Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Adapting cultural heritage to climate change impacts in the Netherlands: barriers, interdependencies, and strategies for overcoming them
    Fatorić, Sandra ; Biesbroek, Robbert - \ 2020
    Climatic Change (2020). - ISSN 0165-0009
    Climate change adaptation - Climate policy - Cultural heritage management - Historic preservation

    Climate change is currently impacting cultural heritage globally. Despite advances in the understanding of the relationship between climate change impacts and cultural heritage, there are significant barriers that hamper adaptation of cultural heritage to current and projected climate risks. This paper aims to advance the empirical understanding of barriers to adapting cultural heritage to climate-related impacts in the Netherlands by identifying different barriers, their interdependencies, and possible strategies to overcome these barriers. Using a web-based questionnaire with 57 experts, we find that the most frequently reported barriers are a lack of climate change adaptation policy for cultural heritage, and lack of climate vulnerability and risk assessments for diverse cultural heritage types. Our study finds that barriers are perceived to be interdependent and conjointly constrain adapting cultural heritage to climate change. Six actionable strategies are identified to navigate these barriers.

    Governmentalities, hydrosocial territories & recognition politics : The making of objects and subjects for climate change adaptation in Ecuador
    Mills-Novoa, Megan ; Boelens, Rutgerd ; Hoogesteger, Jaime ; Vos, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Geoforum 115 (2020). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 90 - 101.
    Climate change adaptation - Ecuador - Governmentality - Hydrosocial territories - Participation - Recognition politics

    Adaptation to climate change has become a major policy and project focus for donors and governments globally. In this article, we provide insight into how adaptation projects mobilize distinct imaginaries and knowledge claims that create territories for intervention (the objects) as well as targeted populations (the subjects) to sustain them. Drawing on two emblematic climate change adaptation projects in Ecuador, we show how these objects and subjects are created through a knowledge production process that (a) creates a discursive climate change rationale; (b) sidesteps uncertainty related to climate change impacts; (c) fosters a circular citational practice that (self-)reinforces the project's expert knowledge; and (d) makes complex social variables commensurable based on the project's rationality, interests, and quantifiable indicators. The emerging hydrosocial territories ‘in need of intervention’ require subjects that inhabit, produce and reproduce these territories, in accordance with specific climate change discourses and practices. To manufacture and align these subjects, projects employ participatory practices that are informed by recognition politics aimed at disciplining participants toward particular identities and ways of thinking and acting. We analyze these distinct strategies as multiple governmentalities enacted through participatory adaptation projects seeking to produce specific climate change resilient hydrosocial territories and corresponding subjects.

    Powering and puzzling: climate change adaptation policies in Bangladesh and India
    Stock, Ryan ; Vij, Sumit ; Ishtiaque, Asif - \ 2020
    Environment, Development and Sustainability (2020). - ISSN 1387-585X
    Bangladesh - Climate change adaptation - India - Powering - Puzzling - South Asia

    South Asia is a region uniquely vulnerable to climate-related impacts. Climate change adaptation in India and Bangladesh evolves using powering and puzzling approaches by policy actors. We seek to answer the question: how do powering and puzzling approaches influence the climate change adaptation policy design and implementation processes in Bangladesh and India? We adopted two strategies to collect and analyze data: semi-structured interviews and discourse analysis. We found that adaptation policymaking is largely top-down, amenable to techno-managerial solutions, and not inclusive of marginalized actors. In Bangladesh, power interplays among ministerial agencies impair the policy implementation process and undermine the success of puzzling. Local-scale agencies do not have enough authority or power to influence the overall implementation processes occurring at higher scales of governance. The powering of different actors in Bangladesh is visible through a duality of mandates and a lack of integration of climate adaptation strategies in different government ministries. The powering aspect of India’s various adaptation policies is the lack of collective puzzling around the question of differentiated vulnerability by axes of social difference. Paradoxically, India has a puzzling approach of hiding behind the poor in international negotiations. Moving forward, both countries should strive to have more inclusive and equitable adaptation policymaking processes that enable the participation of marginalized populations and represent their anxieties and aspirations. Identifying policy-relevant insights from South Asia using the powering and puzzling approaches can foster adaptation policy processes that facilitate empowerment, the missing piece of the adaptation policymaking puzzle.

