microalgal biomass and oil products at low temperatures.

Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene by three Arctic benthic species from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway)
Szczybelski, Ariadna S. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Kampen, T. ; Wang, Chenwen ; Brink, Nico van den; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2016
Marine Pollution Bulletin 112 (2016)1-2. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 65 - 74.
Arctic - benthos - bioindicators - BSAFs - invertebrates - POPs
The predicted expansion of oil and gas (O&G) activities in the Arctic urges for a better understanding of impacts of these activities in this region. Here we investigated the influence of location, feeding strategy and animal size on the bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by three Arctic benthic species in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway). No toxicity was expected based on biota PAH critical body residues. Biota PCB levels were mainly below limit of detection, whereas samples were moderately polluted by HCB. PAH concentrations in biota and Biota Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) were generally higher in Blomstrandhalvøya than in Ny-Ålesund, which was explained by a higher abundance of black carbon in Ny-Ålesund harbour. BSAFs differed significantly among species and stations. We conclude that contaminant body residues are a less variable and more straightforward monitoring parameter than sediment concentrations or BSAFs in Arctic benthos.
Select strengths and biases of models in representing the Arctic winter boundary layer over sea ice : the Larcform 1 single column model intercomparison
Pithan, Felix ; Ackerman, Andrew ; Angevine, Wayne M. ; Hartung, Kerstin ; Ickes, Luisa ; Kelley, Maxwell ; Medeiros, Brian ; Sandu, Irina ; Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Sterk, H.A.M. - \ 2016
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8 (2016)3. - ISSN 1942-2466 - p. 1345 - 1357.
Arctic - boundary-layer - intercomparison - inversion - mixed-phase clouds - models

Weather and climate models struggle to represent lower tropospheric temperature and moisture profiles and surface fluxes in Arctic winter, partly because they lack or misrepresent physical processes that are specific to high latitudes. Observations have revealed two preferred states of the Arctic winter boundary layer. In the cloudy state, cloud liquid water limits surface radiative cooling, and temperature inversions are weak and elevated. In the radiatively clear state, strong surface radiative cooling leads to the build-up of surface-based temperature inversions. Many large-scale models lack the cloudy state, and some substantially underestimate inversion strength in the clear state. Here, the transformation from a moist to a cold dry air mass is modeled using an idealized Lagrangian perspective. The trajectory includes both boundary layer states, and the single-column experiment is the first Lagrangian Arctic air formation experiment (Larcform 1) organized within GEWEX GASS (Global atmospheric system studies). The intercomparison reproduces the typical biases of large-scale models: some models lack the cloudy state of the boundary layer due to the representation of mixed-phase microphysics or to the interaction between micro- and macrophysics. In some models, high emissivities of ice clouds or the lack of an insulating snow layer prevent the build-up of surface-based inversions in the radiatively clear state. Models substantially disagree on the amount of cloud liquid water in the cloudy state and on turbulent heat fluxes under clear skies. Observations of air mass transformations including both boundary layer states would allow for a tighter constraint of model behavior.

Low organotin contamination of harbour sediment in Svalbard
Den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J. van; Szczybelski, Ariadna S. ; Den Brink, Nico W. van; Kotterman, Michiel J.J. ; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F. ; Evenset, Anita ; Murk, Albertinka J. - \ 2016
Polar Biology 39 (2016)10. - ISSN 0722-4060 - p. 1699 - 1709.
Arctic - Contaminants - Kongsfjorden - Pollution - Sediment - Shipping - Spitsbergen - TBT

Arctic sea routes are opening up for maritime transport due to sea ice retreat leading to increasing human activities in the Arctic and concomitant pressures on the environment. Organotin compounds are used in antifouling paints of large seagoing vessels and are known to leach into the marine environment and accumulate in sediments and biota. As organotin levels in Svalbard sediments have not been documented in peer-reviewed literature before, this study describes the levels in sediment of harbours around Svalbard (Ny-Ålesund, Longyearbyen, Svea, Pyramiden and Barentsburg). Organotin levels in sediments of Svalbard harbours were low (below the detection limit up to 14 ng Sn/g dw sum-butyltin) compared to other Arctic regions with a longer history of shipping. Levels were below known no effect levels and in accordance, no imposex was found in marine whelks from Ny-Ålesund harbour. Of all other analysed compounds in sediments of Kongsfjorden (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated compounds) PAH levels were highest and in one sample above action levels. It is advised to continue monitoring contaminant levels, for which the current results form a good basis. If contaminant levels rise, mitigation measures can be taken in time.

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