- Ayako Casanova-Nakayama (1)
- Magdalena Chadzinska (3)
- Magdalena Chadzińska (1)
- Lior David (1)
- Ron Dirks (1)
- Malgorzata Duda (1)
- Geert F. Wiegertjes (1)
- Lidy Kemenade van (2)
- Magdalena Maciuszek (3)
- Jules Petit (1)
- Lukasz Pijanowski (2)
- Anna Ptak (1)
- Leszek Rydz (1)
- Helmut Segner (2)
- Ewa Szwejser (2)
- Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade (2)
- Kamil Wartalski (1)
- Iga Świtakowska (1)
Effects of stress and cortisol on the polarization of carp macrophages
Maciuszek, Magdalena ; Rydz, Leszek ; Świtakowska, Iga ; Verburg-van Kemenade, Lidy ; Chadzińska, Magdalena - \ 2019
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 94 (2019). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 27 - 37.
Carp - Cortisol - Head kidney - Monocytes/macrophages - Stress - Trunk kidney
In teleost fish, myelopoiesis is maintained both in the head (HK) and trunk kidney (TK), but only the HK holds the endocrine cells that produce the stress hormone cortisol. We now compared the effects of prolonged restraint stress (in vivo) and cortisol (in vitro) on the polarization of HK and TK-derived carp macrophages. Monocytes/macrophages from both sources were treated in vitro with cortisol, lipopolysaccharide or with both factors combined. In vivo, fish were challenged by a prolonged restraint stress. Gene expression of several markers typical for classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophage polarization, as well as glucocorticoid receptors, were measured. Cells from both sources did not differ in the constitutive gene expression of glucocorticoid receptors, whereas they significantly differed in their response to cortisol and stress. In the LPS-stimulated HK monocytes/macrophages, cortisol in vitro counteracted the action of LPS while the effects of cortisol on the activity of TK monocytes/macrophages were less explicit. In vivo, restraint stress up-regulated gene expression of M2 markers in freshly isolated HK monocytes/macrophages, while at the same time it did not affect TK monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, LPS-stimulated HK monocytes/macrophages from stressed animals showed only minor differences in the gene expression of M1 and M2 markers, compared to LPS-treated monocytes/macrophages from control fish. In contrast, stress-induced changes in TK-derived LPS-treated cells were more pronounced. However, these changes did not clearly indicate whether in TK monocytes/macrophages stress will stimulate classical or alternative polarization. Altogether, our results imply that cortisol in vitro and stress in vivo direct HK, but not TK, monocytes/macrophages to the path of alternative polarization. These findings reveal that like in mammals, also in fish the glucocorticoids form important stimulators of alternative macrophage polarization.
A role for CXC chemokines and their receptors in stress axis regulation of common carp
Pijanowski, Lukasz ; Verburg-van Kemenade, Lidy ; Chadzinska, Magdalena - \ 2019
General and Comparative Endocrinology 280 (2019). - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 194 - 199.
Carp - CXC chemokines - CXC receptors - Stress
Although chemokines mainly function to activate leukocytes and to direct their migration, novel evidence indicates non-immune functions for chemokines within the nervous and endocrine systems. These include development of the nervous system, neuromodulation, neuroendocrine regulation and direct neurotransmitter-like actions. In order to clarify a potential role for chemokines and their receptors in the stress response of fish, we studied changes in the expression patterns of CXC ligands and their receptors in the stress axis organs of carp, during a restraint stress procedure. We showed that stress down-regulated the gene expression of CXCL9-11 (CXCb1 and CXCb2)in stress axis organs and up-regulated expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor in NPO and pituitary. Moreover, upon stress, reduced gene expression of CXCL12a and CXCL14 was observed in the head kidney. Our results imply that in teleost fish, CXC chemokines and their receptors are involved in neuroendocrine regulation. The active regulation of their expression in stress axis organs during periods of restraint indicates a significant role in the stress response.
Stress differentially affects the systemic and leukocyte estrogen network in common carp
Szwejser, Ewa ; Pijanowski, Lukasz ; Maciuszek, Magdalena ; Ptak, Anna ; Wartalski, Kamil ; Duda, Malgorzata ; Segner, Helmut ; Kemenade, Lidy van; Chadzinska, Magdalena - \ 2017
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 68 (2017). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 190 - 201.