    Defining the solution space to accelerate climate change adaptation
    Haasnoot, Marjolijn ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Lawrence, Judy ; Muccione, Veruska ; Lempert, Robert ; Glavovic, Bruce - \ 2020
    Regional Environmental Change 20 (2020)2. - ISSN 1436-3798
    Climate change adaptation - Limits - Pathways - Solutions - Uncertainty

    Decision makers need better insights about solutions to accelerate adaptation efforts. Defining the concept of solution space and revealing the forces and strategies that influence this space will enable decision makers to define pathways for adaptation action. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

    What makes internationally-financed climate change adaptation projects focus on local communities? A configurational analysis of 30 Adaptation Fund projects
    Manuamorn, Ornsaran Pomme ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Cebotari, Victor - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 61 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Adaptation Fund - Climate change adaptation - Community - Governance - International adaptation finance - Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA)

    There is much scholarly and policy interest in the role that international finance could play in closing the financing gap for community adaptation initiatives. Despite the interest, the overall amount of international adaptation finance that has reached local recipients remains low. What makes internationally-financed climate change adaptation projects focus on investment at the community level is particularly poorly understood. This study systematically assesses conditions that influence the focus on vulnerable local communities in internationally-financed adaptation projects. Using the Adaptation Fund (AF) under the Kyoto Protocol as the case study, we apply fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to analyze 30 AF projects to identify specific configurations of conditions that lead to a stronger or weaker community focus in project design. We find that the absence of high exposure to projected future climate risks is a necessary condition for a weaker community focus in AF projects. Three configurations of sufficient conditions are identified that lead to a stronger community focus. They involve the contextual factors of projected future climate risks, civil society governance, and access modality to AF financing. In particular, AF projects with a stronger community focus are stimulated by the sole presence of higher exposure to projected future climate risks in a group of countries, and by the complementary roles of civil society governance and the access modality to the AF in others. These findings contribute new insights on how to enhance local inclusiveness of global climate finance.

    Exploring the relation between flood risk management and flood resilience
    Disse, M. ; Johnson, T.G. ; Leandro, J. ; Hartmann, T. - \ 2020
    Water Security 9 (2020). - ISSN 2468-3124
    Climate change adaptation - Flood resilience - Flood risk management

    Flood risk management has proven successful at reducing the threat of some flooding hazards, preventing loss of life during flooding events and easing the economic burden to communities and regions following floods. It is a useful approach for assessing risks and guiding decisions on implementing protection measures. Recently, in addition to flood risk management, flood resilience is discussed as a new approach in academic literature. This contribution tries to unravel the relation between flood risk management and flood resilience. Therefore, three aspects are discussed: the definition of resilience, its measurement methods and also its possible implementation and embedding in flood risk management.

    Mechanisms for policy (dis)integration: explaining food policy and climate change adaptation policy in the Netherlands
    Biesbroek, Robbert ; Candel, Jeroen J.L. - \ 2020
    Policy Sciences 53 (2020). - ISSN 0032-2687 - p. 61 - 84.
    Climate change adaptation - Crosscutting problems - Food policy - Governance - Policy integration - Policy mechanism

    Recent years have witnessed increased political interest to the challenge of organizing policy integration to govern societal problems that crosscut the boundaries of traditional government sectors and levels, including climate change, food insecurity, terrorism, and the instability of financial markets. Public policy scholars have recently suggested to study such attempts by conceptualizing policy integration as a multi-dimensional process. Although such a processual perspective has helped to comparatively assess policy (dis)integration, the mechanisms of (dis)integration over time remain undertheorized. Past studies have reported a number of relevant factors, but these have remained rather functionalistic observations that lack explanatory value. To address this gap, we propose a mechanism-based approach that uncovers the political processes that underlie policy (dis)integration over time. Rooted in different strands of social science literature, the mechanistic approach offers a model of causation to assess the plausible chain of key processes that are triggered under particular contextual conditions. We illustrate the framework by empirically investigating the mechanisms that explain the policy (dis)integration of food and climate change adaptation policy in the Netherlands. We end the paper with discussing various implications of our findings for processual approaches to policy integration.

