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A single meal containing phytosterols does not affect the uptake or tissue distribution of cholesterol in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Spankeren, Michel van; Sibinga, Nathaniel ; Reinshol, Øyvind ; Torstensen, Bente E. ; Sæle, Øystein ; Liland, Nina S. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Marine Science 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-7745
Aquaculture - Cholesterol - Cholesterol uptake - Phytosterols - Zebrafish
Increased plant oil inclusion in aquaculture feeds has led to higher dietary phytosterol concentrations and speculation about whether this affects the metabolism and health of the fish. The mechanisms of cholesterol absorption and how phytosterols may affect this is unknown in fish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to study the effects of phytosterols on the uptake and organ distribution of dietary cholesterol in fish. One meal of diets containing a constant addition of cholesterol (cold and [4- 14 C] cholesterol) and varying types and concentrations of phytosterols were fed to fish in individual compartments. The fish were not previously conditioned on the experimental diets. Activity of 14 C was then measured in water and fish tissues to quantify the tissue distribution and excretion of cholesterol. There were no effects of the moderate dietary concentrations of phytosterols on the excretion or tissue distribution of dietary cholesterol 24 h after the meal.
Multiple effects of cold exposure on livers of male mice
Grefhorst, Aldo ; Beukel, Johanna C. van den; Dijk, Wieneke ; Steenbergen, Jacobie ; Voortman, Gardi J. ; Leeuwenburgh, Selmar ; Visser, Theo J. ; Kersten, Sander ; Friesema, Edith C.H. ; Themmen, Axel P.N. ; Visser, Jenny A. - \ 2018
Journal of Endocrinology 238 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-0795 - p. 91 - 106.
Apolipoprotein - Cholesterol - Lipid - Liver
Cold exposure of mice is a common method to stimulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and induce browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) that has beneficial effects on whole-body lipid metabolism, including reduced plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The liver is a key regulatory organ in lipid metabolism as it can take up as well as oxidize fatty acids. The liver can also synthesize, store and secrete TGs in VLDL particles. The effects of cold exposure on murine hepatic lipid metabolism have not been addressed. Here, we report the effects of 24-h exposure to 4°C on parameters of hepatic lipid metabolism of male C57BL/6J mice. Cold exposure increased hepatic TG concentrations by 2-fold (P < 0.05) but reduced hepatic lipogenic gene expression. Hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake such as the LDL receptor (LDLR) was significantly increased upon cold exposure. Hepatic expression of Cyp7a1 encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in the classical bile acid (BA) synthesis pathway was increased by 4.3-fold (P < 0.05). Hepatic BA concentrations and fecal BA excretion were increased by 2.8- and 1.3-fold, respectively (P < 0.05 for both). VLDL-TG secretion was reduced by approximately 50% after 24 h of cold exposure (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cold exposure has various, likely intertwined effects on the liver that should be taken into account when studying the effects of cold exposure on wholebody metabolism.
Water-soluble polysaccharide extracts from the oyster culinary-medicinal mushroom pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes) with HMGCR inhibitory activity
Gil-Ramírez, Alicia ; Smiderle, Fhernanda R. ; Morales, Diego ; Govers, Coen ; Synytsya, Andriy ; Wichers, Harry J. ; Iacomini, Marcello ; Soler-Rivas, Cristina - \ 2017
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 19 (2017)10. - ISSN 1521-9437 - p. 879 - 892.
Caco2 - Cholesterol - HMGCR - Medicinal mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus - Polysaccharides - β-glucans
Water extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus containing no statins showed 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity (in vitro) that might be due to specific water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs); when isolated and deproteinized, increasing concentrations of the WSP extract induced higher inhibition. The WSP extract contained mainly β-glucans, mannogalactans, and glycogen (e.g., α-glucans), although derivatives or fragments with lower molecular weights (between 14 and 3.5 kDa) were present and were able to induce the inhibitory activity. The extract contained more β-(1→3)-glucans than β-(1→3),(1→6)-glucans, and they partially survived digestion and managed to pass through Caco2 cell monolayers to the lower compartment after in vitro digestion and transport experiments. The WSP might also modulate Caco2 membrane integrity.
Brown adipose tissue takes up plasma triglycerides mostly after lipolysis
Khedoe, P.P.S.J. ; Hoeke, Geerte ; Kooijman, Sander ; Dijk, Wieneke ; Buijs, Jeroen T. ; Kersten, Sander ; Havekes, Louis M. ; Hiemstra, Pieter S. ; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. - \ 2015
Journal of Lipid Research 56 (2015)1. - ISSN 0022-2275 - p. 51 - 59.
Cholesterol - Chylomicrons - Fatty acid metabolism - Lipids - Lipoprotein lipase - Lipoproteins/metabolism
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat by burning TGs that are stored within intracellular lipid droplets and need to be replenished by the uptake of TG-derived FA from plasma. It is currently unclear whether BAT takes up FA via uptake of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), after lipolysis-mediated liberation of FA, or via a combination of both. Therefore, we generated glycerol tri[3H]oleate and [14C]cholesteryl oleate double-labeled TRL-mimicking particles with an average diameter of 45, 80, and 150 nm (representing small VLDL to chylomicrons) and injected these intravenously into male C57Bl/6J mice. At room temperature (21°C), the uptake of 3H-activity by BAT, expressed per gram of tissue, was much higher than the uptake of 14C-activity, irrespective of particle size, indicating lipolysis-mediated uptake of TG-derived FA rather than whole particle uptake. Cold exposure (7°C) increased the uptake of FA derived from the differently sized particles by BAT, while retaining the selectivity for uptake of FA over cholesteryl ester (CE). At thermoneutrality (28°C), total FA uptake by BAT was attenuated, but the specificity of uptake of FA over CE was again largely retained. Altogether, we conclude that, in our model, BAT takes up plasma TG preferentially by means of lipolysis-mediated uptake of FA.