17β-estradiol - Aromatase - Carp - Estrogen receptors - Leukocytes - Stress
Both systemic and locally released steroid hormones, such as cortisol and estrogens, show immunomodulatory actions. This research gives evidence that circulating and leukocyte-derived estrogens can be involved in the regulation of the immune response in common carp, during homeostasis and upon restraining stress. It was found that stress reduced level of blood 17β-estradiol (E2) and down-regulated the gene expression of components of the “classical” estrogen system: the nuclear estrogen receptors and the aromatase CYP19, in the hypothalamus, the pituitary and in the ovaries. In contrast, higher gene expression of the nuclear estrogen receptors and cyp19a was found in the head kidney of stressed animals. Moreover, stress induced changes in the E2 level and in the estrogen sensitivity at local/leukocyte level. For the first time in fish, we showed the presence of physiologically relevant amounts of E2 and the substrates for its conversion (estrone – E1 and testosterone – T) in head kidney monocytes/macrophages and found that its production is modulated upon stress. Moreover, stress reduced the sensitivity of leukocytes towards estrogens, by down-regulation the expression of the erb and cyp19 genes in carp phagocytes. In contrast, era expression was up-regulated in the head kidney monocytes/macrophages and in PBLs derived from stressed animals. We hypothesize that, the increased expression of ERα, that was observed during stress, can be important for the regulation of leukocyte differentiation, maturation and migration. In conclusion, these results indicate that, in fish, the estrogen network can be actively involved in the regulation of the systemic and local stress response and the immune response.
Genomic and transcriptomic approaches to study immunology in cyprinids : What is next?
Petit, Jules ; David, Lior ; Dirks, Ron ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. - \ 2017
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 75 (2017). - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 48 - 62.
Carp - Cyprinidae - Immunity - NGS - Polyploidy - Whole genome duplication
Accelerated by the introduction of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), a number of genomes of cyprinid fish species have been drafted, leading to a highly valuable collective resource of comparative genome information on cyprinids (Cyprinidae). In addition, NGS-based transcriptome analyses of different developmental stages, organs, or cell types, increasingly contribute to the understanding of complex physiological processes, including immune responses. Cyprinids are a highly interesting family because they comprise one of the most-diversified families of teleosts and because of their variation in ploidy level, with diploid, triploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and sometimes even octoploid species. The wealth of data obtained from NGS technologies provides both challenges and opportunities for immunological research, which will be discussed here. Correct interpretation of ploidy effects on immune responses requires knowledge of the degree of functional divergence between duplicated genes, which can differ even between closely-related cyprinid fish species. We summarize NGS-based progress in analysing immune responses and discuss the importance of respecting the presence of (multiple) duplicated gene sequences when performing transcriptome analyses for detailed understanding of complex physiological processes. Progressively, advances in NGS technology are providing workable methods to further elucidate the implications of gene duplication events and functional divergence of duplicates genes and proteins involved in immune responses in cyprinids. We conclude with discussing how future applications of NGS technologies and analysis methods could enhance immunological research and understanding.
A role for multiple estrogen receptors in immune regulation of common carp
Szwejser, Ewa ; Maciuszek, Magdalena ; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako ; Segner, Helmut ; Kemenade, Lidy van; Chadzinska, Magdalena - \ 2017
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 66 (2017). - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 61 - 72.
17β-estradiol - Carp - Estrogen receptors - GPR30 - Immune response - Monocyte/macrophage
Estrogens are important for bi-directional neuroendocrine-immune interaction. They act via nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) and/or G-protein coupled receptor - GPR30.We found expression of ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in carp lymphoid tissues and head kidney monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Interestingly, ERβ is also expressed in some head kidney lymphocytes but not in naive PBLs. Immune stimulation altered the cell type specific profile of expression of these receptors, which depends on both activation and maturation stage.This implies direct leukocyte responsiveness to estrogen stimulation and therefore in vitro effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in monocytes/macrophages were determined. Short-time incubation with E2 increased ROS production in PMA-stimulated cells. Results comply with mediation by GPR30, partially functioning via phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation.These results furthermore demonstrate that neuroendocrine-immune communication via estrogen receptors is evolutionary conserved.