    Prospects of bioenergy cropping systems for a more social‐ecologically sound bioeconomy
    Cossel, Moritz Von ; Wagner, Moritz ; Lask, Jan ; Magenau, Elena ; Bauerle, Andrea ; Cossel, Viktoria Von ; Warrach‐Sagi, Kirsten ; Elbersen, Berien ; Staritsky, Igor ; Eupen, Michiel van; Iqbal, Yasir ; Jablonowski, Nicolai David ; Happe, Stefan ; Fernando, Ana Luisa ; Scordia, Danilo ; Cosentino, Salvatore Luciano ; Wulfmeyer, Volker ; Lewandowski, Iris ; Winkler, Bastian - \ 2019
    Agronomy 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2073-4395
    Biodiversity - Bioeconomy - Bioenergy crop - Biomass - Carbon capture - Climate change adaptation - Cropping system - Industrial crop - Marginal land - Resilience

    The growing bioeconomy will require a greater supply of biomass in the future for both bioenergy and bio‐based products. Today, many bioenergy cropping systems (BCS) are suboptimal due to either social‐ecological threats or technical limitations. In addition, the competition for land between bioenergy‐crop cultivation, food‐crop cultivation, and biodiversity conservation is expected to increase as a result of both continuous world population growth and expected severe climate change effects. This study investigates how BCS can become more social‐ecologically sustainable in future. It brings together expert opinions from the fields of agronomy, economics, meteorology, and geography. Potential solutions to the following five main requirements for a more holistically sustainable supply of biomass are summarized: (i) bioenergy‐crop cultivation should provide a beneficial social‐ecological contribution, such as an increase in both biodiversity and landscape aesthetics, (ii) bioenergy crops should be cultivated on marginal agricultural land so as not to compete with food‐crop production, (iii) BCS need to be resilient in the face of projected severe climate change effects, (iv) BCS should foster rural development and support the vast number of small‐scale family farmers, managing about 80% of agricultural land and natural resources globally, and (v) bioenergy‐crop cultivation must be planned and implemented systematically, using holistic approaches. Further research activities and policy incentives should not only consider the economic potential of bioenergy‐crop cultivation, but also aspects of biodiversity, soil fertility, and climate change adaptation specific to site conditions and the given social context. This will help to adapt existing agricultural systems in a changing world and foster the development of a more social‐ecologically sustainable bioeconomy.

    Power interplay between actors : using material and ideational resources to shape local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) in Nepal
    Vij, Sumit ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Groot, Annemarie ; Termeer, Katrien ; Parajuli, Binod Prasad - \ 2019
    Climate Policy 19 (2019)5. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 571 - 584.
    Climate change adaptation - local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) - material and ideational resources - Nepal - power interplay

    Deliberation over how to adapt to short or long-term impacts of climate change takes place in a complex political setting, where actors’ interests and priorities shape the temporal dimension of adaptation plans, policies and actions. As actors interact to pursue their individual or collective interests, these struggles turn into dynamic power interplay. In this article, we aim to show how power interplay shapes local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) in Nepal to be short-term and reactive. We use an interactional framing approach through interaction analyses and observations to analyse how actors use material and ideational resources to pursue their interests. Material and ideational resources that an actor deploys include political authority, knowledge of adaptation science and national/local policy-making processes, financial resources and strong relations with international non-governmental organizations and donor agencies. We find that facilitators and local politicians have a very prominent role in meetings relating to LAPAs, resulting in short-termism of LAPAs. Findings suggest that there is also a lack of female participation contributing to short-term orientated plans. We conclude that such power interplay analysis can help to investigate how decision making on the temporal aspects of climate adaptation policy takes place at the local level. Key Policy insights Short-termism of LAPAs is attributed to the power interplay between actors during the policy design process. Improved participation of the most vulnerable, especially women, can lead to the preparation of adaptation plans and strategies focusing on both the short and long-term. It is pertinent to consider power interplay in the design and planning of adaptation policy in order to create a level-playing field between actors for inclusive decision-making. Analysis of dynamic power interplay can help in investigating climate change adaptation controversies that are marked by uncertainties and ambiguities.

