Genetics and selective breeding of variation in wing truncation in a flightless aphid control agent
Lommen, Suzanne T.E. ; Koops, Kees G. ; Cornelder, Bardo A. ; Jong, Peter W. de; Brakefield, Paul M. - \ 2019
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 167 (2019)7. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 636 - 645.
Adalia bipunctata - artificial selection - augmentative pest control - biological control - Coccinellidae - Coleoptera - cryptic genetic variation - gene-by-environment interaction - ladybird - modifier genes - predator - winglessness
Augmentative biological control by predaceous ladybird beetles can be improved by using flightless morphs, which have longer residence times on the host plants. The two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is used for the biological control of aphids in greenhouses and on urban trees. Flightlessness due to truncated wings occurs at very low frequency in some natural populations of A. bipunctata. Pure-breeding strains of this 'wingless' genotype of A. bipunctata can easily be obtained in the laboratory. Such strains have not been commercialized yet due to concerns about their reduced fitness compared to wild-type strains, which renders mass production more expensive. Wingless strains exhibit, however, wide intra-population phenotypic variation in the extent of wing truncation which is related to fitness traits. We here use classical quantitative genetic techniques to study the heritability and genetic architecture of variation in wing truncation in a wingless strain of A. bipunctata. Split-families reared at one of two temperatures revealed strong family-by-temperature interaction: heritability was estimated as 0.64 ± 0.09 at 19 °C and 0.29 ± 0.06 at 29 °C. Artificial selection in opposite directions at 21 °C demonstrated that the degree of wing truncation can be altered within a few generations resulting in wingless phenotypes without any wing tissue (realized h2 = 0.72), as well as those with minimal truncations (realized h2 = 0.61) in two replicates. The latter lines produced more than twice as many individuals. This indicates that selective breeding of wing truncation may be exploited to improve mass rearing of flightless strains of A. bipunctata for commercial biological control. Our work illustrates that cryptic variation can also be a source for the selective breeding of natural enemies.
Dispersal of a carabid beetle in farmland is driven by habitat-specific motility and preference at habitat interfaces
Allema, Bas ; Hemerik, Lia ; Rossing, Walter A.H. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Lenteren, Joop C. van; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2019
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 167 (2019)8. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 741 - 754.
Carabidae - Coleoptera - dispersal models - habitat discontinuities - model selection - population redistribution
Carabid beetles are common predators of pest insects and weed seeds in agricultural systems. Understanding their dispersal across farmland is important for designing farms and landscapes that support pest and weed biological control. Little is known, however, about the effect of farmland habitat discontinuities on dispersal behaviour and the resulting redistribution of these beetles. We released 1,985 well-fed and 1,680 food-deprived individuals of the predatory carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on a farm in Wageningen, The Netherlands. We recaptured 23.6% of those beetles over a period of 23 days in 2010. The farmland comprised agricultural fields with various crop species and tillage, separated by strips of perennial vegetation. We developed discrete Fokker-Planck diffusion models to describe dispersal based on motility (m2 day−1) and preferential behaviour at habitat interfaces. We used model selection and Akaike’s information criterion to determine whether movement patterns were driven by variation in motility between habitats, preferential behaviour at habitat interfaces, or both. Model selection revealed differences in motility among habitats and gave strong support for preferential behaviour at habitat interfaces. Behaviour at interfaces between crop and perennial vegetation was asymmetric, with beetles preferentially moving towards the crop. Furthermore, beetles had lower motility in perennial strips than in arable fields. Also between arable habitats movement was asymmetric, with beetles preferentially moving towards the habitat in which motility was lowest. Neither crop type nor tillage explained differences in motility between crop habitats. Recapture data representing dispersal patterns of beetles were best described by a model that accounted for differences in motility between farmland habitats and preferential behaviour at habitat interfaces. Motility in farmland and behaviour at interfaces can also be estimated for other organisms and farmland habitats to support design of farmland conducive to natural pest suppression. Landscape design for early recruitment of carabids into arable fields should take into account the quantity and quality of resource habitats in the landscape, their proximity to crop fields, movement rates, and the possibility of movement responses at interfaces between landscape elements.
