Pursuing sustainability through multi-stakeholder collaboration: A description of the governance, actions, and perceived impacts of the roundtables for sustainable beef
Buckley, Kristy J. ; Newton, Peter ; Gibbs, Holly K. ; McConnel, Ian ; Ehrmann, John - \ 2019
World Development 121 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 203 - 217.
Beef - Cattle - Commodity - Multi-stakeholder - Roundtable - Sustainability
Roundtables for sustainable beef have evolved in national contexts as well as at the global level as a multi-stakeholder process to address sustainability concerns in the cattle sector. However, due to their relatively recent inception, the literature on the beef roundtables is extremely limited and very little scholarly work has traced their process or impact. We used semi-structured interviews with key informants to examine the governance, actions, and potential impacts of the roundtables for sustainable beef, and identified opportunities and challenges for achieving greater sustainability impact. We found that the beef roundtables are in different stages of development and implementation and that they have diverse approaches based on their geographic contexts. However, they have universally adopted a model of sector-wide continuous improvement, in contrast to roundtables for other commodities, which have in many cases adopted formal certification programs. Activities by the roundtables for sustainable beef have variously included working towards definitions of sustainable beef; setting sustainability principles and criteria; and creating working groups to address specific aspects of sustainability (e.g., verification, deforestation). Our interviews identified opportunities to expand the roundtables’ roles, activities, and sustainability impacts. This study provides a benchmark of the roundtables’ efforts to date, and generates hypotheses and ideas for how they could evolve in the future.
Genetic covariance components within and among linear type traits differ among contrasting beef cattle breeds
Doyle, Jennifer L. ; Berry, Donagh P. ; Walsh, Siobhan W. ; Veerkamp, Roel F. ; Evans, Ross D. ; Carthy, Tara R. - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Science 96 (2018)5. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1628 - 1639.
Beef - Breeds - Cattle - Type traits
Linear type traits describing the skeletal, muscular, and functional characteristics of an animal are routinely scored on live animals in both the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic parameters for certain performance traits may differ between breeds; no study, however, has attempted to determine if differences exist in genetic parameters of linear type traits among breeds or sexes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if genetic covariance components for linear type traits differed among five contrasting cattle breeds, and to also investigate if these components differed by sex. A total of 18 linear type traits scored on 3,356 Angus (AA), 31,049 Charolais (CH), 3,004 Hereford (HE), 35,159 Limousin (LM), and 8,632 Simmental (SI) were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed using animal linear mixed models which included the fixed effects of sex of the animal (except in the investigation into the presence of sexual dimorphism), age at scoring, parity of the dam, and contemporary group of herd-date of scoring. Differences (P < 0.05) in heritability estimates, between at least two breeds, existed for 13 out of 18 linear type traits. Differences (P < 0.05) also existed between the pairwise within-breed genetic correlations among the linear type traits. Overall, the linear type traits in the continental breeds (i.e., CH, LM, SI) tended to have similar heritability estimates to each other as well as similar genetic correlations among the same pairwise traits, as did the traits in the British breeds (i.e., AA, HE). The correlation between a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the CH breed with a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the other breeds was estimated. Replacing the genetic covariance components estimated in the CH breed with those of the LM had least effect but the impact was considerable when the genetic covariance components of the AA were used. Genetic correlations between the same linear type traits in the two sexes were all close to unity (≥0.90) suggesting little advantage in considering these as separate traits for males and females. Results for the present study indicate the potential increase in accuracy of estimated breeding value prediction from considering, at least, the British breed traits separate to continental breed traits.
Effectiveness of climate change mitigation options considering the amount of meat produced in dairy systems
Vellinga, T.V. ; Vries, M. de - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 162 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 136 - 144.