    Data, concepts and methods for large-n comparative climate change adaptation policy research : A systematic literature review
    Biesbroek, Robbert ; Berrang-Ford, Lea ; Ford, James D. ; Tanabe, Andrew ; Austin, Stephanie E. ; Lesnikowski, Alexandra - \ 2018
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 9 (2018)6. - ISSN 1757-7780
    Climate change adaptation - Comparative policy - Data collection - Methods - Systematic review

    Climate change adaptation research is dominated by in-depth, qualitative, single- or small-n case studies that have resulted in rich and in-depth understanding on adaptation processes and decision making in specific locations. Recently, the number of comparative adaptation policy cases has increased, focusing on examining, describing, and/or explaining how countries, regions, and vulnerable groups are adapting across a larger sample of contexts and over time. There are, however, critical empirical, conceptual and methodological choices and challenges for comparative adaptation research. This article systematically captures and assesses the current state of larger-n (n≥20 cases) comparative adaptation policy literature. We systematically analyze 72 peer-reviewed articles to identify the key choices and challenges authors face when conducting their research. We find among others that almost all studies use nonprobability sampling methods, few existing comparative adaptation datasets exist, most studies use easy accessible data which might not be most appropriate for the research question, many struggle to disentangle rhetoric from reality in adaptation, and very few studies engage in critical reflection of their conceptual, data and methodological choices and the implications for their findings. We conclude that efforts to increase data availability and use of more rigorous methodologies are necessary to advance comparative adaptation research. This article is categorized under: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change > Learning from Cases and Analogies

    Intergovernmental relations for public health adaptation to climate change in the federalist states of Canada and Germany
    Austin, Stephanie E. ; Ford, James D. ; Berrang-Ford, Lea ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Tosun, Jale ; Ross, Nancy A. - \ 2018
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 52 (2018). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 226 - 237.
    Canada - Climate change adaptation - Federalism - Germany - Intergovernmental relations - Public health

    Climate change is a significant threat to public health, and governments at all scales will need to adapt to protect the health of their populations. The impacts of climate change are highly localized and thus federal systems theoretically have the inherent advantage of allowing for regional diversity and policy experimentation in adaptation. However, there are also higher levels of conflict and stalemates in federal systems than in unitary systems, complicating intergovernmental relations and coordination necessary for public health adaptation. We examine how intergovernmental dynamics are patterned across national, regional and local levels of government for public health adaptation to climate change, drawing upon semi-structured interviews (n = 28) in comparative embedded case studies of Canada and Germany. We find that coordination between levels of government specifically for climate change and health is rare, but climate change issues are occasionally discussed through working groups or through existing methods of public health coordination. These findings have implications for national and regional governments in federal systems seeking to enable sub-national public health adaptation to climate change and create synergies between levels of government.