Combining tree species and decay stages to increase invertebrate diversity in dead wood
Andringa, Joke I. ; Zuo, Juan ; Berg, Matty P. ; Klein, Roy ; van't Veer, Jip ; Geus, Rick de; Beaumont, Marco de; Goudzwaard, Leo ; Hal, Jurgen van; Broekman, Rob ; Logtestijn, Richard S.P. van; Li, Yikang ; Fujii, Saori ; Lammers, Mark ; Hefting, Mariet M. ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. - \ 2019
Forest Ecology and Management 441 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 80 - 88.
Biodiversity - Chilipoda - Coarse woody debris - Coleoptera - Diplopoda - Habitat heterogeneity - Invertebrates - Isopoda - Managed forest - Wood decomposition
Dead wood availability and the variability in dead wood quality, i.e. tree species and decay stages, are often low in managed forests, which negatively affects biodiversity of invertebrate species. Leaving more (coarse) dead wood can increase invertebrate richness, but it remains unclear how many and which combinations of tree taxa and decay stages are required to optimize niche heterogeneity in managed forests. We investigated the diversity of the main arthropod groups associated with dead wood, i.e. millipedes, centipedes, isopods and beetles, through the first four years of decomposition of logs of twenty common temperate tree species placed in the “common garden” experiment LOGLIFE. We hypothesized that (1) invertebrate richness for combinations of a given number of tree species would be promoted by mixing both tree species and decay period and that (2) invertebrate richness increases up to a saturation point with more tree species at different decay stages added. We also hypothesized that (3) an increase in phylogenetic distance among the tree species in combinations would promote their overall invertebrate diversity. We found that the better combinations, in terms of invertebrate richness, after one and two years of decay, but not after four years, consisted of a mix of gymnosperms and angiosperms, indicating that variation in tree species is especially important during the initial decomposition period. The best combinations in terms of invertebrate richness consisted of at least one tree species from each decay period, indicating that also variation in the decay stage of the tree is important to promote invertebrate diversity. We observed that at least four wood types were required to approach the 95% saturation point for species richness. The third hypothesis, that dissimilarity in phylogenetic position could be a predictive tool for increasing invertebrate richness in combinations of tree species, was not supported by our results. Thus, in order to maintain diversity of dead wood invertebrates in forests we recommend not only to provide richness in tree species, but also to plant particular combinations of trees (preferably angiosperm-gymnosperm combinations) that differ in the invertebrate communities they typically host and to temporally spread the logging of trees. This way the logging residues cover different resources and habitats at each moment in time, which is likely to result in a large diversity of dead wood invertebrates.
The contribution of mitochondrial metagenomics to large-scale data mining and phylogenetic analysis of Coleoptera
Linard, Benjamin ; Crampton-Platt, Alex ; Moriniere, Jerome ; Timmermans, Martijn J.T.N. ; Andújar, Carmelo ; Arribas, Paula ; Miller, Kirsten E. ; Lipecki, Julia ; Favreau, Emeline ; Hunter, Amie ; Gómez-Rodríguez, Carola ; Barton, Christopher ; Nie, Ruie ; Gillett, Conrad P.D.T. ; Breeschoten, Thijmen ; Bocak, Ladislav ; Vogler, Alfried P. - \ 2018
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 128 (2018). - ISSN 1055-7903 - p. 1 - 11.
