- Bastiaan G. Meerburg (1)
- Henk Hogeveen (2)
- Peter Horne van (1)
- Dikky Indrawan (1)
- Ludwig Lauwers (1)
- Karl M. Rich (1)
- François Mayer (1)
- Roel P.J. Potting (1)
- Merel Postma (1)
- Ludovic Rigaux (1)
- Cristina Rojo-Gimeno (1)
- Bruce Schoelitsz (1)
- Erwin Wauters (1)
Biosecurity : Methods to reduce contact risks between vectors and livestock
Meerburg, Bastiaan G. ; Schoelitsz, Bruce - \ 2018
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases ) - ISBN 9789086863150 - p. 453 - 464.
Biosecurity - Framework - Livestock - Pest management - Pests
In order to prevent direct contact between livestock and pest animals and thus decrease the risk of pathogen transmission, the implementation of preventive or sometimes even curative measures is required. The concept of biosecurity refers to implementation of such measures, but it is difficult to quantify the results as the situation between farms may vary substantially. In this chapter we investigate the position of biosecurity and the evolution of this concept, especially in relation to pest management. We stress the need for such a strategy not only because of the potential transmission of (zoonotic) pathogens to livestock, which can have significant consequences for livestock health and the food chain, but also because of structural damage to buildings and crops. As there are large differences in both farm conditions and between vectors, implementation of a pest management strategy can come with serious difficulties. Thus, we present a generic framework that helps to develop a more tailor-made approach for a pest management strategy on farms, which will hopefully contribute to more effective interventions.
Linking supply chain governance and biosecurity in the context of HPAI control in western java : A value chain perspective
Indrawan, Dikky ; Rich, Karl M. ; Horne, Peter van; Daryanto, Arief ; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2018
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5 (2018). - ISSN 2297-1769
Biosecurity - Chain governance - Diversity of transactions - HPAI - Transaction cost economics - Value chain analysis
Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA), focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain. During the research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key value-chain stakeholders, and the economic performance of identified actors was estimated. Results indicated the co-existence of four different poultry value chains in West Java: the integrator chain, the semi-automated slaughterhouse chain, the controlled slaughter-point chain, and the private slaughter-point chain. The integrator chain was characterized by the highest levels of coordination and a tight, hierarchical governance. In contrast, the other three types of value chains were less coordinated. The market power of the different actors within the four value chains also differed. In more integrated chains, slaughterhouses held considerable market power, while in more informal value chains, market power was in the hands of traders. The economic effects of HPAI and biosecurity measures also varied for the identified actors in the different value chains. Implementation of biosecurity and HPAI control measures was strongly related to the governance structure of the chain, with interactions between different chains and governance structures accentuating the risk of HPAI. Our findings highlight that a proper understanding of the chain governance structure is vital to improve the effectiveness of HPAI control measures, by making the interventions more specific and fit-for-purpose given the incentive structures present in different chains.
A risk categorisation and analysis of the geographic and temporal dynamics of the European import of plants for planting
Eschen, René ; Douma, Bob ; Grégoire, Jean Claude ; Mayer, François ; Rigaux, Ludovic ; Potting, Roel P.J. - \ 2017
Biological Invasions 19 (2017)11. - ISSN 1387-3547 - p. 3243 - 3257.
Biosecurity - Harmful organisms - International trade - Pathway risk analysis - Plants for planting - Prioritisation
The international trade in plants for planting (P4Ps) is a major pathway for the introduction of plant pests. The global trade in P4Ps is both voluminous and highly diverse, but there is little detailed knowledge about its diversity and dynamics. This makes it difficult to assess the risks associated with this trade and to prioritise high-risk commodities (genus-origin combinations) for detailed inspection or regulation. Using the ISEFOR database, this paper describes the diversity and dynamics of P4P imports into the EU, based on genus-level data for lots imported into fourteen Member States that provided this data for different periods between 2005 and 2014, totalling over 30Bn plants and over 7500 commodities. There was great variety, as well as complementarity, in terms of the imported genera, origins and commodities among the countries. Two-thirds of the imported commodities changed every year. Based on the 10-year data from the Netherlands, the greatest importer of live plants in the dataset, we developed a risk categorisation approach for prioritising the highest risk commodities, based on risk associated information concerning the imported genus and the history of trade with respect to the exporting countries, genera and type of plant material traded. Application of this risk categorisation led to the identification of a modest number of commodities that represent elevated risk, to which more inspection resources can be allocated while lower-risk commodities could be subject to less-intensive phytosanitary inspections.
Farm-economic analysis of reducing antimicrobial use whilst adopting improved management strategies on farrow-to-finish pig farms
Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina ; Postma, Merel ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Hogeveen, Henk ; Lauwers, Ludwig ; Wauters, Erwin - \ 2016
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 129 (2016). - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 74 - 87.
Antimicrobial usage - Biosecurity - Farm-economic analysis - Farrow-to-finish pig farms - Longitudinal design - Propensity score matching
Due to increasing public health concerns that food animals could be reservoirs for antibiotic resistant organisms, calls for reduced current antibiotic use on farms are growing. Nevertheless, it is challenging for farmers to perform this reduction without negatively affecting technical and economic performance. As an alternative, improved management practices based on biosecurity and vaccinations have been proven useful to reduce antimicrobial use without lowering productivity, but issues with insufficient experimental design possibilities have hindered economic analysis. In the present study a quasi-experimental approach was used for assessing the economic impact of reduction of antimicrobial use coupled with improved management strategies, particularly biosecurity strategies. The research was performed on farrow-to-finish pig farms in Flanders (northern region of Belgium). First, to account for technological progress and to avoid selection bias, propensity score analysis was used to compare data on technical parameters. The treatment group (n = 48) participated in an intervention study whose aim was to improve management practices to reduce the need for use of antimicrobials. Before and after the change in management, data were collected on the technical parameters, biosecurity status, antimicrobial use, and vaccinations. Treated farms were matched without replacement with control farms (n = 69), obtained from the Farm Accountancy Data Network, to estimate the difference in differences (DID) of the technical parameters. Second, the technical parameters' DID, together with the estimated costs of the management intervention and the price volatility of the feed, meat of the finisher pigs, and piglets served as a basis for modelling the profit of 11 virtual farrow-to-finish pig farms representative of the Flemish sector. Costs incurred by new biosecurity measures (median +€3.96/sow/year), and new vaccinations (median €0.00/sow/year) did not exceed the cost reduction achieved by lowering the use of antimicrobials (median -€7.68/sow/year). No negative effect on technical parameters was observed and mortality of the finishers was significantly reduced by -1.1%. Even after a substantial reduction of the antimicrobial treatments, the difference of the enterprise profit increased by +€2.67/finisher pig/year after implementing the interventions. This result proved to be robust after stochastic modelling of input and output price volatility. The results of this study can be used by veterinarians and other stakeholders to incentivise managers of farrow-to-finish operations to use biosecurity practices as a cost-effective way to reduce antimicrobial use.