    Changing climate policy paradigms in Bangladesh and Nepal
    Vij, Sumit ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Groot, Annemarie ; Termeer, Katrien - \ 2018
    Environmental Science & Policy 81 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 77 - 85.
    Bangladesh - Changing policy paradigms - Climate change adaptation - Drivers of change - Modes of change - Nepal
    The aim of this article is to explain and compare the changes in climate policy paradigms (CPPs) of Bangladesh and Nepal. Climate policies are shaped by the underlying CPPs that refer to a dominant set of prevailing and institutionalized ideas and strategies to reduce the impacts of climate change. We focus the analysis on the timeframe between 1997 and 2016, using policy documents (n = 46) and semi-structured interviews (n = 43) with key policy actors. We find that in both countries several CPPs have emerged: disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, mainstreaming, and localized action for adaptation. In Bangladesh, specific policy goals and instruments for each CPP have emerged, whereas in Nepal the government has been struggling to develop specific policy instruments to implement the paradigms. We conclude that competing CPPs currently exist which creates diversified policy responses to climate change impacts in both countries. This ‘layering’ of different CPPs can be attributed to drivers such as unstable political situation, lack of financial support, influence of national and international non-governmental organizations and global policy frameworks. The findings in our study are relevant to further discussions on how to design future climate policy responses to adapt to climate change.
    Improving governance in transboundary cooperation in water and climate change adaptation
    Timmerman, Jos ; Matthews, John ; Koeppel, Sonja ; Valensuela, Daniel ; Vlaanderen, Niels - \ 2017
    Water Policy 19 (2017)6. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 1014 - 1029.
    Climate change adaptation - Governance principles - Integrated water management - Lessons learned - Transboundary cooperation - Water governance
    Climate change adaptation in water management is a water governance issue. While neither climate change nor water respects national borders, adaptation in water management should be treated as a transboundary water governance issue. However, transboundary water management is, in essence, more complex than national water management because the water management regimes usually differ more between countries than within countries. This paper provides 63 lessons learned from almost a decade of cooperation on transboundary climate adaptation in water management under the UNECE Water Convention and puts these into the context of the OECD principles on water governance. It highlights that good water governance entails a variety of activities that are intertwined and cannot be considered stand-alone elements. The paper also shows that this wide variety of actions is needed to develop a climate change adaptation strategy in water management. Each of the lessons learned can be considered concrete actions connected to one or more of the OECD principles, where a range of actions may be needed to fulfil one principle. The paper concludes that developing climate change adaptation measures needs to improve in parallel the water governance system at transboundary scale.
    Measuring Progress on Climate Change Adaptation Policy by Dutch Water Boards
    Kamperman, Hans ; Biesbroek, Robbert - \ 2017
    Water Resources Management 31 (2017)14. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 4557 - 4570.
    Climate change adaptation - Netherlands - Water boards - Water management plans - Water policy

    The Netherlands is particularly vulnerable for the impacts of climate change on the water system. Regional water authorities, or water boards, are given an important role to design and implement specific adaptation policies and measures to manage these impacts. From the early 2000s onwards water boards are starting to adapt to climate change impacts, yet no systematic assessments exist to assess whether or not progress is being made and what explains similarities and differences across water boards. This paper aims to address these critical questions by analyzing the progress of all Dutch water boards for the period 2005–2016. We systematically collected and analyzed three consecutive water management plans for all 23 water boards in the Netherlands. We use content analysis methods to analyze progress by looking into their vulnerability and three levels of adaptation: recognition, groundwork and adaptation action. The results show that over time the number of reported climate change adaptation initiatives by the water boards is increasing, but most climate change adaptation is still at the recognition or groundwork level. Our findings reveal a diversity of efforts to adapt to climate change among Dutch water boards. We conclude that while (inter)national water and climate change adaptation policies have called for more adaptation action at regional levels, the unequal progress across the Netherlands suggests that existing ‘soft’ policy measures to push for adaptation might not be sufficient to ensure progress on adaptation across all water boards.

    The interplay between social learning and adaptive capacity in climate change adaptation : A systematic review
    Le, Thi Hong Phuong ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Wals, Arjen E.J. - \ 2017
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 82 (2017). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 1 - 9.
    Adaptive capacity - Climate change adaptation - Interplay - Social learning - Systematic review

    Successful implementation climate change adaptation depends to a large extent on the capabilities of individuals, organizations, and communities to create and mobilize the adaptive capacity (AC) of their socio-ecological system. Creating and mobilizing AC is a continuous process that requires social learning (SL). Although rich with empirical cases, the literature theorizing and empirically investigating the relationship between AC and SL is highly fragmented. This paper aims to critically examine the peer-reviewed literature that focusses on SL and AC in the context of climate change adaptation (CCA). Special attention is paid to the interplay between the two. Understanding this interplay can help improve our understanding of how CCA takes place in practice and advances theoretical debates on CCA. Systematic review methods are used to analyse 43 papers (1997-2016). Our findings reveal three perspectives that each play an important role in different contexts: an AC-focused perspective, a SL-focused perspective, and a hybrid perspective. These differences in conceptualizations of the relationship between SL and AC may seem trivial at first, but they have consequences for the design of learning-based interventions aimed at helping communities respond to climate change. It appears that such interventions need to be preceded by an analysis of the climate change context in order to decide whether to emphasize AC, SL or both simultaneously.

