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Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor
Pagkali, Varvara ; Petrou, Panagiota S. ; Makarona, Eleni ; Peters, Jeroen ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Jobst, Gerhard ; Moser, Isabella ; Gajos, Katarzyna ; Budkowski, Andrzej ; Economou, Anastasios ; Misiakos, Konstantinos ; Raptis, Ioannis ; Kakabakos, Sotirios E. - \ 2018
Journal of Hazardous Materials 359 (2018). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 445 - 453.
Aflatoxin B - Beer - Deoxynivalenol - Fumonisin B - Monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers
A label-free optical biosensor for the fast simultaneous determination of three mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON), in beer samples is presented. The biosensor is based on an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources onto a single chip. Multi-analyte determination is accomplished by functionalizing the sensing arms of individual MZIs with mycotoxin-protein conjugates. Assay is performed by pumping over the chip mixtures of calibrators or samples with a mixture of specific monoclonal antibodies, followed by reaction with a secondary anti-mouse IgG antibody. Reactions are monitored in real-time by continuously recording the MZI output spectra, which are then subjected to Discrete Fourier Transform to convert spectrum shifts to phase shifts. The detection limits achieved for AFB1, FB1 and DON were 0.8, 5.6 and 24 ng/ml, respectively, while the assay duration was 12 min. Recovery values ranging from 85 to 115% were determined in beer samples spiked with known concentrations of the three mycotoxins. In addition, beers of different types and origin were analysed with the biosensor developed and the results were compared with those provided by established laboratory methods, further supporting the accuracy of the proposed device.
Data analyses and modelling for risk based monitoring of mycotoxins in animal feed
Ine van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. ; Adamse, Paulien ; Punt, Ans ; Asselt, Esther D. van - \ 2018
Toxins 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 2072-6651
Aflatoxin B - Contaminant - Deoxynivalenol - Feed - Model - Risk - Trend analyses
Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study aimed to prioritize feed products in the Netherlands for deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 monitoring. Historical mycotoxin monitoring results from the period 2007–2016 were combined with data from other sources. Based on occurrence, groundnuts had high priority for aflatoxin B1 monitoring; some feed materials (maize and maize products and several oil seed products) and complete/complementary feed excluding dairy cattle and young animals had medium priority; and all other animal feeds and feed materials had low priority. For deoxynivalenol, maize by-products had a high priority, complete and complementary feed for pigs had a medium priority and all other feed and feed materials a low priority. Also including health consequence estimations showed that feed materials that ranked highest for aflatoxin B1 included sunflower seed and palmkernel expeller/extracts and maize. For deoxynivalenol, maize products were ranked highest, followed by various small grain cereals (products); all other feed materials were of lower concern. Results of this study have proven to be useful in setting up the annual risk based control program for mycotoxins in animal feed and feed materials.
Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking
Nijs, Monique de; Top, Hester van den; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Mol, Hans - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 213 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 763 - 767.
Deoxynivalenol - Enniatins - Fate of mycotoxins - LC–MS/MS - Mycotoxins - Pasta - Processing
The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10 μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5 μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83–100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).
Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population
Janssen, E.M. ; Sprong, R.C. ; Wester, P.W. ; Boevre, M. de; Mengelers, M.J.B. - \ 2015
World Mycotoxin Journal 8 (2015)5. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 561 - 572.
Deoxynivalenol - Exposure assessment - Grain - Masked mycotoxin - Modified mycotoxin
In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and deoxynivalenol (DON), its parent compound, were used to estimate the DON-3G/DON ratio for several food product categories. This resulted in a DON-3G/DON ratio of 0.2(90% confidence interval (CI):0.04-0.9) in grains & grain-milling products, 0.3 (90% CI: 0.03-2.8) in grain-based products and 0.8 (90% CI: 0.4-1.8) in beer. These ratios were applied to the Dutch monitoring data of DON to estimate the DON-3G concentrations in food products available in the Netherlands. DON and DON-3G concentrations were combined with food consumption data of two Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys to assess chronic exposure in young children (2-6 years), children (7-16 years) and adults (17-69 years) using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program. The chronic exposure levels of DON, DON-3G and the sum of both compounds (DON+DON-3G) were compared to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 1 μg/kg body weight/day which is based on the most critical effect of DON, namely decreased body weight gain. The assumption was made that DON-3G is deconjugated and then fully absorbed as DON in the gastro-intestinal tract. Exposure (P97.5) of the population aged 7-16 years and 17-69 years to DON or DON-3G separately, did not exceed the TDI. However, exposure to upper bound levels of DON+DON-3G (i.e. worst-case scenario) in the same age categories (P97.5) exceeded the TDI with a maximum factor of 1.3. Exposure (P97.5) of the 2-6 year-olds to DON was close to the TDI. Within this group, exposure (P97.5) to upper bound levels of DON+DON-3G exceeded the TDI with not more than a factor 2.