Use of semiochemicals for surveillance and control of hematophagous insects
Mweresa, Collins K. ; Mukabana, W.R. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. ; Takken, W. - \ 2020
Chemoecology (2020). - ISSN 0937-7409
Attraction - Behavior - Flies - Kairomones - Monitoring - Mosquitoes - Repellence - Semiochemicals
Reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides and chemotherapeutic agents to control hematophagous insect vectors, and their related diseases is threatened by increasing insecticide and drug resistance, respectively. Thus, development of novel, alternative, complementary and effective technologies for surveillance and control of such insects is strongly encouraged. Semiochemicals are increasingly developed for monitoring and intervention of insect crop pests, but this has not been adequately addressed for hematophagous insects of medical and veterinary importance. This review provides an insight in the application of semiochemicals for control of hematophagous insects. Here, we provide specific information regarding the isolation and identification of semiochemical compounds, optimization approaches, detection, perception and discrimination by the insect olfactory system. Navigation of insects along wind-borne odor plumes is discussed and methods of odor application in field situations are reviewed. Finally, we discuss prospects and future challenges for the application of semiochemical-based tools with emphasis on mosquitoes. The acquired knowledge can guide development of more effective components of integrated vector management, safeguard against emerging resistance of insects to existing insecticides and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases.
Chemical Mediation of Oviposition by Anopheles Mosquitoes : a Push-Pull System Driven by Volatiles Associated with Larval Stages
Schoelitsz, Bruce ; Mwingira, Victor ; Mboera, Leonard E.G. ; Beijleveld, Hans ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Spitzen, Jeroen ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Takken, Willem - \ 2020
Journal of Chemical Ecology 46 (2020)4. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 397 - 409.
2,4-pentanedione - An. gambiae s.s - Anopheles coluzzii - Behavior - Dimethyldisulfide - Dimethyltrisulfide - Malaria - Mosquito - Nonane - Oviposition
The oviposition behavior of mosquitoes is mediated by chemical cues. In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, conspecific larvae produce infochemicals that affect this behavior. Emanations from first instar larvae proved strongly attractive to gravid females, while those from fourth instars caused oviposition deterrence, suggesting that larval developmental stage affected the oviposition choice of the female mosquito. We examined the nature of these chemicals by headspace collection of emanations of water in which larvae of different stages were developing. Four chemicals with putative effects on oviposition behavior were identified: dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) and dimethyltrisulfide (DMTS) were identified in emanations from water containing fourth instars; nonane and 2,4-pentanedione (2,4-PD) were identified in emanations from water containing both first and fourth instars. Dual-choice oviposition studies with these compounds were done in the laboratory and in semi-field experiments in Tanzania. In the laboratory, DMDS and DMTS were associated with oviposition-deterrent effects, while results with nonane and 2,4-PD were inconclusive. In further studies DMDS and DMTS evoked egg retention, while with nonane and 2,4-PD 88% and 100% of female mosquitoes, respectively, laid eggs. In dual-choice semi-field trials DMDS and DMTS caused oviposition deterrence, while nonane and 2,4-PD evoked attraction, inducing females to lay more eggs in bowls containing these compounds compared to the controls. We conclude that oviposition of An. gambiae is mediated by these four infochemicals associated with conspecific larvae, eliciting either attraction or deterrence. High levels of egg retention occurred when females were exposed to chemicals associated with fourth instar larvae.
Gut microbiota from persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects the brain in mice
Tengeler, Anouk C. ; Dam, Sarita A. ; Wiesmann, Maximilian ; Naaijen, Jilly ; Bodegom, Miranda Van; Belzer, Clara ; Dederen, Pieter J. ; Verweij, Vivienne ; Franke, Barbara ; Kozicz, Tamas ; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro ; Kiliaan, Amanda J. - \ 2020
Microbiome 8 (2020)1. - ISSN 2049-2618
ADHD - Behavior - DTI - Functional connectivity - Gray and white matter integrity - Microbiota - rs-fMRI
Background: The impact of the gut microbiota on host physiology and behavior has been relatively well established. Whether changes in microbial composition affect brain structure and function is largely elusive, however. This is important as altered brain structure and function have been implicated in various neurodevelopmental disorders, like attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that gut microbiota of persons with and without ADHD, when transplanted into mice, would differentially modify brain function and/or structure. We investigated this by colonizing young, male, germ-free C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice with microbiota from individuals with and without ADHD. We generated and analyzed microbiome data, assessed brain structure and function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and studied mouse behavior in a behavioral test battery. Results: Principal coordinate analysis showed a clear separation of fecal microbiota of mice colonized with ADHD and control microbiota. With diffusion tensor imaging, we observed a decreased structural integrity of both white and gray matter regions (i.e., internal capsule, hippocampus) in mice that were colonized with ADHD microbiota. We also found significant correlations between white matter integrity and the differentially expressed microbiota. Mice colonized with ADHD microbiota additionally showed decreased resting-state functional MRI-based connectivity between right motor and right visual cortices. These regions, as well as the hippocampus and internal capsule, have previously been reported to be altered in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, we also show that mice colonized with ADHD microbiota were more anxious in the open-field test. Conclusions: Taken together, we demonstrate that altered microbial composition could be a driver of altered brain structure and function and concomitant changes in the animals' behavior. These findings may help to understand the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota contributes to the pathobiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. [MediaObject not available: See fulltext.]