    Towards guidelines for designing parks of the future
    Klemm, Wiebke ; Hove, Bert van; Lenzholzer, Sanda ; Kramer, Henk - \ 2017
    Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 21 (2017). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 134 - 145.
    Climate change adaptation - Climate-responsive design - Evidence-based landscape architecture - Heat wave - Public park - Thermal comfort
    This study investigated human behaviour in parks in order to develop spatially explicit design guidelines considering future climate conditions in moderate climates. Fieldwork was carried out in two parks (in Utrecht and Wageningen, the Netherlands) during summer and tropical days (Ta max > 25 °C and > 30 °C, respectively), the latter representing future climate conditions. Behavioural responses (park attendance, spatio-temporal user patterns) and thermal perception of resting park visitors were studied through unobtrusive observations (N = 11337) and surveys (N = 317). Outcomes were related to air temperature (Ta) of meteorological reference stations and spatial data on the vegetation structures of the parks. Observational data show that daily park attendance decreased with rising Ta max. Survey results indicate that resting park visitors perceived a high level of thermal comfort during all investigated days. Park visitors chose resting locations predominantly based on solar exposure conditions (sun, half shade, shade). Those solar exposure preferences were significantly related to Ta: with increased Ta the number of park visitors in the shade increased and decreased in the sun (p < 0.001) with a tipping point of 26 °C. These results indicate that parks in moderate climates may guarantee a high level of thermal comfort, even on tropical days, if a variety of solar exposure conditions is guaranteed. A ratio of 40% sun, 20% half shade and 40% shade in parks was derived from spatio-temporal user patterns, which appear to accommodate preferences of resting park visitors under summer and tropical thermal conditions and on various daytimes. These results and a spatial typology of tree configurations for microclimatic variety provide direction for designing future parks: they need to offer a wide range of sun-exposed, half shaded and shaded places to accommodate for different user needs and future climate conditions.
    Climate variability and yield risk in South Asia’s rice–wheat systems : emerging evidence from Pakistan
    Arshad, Muhammad ; Amjath-Babu, T.S. ; Krupnik, Timothy J. ; Aravindakshan, Sreejith ; Abbas, Azhar ; Kächele, Harald ; Müller, Klaus - \ 2017
    Paddy and Water Environment 15 (2017)2. - ISSN 1611-2490 - p. 249 - 261.
    Adaptive capacity - Climate change adaptation - Heat stress - Pakistan - Rice–wheat system - Yield risk
    Rice and wheat are the principal calorie sources for over a billion people in South Asia, although each crop is particularly sensitive to the climatic and agronomic management conditions under which they are grown. Season-long heat stress can reduce photosynthesis and accelerate senescence; if extreme heat stress is experienced during flowering, both rice and wheat may also experience decreased pollen viability and stigma deposition, leading to increased grain sterility. Where farmers are unable to implement within-season management adaptations, significant deviations from expected climatic conditions would affect crop growth, yield, and therefore have important implications for food security. The influence of climatic conditions on crop growth have been widely studied in growth chamber, greenhouse, and research station trials, although empirical evidence of the link between climatic variability and yield risk in farmers’ fields is comparatively scarce. Using data from 240 farm households, this paper responds to this gap and isolates the effects of agronomic management from climatic variability on rice and wheat yield risks in eight of Pakistan’s twelve agroecological zones. Using Just and Pope production functions, we tested for the effects of crop management practices and climatic conditions on yield and yield variability for each crop. Our results highlight important risks to farmers’ ability to obtain reliable yield levels for both crops. Despite variability in input use and crop management, we found evidence for the negative effect of both season-long and terminal heat stress, measured as the cumulative number of days during which crop growth occurred above critical thresholds, though wheat was considerably more sensitive than rice. Comparing variation in observed climatic parameters in the year of study to medium-term patterns, rice, and wheat yields were both negatively affected, indicative of production risk and of farmers’ limited capacity for within-season adaptation. Our findings suggest the importance of reviewing existing climate change adaptation policies that aim to increase cereal farmers’ resilience in Pakistan, and more broadly in South Asia. Potential agronomic and extension strategies are proposed for further investigation.
    Performing and orchestrating governance learning for systemic transformation in practice for climate change adaptation
    Bommel, Séverine van; Blackmore, Chris ; Foster, Natalie ; Vries, Jasper de - \ 2016
    Outlook on Agriculture 45 (2016)4. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 231 - 237.
    Climate change adaptation - Social learning

