Assessing heavy metal pollution by biomonitoring honeybee nectar in Córdoba (Spain)
Gutiérrez, Miriam ; Molero, Rafael ; Gaju, Miquel ; Steen, Josef van der; Porrini, Claudio ; Ruiz, José Antonio - \ 2020
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27 (2020). - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 10436 - 10448.
Bioindication - Biomonitoring - Heavy metals - Honeybee - Nectar - Pollution
Nectar of honeybee colonies has been used in order to identify heavy metals and establish the benefit of this type of studies as a tool for environmental management. For these goals, samples of nectar were obtained from Apis mellifera hives placed in the city of Córdoba (Spain) and its surroundings. Five stations (each with two hives) were selected and samples were collected from May to July of 2007, 2009 and 2010. Concentrations of Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd in nectar were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Substantial spatial and temporal differences were detected and compared with the values found in bee bodies in a previously published study based on samples obtained simultaneously with those presented in this work. Upper reference thresholds established for this investigation were surpassed frequently by the measures obtained, being Cr (21.43% of samples), stations S3 (22.22%) and S4 (11.12%) year 2009 (22.22%) and the month of July (23.68%) the metal, the locations and the periods that exceeded more times these references. Regarding the Cd, which was studied only in 2010, 33.33% of the nectar samples exceeded the upper reference thresholds. Comparing the biomonitoring of bee bodies and nectar, some coincidences were found, although they showed different results for highest worrisome values of metal, station and year. This suggests that both methods can give complementary information in the surveillance systems of atmospheric pollution.
Hair as a matrix to evaluate cumulative and aggregate exposure to pesticides in winegrowers
Polledri, E. ; Mercadante, R. ; Nijssen, R. ; Consonni, D. ; Mol, H. ; Fustinoni, S. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 687 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 808 - 816.
Agricultural workers - Biomonitoring - General population - Hair - Pesticides
Introduction: Vineyard is a crop where a large number of pesticides are applied; exposure to pesticides may occur in farmers and the general population living close to the treated area. This work aimed to investigate hair as a matrix for the assessment of cumulative and aggregate exposure to pesticides in potentially exposed individuals. Methods: Twenty agricultural workers (AW), 4 agricultural worker relatives (AR), and 5 research staff members (RS) were involved in the study. Hair samples were collected before and after the application season (PRE- and POST-EXP samples) to obtain 18 paired samples. Records with the name and the quantity of applied pesticides were obtained; twenty-seven pesticides were measured in hair by solvent extraction and LC-MS/MS. Results: During the study season, AW applied 14 different pesticides with median amount ranging from 12 to 7200 g. The most popular pesticides were dimethomorph, penconazole, cyazofamid, fenamidone and quinoxyfen, applied from 94 to 69% of AW. In AW, in PRE-EXP samples the majority of used pesticides was detectable (with detection rates from 6 to 88%), with median concentrations of few pg/mg hair; in the POST-EXP samples the frequency of detected values increased (from 25 to 100%), with median concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher. In AR, most pesticides were quantifiable only in POST-EXP samples and with lower concentration in comparison with AW; in RS, in both PRE- and POST-EXP samples only a few pesticides were quantifiable with very low levels. In AW, a linear correlation (r = 0.682 on log-transformed data, p < 0.01) was found between the total amounts of applied pesticides during the season and their concentration in hair. Conclusion: The study shows that the majority of assessed pesticides was incorporated into hair of AW and AR. The increased frequency of detection and level at the end of the season and the correlation between pesticide in hair and the amount of applied pesticides, reinforce the use of hair for quantitative biomonitoring of cumulative exposure to pesticides.
|Biomonitoring of fluoride pollution with gladiolus in the vicinity of a brick kiln field in Lahore, Pakistan
Ullah, Kifayat ; Saeed Ahmad, S. ; Nauman Ahmad, M. ; Khan, Sardar ; Urooj, Rabail ; Shahid Iqbal, M. ; Zia, Afia ; Ahmad Khan, N. - \ 2016
Fluoride 49 (2016)3. - ISSN 0015-4725 - p. 245 - 252.
Biomonitoring - Brick kilns - Fluoride - Gladiolus - Pakistan - South Asia
Although there are thousands of small-scale, poorly regulated brick kilns in rural areas of South Asia their impact on local agricultural crops is largely unknown. The impact of fluoride on crops in a brick kiln area in the Northern Punjab Region of Pakistan was investigated. Fluoride accumulation, leaf necrosis, and reduced corm diameter and weight were found in the brick kiln area in two cultivars of Gladiolus that have been widely used as biomonitors in Europe. The rate of increase in leaf injury of the sensitive Gladiolus cultivar was greatest at all sites when the temperature was lower and there was a high relative humidity of 60–75%. The necrotic leaf tip lengths of the indicator plants correlated very well with their fluoride concentrations. The fluoride accumulation was directly proportional to the Fluoride Injury Index, although a higher injury index was observed with the fluoride-sensitive cultivar Lavendell Puff compared to the fluoride-tolerant cultivar Flower Song. These results suggest that injury to sensitive crops from fluoride may occur in other brick kiln areas in South Asia, and that Gladiolus plants could be used as a cost-effective biomonitor for further investigation in this region.
Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee
Gutiérrez, Miriam ; Molero, Rafael ; Gaju, Miquel ; Steen, Sjef van der; Porrini, Claudio ; Ruiz, José Antonio - \ 2015
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187 (2015)10. - ISSN 0167-6369 - 15 p.
Bioindication - Biomonitoring - Heavy metals - Honeybee - Pollution
Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management. Five stations each with two A. mellifera hives were strategically located in urban, industrial, agricultural and forested areas within the municipality of Córdoba (Spain), and foraging bees were collected from April to December in 2007, 2009 and 2010 to analyse spatial and temporal variation in Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd pollution. Metal concentrations, in milligram per kilogram of honeybee, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences in concentrations were found among the various locations and periods. The highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds proposed for this study (Pb, 0.7 mg/kg; Cr, 0.12 mg/kg; Ni, 0.3 mg/kg; and Cd, 0.1 mg/kg) was observed for Pb and Cr (6.25% respectively), station S4 (13.22%), year 2007 (20.83%) and in months of May and July (11.90% each). Regarding the Cd, which was analysed only in 2010, the highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds was 40%. Biomonitoring with colonies of A. mellifera could contribute to improved surveillance and control systems for atmospheric pollution by integrating qualitative and quantitative assessments, thus facilitating prevention and readiness in the event of environmental crises.