Spatio-temporal tuning of motion coherence detection at different luminance levels
Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Doorn, A.J. Van; De Grind, W.A. Van - \ 2002
Vision Research 42 (2002)1. - ISSN 0042-6989 - p. 65 - 73.
Coherence thresholds - Dark adaptation - Human - Luminance - Motion detection - Spatio-temporal tuning
We studied effects of dark adaptation on spatial and temporal tuning for motion coherence detection. We compared tuning for step size and delay for moving random pixel arrays (RPAs) at two adaptation levels, one light adapted (50 cd/m2) and the other relatively dark adapted (0.05 cd/m2). To study coherence detection rather than contrast detection, RPAs were scaled for equal contrast detection at each luminance level, and a signal-to-noise ratio paradigm was used in which the RPA is always at a fixed, supra-threshold contrast level. The noise consists of a spatio-temporally incoherent RPA added to the moving RPA on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Spatial and temporal limits for coherence detection were measured using a single step pattern lifetime stimulus, in which patterns on alternate frames make a coherent step and are being refreshed. Therefore, the stimulus contains coherent motion at a single combination of step size and delay only. The main effect of dark adaptation is a large shift in step size, slightly less than the adjustment of spatial scale required for maintaining equal contrast sensitivity. A similar change of preferred step size occurs also for scaled stimuli at a light-adapted level, indicating that the spatial effect is not directly linked to dark adaptation, but more generally related to changes in the available low-level spatial information. Dark-adaptation shifts temporal tuning by about a factor of 2. Long delays are more effective at low luminance levels, whereas short delays no longer support motion coherence detection. Luminance-invariant velocity tuning curves, as reported previously [Lankheet, M.J.M., van Doorn, A.J., Bouman, M.A., & van de Grind, W.A. (2000) Motion coherence detection as a function of luminance in human central vision. Vision Research, 40, 3599-3611], result from recruitment of different sets of motion detectors, and an adjustment of their temporal properties.
Motion coherence detection as a function of luminance level in human central vision
Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Doorn, A.J. Van; Bouman, M.A. ; De Grind, W.A. Van - \ 2000
Vision Research 40 (2000)26. - ISSN 0042-6989 - p. 3599 - 3611.
Coherence thresholds - Dark adaptation - Motion
We studied the changes and invariances of foveal motion detection upon dark adaptation. It is well-documented that dark adaptation affects both spatial and temporal aspects of visual processing. The question we were interested in is how this alters motion coherence detection for moving random texture. To compare motion sensitivity at different adaptation levels, we adjusted the viewing distance for equal detectability of a stationary pattern. At these viewing distances we then measured velocity tuning curves for moving random pixel arrays (RPAs). Mean luminance levels ranged from 50 down to 0.005 cd m-2. Our main conclusion is that foveal velocity tuning is amazingly close to luminance-invariant, down to a level of 0.05 cd m-2. Because different viewing distances, and hence, retinal image sizes were used, we performed two control experiments to assess variations of these two parameters separately. We examined the effects of retinal inhomogeneities using discs of different size and annuli filled with RPAs. Our conclusion is that the central visual field, including the near periphery is still rather homogeneous for motion detection at 0.05 cd m-2, but the fovea becomes unresponsive at the lowest luminance level. Variations in viewing distance had marked effects on velocity tuning, both at the light adapted level and the 0.05 cd m-2 level. The size and type of these changes indicated the effectiveness of distance scaling, and show that deviations from perfect invariance of motion coherence detection were not due to inaccurate distance scaling. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Horizontal cell sensitivity in the cat retina during prolonged dark adaptation
Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Rowe, M.H. ; Wezel, R.J.A. Van; De Grind, W.A. Van - \ 1996
Visual Neuroscience 13 (1996)5. - ISSN 0952-5238 - p. 885 - 896.