    Barriers to climate change adaptation might not lie so much in ‘gaps’ in scientific or technical understandings but rather in the complexities of social, institutional and cultural transitions in climate change governance. Effective responses to complex environmental issues seem to require ‘co-learning for systemic governance transformations’. However, this process remains poorly understood. This article analyses the performance and orchestration of governance learning for systemic transformation in practice, drawing on examples from the international climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) project. We show that in these examples the interplay of ‘separating’ and ‘connecting’ is central to transforming governance in the European water management landscape. The article concludes that an orientation to boundary work and co-production of knowledge contributes to scientific narratives that can inspire meaningful connective action and move complex socioecological systems into a more sustainable trajectory.

    Report of FACCE Cluster-2-Workshop - Support by policy and research for adaptation to climate change in farming systems and food-related industries
    Köchy, M. ; Bittner, F. ; Lange, S. ; Bunthof, C.J. - \ 2016
    FACCE-JPI - 15 p.
    FACCE JPI - climate change - farming systems - adaptation to climate change - food-related - industries - agriculture - food security - policy - FACCE-JPI - Agriculture - Food security - Climate Change - adaption to climate change - Climate change adaptation - Farming systems - food-related industries - policy - research - FACCE-JPI - FACCE JPI - Bioeconomy
    Workshop phenotyping, genotyping, breeding, reproduction techniques and evaluating alternative crop species for adaptation to climate change - State-of-art and opportunities for further cooperation, 27-28 October 2016, Wageningen : Final report
    Boekhorst, D. te - \ 2016
    FACCE-JPI - 15 p.
    agriculture - food security - climate change - FACCE JPI - Adaptation to climate change - breeding techniques - FACCE-JPI - Bioeconomy - phenotyping - Genotyping - breeding - Climate change adaptation
    The workshop highlighted opportunities, gaps, needs and priorities for novel breeding techniques like phenotyping for resilience under climate change. Starting with four key presentations, the scene was set from the perspectives of policy, end-users and science, accompanied by an overview of phenotyping initiatives. In five presentations several other initiatives were introduced, after which dedicated discussion sessions identified priorities in opportunies, needs and gaps. This resulted in the following ten priorities:
    Phenotyping needs multi- and transdisciplinary research, but fundamental research with regard to gene-environment-management interactions is also essential;
    High quality open data speeds up research, but policy also needs to deal with the associated risks and legal issues (big data questions);
    Regulation of funding needs to be adapted: linkages are needed between (more structural) project funding and infrastructure funding;
    Phenotyping needs long-term research;
    More focus is needed on breeding for climate change: widening up genetic traits;
    More focus is needed on breeding for climate change: crops - also ‘multi-valorization’ and perennial crops;
    Climate change research and phenotyping research needs te be connected; this also includes phenotyping research on different management systems;
    Phenotyping for whole value chain approach, including aspects related to quality, is needed;
    Public-private cooperation could strengthen research and accelerate impact;
    Management of expectations and views of the public at large.
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