Beef - Dairy - Greenhouse gas - Milk - Mitigation
Many of the climate change mitigation options for dairy systems that aim at optimizing milk production imply a reduced output of meat from these systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a number of mitigation strategies for dairy systems, taking into account compensation for changes in the amount of beef produced. Four commonly used mitigation strategies for dairy systems were evaluated using an LCA modelling approach: increasing the milk production per cow, extending the productive life span of cows, increasing the calving interval, and changing breed from Holstein Friesian to Jersey. The Dutch dairy system was taken as a case study. For each scenario, analyses were done in two steps. First, effects of the mitigation strategy on production of milk and carcass weight from the dairy system were calculated. Second, GHG emission intensities were calculated for three different functional units (FU): one kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), one kg of carcass weight (CW), and a fixed amount of milk and beef (i.e. 1 kg FPCM and 40 g CW). In the third FU, in case the amount of CW produced by the dairy system was lower than 40 g per kg FPCM, the remainder was compensated by CW produced in pure beef systems, assuming a GHG emission intensity of 30 kg CO 2 -eq. per kg CW for pure beef. Results showed a reduction in CW per kg FPCM from the dairy system in all four mitigation strategies. Considering GHG emissions per kg of FPCM only, the strategies reduced emissions by 0.2 to 18.1%. When considering emissions per kg of CW only, emissions were reduced by 12.5 to 48.9%. However, when we used a FU of 1 kg FPCM and 40 g CW, changes in emissions ranged from −0.2 to 3.8%. This was caused by the compensation of the lower CW production from dairy systems by CW from pure beef systems. Differences in emissions per kg FPCM and 40 g CW were smaller when the assumed emission intensity of pure beef was lower. We concluded that the mitigation strategies for dairy systems evaluated in this study were less effective for reduction of GHG emissions from production of milk and beef, when accounting for changes in the amount of beef produced. This study showed that the challenge of reducing GHG emissions of milk and beef production is interrelated. Hence, analyses of GHG emissions related to changes in production of milk and beef requires an integrated approach, beyond the system boundaries of the dairy farm.
Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157 in beef at butcher shops and restaurants in central Ethiopia
Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa ; Fite, Akafete Teklu ; Tora, Ephrem ; Tafese, Asdesach ; Genu, Tadele ; Kaba, Tamirat ; Beyene, Tariku J. ; Beyene, Takele ; Korsa, Mesula Geloye ; Tadesse, Fanos ; Zutter, Lieven De; Goddeeris, Bruno M. ; Cox, Eric - \ 2017
BMC Microbiology 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1471-2180
Antimicrobial susceptibility - Beef - Butcher shops - Escherichia coli O157 - Minced beef - Restaurants
Background: Ethiopia bears the largest burden of foodborne diseases in Africa, and diarrheal diseases are the second leading causes of premature deaths. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 causes an asymptomatic infection to severe diarrhea and/or hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. Methods: A total of 440 beef carcass and in-contact surface swabs from 55 butcher shops and 85 minced beef samples from 40 restaurants in central Ethiopia were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli O157. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate and identify E. coli O157 and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Results: E. coli O157 was detected in 4.5% carcass swabs (n = 5) and 3.6% cutting board swabs (n = 4) samples from butcher shops. E. coli O157 was not detected in any of the minced beef samples obtained from restaurants. All isolates (n = 9) were 100% susceptible to five drugs, but five isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, two isolates to streptomycin and three isolates to chloramphenicol. One isolate was resistant to two drugs and another to three drugs. Conclusions: The present study shows a low prevalence of E. coli O157 in beef sold at butcher shops. Nevertheless, given the low infective dose of this pathogen and the deep-rooted tradition of consuming raw or undercooked beef, the current prevalence should not be considered lightly from a public health perspective.
Designing sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply chains in Brazil
Dondè, Giulia ; Trienekens, Jacques ; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline - \ 2016
International Journal on Food System Dynamics 7 (2016)4. - ISSN 1869-6945 - p. 271 - 291.
Beef - Brazil, scenario development - Pork - Supply chain - Supply chain management - Sustainability
Due to the intensive use of natural resources in food production in Brazil and the consequent air and water pollution, sustainable production is high on the agenda of businesses and policy makers. This paper designs sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply chains in Brazil, covering Planet, People and Profit aspects. A case study design is employed in a multi-phase qualitative approach, consisting of two rounds of interviews to pursue the final design of six feasible scenarios for the beef and pork chains. Three sustainable production and distribution scenarios for beef are designed: intensification, local production and sustainable operations and integrated land use, and three for pork: integration of animal and crop production, sophistication and balanced sustainability. The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.
Organic Meat Operations in the United States
O'bryan, Corliss A. ; Loo, Ellen J. Van; Ricke, Steven C. ; Crandall, Philip G. - \ 2012
In: Organic Meat Production and Processing / Ricke, Steven C., Van Loo, Ellen J., Johnson, Michael G., O'Bryan, Corliss A., Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9780813821269 - p. 11 - 21.
Beef - Organic meat - Pork - Poultry - US meat production
Sales of organic meat in the United States have increased more than tenfold in the past 5 years. Consumers concerned about mad cow disease and other health concerns are demanding more organic, natural, and grain-fed alternatives to conventional beef, pork, poultry, and other protein products.