Calcium promotes formation of large colonies of the cyanobacterium Microcystis by enhancing cell-adhesion
Chen, Huaimin ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2020
Harmful Algae 92 (2020). - ISSN 1568-9883
Ca - Cell adhesion - Colony formation - Colony morphology - Microcystis
Large Microcystis colonies can lead to the rapid formation of surface accumulations, which are a globally significant environmental issue. Laboratory studies have shown that Ca2+ can quickly promote non-classical Microcystis colony formation via cell-adhesion, but our knowledge of the changes in the morphology of these colonies during subsequent long-term culture with Ca2+ is limited. In this study, a 72-day cultivation experiment was conducted to determine the long-term effects of Ca2+ on Microcystis colony formation. Laboratory results indicate that Ca2+ causes Microcystis to rapidly aggregate and form a colony through cell adhesion, then colony formation by cell-adhesion lost dominance, owing to the decrease in Ca2+ concentrations caused by precipitation/complexation. Although the initial colony morphology by cell adhesion is sparse, the newly divided cells, without separating from the mother cells, constantly fill the gaps in the original colony at Ca2+ concentrations >40 mg L−1 for a long time, which creates colonies on day 72 with a morphology similar to that of M. ichthyoblabe in Lake Taihu. If the Ca2+ levels in Lake Taihu continue to increase, Microcystis growth rate will decrease only slightly, while the colony proportion of total biovolume and biomass will increase. Moreover, higher Ca2+ concentrations do not affect microcystin content, but promote the content of bound extracellular polysaccharides (bEPS), enabling formation of larger colonies, which may promote Microcystis surface accumulation.
Calcium effect on microbial activity and biomass aggregation during anaerobic digestion at high salinity
Gagliano, Maria Cristina ; Sudmalis, Dainis ; Temmink, Hardy ; Plugge, Caroline M. - \ 2020
New Biotechnology 56 (2020). - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 114 - 122.
Anaerobic digestion - Anaerobic granules - Ca - High salinity - Methanosaeta - Microbial aggregation
The potential effect of different Ca2+ additions (150, 300, 450, 600 and 1000 mg/L) on microbial activity and aggregation, during anaerobic digestion at moderate (8 g/L Na+) and high salinity (20 g/L Na+) has been investigated. Batch tests were carried out in duplicate serum bottles and operated for 30 days at 37 °C. At 8 g/L Na+, methanogenic activity and protein degradation were comparable from 150 to 450 mg/L Ca2+, and a significant inhibition was only observed at a Ca2+concentration of 1000 mg/L. In contrast, at 20 g/L Na+, 150 to 300 mg/L were the only Ca2+ concentrations to maintain chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, protein hydrolysis and methane production. Overall, increasing Ca2+ concentrations had a larger impact on acetotrophic methanogenesis at 20 g/L than at 8 g/L Na+. Increasing Ca2+ had a negative effect on the aggregation behaviour of the dominant methanogen Methanosaeta when working at 8 g/L Na+. At 20 g/L Na+ the aggregation of Methanosaeta was less affected by addition of Ca2+ than at 8 g/L Na+. The negative effect appeared to be connected with Ca2+ precipitation and its impact on cell-to cell communication. The results highlight the importance of ionic balance for microbial aggregation at high salinity, bringing to the forefront the effect on Methanosaeta cells, known to be important to obtain anaerobic granules.