Dystrophin is required for normal synaptic gain in the Drosophila olfactory circuit
Jantrapirom, Salinee ; Cao, De Shou ; Wang, Jing W. ; Hing, Huey ; Tabone, Christopher J. ; Lantz, Kathryn ; Belle, J.S. de; Qiu, Yu Tong ; Smid, Hans M. ; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu ; Fradkin, Lee G. ; Noordermeer, Jasprina N. ; Potikanond, Saranyapin - \ 2019
Brain Research 1712 (2019). - ISSN 0006-8993 - p. 158 - 166.
Antennal lobe - Behavior - Drosophila melanogaster - Dystrophin - Olfaction - Olfactory receptor neurons - Projection neurons
The Drosophila olfactory system provides an excellent model to elucidate the neural circuits that control behaviors elicited by environmental stimuli. Despite significant progress in defining olfactory circuit components and their connectivity, little is known about the mechanisms that transfer the information from the primary antennal olfactory receptor neurons to the higher order brain centers. Here, we show that the Dystrophin Dp186 isoform is required in the olfactory system circuit for olfactory functions. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we found the reduction of calcium influx in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and also the defect of GABA A mediated inhibitory input in the projection neurons (PNs) in Dp186 mutation. Moreover, the Dp186 mutant flies which display a decreased odor avoidance behavior were rescued by Dp186 restoration in the Drosophila olfactory neurons in either the presynaptic ORNs or the postsynaptic PNs. Therefore, these results revealed a role for Dystrophin, Dp 186 isoform in gain control of the olfactory synapse via the modulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to olfactory projection neurons.
Understanding preferences for interventions to reduce microbiological contamination in Dutch vegetable production
Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. Van; Malaguti, L. ; Breukers, M.L.H. ; Fels, H.J. van der - \ 2018
Journal of Food Protection 81 (2018)6. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 892 - 897.
Behavior - Fresh produce - Incentive - Microbiology - Pathogen
Understanding growers' preferences regarding interventions to improve the microbiological safety of their produce could help to design more effective strategies for the adoption of such food safety measures by growers. The objective of this survey study was to obtain insights for the design of interventions that could stimulate growers to increase the frequency of irrigation water sampling and water testing to reduce possible microbiological contamination of their fresh produce. The results showed that price intervention, referring to making the intervention less costly by reducing the price via discounts, is the most effective strategy to change growers' intentions to increase their frequency of irrigation water testing. Moreover, a sense of urgency affects their intentions to increase the frequency of irrigation water testing. The findings of this survey support the hypothesis that, to date, safety is not perceived as a quality control issue under normal circumstances, but safety becomes an overriding attribute in a food crisis.
Impact of Skin Microbiome on Attractiveness to Arthropod Vectors and Pathogen Transmission
Verhulst, Niels O. ; Boulanger, Nathalie ; Spitzen, Jeroen - \ 2018
In: Skin and Arthropod Vectors / Boulanger, Nathalie, London : Academic Press Elsevier - ISBN 9780128114360 - p. 55 - 81.
Attractant - Behavior - Host finding - Host preference - Odors - Olfaction - Olfactometer - Repellent - Skin microbiota
Many hematophagous arthropods are vectors of diseases. They find their host using a range of cues, of which carbon dioxide is often crucial. Especially for arthropods that have a specific host preference, skin volatiles play an important role when they search for their host. By volatile collection followed by gas chromatography, hundreds of skin volatiles can be identified of which a large subset is produced by skin bacteria. The olfactory response of the arthropod to these compounds can be evaluated with electroantennograms, in olfactometers and (semi-)field settings. The identification and evaluation of these compounds has led to the development of novel attractants or repellents and can be used in vector monitoring and intervention programs. More recently, the skin microbiome has been shown to play a role in the attractiveness of a host to arthropods by the metabolome released by resident skin bacteria. The microbiota might also be important on the direct transmission of pathogens by arthropods at the skin interface. This second aspect is largely unexplored.
Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationship in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to playbacks of pile driving sounds
Kastelein, Ronald A. ; Jennings, Nancy ; Kommeren, Aimée ; Helder-Hoek, Lean ; Schop, Jessica - \ 2017
Marine Environmental Research 130 (2017). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 315 - 324.