Biodiversity discovery - Coleoptera - Mass-trapped samples - Metagenome skimming - Mitochondrial metagenomics
A phylogenetic tree at the species level is still far off for highly diverse insect orders, including the Coleoptera, but the taxonomic breadth of public sequence databases is growing. In addition, new types of data may contribute to increasing taxon coverage, such as metagenomic shotgun sequencing for assembly of mitogenomes from bulk specimen samples. The current study explores the application of these techniques for large-scale efforts to build the tree of Coleoptera. We used shotgun data from 17 different ecological and taxonomic datasets (5 unpublished) to assemble a total of 1942 mitogenome contigs of >3000 bp. These sequences were combined into a single dataset together with all mitochondrial data available at GenBank, in addition to nuclear markers widely used in molecular phylogenetics. The resulting matrix of nearly 16,000 species with two or more loci produced trees (RAxML) showing overall congruence with the Linnaean taxonomy at hierarchical levels from suborders to genera. We tested the role of full-length mitogenomes in stabilizing the tree from GenBank data, as mitogenomes might link terminals with non-overlapping gene representation. However, the mitogenome data were only partly useful in this respect, presumably because of the purely automated approach to assembly and gene delimitation, but improvements in future may be possible by using multiple assemblers and manual curation. In conclusion, the combination of data mining and metagenomic sequencing of bulk samples provided the largest phylogenetic tree of Coleoptera to date, which represents a summary of existing phylogenetic knowledge and a defensible tree of great utility, in particular for studies at the intra-familial level, despite some shortcomings for resolving basal nodes.
Life histories of an invasive and native ladybird under field experimental conditions in a temperate climate
Raak-van den Berg, C.L. ; Jong, Peter W. de; Gort, Gerrit ; Manly, Bryan F.J. ; Lenteren, Joop C. van - \ 2018
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 166 (2018)3. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 151 - 161.
Harmonia axyridis - Adalia bipunctata - Coccinellidae - Coleoptera - Competition between species - Field experimental study - Immature development - Immature survival - Intraguild predation - Life table - Northwestern Europe - Tilia × europaea
Among characteristics that are thought to determine the success of invasive species, life-history traits feature prominently. However, in most cases, these have been determined under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a field set-up to determine immature development time and survival of invasive Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and native Adalia bipunctata L. (both Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). On caged Tilia × europaea L. cv. Pallida trees (Malvaceae) with ample amounts of aphid food, we introduced freshly hatched larvae of a single or of both ladybird species and followed their development until emergence of adults. Under the condition of ample prey availability, both ladybird species apparently hardly interacted and intraguild predation did not cause significant mortality. Development time of both species is in line with data from laboratory tests under controlled conditions. Immature survival can reach high levels, but is considerably higher for H. axyridis (44-100%) than for A. bipunctata (11-77%), resulting in faster increase of H. axyridis populations, which is one of the factors that may explain its invasion success.
De waterkevers van de Meinweg
Cuppen, J.G.M. ; Maanen, B. van - \ 1999
Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 88 (1999)december. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 298 - 303.
waterinsecten - Coleoptera - populatiedichtheid - populatie-ecologie - biogeografie - identificatie - diergedrag - fauna - ecologie - soortendiversiteit - natuur - populatiebiologie - midden-limburg - aquatic insects - Coleoptera - population density - population ecology - biogeography - identification - animal behaviour - fauna - ecology - species diversity - nature - population biology - midden-limburg
Uit deze inventarisatie werden 109 soorten waterkevers gevonden, dit is circa 40 % van alle soorten in Nederland. Naast de soortenrijkdom komen er ook zeldzame en zeer zeldzame soorten voor
|Vijf kevers nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna uit het Naardermeer (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae, Staphylinidae, Nitidulidae).
Vorst, O. ; Cuppen, J.G.M. - \ 1996
Entomologische Berichten 56 (1996). - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 61 - 71.
karakteristieken - Coleoptera - kleur - meren - lengte - gewicht - noord-holland - characteristics - Coleoptera - colour - lakes - length - weight - noord-holland
|Flight periods of Scirtidae (Coleoptera) based on weekly samples from a malaise trap.
Cuppen, J.G.M. - \ 1993
Entomologische Berichten 53 (1993). - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 137 - 142.
diergedrag - Coleoptera - ecologie - gewoonten - noord-brabant - animal behaviour - Coleoptera - ecology - habits - noord-brabant