Cat retina - Dark adaptation - Horizontal cell - Rod and cone input
The effects of dark adaptation on the response properties of ganglion cells have been documented extensively in the cat retina. To pinpoint the different retinal mechanisms that underlie these effects, we studied the response characteristics of cat horizontal (H) cells during prolonged dark adaptation. H-cell responses were recorded intracellularly in the optically intact, in vivo eye. To disentangle rod and cone contributions, sensitivity changes during dark adaptation were tracked with white light and with monochromatic lights that favored either rod or cone excitation. Stable, long-lasting recordings allowed us to measure changes of sensitivity for adaptation periods up to 45 min. Thresholds for white light and 503-nm monochromatic light decreased steadily and in parallel. The maximum increase of sensitivity, after extinguishing a photopic adaptation light, was 1.8 log units only, reached after about 35 min. Sensitivity for 581-nm lights also increased steadily, but at a shallower slope. The steady increase of sensitivity was concomitant with a linear shift in resting membrane potential and with an increase in relative rod contribution to the threshold responses. Even though small-amplitude responses were rod dominated after prolonged dark adaptation, sensitivity to rod signals remained relatively low, compared to sensitivity of cone responses or to the absolute sensitivity of ganglion cells. This suggests that the cone-H-cell pathway plays no role in the dark-adapted cat retina.
Gain control and hyperpolarization level in cat horizontal cells as a function of light and dark adaptation
De Grind, W.A. Van; Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Wezel, R.J.A. Van; Rowe, M.H. ; Hulleman, J. - \ 1996
Vision Research 36 (1996)24. - ISSN 0042-6989 - p. 3969 - 3985.
Cat retina - Dark adaptation - Horizontal cells - Light adaptation - Rod-cone interaction
First a model is presented that accurately summarizes the dynamic properties of cat horizontal (H-) cells under photopic conditions as measured in our previous work. The model predicts that asymmetries in response to dark as compared to light flashes are flash-duration dependent. This somewhat surprising prediction is tested and confirmed in intracellular recordings from the optically intact in vivo eye of the cat (Experiment 1). The model implies that the gain of H-cells should be related rather directly to the sustained (baseline) membrane potential. We performed three additional experiments to test this idea. Experiment 2 concerns response vs intensity (R-I-) curves for various flash-diameters and background-sizes with background luminance varying over a 4 log unit range. Results support the assumption of a rather strict coupling between flash sensitivity (gain) and the sustained level of hyperpolarization. In Experiment 3 we investigate this relation for both dark and light flashes given on each of four background light levels. The results suggest that there are fixed minimum and maximum hyperpolarization levels, and that the baseline hyperpolarization for a given illumination thus also sets the available range for dark and light flash-responses. The question then arises whether, or how this changes during dark adaptation, when the rod contribution to H-cell responses gradually increases. The fourth experiment therefore studies the relationship between gain and hyperpolarization level during prolonged dark-adaptation. The results show that the rod contribution increases the polarization range of H-cells, but that the gain and polarization level nevertheless remain directly coupled. H-cell models relying on a close coupling between polarization level and gain thus remain attractive options.
Spatial and temporal properties of cat horizontal cells after prolonged dark adaptation
Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Rowe, M.H. ; Wezel, R.J.A. Van; De Grind, W.A. Van - \ 1996
Vision Research 36 (1996)24. - ISSN 0042-6989 - p. 3955 - 3967.
Cat retina - Dark adaptation - Horizontal cell - Spatial and temporal properties
We studied the change of spatial and temporal response properties for cat horizontal (H-) cells during prolonged dark adaptation. H-cell responses were recorded intracellularly in the optically intact, in vivo eye. Spatial and temporal properties were first measured for light-adapted H-cells, followed by a period of dark adaptation, after which the same measurements were repeated. During dark adaptation threshold sensitivity was measured at regular intervals. Stable, long lasting recordings allowed us to measure changes of sensitivity and receptive field characteristics for adaptation periods up to 45 min. Although cat H-cells showed no signs of dark suppression or light sensitization, they remained insensitive in the scotopic range, even after prolonged dark adaptation. Absolute thresholds were in the low mesopic range. The sensitization was brought about by a shift from cone to rod input, and by substantial increases of both spatial and temporal integration upon dark adaptation. The length constant in the light-adapted state was on average about 4 deg. After dark adaptation it was up to a factor of three larger, with a median ratio of 1.85. Response delays, latencies and durations for (equal amplitude) threshold flash responses substantially increased during dark adaptation.