A Lowly Digestible-Starch Diet after Weaning Enhances Exogenous Glucose Oxidation Rate in Female, but Not in Male, Mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Billecke, Nils ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
13C-starch - amylase - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - glucose oxidation - glycaemic index - indirect calorimetry
Starches of low digestibility are associated with improved glucose metabolism. We hypothesise that a lowly digestible-starch diet (LDD) versus a highly digestible-starch diet (HDD) improves the capacity to oxidise starch, and that this is sex-dependent. Mice were fed a LDD or a HDD for 3 weeks directly after weaning. Body weight (BW), body composition (BC), and digestible energy intake (dEI) were determined weekly. At the end of the intervention period, whole-body energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), hydrogen production, and the oxidation of an oral 13C-labelled starch bolus were measured by extended indirect calorimetry. Pancreatic amylase activity and total 13C hepatic enrichment were determined in females immediately before and 4 h after administration of the starch bolus. For both sexes, BW, BC, and basal EE and RER were not affected by the type of starch, but dEI and hydrogen production were increased by the LDD. Only in females, total carbohydrate oxidation and starch-derived glucose oxidation in response to the starch bolus were higher in LDD versus HDD mice; this was not accompanied by differences in amylase activity or hepatic partitioning of the 13C label. These results show that starch digestibility impacts glucose metabolism differently in females versus males.
Direct and Long-Term Metabolic Consequences of Lowly vs. Highly-Digestible Starch in the Early Post-Weaning Diet of Mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2072-6643
adipose tissue - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - carbohydrates - glycemic index - indirect calorimetry - metabolic flexibility - nutrition - sexual dimorphism
Starches of low and high digestibility have different metabolic effects. Here, we examined whether this gives differential metabolic programming when fed in the immediate post-weaning period. Chow-fed mice were time-mated, and their nests were standardized and cross-fostered at postnatal days 1⁻2. After postnatal week (PW) 3, individually housed female and male offspring were switched to a lowly-digestible (LDD) or highly-digestible starch diet (HDD) for three weeks. All of the mice received the same high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks thereafter. Energy and substrate metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation were studied at the end of the HDD/LDD and HFD periods by extended indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance (PW 11) and metabolic flexibility (PW14) were analyzed. Directly in response to the LDD versus the HDD, females showed smaller adipocytes with less crown-like structures in gonadal white adipose tissue, while males had a lower fat mass and higher whole body fat oxidation levels. Both LDD-fed females and males showed an enlarged intestinal tract. Although most of the phenotypical differences disappeared in adulthood in both sexes, females exposed to LDD versus HDD in the early post-weaning period showed improved metabolic flexibility in adulthood. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the type of starch introduced after weaning could, at least in females, program later-life health.