Acoustics - Behavior - Marine fish - Offshore industry - Pile driving - Sea bass - Startle response - Wind park
The foundations of offshore wind turbines are attached to the sea bed by percussion pile driving. Pile driving sounds may affect the behavior of fish. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationships were determined for sea bass in a pool exposed for 20 min to pile driving sounds at seven mean received root-mean-square sound pressure levels [SPLrms; range: 130-166 dB re 1 μPa; single strike sound exposure level (SELss) range: 122-158; 6 dB steps]. Initial responses (sudden, short-lived changes in swimming speed and direction) and sustained responses (changes in school cohesion, swimming depth, and speed) were quantified. The 50% initial response threshold occurred at an SELss of 131 dB re 1 μPa2 s for 31 cm fish and 141 dB re 1 μPa2 s for 44 cm fish; the small fish thus reacted to lower SELss than the large fish. Analysis showed that there is no evidence, even at the highest sound level, for any consistent sustained response to sound exposure by the study animals. If wild sea bass are exposed to pile driving sounds at the levels used in the present study, there are unlikely to be any adverse effects on their ecology, because the initial responses after the onset of the piling sound observed in this study were short-lived.
Oviposition but not sex allocation is associated with transcriptomic changes in females of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis
Cook, Nicola ; Trivedi, Urmi ; Pannebakker, B.A. ; Blaxter, Mark ; Ritchie, Michael G. ; Tauber, Eran ; Sneddon, Tanya ; Shuker, David M. - \ 2015
G3 : Genes Genomes Genetics 5 (2015)12. - ISSN 2160-1836 - p. 2885 - 2892.
Behavior - Competition - Gene expression - Local mate - Sex allocation - Transcriptomics
Linking the evolution of the phenotype to the underlying genotype is a key aim of evolutionary genetics and is crucial to our understanding of how natural selection shapes a trait. Here, we consider the genetic basis of sex allocation behavior in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis using a transcriptomics approach. Females allocate offspring sex in line with the local mate competition (LMC) theory. Female-biased sex ratios are produced when one or a few females lay eggs on a patch. As the number of females contributing offspring to a patch increases, less female-biased sex ratios are favored. We contrasted the transcriptomic responses of females as they oviposit under conditions known to influence sex allocation: foundress number (a social cue) and the state of the host (parasitized or not). We found that when females encounter other females on a patch or assess host quality with their ovipositors, the resulting changes in sex allocation is not associated with significant changes in whole-body gene expression. We also found that the gene expression changes produced by females as they facultatively allocate sex in response to a host cue and a social cue are very closely correlated. We expanded the list of candidate genes associated with oviposition behavior in Nasonia, some of which may be involved in fundamental processes underlying the ability to facultatively allocate sex, including sperm storage and utilization.
Smelly primes - when olfactory primes do or do not work
Smeets, M.A.M. ; Dijksterhuis, G.B. - \ 2014
Frontiers in Psychology 5 (2014)FEB. - ISSN 1664-1078
Behavior - Cognition and emotion - Olfaction - Priming - Valence
In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human) behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming.
Disaster culture matters
Warner, Jeroen ; Engel, Karen - \ 2014
Ambiente & Sociedade 17 (2014)4. - ISSN 1414-753X
Behavior - Disaster culture - Resilience - Risk and hazards
The present contribution argues for increasing prioritization of the social, recognition of culture, and promotion of a disaster culture that promotes social resilience in the face of hazards. The current global trend has been to make vital infrastructure more resilient. But behavior is more difficult to control and communities continue to inhabit and settle in inherently hazardous areas. This short text shows how relevant it is to understand the logics underlying people's behavior, social and cultural aspects. In fact, promoting a culture of resilience can help prevent unnecessary victims and loss. For this, culture should not be seen as a hindrance, but as a pool of resources.
Data from: Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
Muir, W.M. ; Bijma, Piter ; Schinckel, A. - \ 2013
competition - Selection - Group/Kin - Behavior - Coturnix japonica - quantitative genetics
An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups.
|Effects of intra-hippocampal D-AP5 injections on one trial passive avoidance learning in adult laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Krause, E.T. ; Naguib, Marc ; Petow, Stefanie - \ 2008
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 68 (2008)4. - ISSN 0065-1400 - p. 494 - 501.
APV - Behavior - Chickens - Hippocampus - Long-term memory - Passive avoidance - Step down avoidance learning inhibition
Domestic chickens are an established model organism for studies on learning and memory. Commonly, the chicks are used as subjects in several different learning tests, including one trial learning tests. However, for adult laying hens no such one trial learning tests have been established. In particular, there is no test established which focuses on the role of the hippocampus, a brain region, which is often critically involved in learning and memory consolidation. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of intra-hippocampal D-AP5 injections on a specific one trial passive avoidance learning test in adult laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We used a step down avoidance learning paradigm (SDA) which is frequently used in rodents. Intra-hippocampal injections of D-AP5 impaired the learning abilities of adult laying hens compared to sham-injected control subjects. Thus, the experiments revealed that the hippocampus is critically involved in learning the inhibitory SDA task. Our results further indicate that the step down avoidance paradigm is suitable to examine learning and memory processes in adult laying hens.